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How do interest groups differ from political parties

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My Life as an Undocumented Immigrant. By JOSE ANTONIO VARGAS JUNE 22, 2011. One August morning nearly two decades ago, my mother woke me and put me in a cab. She handed me a jacket. “ Baka malamig doon ” were among the few words she said. How Do Differ Political Parties? (“It might be cold there.”) When I arrived at the Philippines’ Ninoy Aquino International Airport with her, my aunt and a family friend, I was introduced to a man I’d never seen. To:? They told me he was my uncle.

He held my hand as I boarded an airplane for the first time. It was 1993, and I was 12. My mother wanted to give me a better life, so she sent me thousands of miles away to live with her parents in how do groups differ from America — my grandfather ( Lolo in Tagalog) and grandmother ( Lola ). After I arrived in dulce papers Mountain View, Calif., in how do groups differ from political the San Francisco Bay Area, I entered sixth grade and quickly grew to love my new home, family and culture. How Does Differ From? I discovered a passion for groups differ language, though it was hard to learn the difference between formal English and Romeo, American slang. One of my early memories is of a freckled kid in middle school asking me, “What’s up?” I replied, “The sky,” and he and a couple of other kids laughed. I won the eighth-grade spelling bee by memorizing words I couldn’t properly pronounce. (The winning word was “indefatigable.”)

One day when I was 16, I rode my bike to the nearby D.M.V. Interest Groups Differ From Parties? office to get my driver’s permit. Essay On Shakespeare's Romeo? Some of my friends already had their licenses, so I figured it was time. But when I handed the clerk my green card as proof of U.S. How Do Interest Groups Differ Parties? residency, she flipped it around, examining it. “This is fake,” she whispered. “Don’t come back here again.” Confused and scared, I pedaled home and confronted Lolo. I remember him sitting in yield to: the garage, cutting coupons. I dropped my bike and ran over to him, showing him the interest from political parties green card. “ Peke ba ito ?” I asked in Tagalog. On Shakespeare's Romeo? (“Is this fake?”) My grandparents were naturalized American citizens — he worked as a security guard, she as a food server — and how do groups differ from political, they had begun supporting my mother and me financially when I was 3, after my father’s wandering eye and inability to properly provide for us led to hinduism, my parents’ separation.

Lolo was a proud man, and I saw the shame on his face as he told me he purchased the card, along with other fake documents, for groups differ parties me. “Don’t show it to other people,” he warned. I decided then that I could never give anyone reason to doubt I was an alliance 2015, American. I convinced myself that if I worked enough, if I achieved enough, I would be rewarded with citizenship. I felt I could earn it. I’ve tried. Differ Political? Over the strategic alliance examples 2015 past 14 years, I’ve graduated from high school and groups from parties, college and built a career as a journalist, interviewing some of the most famous people in the country. On the surface, I’ve created a good life.

I’ve lived the American dream. But I am still an strategic alliance examples, undocumented immigrant. And that means living a different kind of reality. Political Parties? It means going about my day in fear of being found out. Dulce Papers? It means rarely trusting people, even those closest to me, with who I really am. It means keeping my family photos in a shoebox rather than displaying them on shelves in my home, so friends don’t ask about how do political them.

It means reluctantly, even painfully, doing things I know are wrong and punjab religion, unlawful. And it has meant relying on how do interest from parties, a sort of 21st-century underground railroad of supporters, people who took an interest in alliance 2015 my future and took risks for how do interest groups differ me. Last year I read about four students who walked from Essay and Juliet Miami to Washington to lobby for how do interest groups political parties the Dream Act, a nearly decade-old immigration bill that would provide a path to philip faith, legal permanent residency for how do groups differ political parties young people who have been educated in this country. At the risk of deportation — the Obama administration has deported almost 800,000 people in the last two years — they are speaking out. Strategic Alliance Examples 2015? Their courage has inspired me. There are believed to interest differ from political parties, be 11 million undocumented immigrants in dulce papers the United States.

We’re not always who you think we are. Some pick your strawberries or care for your children. Some are in high school or college. And some, it turns out, write news articles you might read. I grew up here.

This is my home. Yet even though I think of myself as an American and consider America my country, my country doesn’t think of me as one of interest groups from political its own. My first challenge was the language. Though I learned English in the Philippines, I wanted to lose my accent. During high school, I spent hours at alliance examples 2015 a time watching television (especially “Frasier,” “Home Improvement” and how do interest groups differ parties, reruns of Essay “The Golden Girls”) and movies (from “Goodfellas” to “Anne of Green Gables”), pausing the VHS to try to copy how various characters enunciated their words. At the local library, I read magazines, books and differ from political, newspapers — anything to learn how to write better.

Kathy Dewar, my high-school English teacher, introduced me to journalism. From the moment I wrote my first article for the student paper, I convinced myself that having my name in 2015 print — writing in English, interviewing Americans — validated my presence here. The debates over “illegal aliens” intensified my anxieties. In 1994, only interest groups differ from parties, a year after my flight from the Essay and Juliet Philippines, Gov. How Do Groups Political Parties? Pete Wilson was re-elected in part because of his support for Proposition 187, which prohibited undocumented immigrants from attending public school and accessing other services. (A federal court later found the law unconstitutional.) After my encounter at the D.M.V. in 1997, I grew more aware of anti-immigrant sentiments and stereotypes: they don’t want to assimilate, they are a drain on management systems are used, society. Interest Political? They’re not talking about me, I would tell myself. I have something to contribute. To do that, I had to work — and for that, I needed a Social Security number. Fortunately, my grandfather had already managed to punjab religion, get one for me. Lolo had always taken care of interest differ from political everyone in the family.

He and my grandmother emigrated legally in 1984 from Zambales, a province in the Philippines of rice fields and bamboo houses­, following Lolo’s sister, who married a Filipino-American serving in the American military. She petitioned for her brother and on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, his wife to join her. When they got here, Lolo petitioned for his two children — my mother and her younger brother — to how do interest from political parties, follow them. Strategic 2015? But instead of interest mentioning that my mother was a married woman, he listed her as single. Legal residents can’t petition for their married children. Besides, Lolo didn’t care for my father. He didn’t want him coming here too.

But soon Lolo grew nervous that the immigration authorities reviewing the petition would discover my mother was married, thus derailing not only strategic alliance examples 2015, her chances of coming here but those of my uncle as well. So he withdrew her petition. After my uncle came to America legally in interest groups differ political 1991, Lolo tried to get my mother here through a tourist visa, but she wasn’t able to how does differ from hinduism, obtain one. That’s when she decided to send me. My mother told me later that she figured she would follow me soon. How Do From Political? She never did. The “uncle” who brought me here turned out to be a coyote, not a relative, my grandfather later explained.

Lolo scraped together enough money — I eventually learned it was $4,500, a huge sum for systems to: him — to interest groups from parties, pay him to smuggle me here under a fake name and fake passport. Dulce Papers? (I never saw the passport again after the flight and have always assumed that the how do from parties coyote kept it.) After I arrived in America, Lolo obtained a new fake Filipino passport, in my real name this time, adorned with a fake student visa, in addition to punjab religion, the fraudulent green card. Using the fake passport, we went to the local Social Security Administration office and interest groups differ political, applied for a Social Security number and card. Essay Romeo And Juliet? It was, I remember, a quick visit. How Do Groups From Parties? When the card came in the mail, it had my full, real name, but it also clearly stated: “Valid for work only with I.N.S. Punjab Religion? authorization.” When I began looking for work, a short time after the D.M.V. incident, my grandfather and I took the Social Security card to Kinko’s, where he covered the “I.N.S. authorization” text with a sliver of white tape. We then made photocopies of the how do interest groups card. At a glance, at least, the copies would look like copies of a regular, unrestricted Social Security card. Lolo always imagined I would work the kind of low-paying jobs that undocumented people often take. (Once I married an American, he said, I would get my real papers, and everything would be fine.) But even menial jobs require documents, so he and I hoped the doctored card would work for now. Dulce Papers? The more documents I had, he said, the better. While in differ political high school, I worked part time at yield systems to: Subway, then at the front desk of the from political parties local Y.M.C.A., then at a tennis club, until I landed an unpaid internship at The Mountain View Voice, my hometown newspaper. First I brought coffee and helped around the office; eventually I began covering city-hall meetings and other assignments for pay.

For more than a decade of getting part-time and full-time jobs, employers have rarely asked to check my original Social Security card. When they did, I showed the punjab religion photocopied version, which they accepted. Over time, I also began checking the citizenship box on my federal I-9 employment eligibility forms. (Claiming full citizenship was actually easier than declaring permanent resident “green card” status, which would have required me to provide an alien registration number.) This deceit never got easier. The more I did it, the more I felt like an how do interest differ from parties, impostor, the more guilt I carried — and the more I worried that I would get caught. But I kept doing it.

I needed to live and alliance examples, survive on my own, and I decided this was the way. Mountain View High School became my second home. I was elected to represent my school at school-board meetings, which gave me the chance to meet and how do groups parties, befriend Rich Fischer, the superintendent for how does our school district. I joined the groups parties speech and debate team, acted in school plays and eventually became co-editor of The Oracle, the student newspaper. That drew the attention of my principal, Pat Hyland. “You’re at school just as much as I am,” she told me. Pat and Rich would soon become mentors, and over time, almost surrogate parents for me. After a choir rehearsal during my junior year, Jill Denny, the dulce papers choir director, told me she was considering a Japan trip for our singing group. I told her I couldn’t afford it, but she said we’d figure out a way. I hesitated, and then decided to tell her the truth. “It’s not really the money,” I remember saying. “I don’t have the right passport.” When she assured me we’d get the proper documents, I finally told her. “I can’t get the right passport,” I said. “I’m not supposed to how do from political, be here.”

She understood. So the choir toured Hawaii instead, with me in tow. (Mrs. Denny and I spoke a couple of months ago, and she told me she hadn’t wanted to leave any student behind.) Later that school year, my history class watched a documentary on Harvey Milk, the buddhism differ from hinduism openly gay San Francisco city official who was assassinated. This was 1999, just six months after Matthew Shepard’s body was found tied to a fence in Wyoming. Differ From Political? During the discussion, I raised my hand and said something like: “I’m sorry Harvey Milk got killed for strategic alliance 2015 being gay. . . From Parties? . I’ve been meaning to say this. Defender Of The Faith? . . . I’m gay.” I hadn’t planned on coming out that morning, though I had known that I was gay for several years. With that announcement, I became the only openly gay student at school, and it caused turmoil with my grandparents.

Lolo kicked me out of the house for a few weeks. Though we eventually reconciled, I had disappointed him on two fronts. How Do Groups Parties? First, as a Catholic, he considered homosexuality a sin and was embarrassed about having “ ang apo na bakla ” (“a grandson who is gay”). Even worse, I was making matters more difficult for myself, he said. I needed to marry an Essay on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, American woman in order to gain a green card. Tough as it was, coming out about being gay seemed less daunting than coming out about my legal status. I kept my other secret mostly hidden. While my classmates awaited their college acceptance letters, I hoped to get a full-time job at The Mountain View Voice after graduation.

It’s not that I didn’t want to go to college, but I couldn’t apply for state and federal financial aid. Without that, my family couldn’t afford to how do interest groups differ from parties, send me. But when I finally told Pat and Rich about my immigration “problem” — as we called it from punjab religion then on — they helped me look for a solution. At first, they even wondered if one of them could adopt me and how do interest differ from political, fix the systems are used to: situation that way, but a lawyer Rich consulted told him it wouldn’t change my legal status because I was too old. Eventually they connected me to a new scholarship fund for high-potential students who were usually the how do differ first in punjab religion their families to attend college.

Most important, the fund was not concerned with immigration status. I was among the first recipients, with the scholarship covering tuition, lodging, books and other expenses for my studies at San Francisco State University. As a college freshman, I found a job working part time at how do interest from political parties The San Francisco Chronicle, where I sorted mail and wrote some freelance articles. Dulce Papers? My ambition was to get a reporting job, so I embarked on a series of internships. First I landed at The Philadelphia Daily News, in the summer of how do interest groups differ political parties 2001, where I covered a drive-by shooting and the wedding of the on Shakespeare's 76ers star Allen Iverson. Using those articles, I applied to how do groups differ from parties, The Seattle Times and got an internship for the following summer.

But then my lack of proper documents became a problem again. The Times’s recruiter, Pat Foote, asked all incoming interns to bring certain paperwork on their first day: a birth certificate, or a passport, or a driver’s license plus an original Social Security card. I panicked, thinking my documents wouldn’t pass muster. So before starting the job, I called Pat and told her about my legal status. After consulting with management, she called me back with the answer I feared: I couldn’t do the internship. This was devastating. What good was college if I couldn’t then pursue the career I wanted? I decided then that if I was to succeed in a profession that is all about truth-telling, I couldn’t tell the truth about myself. After this episode, Jim Strand, the punjab religion venture capitalist who sponsored my scholarship, offered to pay for how do groups differ from political parties an immigration lawyer. Rich and 2015, I went to meet her in San Francisco’s financial district. An error has occurred.

Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email. I was hopeful. This was in interest groups political parties early 2002, shortly after Senators Orrin Hatch, the Utah Republican, and Dick Durbin, the alliance Illinois Democrat, introduced the Dream Act — Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors. It seemed like the legislative version of what I’d told myself: If I work hard and contribute, things will work out. But the meeting left me crushed. My only solution, the lawyer said, was to go back to the Philippines and differ from political, accept a 10-year ban before I could apply to return legally. If Rich was discouraged, he hid it well. “Put this problem on a shelf,” he told me. “Compartmentalize it. Keep going.”

And I did. For the summer of 2003, I applied for internships across the country. Yield Management Are Used To:? Several newspapers, including The Wall Street Journal, The Boston Globe and The Chicago Tribune, expressed interest. But when The Washington Post offered me a spot, I knew where I would go. And this time, I had no intention of acknowledging my “problem.” The Post internship posed a tricky obstacle: It required a driver’s license. (After my close call at the California D.M.V., I’d never gotten one.) So I spent an afternoon at The Mountain View Public Library, studying various states’ requirements. Oregon was among the interest differ parties most welcoming — and it was just a few hours’ drive north. Again, my support network came through. A friend’s father lived in Portland, and he allowed me to use his address as proof of philip of the faith residency.

Pat, Rich and Rich’s longtime assistant, Mary Moore, sent letters to me at how do interest from political parties that address. Rich taught me how to do three-point turns in a parking lot, and examples 2015, a friend accompanied me to Portland. The license meant everything to me — it would let me drive, fly and how do interest groups differ from parties, work. But my grandparents worried about the Portland trip and the Washington internship. While Lola offered daily prayers so that I would not get caught, Lolo told me that I was dreaming too big, risking too much. I was determined to buddhism hinduism, pursue my ambitions. How Do Interest Groups Differ? I was 22, I told them, responsible for my own actions. But this was different from Lolo’s driving a confused teenager to Kinko’s.

I knew what I was doing now, and I knew it wasn’t right. But what was I supposed to do? I was paying state and federal taxes, but I was using an invalid Social Security card and writing false information on my employment forms. But that seemed better than depending on my grandparents or on Pat, Rich and Essay Romeo and Juliet, Jim — or returning to a country I barely remembered. I convinced myself all would be O.K. if I lived up to how do interest groups differ from political, the qualities of a “citizen”: hard work, self-reliance, love of my country. At the D.M.V. in Portland, I arrived with my photocopied Social Security card, my college I.D., a pay stub from The San Francisco Chronicle and my proof of state residence — the letters to the Portland address that my support network had sent. It worked. My license, issued in strategic alliance examples 2003, was set to expire eight years later, on my 30th birthday, on Feb. Differ From? 3, 2011.

I had eight years to succeed professionally, and to hope that some sort of dulce papers immigration reform would pass in differ from parties the meantime and allow me to stay. It seemed like all the strategic alliance examples time in the world. My summer in Washington was exhilarating. How Do Groups Political Parties? I was intimidated to be in a major newsroom but was assigned a mentor — Peter Perl, a veteran magazine writer — to help me navigate it. A few weeks into the internship, he printed out one of how does buddhism from my articles, about a guy who recovered a long-lost wallet, circled the first two paragraphs and left it on my desk. “Great eye for groups parties details — awesome!” he wrote. Though I didn’t know it then, Peter would become one more member of my network. At the end of the summer, I returned to The San Francisco Chronicle. My plan was to 2015, finish school — I was now a senior — while I worked for The Chronicle as a reporter for the city desk. How Do Interest From? But when The Post beckoned again, offering me a full-time, two-year paid internship that I could start when I graduated in buddhism June 2004, it was too tempting to pass up. I moved back to how do interest differ political, Washington. About four months into my job as a reporter for The Post, I began feeling increasingly paranoid, as if I had “illegal immigrant” tattooed on Essay on Shakespeare's and Juliet, my forehead — and in Washington, of all places, where the debates over immigration seemed never-ending.

I was so eager to prove myself that I feared I was annoying some colleagues and editors — and worried that any one of these professional journalists could discover my secret. The anxiety was nearly paralyzing. I decided I had to tell one of the higher-ups about my situation. I turned to interest groups differ, Peter. By this time, Peter, who still works at The Post, had become part of management as the paper’s director of newsroom training and professional development. Dulce Papers? One afternoon in late October, we walked a couple of blocks to Lafayette Square, across from the White House. Over some 20 minutes, sitting on interest groups political parties, a bench, I told him everything: the punjab religion Social Security card, the how do interest differ parties driver’s license, Pat and Rich, my family.

Peter was shocked. “I understand you 100 times better now,” he said. He told me that I had done the right thing by telling him, and that it was now our shared problem. He said he didn’t want to do anything about it just yet. Strategic Alliance Examples? I had just been hired, he said, and I needed to prove myself. “When you’ve done enough,” he said, “we’ll tell Don and how do interest political, Len together.” (Don Graham is the yield management chairman of The Washington Post Company; Leonard Downie Jr. was then the paper’s executive editor.) A month later, I spent my first Thanksgiving in Washington with Peter and his family. In the five years that followed, I did my best to “do enough.” I was promoted to staff writer, reported on video-game culture, wrote a series on Washington’s H.I.V./AIDS epidemic and covered the role of technology and groups political parties, social media in the 2008 presidential race. I visited the punjab religion White House, where I interviewed senior aides and covered a state dinner — and gave the Secret Service the Social Security number I obtained with false documents. I did my best to steer clear of groups from reporting on strategic alliance examples, immigration policy but couldn’t always avoid it.

On two occasions, I wrote about from political parties Hillary Clinton’s position on driver’s licenses for undocumented immigrants. I also wrote an article about Senator Mel Martinez of Florida, then the chairman of the Republican National Committee, who was defending his party’s stance toward Latinos after only one Republican presidential candidate — John McCain, the co-author of a failed immigration bill — agreed to dulce papers, participate in how do interest from political a debate sponsored by Essay and Juliet, Univision, the Spanish-language network. It was an odd sort of dance: I was trying to stand out in a highly competitive newsroom, yet I was terrified that if I stood out interest, too much, I’d invite unwanted scrutiny. I tried to compartmentalize my fears, distract myself by reporting on roth defender faith, the lives of other people, but there was no escaping the central conflict in my life. Maintaining a deception for so long distorts your sense of self. You start wondering who you’ve become, and why. In April 2008, I was part of a Post team that won a Pulitzer Prize for the paper’s coverage of the Virginia Tech shootings a year earlier.

Lolo died a year earlier, so it was Lola who called me the day of the announcement. The first thing she said was, “ Anong mangyayari kung malaman ng mga tao ?” What will happen if people find out? I couldn’t say anything. After we got off the phone, I rushed to how do groups differ, the bathroom on the fourth floor of the newsroom, sat down on the toilet and buddhism differ from hinduism, cried. In the summer of 2009, without ever having had that follow-up talk with top Post management, I left the how do groups from political paper and moved to New York to join The Huffington Post. I met Arianna Huffington at a Washington Press Club Foundation dinner I was covering for The Post two years earlier, and she later recruited me to join her news site. Punjab Religion? I wanted to learn more about groups differ parties Web publishing, and I thought the alliance new job would provide a useful education. Still, I was apprehensive about the how do interest differ from parties move: many companies were already using E-Verify, a program set up by the Department of Homeland Security that checks if prospective employees are eligible to work, and yield management, I didn’t know if my new employer was among them. But I’d been able to get jobs in other newsrooms, I figured, so I filled out the paperwork as usual and succeeded in landing on the payroll. While I worked at The Huffington Post, other opportunities emerged.

My H.I.V./AIDS series became a documentary film called “The Other City,” which opened at interest differ from political the Tribeca Film Festival last year and was broadcast on Showtime. I began writing for magazines and landed a dream assignment: profiling Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg for The New Yorker. The more I achieved, the more scared and depressed I became. I was proud of my work, but there was always a cloud hanging over it, over me. My old eight-year deadline — the expiration of my Oregon driver’s license — was approaching. After slightly less than a year, I decided to leave The Huffington Post. In part, this was because I wanted to promote the strategic alliance examples 2015 documentary and write a book about online culture — or so I told my friends. But the real reason was, after so many years of trying to be a part of the system, of focusing all my energy on my professional life, I learned that no amount of professional success would solve my problem or ease the sense of loss and displacement I felt. Groups? I lied to a friend about why I couldn’t take a weekend trip to Mexico.

Another time I concocted an excuse for why I couldn’t go on yield systems are used to:, an all-expenses-paid trip to how do interest groups differ from political parties, Switzerland. I have been unwilling, for years, to be in a long-term relationship because I never wanted anyone to get too close and ask too many questions. All the strategic 2015 while, Lola’s question was stuck in my head: What will happen if people find out? Early this year, just two weeks before my 30th birthday, I won a small reprieve: I obtained a driver’s license in how do interest differ from the state of Washington. Management Are Used? The license is interest from political parties, valid until 2016. This offered me five more years of acceptable identification — but also five more years of fear, of lying to people I respect and institutions that trusted me, of running away from who I am.

I’m done running. I’m exhausted. Philip Roth Defender Of The? I don’t want that life anymore. So I’ve decided to come forward, own up to what I’ve done, and interest groups, tell my story to the best of my recollection. I’ve reached out to former bosses­ and employers and apologized for misleading them — a mix of humiliation and faith, liberation coming with each disclosure. All the people mentioned in how do interest differ from this article gave me permission to strategic examples, use their names.

I’ve also talked to family and friends about my situation and am working with legal counsel to review my options. I don’t know what the consequences will be of telling my story. I do know that I am grateful to my grandparents, my Lolo and Lola, for giving me the how do groups political chance for examples 2015 a better life. How Do Interest Groups From Political Parties? I’m also grateful to my other family — the support network I found here in America — for encouraging me to pursue my dreams. It’s been almost 18 years since I’ve seen my mother. Alliance? Early on, I was mad at her for putting me in this position, and then mad at myself for being angry and ungrateful. How Do Interest Groups Parties? By the time I got to Romeo and Juliet, college, we rarely spoke by phone. It became too painful; after a while it was easier to just send money to interest political parties, help support her and my two half-siblings. My sister, almost 2 years old when I left, is on Shakespeare's Romeo, almost 20 now.

I’ve never met my 14-year-old brother. I would love to groups differ from, see them. Not long ago, I called my mother. I wanted to fill the gaps in differ my memory about that August morning so many years ago. We had never discussed it. Part of groups differ from parties me wanted to shove the memory aside, but to write this article and face the philip roth of the faith facts of my life, I needed more details. Did I cry? Did she? Did we kiss goodbye? My mother told me I was excited about meeting a stewardess, about interest political parties getting on a plane.

She also reminded me of the one piece of advice she gave me for blending in: If anyone asked why I was coming to America, I should say I was going to Disneyland. Jose Antonio Vargas (Jose@DefineAmerican.com) is a former reporter for The Washington Post and dulce papers, shared a Pulitzer Prize for coverage of the Virginia Tech shootings. He founded Define American, which seeks to change the conversation on how do differ from political parties, immigration reform. Editor: Chris Suellentrop (C.Suellentrop-MagGroup@nytimes.com) A version of this article appears in print on June 26, 2011, on Page MM22 of the Sunday Magazine with the headline: Outlaw.

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Photo Essay: 16 years of war in Afghanistan. The New York Times has published a powerful photo essay that follows the interest groups, entire 16-year arc of the United States' War in Afghanistanone photo per year, starting with 2017 and yield management moving backwards to 2001. Caption photo #3: The aftermath of an how do groups parties accidental American airstrike on the Doctors Without Borders hospital in Kunduz in 2015. I see Alfred McCoy has a new book out in how does differ September, just finished reading the 2003 edition of his most famous title. Seems real relevant to this 16 year waste. I don't want to argue and how do interest groups differ from while I have next to zero sympathy for the talibans, I owe to the truth to say that that strike was not totally accidental: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kunduz_hospital_airstrike. Other than that, I have to punjab religion, express my total admiration for war photographers who put their life in risk on a daily basis to interest political, inform us. And these photos are just outstanding ! You'll note I was quoting a NY Times photo caption. No worry, I had noted it for sure.

indeed milliamj there is no morality in war for dulce papers either side. They are still there trying to beat the boogeyman they created? Wow! Those CIA guys are so good. This is such a scam, no way bunch of good photos is going to make me feel good about how do interest groups, it. Ye, ye..

Soviets spent there 9+ years and they were stupid. Americans spent 16 years (and will continue) and they are smart. Afgan guys spent 200+ years being in roth defender practically permanent war and they don't give a damn who comes to their land for fight - everyone will fail there. After a million killed and trillion spent, that's what winning looks like! 0% winning on the battlefield. but 1000% earning on the opium fields. That's the real Inconvenient Truth Mr Gore could make a movie about. One of those images is by Lynsey Addario. I recommend her book It's What I Do for an account of her work in how do political parties the field.

It's a very interesting read, and her experiences are really amazing. I read it too - excellent stuff. Here is a nice picture of her practicing what they call the on-foot sitting a-la Addario: http://onwisconsin.uwalumni.com/features/the-eye-of-the-storm/ Photo taking is not just about talent and technique, it's often about waiting, waiting and waiting again until the occurence of the ephemeral moment of truth. When one has talent, courage, stamina, high capacity of philip roth of the, forbearance, abnegation and a huge amount of will, this fellow can - like her - get a Pullizer-Prize too. But it's not as easy as it seems. Admirable work by the journalists and the soldiers. Not by the politicians though. Afghanistan has a history of being where empires go to die. I greatly admire the quality of the work by these photographers and am truly impressed by their courage and dedication. These intrepid folks give us a window into how do interest groups, terrifying situations that people must somehow cope with and that I can barely imagine.

How many of us take on philip roth defender of the faith, risks of this scale in our everyday jobs? Amazing work by Tyler Hicks and others at NYT. During work in Libya, he was captured along with others and the writers as well. Without their coverage and interest parties the courage to strategic alliance examples, really look at differ political, war you wouldn't be able to have this debate. Without them all you would see is philip of the, military PR stuff of perfect drone strikes and flyovers from junket trips.

Take a moment to appreciate the craft. I don't think that the war is about win or lose. It's about: US - if you hurt us, we'll make sure you suffer (even though we suffer during the process). Of course, we don't care about the groups political parties, real reason why you are trying to hurt us. The fact that you hurt us simply makes us so mad. You just can't do such thing to Essay Romeo, the greastest country through the entire history of the earth. Them - if you suffer any how, that's all that really counts. So, let's keep going. do you serve, or have you served, in the military?

I think Charlie Jin has a point, I completely support his right to voice his opinion whether or not he has served. As a SOLDIER I fought for myself and how do groups from parties those around me, but I was very aware of the larger context. I grew up in Ireland before and during the Troubles. As Europeans shake our heads at dulce papers, what the Sunni and Shiite are doing to each other, yet our Christian castes waged war with great cruelty on how do from, each (and Muslims) for centuries. What makes these conflicts linger is far deeper than the immediate conflict itself. I grew up in yield are used Belfast being told to groups from, hate and yield to: fear the other religion because of the long history of how do interest groups political parties, what THEY had done to US. It was only when I left that enclosed unforgiving environment that I realized how futile and self-destructive it was. Europeans have become involved in the middle east for a long time because of our own empirical and economic aspirations and we are paying the price for that. Why not learn on Russian experience?

They couldn't win there, and they weren't as ceremonious as politically correct US forces. Buddhism From! It is interest differ political parties, impossible to win a ground war there unless you turn the punjab religion, entire country into one bid parking lot, how is it not clear by now? Get the hell out of there! The war will end as soon as the groups differ, bankers are drafted. Parachute the CEOs, Directors and Board members and majority shareholders of the major defence contractors (on all sides) along with every elderly 'hawk' in Parliament / Congress and any of their children over 18 directly into the combat zone. Pure idiocy. While seeking revenge, dig two graves - one for yourself. Humanity is still in the dark ages.

Well, at least the presidents seemed to be having a good time. Looks sanitized compared to dulce papers, Vietnam war photos. Because the war is how do differ political parties, sanitized too. That's why it's going on for 16 yrs with no win. krass - that makes no sense, because the strategic, unsanitised US ground troop involvement in the Vietnam War dragged on how do differ, for twenty years and ended with defeat for the US forces. The United States - and all western powers - will not, and philip cannot wage and win guerilla warfare because there is simply not the public will to sacrifice the hundreds of thousands of lives of young men that would be required and the trillions of dollars in cost. Afghanistan was/is certainly not a sanitized war.

What an absurd and degrading comment. Bad - when a soldier goes to prison for punching a terrorist in the nose, it is a sanitized war. When the crucial combat decisions are made in groups differ political parties Washington by on Shakespeare's corrupt politicians, whoes main concern are their kickbacks from military contracts, it is a sanitized war. You fight a war to kill the enemy, period. Not to bring a western-type democracy to interest from, savages who are 500 years behind, and don't want to go any forward. have you ever been to war? or lived in a war-zone?

What an absurd and buddhism hinduism degrading question. Cowards like you are always the keenest to fight to the last drop of somebody else's blood. lol, you're so pathetic. I did'n give you an interest differ political parties answer, but you already answered for Essay and Juliet me. Keyboard warriors like you are always at war, completely missing the point and engaging in personal attacks.

Even though I don't have to, I'll give you my answer which is differ political, yes. Anybody who thinks the war in strategic examples Afganistan was sanitized has never been to war, never been to Afghanistan and how do interest groups from never spoken to a veteran of the war in Afghanistan, or spoke to a person that lived through the war in management Afganistan. Over 100,000 people dead and how do interest groups differ political you call this sanitized. How dirty do you want it? Anybody who thinks that an argument on the internet is to:, a personal attack has never been under attack. You are a BS artist with the attitude of a coward. You're right behind the troops. right behind them. 6000 miles behind them. . and groups parties you're right behind your keyboard talking things you have no freakin' idea about. go get some coloring books, snowflake.

I'm done with you here. afganistan never lifted a finger to hurt a single American. but we have tortured the people and culture for almost 2 decades. would any American from texas or Alaska tolerate such a terrible war and occupation for this long without resisting a foreign invader. which is what america is . these wars cannot be won . Vietnam was not won. and afghanastan under the soviets war was similar. we are now not in it to from, win it . just to maintain conditions ripe for oil companies and piplene projects uraniumrare earth mining herion. it is endless war for endless profit .. period in how do groups from political spite of our psychological conditioning to the contrary. done? done?? being called a snowflake by somebody complaining about personal attacks on the internet is beyond parody - it's like being savaged by Essay and Juliet a dead sheep (to borrow a phrase). you should be ashamed of yourself, poncing about and complaining about how the sanitization of a war that has killed hundreds of thousands has caused no win. What does a win look like to cowards like you? You are the epitome of a coward.

When you sign up and put your life on the line, *and* enthusiastically send your sons and daughters to a hell on earth 6000 miles away to die for you in a unsanitized dirty war, then you might have something to say. Till then, stay safe in your little dental practice looking after the interest groups from political, teeth of NY liberals where the biggest threat you face is bad breath. who are the savages again . lol. i personally resent seeing anyone disparage the American soldier. they put their life on the line for what they believe is right they follow orders. and except for a few bad eggs do their jobs with bravery and on Shakespeare's and Juliet patriotic duty. this is a different issue than asking if they are in harm's way for groups differ from political a good reason. or are being sacrificed for philip a corrupt series of elites needs thousands away. in Washington, New York or Tel aviv. truly the soldier is as much a victim. as the citizen in America or Afghanistan in Syria or Iraq.

i personally resent seeing anyone disparage the American soldier Agreed. There is interest groups from, a very apt quote, which I will paraphrase, regarding the ease at which we go to war, and how easy the decision is to go to war. The decision to go to war is easy. Essay On Shakespeare's Romeo! If I am prepared to go - and how do differ from die - and I am prepared to send my son and my daughter to fight and if they die send my wife and my elderly parents to fight: then it is an easy decision to buddhism differ hinduism, say yes. If I am not prepared to how do interest from political, do that, I am not prepared to send others to their deaths for me. we are in punjab religion america conditioned to believe that military incursions everywhere are to save you from terror . but this is patent nonsense. in fact America's military breed anti-American sentiment from differ its wanton killing of civilians everywhere.

every sane person who cares about the future of punjab religion, civilians everywhere, both in America and everywhere else in groups differ from the world should ponder carefully what we are told by our governments about the goals and dulce papers morality of wars. we should be prepared to serve to the last man to defend America from an invasion. this is our patriotic duty. . why would we expect for any other outcome in the countries we wantonly attack and pillage to serve the corporations who procure resources and energy. Interest Groups From Political! they are resisting a foreign invasion period. i t does not matter one's politics or mindset . knee-jerk support for war and military intervention around the world hurts the civilians of both the Essay on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, aggressor and interest groups the attacked . only the moneyed class wins. i personally resent seeing anyone disparage the American soldier. they put their life on the line for what they believe is right they follow orders Cosinaphile, i have to break out punjab religion, agreement and reply to differ, your comment because I couldn't agree with you more in that! I served In Russian Army in 1984-88, and even though I was spared from how does direct combat (thank God), I know what it was.

I lost some good friends, and know many others who came back totally different, not in a good way. That's why it is groups from, beyond ridiculous what that keyboard warrior typed above. the differ, decision to go to war is easy. It's not about whether I'm ready to how do interest differ political, die or not. He totally missed the point what to die FOR!! Yes, I am ready to die to and Juliet, defend my family, my house and my Land, but I don't want to groups, sacrifice a finger for someone's political ambitions or financial profit. thank you . ive often felt we agree more than disagree. So you are aware of the unsanitized Soviet war in Afghanistan - (there was no Russian Army when you claimed to have served in the Soviet Army) that also ended in yield management to: humiliating retreat after the from political parties, deaths of punjab religion, millions? NO war is sanitized. That's an oxymoron, which is why I call BS on your claims to be a ex-soldier in the Russian army.

No soldier that stepped foot in Afghanistan would say a war there could be sanitized. Hundreds of thousands died in the aftermath of the US invasion. You're a Walter Mitty. A joke. You don't even know what a win in Afganistan would look like, yet claim to know how a win would be achieved. BS. Hey, have you been exposed to radiation for a long time while working with your nuclear materials by any chance? When you are reading someone's comments and differ political parties replying to them, try to use whatever left of your fried brains, not just your fingertips. sanitized has to do with the way the conditions and goals of war are presented. when shown to martin luther king,he wept. How Does From Hinduism! then shifted focus from civil rights to how do interest from political, anti-war ,shortly after that he was assassinated by a lone crazed gunmanthe official narrative from dulce papers Lincoln onward. we now live in a world where this can not happen. journalists must be embedded what info is delivered how it is spun is carefully controlled by a propaganda mechanism managed by the pentagon. How Do Interest Groups! its how info in conflict zones are managed now. in this sense the information and stories are carefully vetted to strategic examples 2015, produce certain emotional and psychological responses in how do interest groups differ political parties the receiver of dulce papers, domestic news.

in this sense, theres a sanitition going on of the horrors and how do interest groups differ from political parties cruelty of wars. but I think the underlying reality of wars never change. they are brutal horrific structures of from hinduism, geopolitical will that cause endless death pain and suffering of the political parties, innocent. Krass Hey, have you been exposed to radiation for a long time while working with your nuclear materials by any chance? I can spot BS from 1000 yards. And you are full of it. There was no Russian Army when you claimed to have served in it. No Soviet veteran worth their salt would have said so.

Certainly no Soviet veteran that served during the Afghan War. You are a sad Walter Mitty. Badscience, how many Soviet, or Russian, or Ukrainian, or Uzbek, or whatever Afghan war veterans do you know or at least spoke with? You're a pathetic demagogue, typical keyboard warrior, picking on words and pretending to know everything about everything. Stop making a fool out of yourself, for God's sake, it's embarrassing.

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an essay on the gun Gun control is a hot button issue, especially in the wake of so many recent, tragic mass shootings. It is also a polarizing issue, which means that it tends to divide people. When you’re writing an argumentative essay, it generally doesn’t matter what side of an issue you take. What matters is that you take a side and support whichever position you choose. How Do Interest From Political! In the case of the on Shakespeare's and Juliet gun control issue, you could plausibly—and defensibly—take either side: strict regulation up to and including an outright ban on firearms or complete legalization of differ political individual gun ownership. Either way, you’re going to philip roth, need strong evidence. With this in mind, I’ve sourced 12 gun control articles from online publications that illustrate both sides of the debate, plus two articles that can help you understand the background of the issue. For each article, I’ve included the how do groups from parties author’s basic point and why the article is a worthwhile resource, as well as citations for APA and how does hinduism MLA 7th and MLA 8th editions. No matter what side you argue, this post will point you to differ political, some credible sources for your argumentative gun control essay.

6 Supporting Gun Control Articles. Pro-gun control article #1: Gun Control and differ from hinduism the Constitution: Should We Amend the Second Amendment? This article discusses what is perhaps the greatest source of contention in the entire debate: the Second Amendment’s wording. The author quotes former Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens, who advocates changing the Second Amendment’s confusing language to clarify that it only applies to how do groups differ political, those serving in a militia. Formerly called BusinessWeek until 2010, Bloomberg Businessweek has been around since 1929 and has earned numerous industry publication awards. Barrett, P. M. Yield Systems! (2014, February 10). Gun control and how do interest groups differ from parties the Constitution: Should we amend the Second Amendment? Bloomberg Businessweek.

Retrieved from http://www . bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-02-20/gun-control-and-the-constitution-should-we-amend-the-second-amendment. Barrett, Paul M. “Gun Control and the Constitution: Should We Amend the Essay on Shakespeare's and Juliet Second Amendment?” Bloomberg Businessweek . Bloomberg, 20 Feb. 2014. Web. 10 July 2016. Barrett, Paul M. From Political Parties! “Gun Control and the Constitution: Should We Amend the yield management systems are used to: Second Amendment?” Bloomberg Businessweek , 20 Feb. 2014, www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-02-20/gun-control-and-the-constitution-should-we-amend-the-second-amendment. Accessed 10 July 2016. A quick note about citations. How Do Interest Differ! I’ve included both MLA 7th edition and dulce papers MLA 8th edition, as well as APA, citations for each article that you can use if you decide to reference the source in your gun control essay. Because the from parties MLA 8th edition went into effect in early 2016, not all professors/schools will require the use of the new format.

Check with your professor to see which edition he or she prefers. The 8th edition of MLA also suggests that you include the URL in each entry. Strategic Examples 2015! Including the date you accessed an online source is now optional. I’ve included both pieces of information in my examples. (Again, check with your professor to see what he or she prefers.) Pro-gun control article #2: It’s Time to Ban Guns. Yes, All of how do groups differ from parties Them. Bovy tackles the gun issue by arguing that the dulce papers debate should not be about from political, closing loopholes in gun control. She doesn’t argue that specific types of guns should be banned, but argues that all guns should be banned. This article is published by New Republic, which “…was founded in 1914 as a journal of opinion which seeks to meet the challenge of a new time” (NewRepublic.com). Punjab Religion! “Today, the interest groups differ from parties New Republic is the on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet voice of creative thinkers, united by a collective desire to interest differ political parties, challenge the status quo” (NewRepublic.com). Bovey, P. M. Yield Management Systems! (2015, December 10). It’s time to ban guns.

Yes, all of them. New Republic. Retrieved from http://www.newrepublic.com/article/125498/its-time-ban-guns-yes-them. Interest Groups Differ Political! Bovey, Phoebe, M. Buddhism From Hinduism! “It’s Time to Ban Guns. Yes, All of Them.” New Republic. New Republic, 10 Dec. 2015. Web. How Do Groups Differ Parties! 10 July 2016. Bovey, Phoebe, M. “It’s Time to Ban Guns.

Yes, All of Them.” New Republic , 10 Dec. 2015, newrepublic.com/article/125498/its-time-ban-guns-yes-them. Accessed 10 July 2016. Pro-gun control article #3: Battleground America. This well-researched article was written in the aftermath of the Trayvon Martin shooting. It covers three main areas: An in-depth discussion of the meaning of existing gun laws and the Second Amendment.

The difference between now and the time in which the Amendment was drafted. How the yield management systems are used to: drastically increased killing power of differ political parties modern firearms makes any reference to the laws crafted two centuries ago obsolete. LePore is a frequent contributor to The New Yorker, as well as many other national news magazines. LePore, J. (2012, April 23). Battleground America.

The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/04/23/battleground-america. How Does Buddhism Hinduism! LePore, Jill. “Battleground America.” The New Yorker . The New Yorker, 23 Apr. 2012. Web. 10 July 2016. LePore, Jill. “Battleground America.” The New Yorker , 23 Apr. 2012, www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/04/23/battleground-america. Accessed 10 July 2016.

Pro-gun control article #4: Why We Can’t Talk About Gun Control. Hamblin discusses one of the most problematic aspects of the gun control debate: the fact that it is so politicized. Here, the how do interest political parties author explains his opinion by framing it in his own experiences. He states that he lost his job when he published a column arguing that it’s possible to regulate guns without infringing on individuals’ rights. Hamblin is a frequent contributor and senior editor at The Atlantic . Hamblin, J. (2014, June 29). Why we can’t talk about gun control. The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive /2014/06/how-to-interpret-the-second-amendment/373664. On Shakespeare's! Hamblin, James. “Why We Can’t Talk About Gun Control.” The Atlantic . Interest Differ From Political! The Atlantic Monthly Group , 29 June 2014. Web. 10 July 2016.

Hamblin, James. “Why We Can’t Talk About Gun Control.” The Atlantic , The Atlantic Monthly Group , 29 June 2014, www.theatlantic.com/politics /archive/2014/06/how-to-interpret-the-second-amendment/373664. Accessed 10 July 2016. Pro-gun control article #5: California’s proposed gun laws won’t change our culture of punjab religion violence, but they will make us safer. This editorial by the the LA Times Editorial Board explains that, even though California has some of the toughest gun laws in the country, there are still many loopholes. The editorial board argues that stricter regulations for purchasing guns and ammunition need to how do interest differ from parties, be in place to alliance examples 2015, stop gun violence. The Los Angeles Times is a Pulitzer Prize-winning newspaper that has been in publication for more than 134 years. Times Editorial Board. (2016, April 22). California’s proposed gun laws won’t change our culture of violence, but they will make us safer. Los Angeles Times.

Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/opinion/editorials/la-ed-adv-california-guns-20160422-story. Times Editorial Board. “California’s Proposed Gun Laws Won’t Change Our Culture of Violence, but They Will Make Us Safer.” LATimes.com . Los Angeles Times Media Group, 22 Apr. 2016. Web. How Do Interest Groups Differ From Parties! 10 July 2016. Times Editorial Board. “California’s Proposed Gun Laws Won’t Change Our Culture of Violence, but They Will Make Us Safer.” Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Times Media Group, 22 Apr. 2016, www.latimes.com/opinion/ editorials/la-ed-adv-california-guns-20160422-story. Accessed 10 July 2016. Pro-gun control article #6: 4 Pro-Gun Arguments We’re Sick of Hearing.

Though you might not automatically think hard-hitting news when you think of Rolling Stone magazine, the author of this brief article succinctly sums up four common pro-gun arguments and explains why she doesn’t feel they’re effective. Rolling Stone covers a variety of cultural, music, social, and political news and is a well-established magazine. Marcotte, A. Essay On Shakespeare's Romeo And Juliet! (2015, October 1). 4 pro-gun arguments we’re sick of hearing. How Do Interest Groups Differ Parties! Rolling Stone . Punjab Religion! Retrieved from http://www.rollingstone.com/ politics/news/4-pro-gun-arguments-were-sick-of-hearing-20151001. Marcotte, Amanda. “4 Pro-Gun Arguments We’re Sick of Hearing.” Rolling Stone . Rolling Stone, 1 Oct. 2015. Web. 10 July 2016. Marcotte, Amanda. “4 Pro-Gun Arguments We’re Sick of Hearing.” Rolling Stone, 1 Oct.

2015, www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/4-pro-gun-arguments-were-sick-of-hearing-20151001. Accessed 10 July 2016. Now that we’ve examined articles in favor of gun control, let’s take a look at a few articles that are against gun control. Anti-gun control article #1: 5 arguments against gun control — and interest groups from why they are all wrong. Punjab Religion! Published in the LA Times , this op-ed piece is written by how do interest differ political, Evan DeFilippis and Devin Hughes, who are the founders of the gun violence prevention site Armed With Reason. The authors argue that gun control laws don’t deter criminals and cannot prevent mass shootings. DeFillipis, E., Hughes, D. (2016). 5 arguments against gun control—and why they are all wrong. Essay Romeo! Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/ opinion/op-ed/la-oe-defilippis-hughes-gun-myths-debunked-20160708-snap-story. DeFillipis, Evan and interest groups from Devin Hughes “5 Arguments Against Gun Control—and Why They are All Wrong.” LATimes.com . Los Angeles Times, 8 July 2016.

Web. Dulce Papers! 10 July 2016. DeFillipis, Evan and interest Devin Hughes “5 Arguments Against Gun Control—and Why They are All Wrong.” Los Angeles Times , 8 July 2016, www.latimes.com/ opinion/op-ed/la-oe-defilippis-hughes-gun-myths-debunked-20160708-snap-story. Accessed 10 July 2016. Anti-gun control article #2: Gun control isn’t the answer. Wilson, an yield author of several books about crime and a teaching fellow at Pepperdine University, asks an how do interest groups differ political interesting question: how could or would we ever get rid of the hundreds of millions of guns that already exist in philip roth defender faith, the United States? He takes the stance that banning firearms is pointless, that “the genie is out of the bottle.” He discounts the debate—driven by from political, the Virginia Tech shootings that occurred just before he wrote the article—as being driven by roth faith, election politics and, therefore, insincere. Though this source is a bit older, it still raises a valid question.

Wilson, J. Q. (2007, April 20). Gun control isn’t the how do interest groups differ from parties answer. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/la-oe-wilson20apr20-story.html. Wilson, James Q. “Gun Control Isn’t the Answer.” LATimes.com . Los Angeles Times, 20 Apr. 2007.

Web. 10 July 2016. Wilson, James Q. “Gun Control Isn’t the Answer.” Los Angeles Times, 20 Apr. 2007, www.latimes.com/la-oe-wilson20apr20-story.html. Accessed 10 July 2016. Anti-gun control article #3: Why Gun Owners are Right to Fight Against Gun Control. Roth Of The! Hardy argues that sweeping gun control legislation proposed by the anti-gun lobby leaves no room for compromise. He then does a U-turn and complains about the slippery-slope nature of bans on one kind of weapon, such as assault weapons or sniper rifles, leading slowly but surely to total prohibition. Hardy fears that the gun control lobby is on a crusade to wipe out individual gun ownership altogether. Hardy is an Arizona attorney and a Second Amendment scholar and writer. How Do Interest Differ Parties! Hardy, D. T. (2013, July 18).

Why gun owners are right to fight against gun control. Reason.com. Retrieved from http://www.reason.com/archives/ 2013/07/18/why-second-amendment-supporters-are-righ. Philip Roth! Hardy, David T. “Why Gun Owners are Right to Fight Against Gun Control.” Reason.com . Groups! Reason Foundation, 18 July 2013. Differ Hinduism! Web.

10 July 2016. Hardy, David T. “Why Gun Owners are Right to Fight Against Gun Control.” Reason.com, Reason Foundation, 18 July 2013, reason.com/ archives/2013/07/18/why-second-amendment-supporters-are-righ. Accessed 10 July 2016. Anti-gun control article #4: ‘American Sniper’ widow: Gun control won’t protect us. Groups From Political! This opinion piece discusses one woman’s experience with gun violence and Essay Romeo why she believes gun control is not the answer. Taya Kyle, the writer of this article, is how do interest from, also the author of punjab religion American Wife: A Memoir of Love, War, Faith, and Renewal . The movie American Sniper was based on her late husband, Chris Kyle. Kyle, T. (2013, July 18). ‘American Sniper’ widow: Gun control won’t protect us. Interest Groups From Parties! CNN. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2016/01/07/opinions/taya-kyle-gun-control. Kyle, Taya. “‘American Sniper’ Widow: Gun Control Won’t Protect Us.” CNN.com.

Cable News Network, 18 July 2013. Web. 10 July 2016. Kyle, Taya. “‘American Sniper’ Widow: Gun Control Won’t Protect Us.” CNN , 18 July 2013, www.cnn.com/2016/01/07/opinions/taya-kyle-gun-control. Accessed 10 July 2016. Anti-gun control article #5: A Criminologist’s Case Against Gun Control. This article includes an interview with James Jacobs, director of the Center for Research in punjab religion, Crime and Justice at New York University School of Law. He is also a professor of constitutional law and the author of Can Gun Control Work? In this article, Jacobs examines misunderstandings about gun control and examines the effectiveness of various gun control strategies. Davidson, J. How Do Interest! (2015, December 1).

A criminologist’s case against gun control. Time. Retrieved from dulce papers http://www.time.com/4100408/a-criminologists-case-against-gun-control. Davidson, Jacob. “‘A Criminologist’s Case Against Gun Control.” Time.com. Time Inc., 1 Dec.

2015. Web. 10 July 2016. How Do Interest Groups Differ Parties! Davidson, Jacob. “‘A Criminologist’s Case Against Gun Control.” Time , 1 Dec. 2015, time.com/4100408/a-criminologists-case-against-gun-control.

Accessed 10 July 2016. Anti-gun control article #6: How Gun Control Kills. The author gives examples of incidents of gun violence that were stopped by people carrying guns, arguing that had such people not been on the scene, the results would have been worse. Strategic Alliance! Hunter is an aide to conservative senator Rand Paul. How Do Differ From Political Parties! Hunter, J. (2012, December 27). How gun control kills. The American Conservative. Retrieved from http://www.theamericanconservative.com/ articles/how-gun-control-kills. Hunter, Jack. “How Gun Control Kills.” The American Conservative . Burr Media Group, 27 Dec.

2012. Web. 10 July 2016. Hunter, Jack. “How Gun Control Kills.” The American Conservative, Burr Media Group, 27 Dec. 2012, www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/how-gun-control-kills. Accessed 10 July 2016. 2 Resources About the Gun Control Debate. If you’re looking for articles with more background on the subject, check out these two resources that provide an overview of gun control and a variety of discussions about the Essay on Shakespeare's topic. In 2015–2016, the well-respected news source CNN aired a series of programming titled Guns in America . This resource contains both articles and videos about a wide array of gun-related topics, including town-hall meetings, an interview with President Obama, gun violence statistics, interviews with the differ from political parties NRA, a discussion of the gun industry, and roth of the segments about guns and police. How Do Interest Groups Differ Political! The articles and punjab religion videos are too numerous to cite in this post, but I’ve included one sample to help illustrate how you might cite these resources.

Simon, M., Sanchez, R. How Do Interest From Political Parties! (2015, December 4). U.S. Dulce Papers! gun violence: The story in charts and graphs. How Do Interest Groups From Political Parties! CNN. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2015/12/ 04/us/gun-violence-graphics/index.html. Simon, Mallory and Ray Sanchez. Yield Management Are Used To:! “U.S. Groups Differ From Political Parties! Gun Violence: The Story in Charts and Graphs.” CNN.com. Cable News Network, 4 Dec. 2015. Web. 10 July 2016. Simon, Mallory and Ray Sanchez. “U.S.

Gun Violence: The Story in Charts and Graphs.” CNN , 4 Dec. Punjab Religion! 2015, cnn.com/2015/12/04/us/gun-violence-graphics/index.html. How Do Groups Parties! Accessed 10 July 2016. This article, published by the The New York Times , provides broad definitions of gun control, includes arguments both for and against gun control, and even speculates as to why it’s so difficult to solve the debate. Perez-Pena, R. (2015, October 7). Gun control explained. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/10/ 07/us/gun-control-explained.html?_r=0. Perez-Pena, Richard. “Gun Control Explained.” NYTimes.com . The New York Times Company, 7 Oct.

2015. Strategic Alliance Examples! Web. 10 July 2016. Perez-Pena, Richard. “Gun Control Explained.” The New York Times , 7 Oct. Groups From Political! 2015, nytimes.com/interactive/2015/10/07/us/gun-control-explained.html?_r=0. Accessed 10 July 2016. You can cite these or any of thousands of other gun control articles to buttress your argument. And Juliet! (Read 5 Best Resources to Help With Writing a Research Paper if you need assistance researching more scholarly sources.) Whichever side of the issue you take, make sure to how do political parties, mention the source, cite it properly (in-text and in your Works Cited or References list), and format direct quotations, summaries, and alliance 2015 paraphrases per MLA 7th edition, MLA 8th edition, or APA guidelines. If you copy the APA or MLA citations I created above, be sure to interest groups, update the systems to: accessed date (10 July 2016) to the date that you accessed the article. Keep in mind that there will be very, very few sources (including the ones I used above) that are totally objective. How Do Interest Political! Most writers—and most websites—will be catering to an audience.

For a fuller list of issues on both sides of the debate, check out these Top Pro Con Arguments on yield management systems are used, gun control. How Do Interest Differ Parties! Your job is to Romeo and Juliet, filter out the bias and see what value a given person’s argument really has. Some of the most rabid commentators on how do groups, both sides of the issue actually make good points—you just have to and Juliet, get past all the screaming. Once you’re ready to start writing, check out these sample essays on gun control for how do interest groups differ from political parties, some ideas on how to put your paper together. If you need help with writing your essay, read How to Write a Research Paper: a Step-by-Step Guide. Need help with overall formatting according to the style guide you’re using? Give these resources a try: When you’re finished drafting your argument, don’t forget to have an editor proofread your essay for you.

Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over Essay Romeo 500,000 example essays. About the Author. How Do Interest Political Parties! Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for examples, the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. You#8217;re welcome! I#8217;m glad you found this to how do interest political, be helpful. Punjab Religion! 1) #8220;This is a good place to start because the Second Amendment is pretty. much the cornerstone of the whole debate, and interest parties the modification that. Stevens suggests highlights the fact that the Second Amendment refers to.

an armed citizen militia, not individual gun ownership.#8221; Actually, the fact that Stevens wants to change the 2nd points to the fact that the 2nd DOES NOT refer to dulce papers, an armed militia, because his change is nonsense. The organized militia is a body of the government and thus, needs no right to be armed. Interest Groups From Political Parties! 2) If you use this one, you are arguing for prior restraint against an inalienable right. 110 million gun owners. 8855 #8220;gun murders.#8221; 99.9996% of strategic alliance examples 2015 all gun owners#8230;. safe.

3) David Hardy is absolutely right. How Do Groups Differ Political Parties! He#8217;s the only one that backs up his arguments with evidence. 4) Yep. Gun control#8230;or the possibility of gun control is costing some states long held jobs. And some state politicians their jobs, too. 5) Interesting premise#8230;but just an opinion. Here#8217;s a sixth: Investigate the racist roots of Essay Romeo and Juliet gun control. If you want to discuss the how do from 2nd amendment, stay away from on Shakespeare's emotional arguments. Political Parties! The 2nd amendment protects a pre-existing, individual, inalienable right to keep and bear arms. It does not derived from the strategic alliance examples Constitution.

It is protected by it. That is the how do interest groups from parties base from which you should discuss all gun control. Clearly some one PRO gun control based on their wording. The second amendment, the right to bear arms, is currently under heavy fire. Many people believe that firearms are directly linked to crime, and are just too dangerous in Romeo, general. These people believe that stricter gun laws need to be in place, or the second amendment is outdated and no longer relative or necessary. This is how do groups from political, untrue.

The second amendment and Essay Romeo the right to bear arms must remain intact. The second amendment is long standing, and crucial to the American citizens, for purposes including worst case scenarios and life or death situations, and not to mention that through multiple studies, statistics and research have shown and how do differ parties discovered that stricter gun laws, or prohibition altogether, would only worsen the situation. Firearms actually prevent more crimes than they are involved in committing. This right gives the American citizens the ability to defend and fight for themselves, their neighbors, and their family, in the face of dulce papers any evil, foreign or local. Interest Groups Differ Political! One must also remember that stricter gun laws will not necessarily stop or hinder crime. Criminals do, after all, break the law on yield, a regular basis. Most firearms used in criminal activities are illegally obtained, whether stolen or bought through an illegal source. Overall, the second amendment, the right to keep and bear arms, is still in interest groups differ, place for a very good reason.

This right allows the people to defend themselves at any given time, and therefor live without certain fear. Looks like you have a good start to your own pro-gun essay here. (Just be sure to back up your statements with credible sources and research.) This is just skippy except the second amendment gives me the right to be armed to protect me from an oppressive government. Dulce Papers! They colonists had just fought a war to free themselves from an oppressive government, so the second amendment is not there to give me the how do interest groups differ right to hunt or shoot burglars. If the government allows the police or the Essay Romeo and Juliet military to become excessive, calling them to protect you from groups differ from parties them doesn#8217;t make much sense does it? And yes, there were some pretty awesome weapons (multi-shot repeaters) in the 1700#8217;s that the founders were fully aware of. Just some questions from an outsider. Why are Americans afraid of their neighbor and so have to carry a weapon? Why do Americans think that the punjab religion Police are so incompetent that they have to arm themselves to differ parties, do their job.

Why are citizens allowed to open carry their guns to strategic alliance examples 2015, the mall and local store but politicians will not allow them to carry a weapon to the Conservative Party National Convention? Why do Americans give criminals the right to how do groups political, carry weapons? All of these questions would make great material for a paper on the topic. Dulce Papers! wow the potato is strong with you, the most violent states in the country are california, new york illinois, and DC, all have some of the most restrictive laws in the country, and are suprisingly full of #8220;tolerant liberals#8221; Sounds like you could definitely write an essay defending this position, Bree #8212; great research. As an Englishman I have been on and off following this for years. Up till fairly recently, under the how do interest groups from political parties Truck Acts( passed in the 19th century) stipulated that all persons in gainful employment had to be paid in dulce papers, #8220;current currency of the realm#8221;. In other words, they had to be paid in cash. Thus the employer would send the pay clerk to the bank, after having worked out how many items of each piece of currency was needed to render the exact amount down to the last smallest value coin. He would go to the same bank, the how do political same local branch, and the same time.

Pre-WW2 this was for and Juliet, the most part safe. The reason was quite simple; in the 1930s the interest groups political moral standards set out in yield to:, the Christian faith were still strongly respected, even by many who were either non-churchgoers or were not exactly noted for their fervency of interest from political parties belief. However, the influence of the Sunday School movement was very strong. WW2 disrupted this, a factor commented on unfavourably in Vol.1 of Essay on Shakespeare's Romeo Sir John Hamerton#8217;s work, The Second Great War. All the evacuations had the interest differ from effect of depriving many of the on Shakespeare's and Juliet #8220;means of grace#8221; that inculcated moral standards. The result was a progressive decline in such standards post-WW2. Then, first one, then another began to how do interest groups, notice the pay clerks#8217; routine.

Result? An increasing round of wage-snatching of progressively increasing violence. In the wake of these, some started up security firms who would guarantee safe delivery of the dulce papers cash. Eventually some security firms#8217; personnel began carrying handguns. One incident in December, 1961 fairly threw the interest groups from political cat among the pigeons. Management To:! A gang attacked a security van, not knowing that its personnel were armed, as well as having a guard dog. One of the guards opened fire, wounding one of the gang, who fled away empty-handed, leaving a fearsome array of weapons. The reaction of the interest differ police was to demand the dulce papers disarming of interest groups differ political parties all bank guards; one senior police officer even bleated that was #8220;better to lose ?100,000#8221; than to risk the criminals carrying guns in response. Punjab Religion! I suppose he had in mind that Parliament had not long before decided to groups, limit the categories of capital murder to, among other, #8220;murder committed in the furtherance of Essay Romeo theft#8221;, but he may have also feared a more widespread rise in armed robberies.

As it was, not far from where I am typing this out, and only 18 months later, 26 times the amount he mentioned was stolen in what we still call the Great Train Robbery. Jumping from there to the Dunblane massacre and the subsequent Acts that banned all civilian ownership of handguns(1996, 1997), a number of features emerge. The murderer had already gotten into bad odour with the Scouts, and increasingly with others, and interest differ this led at least one junior police officer to suggest that his licences(for FOUR handguns!) be revoked. In the wake of Lord Cullen#8217;s report the cop#8217;s superior resigned. However, the reaction of at least one, if not more, of London#8217;s grubbier tabloids was to scream out louder for all civilian ownership of handguns to be banned, a sentiment led one Tory MP to say that he now knew what it was like to have been a Jew in Hitler#8217;s Germany. For the Sun, read Der Sturmer; for the Sun#8217;s then editor read Julius Streicher, who duly swung at a rope#8217;s end for the crimes he committed in WW2. Roth Faith! As if that hasn#8217;t been enough, it appears that the proceedings of the how do interest groups Cullen Committee will remain under lock and key till 2096.

There has been one recent development—albeit a small one. Two men attempted to break into a house; one of the owners had a shotgun, and he fired at them, killing one. Buddhism Differ From! When arraigned before a court on a charge of murder, the interest groups differ from presiding judge directed the jury to acquit. He cited a noted English jurist, Sir Edward Coke, who lived some 400 years ago, as saying that #8220;an Englishman#8217;s home is his castle#8221;. Yes, one of the leaders of the gun control mob(not very large, but unduly influential) expressed #8220;disappointment#8221; at how does differ hinduism the ruling and verdict. How Do Groups Differ From Political Parties! Still, it is a chink of light. What happens in the future is yet to be seen. Incidentally, during November 2000 I spent a fortnight on holiday in Texas at the invitation of a woman friend. Amazingly, I felt safer in downtown San Antonio than I would in dulce papers, many British cities.

I put it down to groups political parties, three factors, viz. (I) they still have the death penalty for murder we pensioned off the Essay on Shakespeare's and Juliet hangman in 1965; (ii) after training and certification one can carry a concealed handgun makes it dangerous for intending burglars or muggers; (iii) in Teas, and in large parts of the US, one enjoys the #8220;means of grace#8221; in the form of Christian schooling and Christian broadcasting here in the UK faith schools are allowed, but secular humanists bleat about #8220;indoctrination#8221; of children, while Christian broadcasting is severely restricted, with even one complainer being apparently enough to shut it down. Molon Labe. From Parties! My question is how do you plan on finding and removing ever gun across the nation? Stop the black market where other cartel and gangs will flood the street with weapons from other countries that produce them? Leprechauns riding unicorns patrolling the candy land streets of delusionalville? So the plan is to remove them from the law abiding citizens (because they are the only ones that would turn them in without a fire fight). Criminalize the ones that refuse to dulce papers, turn them in groups differ political, AND fight them with government agencies that have guns.

So now with the law abiding citizen are disarmed, the ones that refuse to be disarmed are criminals and the gangs and criminals keep their firearms because well#8230;they are criminals#8230;yeap seems like a solid plan to me! Let#8217;s move forward with this and see how well it turns out. Hitler, Stalin, Pot and Moa would be proud!

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Pension system in the Netherlands. The Netherlands has a pension system that can be considered unique around the world. The Dutch pension system consists of three so called pillars. The first pillar includes the state pension (Algemene Ouderdoms Wet, AOW), which consists of a flat benefit and is granted to every Dutch citizen aged 65 years or older. The second pillar consists of mandatory collective pension schemes which are arranged within pension funds or insurance companies. A certain occupation, industry or company is often linked to a particular pension fund, meaning that with practicing a certain occupation, your pension fund is already predetermined. The last and third pillar consists of voluntary private pension savings (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Although the pillar structure of Dutch pension system itself does not differ much from the pillar structure of interest from parties, other western countries, the size and relative importance of each of the pillars is rather different.

As can be seen in table 1, the size of the second pillar is relatively large in the Netherlands compared to other European countries (Bovenberg, 2014). Defender Of The! As a consequence, pension funds are important institutions in the Dutch pension system. Table 1 size of the different pillars of pension systems in groups from parties European countries. The Netherlands Germany France Italy Spain Swiss UK US. 1st pillar 50 85 79 74 92 42 65 45.

2nd pillar 40 5 6 1 4 32 25 13. 3rd pillar 10 10 15 25 4 26 10 42. This unique position of second pillar pensions in the Netherlands demands realignment of the from hinduism, financing structure of the first and second pillar through the franchise. The AOW in the first pillar is financed by social premiums every employed Dutch citizen pays to the government. The pension benefits received from the pension funds in the second pillar are financed by paying pension premiums into how do differ political parties, the pension fund. Alliance Examples 2015! Originally, the franchise is meant as an instrument to achieve the integration between both pillars. In order to establish this integration, part of the labor income is exempted from paying pension premiums over into a pension fund; the franchise (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009).

Since the relative importance of the how do interest from political parties, second pillar is unique for the Netherlands, the yield systems to:, franchise is groups a typically Dutch phenomenon. Theoretically the franchise equals the on Shakespeare's and Juliet, part of the labor income over which AOW benefits are granted (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). To this respect, no Dutch citizen should pay ‘double’ for their pension income. Strictly speaking, the one to one relationship between the franchise and the AOW should result in a franchise that is interest groups parties uniform across pension funds. In practice the philip of the faith, level of the franchise differs between pension funds (Eberhardt et.al., 2014), although it has a uniform character within the funds itself (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Before 2006, the Dutch pension system was characterized by a final salary system. In this system the relationship between the franchise and the AOW was maintained.

However, with the transition to the average salary system in 2006, the relationship between the how do differ, franchise and the AOW diluted . The uniform franchise used by the large Dutch industrywide pension funds is an element of a uniform accrual system further consisting of a uniform pension premium and a uniform accrual rate. These aspects of the financing structure within a pension fund are uniform in dulce papers the sense that their level is the same for every participant of the fund regardless of his or her individual characteristics (CPB, 2013). This implies that every participant of a pension fund pays the same pension premium in terms of percentage for interest from political which the same amount of labor income is exempted by the franchise, to accrue the same accrual rate per year. Dulce Papers! Especially the interest groups, franchise and accrual rate are highly interdependent. To this respect they are inseparable: a higher accrual rate implies a higher franchise and vice versa (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). Strategic Examples! An aspect of the uniformity characterizing Dutch pension funds which has given rise to a great deal of debate is the fact that participants in how do groups differ political pension funds are often not uniform at all. The uniform accrual system finds its origins in the notion of solidarity between the different participants of a pension fund.

Furthermore solidarity enables the sharing of risks such as longevity risk and capital market risk. However when a pension fund has participants that differ widely in certain characteristics such as life expectancy, career path taken, or career length, the uniform accrual system causes structural redistribution between them (CPB, 2013). A system is then said to be actuarially unfair. Punjab Religion! A measure of this redistribution is the net gain. The net gain shows the ratio of the discounted sum of pension benefits during retirement over the discounted sum of paid premiums over the working life (CPB, 2013).

In an actuarially fair situation the net gain should always equal one for every individual at every point in time, regardless of their characteristics. However, generally speaking the uniform accrual system is not actuarially fair, meaning that certain participants either overpaid or underpaid for their pension rights (CPB, 2013). Apart from the redistribution between participants of a fund, the pension outcome differs considerably between participants of a fund too. The pension outcome can be thought of as the replacement rate. The replacement rate shows the ratio of the pension benefit of a certain individual over the main source of their income during working life at how do interest groups differ from political parties a certain moment in time. Thereby the replacement rate is dulce papers a measure of the effectiveness of consumption smoothing (Barr and Diamond, 2008). The pension benefit includes pension income from both the first and the second pillar. How Do Interest Groups Differ! Just as the net gain, the replacement rate is influenced by the uniformness of the system and individual characteristics of the participant too. Although the punjab religion, uniform pension premium and uniform accrual rate have received much attention in the literature, the uniform franchise remains relatively underexposed. To my knowledge, up until this date no quantitative literature exists on the sole topic of the franchise.

The reason for this may lie in groups from political parties the fact that the maximum levels of the franchise are largely determined by law (Kakes and buddhism Broeders, 2006). Another explanation might be that the franchise is less important in other countries due to the relatively smaller size of the second pillar. This in contrast to pension premium, which influences the affordability of labor and thereby influences the labor market. Next to that the pension premium is something that is relatively seizable and political concrete for the average citizen. The uniform accrual rate on its turn receives much attention in the light of the redistribution discussion. Essay Romeo! Next to that the accrual rate has a certain fiscal angle since it reflects the amount of pension rights to be accrued in a fiscal beneficial way. It is however unjust that the franchise receives little attention. Since, as being part of the uniform accrual system, it certainly might affect both the redistribution between participants within a pension fund, as the pension outcome for these participants.

Therefore the research question of differ political, this thesis is the following: ‘How are the punjab religion, redistribution between – and pension outcome of individual participants of a pension fund influenced by their individual characteristics in terms of starting salary, career path and groups differ political length of career, and to what extend does the Romeo and Juliet, level of the uniform franchise and accrual rate change the redistribution and pension outcome?’ The research question has been formulated such that it addresses both the role of the franchise and accrual rate in the often discussed redistribution between participants of a pension fund, as well as their eventual pension outcome. Since longevity risk is not one of the characteristics taken into account, only redistribution within the groups from parties, accrual phase is considered . As already stated before, the franchise and the accrual rate are inseparable. Therefore it is not possible to examine the influence the franchise has as a sole concept in an adequate way. The net gain is used as the dulce papers, outcome variable for the redistribution, while the how do from parties, replacement rate will be used as the outcome variable for the pension outcome. The replacement rate and net gain are not necessarily linked.

For example, the net gain can have the same value for every participant in a fund, while the replacement rates for management systems are used to: these participants can differ widely. To this respect the net gain is a flow variable, while the replacement is a stock variable. Both the net gain and the replacement rate are simulated by typical agent models which have been written for the purpose of this thesis. Another unique aspect of this thesis is that it makes use of data instead of presumed values in the simulations. More specifically, data on the five largest pension funds in the Netherlands, in terms of assets under management (van der Westen, 2014) are used.

This thesis first examines the how do groups differ from political parties, net gains and replacement rates of individuals for their individual characteristics separately (cetirus paribus). Afterwards the different levels of the characteristics are combined into scenarios. Hereby all possible combinations of the individual characteristics are captured. The scenarios are determined in the following manner: # scenarios = # starting salaries*# career paths*# lengths of career. For reasons of variation in outcomes and keeping in mind the scope of this thesis, these scenarios are simulated for the replacement rates. This procedure is repeated three times for three different combinations of accrual rates and how does differ from franchises. Pension funds can choose the level of the franchise, and differ from political parties consequently the level of the accrual rate themselves. However, not all combinations are allowed. The law prescribes three fixed combinations which are legally binding and are shown in punjab religion table 2 for how do from political parties the year 2015 (Sprenkels Verschuren, 2014).

Table 2 Lawful Combinations of Franchise and Accrual rate, 2015. Combination Accrual Rate Maximum Franchise Level. Combination 1 Maximum of punjab religion, 1,875% ‘ 12.642,- Combination 2 Maximum of 1,788% (but not lower than 1,701%) ‘ 11.395,- Combination 3 Maximum of1,701% ‘ 10.095,- These fixed combinations represent maximum levels of the franchise and accrual rate combination.

Pension funds can choose to interest groups from political have a lower accrual rate or franchise than these fixed combinations, but cannot choose a higher level (Sprenkels Verschuren, 2014). Therefore these three combinations are used in this research. The series of simulations for the three different combinations, result in punjab religion a spread of differ political parties, net gains (for the Essay on Shakespeare's, three different characteristics separately only) and replacement rates (for the three different characteristics and all of how do groups political parties, them combined in the scenarios). Next, the yield management to:, magnitude of above described effects the individual characteristics and the combination of the how do political, franchise and management are used accrual rate have on the replacement rates is estimated using a log linear model. In this way the marginal effects can be quantified. The magnitude is only examined for the replacement rate as an outcome variable since the how do interest groups differ political, scenarios are not simulated for the net gain. The remainder of dulce papers, this paper is organized as follows.

Section 2 describes the structure of the Dutch pension system, the franchise and the uniform accrual system in detail. Groups Differ! Furthermore, previous literature on relevant topics is discussed. Dulce Papers! Section 3 discusses the methodology, including the typical agent simulation models and the data that are used. The results and implications are discussed in how do groups differ parties section 4. Subsequently, section 5 examines possible policy implication. Management Systems To:! Section 6 describes and discusses the how do groups differ from political, general conclusions. Finally, section 7 discusses and gives recommendations for further research. Structure of the punjab religion, Dutch Pension System. The Dutch three pillar pension system is differ from political parties a system that is rather complex to understand. Especially considering the relative importance of the punjab religion, second pillar pension schemes and thus the pension funds. Pension schemes can be financed in roughly two ways; on a pay as you go (PAYG) basis, or via funding.

The AOW public pension has a pay as you go (PAYG) character which implies that the AOW is paid entirely out of current revenue sources. How Do Differ From! The AOW thereby has a contractarian nature, meaning that no savings have to be accumulated in anticipation of future pension claims but instead the on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, government can tax the groups parties, working population to pay for the pension benefits of the retirees. Yield Management Systems To:! Consequently, a PAYG system relaxes the constraint that the benefits received by how do interest parties any generation must be matched by Essay Romeo its own contributions (Barr and Diamond, 2008). A PAYG financed pension scheme usually has two main objectives. First it redistributes income from the younger generations towards the older generations which are retired. Second it redistributes and shares risks across generations (Barr and Diamond, 2008).

The level of the AOW benefit depends on the household’s composition. And the number of years which an individual has been insured. Every individual that lives or works in the Netherlands is automatically insured and thereby accrues two percent AOW benefit per year. After fifty years of either living or working in the Netherlands, a person is fully insured and is thereby granted the full amount of AOW which he or she is eligible for. This amount depends on the household composition. A person that cohabits with another individual receives a flat benefit of fifty percent of the net minimum wage. A person that lives alone receives seventy percent of the net minimum wage (Sociale Verzekeringsbank, n.d.).

Furthermore the age at which citizens become eligible for groups the AOW benefit will be increased gradually to philip roth defender faith age 67. When this age is reached, the retirement age may further increase if life expectancy increases (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). To the contrary, the occupational pension schemes in the second pillar are funded. This means that contributions are invested in political parties financial (or physical) assets of which the philip of the faith, return is credited to how do interest groups the plan’s participants. Funded schemes can be either individual or collective. When a person retires he or she receives either an annuity or draws down the accumulation in some other way, for example via a lump sum. The annuity or lump sum is dulce papers based on either the individual contributions to the fund, or the accrued pension rights depending on whether the fund has individual accounts or a collective nature (Barr and Diamond, 2008). In the Netherlands the vast majority of the how do differ from political, pension funds have basic pension schemes which are collective and punjab religion pension benefits can only be received in the form of an annuity. Funded schemes on differ from parties its turn, can be classified into two main categories; defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) schemes. In DB schemes pension benefits are based, among other things, on dulce papers the worker’s wage, length of employment history and the so called accrual rate.

The accrual rate determines how much pension rights a person accumulates per how do interest differ from year over his or her labor income minus the franchise. The accrual rate can either be a percentage of a person’s start- average- or final salary (Barr and how does differ from hinduism Diamond, 2008). The replacement rate constitutes the number of years in which a person accrued pension rights times the parties, accrual rate. How Does Buddhism! Moreover, the replacement rate expresses pension benefit as a fraction of one of from political, these three salary levels. In 2006, a transition took place from the Essay on Shakespeare's and Juliet, final salary scheme to the average salary scheme in how do interest from political parties the Netherlands. Therefore the average salary scheme is the most common. In 2008, 87 percent of the active members of pension funds had an average salary scheme (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Yield Systems! As of the how do interest groups from parties, first of January 2015, the from hinduism, fiscal regulation surrounding the accrual of pension rights has been adjusted with the adaptation of the ‘Witteveenkader’. The maximum boundary which guarantees fiscal beneficial pension saving is set at a labor income of differ from, 100.000 euros. This means that above this boundary individuals have to yield to: arrange the accrual of pension savings themselves. This accrual will be out of net income, instead of interest groups parties, gross income which is the alliance 2015, case below the how do groups political, boundary.

Another measure which has been taken is the decrease of the punjab religion, fiscal maximum of the accrual rate. This maximum is lowered from 2,15% for average salary schemes in 2014, to how do interest from parties 1,875% for average salary schemes in yield management 2015 (Staatsblad van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, 2014). In defined contribution schemes the pension benefit depends on the contributions paid into the fund. How Do Differ Political Parties! In DC schemes the pension benefit is management systems not pre-determined but the pension premium is, for a certain period of how do political, time as opposed to DB schemes where the pension benefit is mostly pre-determined. Defined contribution schemes can be either individual (IDC) or collective (CDC). In CDC schemes participants accrue pension rights based on punjab religion the average salary system against a pre-determined pension premium (Mercer, 2015). Groups! The eventual pension benefit is examples 2015 not predetermined since it depends on the factual funding ratio of the pension fund at the time of retirement (Chen et.al., 2014). In IDC schemes every pension fund participant saves for its own pension benefit.

The eventual pension benefit is the sum of the how do groups from political, paid pension premiums and the realized return on them (Chen et.al., 2014). In IDC schemes, risks cannot be shared between participants as opposed to CDC schemes. In CDC schemes risks can be shared between participants in an intra- as well as intergenerational manner. Intragenerational since pension benefits are paid out in the form of an annuity which enables the sharing of, for example, longevity risk (Barr and how does hinduism Diamond, 2008) and intergenerational since shocks in the funding ratio can be spread out over a number of years and thereby shared between various generations (Chen et.al., 2014). IDC schemes are not very common in the Netherlands (Federation of the how do interest differ parties, Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Most pension funds that do have a DC scheme implement a CDC scheme. Recently, DC schemes start to gain in popularity in punjab religion the Netherlands and are more often used in the discussion surrounding the future of the interest from political, Dutch pension system (van Dorssen and Nauta, 2014). Dulce Papers! This is mainly the case since DB schemes more or less guarantee a certain pension benefit irrespective of the financial market return (Der Wal, 2014), while DC schemes do not provide such certainty.

This implies that contributing participants in how do interest groups differ political parties a pension fund with a DB scheme bear the roth defender faith, risks surrounding the pension benefits of the pension fund retirees, while those risks are shared between contributing participants and pension fund retirees in DC schemes. The franchise exempts a certain amount of the labor income of pension fund participants over which pension premium needs to be paid. The franchise relates to the accrual rate. Consequently, the how do interest groups differ from, combination of the franchise and the accrual rate a pension fund uses determines their pension premium. Therefore the dulce papers, franchise, accrual rate and pension premium find themselves in a triangular relationship. The franchise and accrual rate combination a pension fund chooses is interest political bound by legal requirements . Reasons for this may lie in punjab religion the fact that by legally binding the choice of the combination, the from political parties, premium stays within a certain bound and cannot take an outrageous level. Besides, by differ from hinduism legally binding the choice of the combination the risk for pension fund participants is limited. For example a low franchise in how do groups parties combination with a high accrual rate would result in either a relatively high premium, or a pension fund taking more risk in their investment strategy in order to be able to finance the accrued pension rights. Therefore such a combination is not allowed.

The accrual rate determines the final replacement rate a pension fund participant reaches. The objective of a pension fund with regard to the envisioned replacement rate is of the faith a matter of pension fund policy. Consequently, pension funds have different pension schemes which result in different time paths in which the replacement rate can be reached. A shorter time span in which the replacement can be reached consequently corresponds to a higher accrual rate and higher franchise. The replacement rate is how do from political parties applicable to both pension income coming from the to:, first ‘ and how do interest groups differ from political the second pillar which, theoretically, should result in a uniform franchise of 10/7th times the Essay and Juliet, AOW benefit (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Historically speaking the franchise is meant as an instrument to how do differ parties integrate the first and examples the second pillar of the Dutch pension system. With the introduction of average salary schemes this relation got diluted, resulting in how do groups differ parties franchises which are lower than this theoretical level. Some pension funds even wield a franchise of exactly ‘0 (Eberhardt et.al., 2014). Essay On Shakespeare's Romeo! As of 2015 the relationship diluted even further, since the levels of the franchise which are connected to the fiscally allowed maximum accrual rates are lower than they would be if they were at a level of interest groups differ parties, 10/7th times the AOW. Therefore even the examples, law does not take notice of this presumed relationship anymore. The fact that the relationship between the franchise and the AOW got diluted, indicates the how do groups differ from political, possibility that the franchise is used for other purposes by pension funds.

Nowadays, one of this main purposes is to keep the pension scheme affordable for the pension fund (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). The level of the franchise is usually adapted to the characteristics of the participants of a pension fund. A pension fund with participants which have a relatively low labor income benefit from a relatively lower franchise in combination with a lower accrual rate. For this income group the punjab religion, disadvantage of a lower accrual rate is outweighed by how do interest the lower level of the franchise. At higher franchise levels they run the risk of earning a labor income that is how does buddhism lower than the franchise and how do groups differ political parties thereby not accruing pension rights. To the contrary, pension funds with participants earning relatively higher labor incomes, benefit from choosing a relatively higher franchise level in combination with a higher accrual rate. For these income groups the franchise constitutes a relatively low share of their labor income. Consequently the disadvantage of a higher franchise level is outweighed by the higher accrual rate.

The franchise is uniform in the sense that it is applicable to all participants in a certain pension fund. It is this uniform character that may affect the replacement rate objective the strategic alliance examples, pension fund has set in an adverse way. This is the case for two reasons. First, participants of pension funds are not uniform in terms of their labor income. Usually pension funds have participants who fall both in the higher and lower income categories. Pension funds therefore choose a franchise and accrual rate combination which is beneficial for the average participant, so ass to minimize welfare losses in terms of the replacement rate for their participants. However, zero welfare loss is not possible since above policy always results in losses for interest groups from parties participants who are not average. The most optimal solution would be to completely differentiate the level of the franchise and accrual rate per pension fund participant, so as to achieve tailor-made solutions. Strategic 2015! This would result in zero welfare loss since every participant is how do interest groups differ from political subject to a franchise and accrual rate combination adapted to his or her characteristics.

This is however impossible since the buddhism from, franchise should have a uniform level within the pension fund. Therefore the franchise and accrual rate combination pension funds choose is always a suboptimal one. Second, the AOW benefit that is used in calculating the franchise can differ from the AOW benefit that people actually receive. Most pension funds calculate a franchise on the basis of a AOW benefit which is 70 percent of the net minimum wage; the AOW benefit for singles (A. Differ From Parties! Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). However, married or cohabiting couples receive an dulce papers AOW benefit of 50 percent of the interest groups differ parties, net minimum wage each, resulting in a combined AOW benefit of buddhism differ from, 100% of the groups from political, net minimum wage (Frericks et.al., 2006). Moreover, employees who deviate from the ‘average’ participant in strategic alliance examples others ways than their labor income or level of the differ parties, AOW benefit, can experience problems in reaching the desired replacement rate. This could concern, for example, employees who have disrupted careers due to unemployment since participants usually do not accrue pension rights while being unemployed . Considering all this, it can be stated that the franchise could have implications for the final outcome of the strategic alliance 2015, pension plan; the pension income in terms of the replacement rate and the redistribution in terms of the net gain (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). The Uniform Accrual System. Besides the franchise being at a uniform level, the how do from, accrual rate and the pension premium are uniform too.

The uniform accrual system causes certain losses and redistribution. First, part of the pension rights in Essay and Juliet pension funds is financed on a PAYG basis as younger workers subsidize the older ones (Bovenberg et.al., 2014). Groups Political! The return on a PAYG scheme consists of population growth combined with real wage growth, while the 2015, return on a funded scheme consists of the interest groups differ, capital market return. Therefore the cost effective contribution into a uniform accrual system is higher due to the lower return on the PAYG component of the system (CPB, 2013). Next to that the system is often viewed as unfair since it causes redistribution between different cohorts in the population. First, time inconsistency causes the uniform accrued pension rights to be worth less to philip roth defender the younger cohorts than to people approaching the retirement age since the investment horizon of young people is longer.

Second, structural differences in life expectancy are not taken into account which is beneficial for cohorts with a longer life expectancy as opposed to cohorts with a lower life expectancy (Lever et.al., 2014). Moreover, the modern labor market imposes problems on the uniform accrual system due to issues such as shorter life cycles of businesses and sectors, increased labor mobility and changing employment relationships (SER, 2015). This more flexible character of the labor market causes people to deviate from the average career path most pension funds envision in how do interest from parties determining the level of the accrual rate, franchise and pension premium. These issues result in the accrual rate and pension premium to be actuarially unfair at 2015 every moment in time. There is just one moment in time in how do political parties which both of them are fair; when they exactly equal the value of the accrued pension rights. Only when a person stays within the same pension fund during his or her entire career , the eventual outcome will be actuarially fair for this particular person. Punjab Religion! However in current dynamic labor markets this is far from usual anymore. Figure 1 describes the uniform accrual system and its redistribution (CPB, 2013). The difference between the differ from political, red and the blue line reflects the PAYG component loss. The difference between the punjab religion, purple and the blue line reflects the loss due to time inconsistency. Interest Groups From Political! Finally, the difference between the purple and the green line reflects the loss due to differences in life expectancy.

Figure 1 Decomposition of the Redistribution. In light of above described losses and redistributions, the Dutch parliament recently decided that the uniform accrual system will be abolished in phases. This process will be concluded in punjab religion 2020 (Rijksoverheid, 2015). The accrual system that will replace the uniform accrual system is designed at the very moment. Several proposals for this redesign have been made already.

Bonenkamp, Cox and Lever (2014) in a Netspar Design Paper proposed to maintain the uniform pension premium in combination with degressive accrual of pension rights. In this way the pension premiums paid by younger cohorts result in more pension rights which makes the system actuarially fair at how do differ parties every moment in how does buddhism differ from hinduism time. Another proposal is to how do interest parties maintain the uniform accrual of strategic examples, pension rights, while making the pension premium progressive. Interest Differ! However this proposal could cause wage profiles to punjab religion become even steeper since part of this increase in the pension premium will be paid by the employer resulting in relatively higher wages for older employees. This could cause harm for the older cohorts of the working population. Especially considering the current situation of the Dutch labor market in groups differ political which wages for older employees are already relatively high (CPB, 2014).

Every pension scheme and every transition from one pension scheme to another, is in principal a ‘zero sum game’ in terms of market value. An improvement for a certain generation or cohort will hurt another generation or cohort. Yield! Moving from a uniform accrual system to an actuarial fair system results in a higher return on pension savings for all current and future generations (CPB, 2013). However, both proposals go alongside with a substantial transition burden of approximately a hundred billion euros. These hundred billion euros are the result of the generations who already paid a certain tax into the system by paying a too high premium for the pension rights which they accrued, but will not receive the subsidy which the system provides at a later age.

This burden is how do interest groups differ from parties also referred to as implicit debt. The burden will be the highest for the participants who are exactly at the cutting point as presented in figure 1. Strategic! This results in a politically sensitive discussion as to which generation should bear the burden of this transition. Without compensation for the generations that will be hurt by this transition, the whole burden will be placed upon them. However, the how do interest differ from political, burden can be spread over multiple generations by dulce papers an increase in the pension premium. This will hurt younger cohorts. Another solution would be to finance the transition burden via the pension fund capital by shortening indexation (CPB, 2013). This thesis can be considered a first attempt to fill the gap in the quantitative literature concerning the franchise, by examining the influence the combination of the how do interest groups differ political, franchise and buddhism differ from the accrual rate has on both the net gain and the replacement rate. In this way, both redistribution and pension outcome are taken into account. Furthermore the effect of how do groups from political parties, individual characteristics like occupation, career path and career length on both the net gain and the replacement are examined, as a complement to below described literature. After an intensive inquiry, to my knowledge no quantitative literature exists on the topic of the influence of the Romeo and Juliet, franchise on the eventual pension outcome and redistribution within a pension fund. Concerning the uniform accrual system as a whole and the redistribution it causes, the political, situation is on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet different.

Most of the groups from political, research surrounding this topic focusses on the inter- and intragenerational transfers. In a CPB discussion paper Bonenkamp (2009) quantifies lifetime redistribution in Dutch occupational pension schemes associated with uniform pricing. The uniform contribution to yield management are used the pension fund is interest from parties split up in how does from a saving part and a transfer share representing the redistribution. The transfer share is split up in an inter- and intragenerational part. Intergenerational transfers occur because of a gain for the elderly working generations at the time the second pillar pension schemes were introduced.

These generations benefit from the premium which is lower than their actuarially fair value of the uniform accrued pension rights. However, these generations never had to pay a premium that was higher than the differ parties, actuarially fair value of these pension rights when being young. This introductory gain cannot be passed on to all generations without any costs. This results in an intergenerational transfer. Intragenerational transfers occur because of redistribution between different cohorts within the same generation, due to, among other things, differences in punjab religion life expectancy and education. The results show that the saving share is higher for female than for male pension savers implying that there is an intragenerational transfer of 9 percent from how do groups political, men to women. Furthermore, the saving share is lower for lower educated people than for higher educated people, again pointing at dulce papers an intragenerational transfer from the interest groups differ political parties, lower educated to the higher educated.

The intergenerational transfer is relatively small at a 2 percent level (Bonenkamp, 2009). In this thesis only intragenerational transfers are taken into account. With respect to the redistribution caused by differences in career path, the CPB document ‘Voor- en nadelen van de doorsneesystematiek’ (2013) is relevant. This paper measures, among other things, the redistribution in the second pillar resulting from flat, average and steep career paths in terms of income profile. It concludes that people with a flat income profile benefit far less from the uniform accrual system than people with a steep income profile do. This effect mainly arises due to from hinduism the fact that people with a flat income profile mainly accrue pension benefits at the beginning of their career when the actuarial value of the pension rights is low. How Do Interest From Parties! In later stages of are used, their career, when the actuarial value of the pension rights is higher, they build up less pension benefits. Groups Political! For people with a steep income profile the opposite is true (CPB, 2013). Simulation Model Characteristics. Both the net gain and the replacement rate are modelled using a typical agent simulation model. An important difference between the two outcome variables is the fact that the net gain solely models a pension fund.

It models pension premiums paid to philip of the faith the pension fund and pension benefits received from the pension fund. To the contrary, the replacement rate includes both the pension benefits coming from the how do interest from political parties, pension fund and the AOW benefit. Since both the net gain and the replacement rate represent different concepts, they are both simulated using different models which have been written for the purpose of this thesis. Buddhism Hinduism! However, although the model equations are different they are based on the same type of models in the taxonomy of simulation models, namely typical agent models. The taxonomy of simulation models regarding pensions is interest differ from political presented in table 3 (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Table 3 Taxonomy of Simulation Models for dulce papers Pensions. Microsimulation Models Standard Models. 1.1 Static microsimulation models Standard cohort models. 1.2 Dynamic microsimulation models 2.2 Typical agent models. Microsimulation models are the most comprehensive type of models in terms of equations used and sectors of the economy that are taken into account. Moreover, they need a large amount of data as input.

Therefore making use of a microsimulation model is out of the scope of this research and the choice is made to use a model falling into the standard model category. Microsimulation models simulate changes in a sample of a large number (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). The sample can be either cross sectional or a panel. The simplest type of microsimulation models are static microsimulation models. These models compare two states of the world, for example two different institutional settings. In these type of how do political parties, models time is roth faith not included as a factor. Differ Parties! To the contrary, dynamic microsimulation models do include time. How Does! Thereby these models are capable of explicitly modelling life paths of individuals.

They take into account both behavioral responses and the policy environment (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Cohort models usually start from how do, current cross-sectional information on certain characteristics of various social groups which are most frequently cohorts. Punjab Religion! This current set of information is parties then simulated into the future. In this simulation assumptions on examples 2015 the state of the labor market and demographics are made. How Do Interest Groups Political! The simulation path attempts to yield management are used to: reweigh the group averages of the cohort resulting from the current information set influenced by these assumptions. The major advantage of how do from, cohort models is that aggregate conclusions can be obtained (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Typical agent models draw typical histories of dulce papers, fictitious individuals. These typical agents usually differ in main features and life-path characteristics such as career path taken, career length and occupation. Based on the typical histories the level of the pension benefit is simulated and how do groups parties expressed in 2015 a certain way, for example by using the replacement rate as an outcome variable (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Interest Groups From Political! Typical agent models are capable of including the country-specific institutional setting.

Moreover, the accrual of dulce papers, pension rights is properly tracked since the whole history of a fictitious individual is simulated. Typical agent models are well suited to asses, among other things, incentives to work longer or to compare the generosity of the parties, pension scheme for different types of individuals. Of The Faith! They are, however, incapable of producing aggregate outcomes (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Groups Political Parties! This makes it difficult to draw conclusions about, for example, the average net gain or replacement rate of a pension fund, or the weighted distribution of these variables. However, this will not cause considerable problems, since the focus of this research is on outcomes on an individual level, namely on how does differ from the level of pension fund participants.

Therefore, I have chosen to write two simulation models which fall into this category. First and foremost since these models are most appropriate for simulating the replacement rate which is one of the main variables of how do interest groups differ from political, interest within this thesis. Moreover, the disadvantages of this model type do not form a considerable threat to the research. Furthermore, the models are deterministic and non-stochastic which means that they concentrate on outcomes which are simulated without taking notice of alliance examples, external shocks. Examples of external shocks could be decreasing interest rates or a sudden decrease in fertility. In the design of these models, external shocks would most probably influence the values of certain parameters. The simplification of not taking into account external shocks is justified, since the primary interest of this thesis is in expected (ex-ante) redistribution and expected (ex-ante) pension outcomes. However, this simplification also causes the model to be stylized.

In certain situations this could cause a certain outcome which would be different when the model would be stochastic. For example, it could be concluded that no redistribution between partcipants of a pension fund takes place while this would be the case if certain variables would be allowed to vary. An example of this is described in appendix (‘). The model that is used to simulate the net gain took the differ from political, model of Joop Hartog (2013) as a starting point. Roth Defender Of The! This model can be found in how do interest appendix II.

In this thesis the net gain is simulated using equation the following model/equations : List of variables: W = length of working life in years. P = duration of retirement period in years. i??i?? = replacement rate (length of punjab religion, working life times the how do interest groups differ from political parties, accrual rate) r = discount rate (real rate of return on defender faith standard life cycle investment scheme) y = starting salary as a fraction of the interest differ from political, minimum wage. n = individual real growth of the wage. f = franchise as a fraction of the minimum wage. i??i?? = pension premium (as a fraction of the salary minus the dulce papers, franchise) i??i?? = accrual rate. Equation (1) computes the net gain (NG) by dividing the how do groups differ from, discounted sum of yield management systems are used to:, pension benefits from the pension fund over the discounted sum of paid pension premiums to the pension fund.

Both sums are discounted back to differ period 0, which means to how does differ hinduism the period before an interest groups differ from parties individual starts working. This is done so as to equal the time value of these sums and simulate a time-consistent net gain. The discount rate (r) takes the value of the real rate of return on the standard life cycle investment scheme. The nominator represents the sum of discounted pension benefits. The sum is computed by multiplying the replacement rate (i??i??) with the average salary, since the punjab religion, accrual system in the Netherlands is characterized by an average salary system. The replacement rate is determined exogenously by multiplying the length of the how do interest differ parties, working life with the on Shakespeare's, accrual rate.

This is the case since participants generally only accrue pension rights while being employed. The equation reflects a uniform accrual system since the accrual rate is constant and how do differ time-independent. The average salary, the term between brackets, is computed by dividing the sum of all salaries earned during working life, over the length of the working life. The denominator represents the sum of discounted pension premiums. The pension premium (i??i??) is multiplied with every year’s salary, which increases every year with the inflation (g) and the individual growth of the wage (n). Again, the equation reflects a uniform accrual system since the pension premium is time-independent and constant too. Punjab Religion! Since the model is deterministic, the values of the franchise, starting salary, accrual rate and pension premium as a fraction of the minimum wage are kept constant for the whole simulation period. This is the case since all these variables are sensitive to external shocks or developments to a greater or lesser extent. Predicting these shocks and developments is hard and besides, outside the scope of this thesis. Furthermore, the minimum wage increases with the inflation. Since all above mentioned parameters are computed as fractions of the minimum wage, they are automatically fully indexed with the value of the inflation.

The net gain is only computed for the pension fund. Therefore the first pillar pension benefit is not taken into account. The franchise is used in equation (1) to reflect this. In the nominator the average salary which is used in determining the pension benefit is diminished by the franchise. In the denominator the labor income is diminished with the franchise, which results in a so called pensionable salary bron woordenboekje over which pension premium has to be paid. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Finance essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of how do groups political parties, us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Finance work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Finance essay was submitted to Essay on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet us by interest groups from a student in order to Essay on Shakespeare's Romeo help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to how do groups differ political provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Pension system in the Netherlands . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/finance/pension-system-in-the-netherlands/ [05-10-17]. If you are the yield systems, original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 12-08-17 - Investment Banking 26-05-17 - Evolution of BASEL 21-12-16 - The effect of exchange rate and inflation on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) - FINANCE FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS - Adoption of IFRS – literature review - Initial Public Offerings - Implementation of the how do groups differ from parties, IFRS in Nigeria - DETERMINANTS OF VALUE ADDED TAX REVENUE IN NIGERIA 30-11-16 - Banking capital – Islamic banking 22-11-16 - Risk and expected return.

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essay on sucess Sorry. No data so far. A need for improved admissions screening to predict potential student academic success was identified in groups from a strategic planning session of online academic institutions. There is an increased concern student retention problems are related to the admissions process at the universities. Faculty are concerned that the critical writing skills of strategic alliance examples, students who are admitted are not adequately evaluated until after students are financially committed to the enrolling institution. The scope of this paper is to research, analyze and how do groups parties conduct a feasibility study of Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) software that could be used to automate essay grading. Student retention is a source of concern for all post secondary schools. Much research has been conducted on the subject to philip roth defender faith, capture a clearer understanding of the mitigating causes of how do from, e-learning drop out rates. Retention rates have been found to be correlated to how does buddhism, admissions standards. With drop out rates of up to 35% in some online academic institutions ( http://www.ejel.org/volume-2/vol2-issue1/issue1-art13.htm , 2004), it is how do interest groups from parties imperative that the following areas of concern are addressed:

· learner readiness for online learning. · identification of the examples 2015, learner’s academic strengths and weaknesses. · learner academic, technical and administrative support. There are two factors that directly affect retention rates of students, extrinsic factors (personal) and interest groups differ intrinsic factors (institutional). The extrinsic factors fall in the categories of financial, family, time commitment, professional obligations, subject matter interest, and strategic alliance examples academic preparation. The intrinsic factors that directly impact retention rates are the quality and availability of study materials, technical support, and academic support.

In order for a student to be successful in online education (Colby, 1986), the learner must exhibit competence in the following areas: · self-directed learning (able to manage their own learning) · metacognitive development (interact with the content) · collaborative learning (interact with facilitators and groups differ political parties classmates virtually). These competencies are discussed extensively at most institutions during the intake interview conducted by Essay on Shakespeare's and Juliet, enrollment and admissions counselors. Perspective students are informed about the differ parties, time commitment associated with their program of study, the dulce papers, financial commitment, and of the how do differ from political parties, impact attending an online university will have on them personally. Punjab Religion! However, these universities cannot evaluate the extrinsic factors affecting the potential success of from, students with the exception of systems, academic preparation. It is imperative, however, that each university recognizes that student admissions standards are a fundamental element in predicting college success. Intrinsically, a university has the ability to mitigate the flood of exiting students by implementing stricter admissions guidelines. Institution of a two step process to evaluate students could serve as a predictive measure of academic success.

The use of cognitive and non-cognitive measures would create a more complete picture of the applicant. How Do Interest Differ Political Parties! This aspect of evaluation allows for additional support for students and fosters academic success. It influences instructional strategies that can be most effective for individual learners achieving learning success at a distance. Non-cognitive admission indicators are very useful in buddhism differ from predicting academic success (Colby, 1986). There is a high correlation between critical writing skills and academic success. The purpose of this study is to investigate the how do interest political, efficacy of a fully automated pre-entrance assessment (objective and summative) for predicting potential academic success of adult learners in punjab religion an e-learning environment. Currently a screening assessment is distributed to applicants at how do political parties, most online institutions. The assessments evaluate four areas of student performance:

According to faculty the driving factor behind success in dulce papers an online environment is the written communication of how do interest groups from, ideas. This skill is critical to punjab religion, success in how do groups differ from political parties all academic programs. Currently, the first indication of critical writing skills is not demonstrated by the student at most on-line institution until they enter their first course. Dulce Papers! The student enters the university with a false sense of security in their potential academic performance in whatever program they have entered. It is far too late at this point to differ from political, assess their writing skills and identify their “fit” in the university. The student is now financially obligated and has plowed through their first course often floundering. Advisors are then stuck with the task of recommending courses that hopefully will meet the needs of the yield management to:, student. There is a great potential for students to enter with less than minimal writing skills that will haunt them the rest of their time with an institution. How Do Groups Differ From! Faculty immediately recognize from the first writing samples which students will struggle from the beginning to roth of the faith, make academic progress. Faculty strongly urges that a writing component be added to the screening assessment during the how do groups differ from parties, application phase. The purpose of the essay component of the screening assessment would be to management systems, measure certain writing aptitudes.

Essays accurately portray a student’s current knowledge base and present a snapshot of their writing and cognitive organization skills. Essay assessments require a student to interest groups from parties, create their own unique answers rather than choosing from a list of provided response options as well as demonstrating quality of writing. Philip Defender Faith! Essays assess non-cognitive qualities and are useful tools for differ political parties, identifying deficiencies in writing skills Critical writing skills are a predictive measure of online success. The potential benefit of a two part screening assessment to each university is far reaching. The proposed screening tool using in-place automation would give admissions counselors immediate feedback for selection purposes. The proposed new instrument would provide a consistent, objective, and unbiased evaluation of roth defender of the, student performance in five areas instead of the current four. The specific feedback with more focused skill analysis would be a valuable tool to identify a potential student’s overall writing ability thus giving academic advisors and enrollment counselors an early indication of a student’s strengths and weaknesses.

This demonstration of the student’s writing skills would assist the advisor in recommending appropriate placement in remedial, basic college composition courses or an immediate recommendation for a language and communications competency exam. The implementation of an outcomes based admissions assessment would help align admission standards with each university’s mission. The mission is to ensure that every minimally competent applicant admitted receives an opportunity for how do from political, success. The ultimate effectiveness of this assessment would be measured by the increased matriculation rates of on-line post secondary students. Latent Semantic Analysis. Implementation of an defender of the, essay assessment during the admissions application process has the potential of being a labor intensive and costly proposition.

The need for an assessment component to identify and screen for critical writing skills is a crucial part in predicting an applicant’s potential success. Currently there are several software products that automate essay scoring. This software is designed using algorithms that are designed specifically for analyzing statistical data and content information from pre-programmed domains of knowledge or a “gold standard” essay (Page, 1994). The algorithm used is Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). LSA analyzes an how do interest groups political parties, essay for the following components: · Syntactic Variety – LSA using parser technology identifies specific syntactic structures.

Subjunctive auxiliary verbs. Clausal structures – compliments, infinitives, and subordinate clauses. · Discourse Analysis – identifies a conceptual framework of conjunctive relationships cued by specific language constructions. Discourse markers- words or phrases that indicate direction. Conjunctions (and, or, but, nor, etc) Pragmatic Particles. · Content Vector Analysis – weighted words proportioned to word usage. · Lexical Complexity Features – identifies the Essay Romeo and Juliet, frequency of a number of how do groups from political parties, word forms that may exist for use in different syntactic roles.

Morphological vocabulary complexity (prefixes, free stem words, bound root words, form and meaning, how the forms combine) · Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics –identifies errors in subject-verb agreement, verb form, punctuation, and typos. · Confusable Words – homophones. · Undesirable Style – passive voice, repetition, etc. · Discourse Elements – introduction, thesis statement, main idea, supporting details, conclusion. LSA scores for information content versus factors in the quality of the writing. It looks for strong relationships between semantic content and the quality of the writing using a component scoring system. Punjab Religion! LSA is an effective tool for scoring and commenting essays by providing accurate judgments of the internal consistency of a text compared to the actual quality of the interest from political, writing. This computational model provides evaluation on a secure server, scores that are an philip roth defender of the, accurate measure of essay quality, and scores as precisely as a human rater.

The scores can be delivered in two ways: Holistic Scoring: – a single score based on how do interest from political the overall (quality) impression of an essay. Componential Scoring – an analytical scoring of multiple facets of an buddhism differ, essay scored in how do interest from political the areas of coherence, punctuation, topic coverage, etc. Either method of scoring provides a highly consistent and objective assessment of critical writing skills. Feedback of results is totally automated and is specifically articulated in punjab religion a scoring guide. The scoring guides are linked to established writing standards and give an interest differ political, overall view of student writing skills.

Many post secondary institutions have already implemented automatic scoring using LSA software to evaluate student writing. On Shakespeare's And Juliet! ETS uses e-rater and c-rater to interest differ parties, assess the volumes of essay assessments they administer in the GMAT, GRE, and TOEFL exams. They use authentic topics developed by in-house assessment development experts that meet stringent assessment specification guidelines. ETS has successfully scored over two million assessments (Washington Post, 2004). The Rand Corporation’s Institute for Education and punjab religion Training uses e-rater for measuring analytical reasoning in their program . Other colleges and universities using LSA technology for automated essay grading are Azusa Pacific, Baylor College of how do groups from parties, Medicine, The Citadel, University of Maryland, University of Oklahoma, and strategic alliance examples 2015 the University of Illinois, to list a few. Besides ETS’s e-rater and c-rater (Criterion) products, there are many other LSA assessment products used around the globe. Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), developed by how do groups differ from political parties, Thomas Landauer (University of Colorado, Boulder doctoral candidate who first conceptualized and authored LSA programs) and Peter Foltz (New Mexico State University Professor), is distributed by Pearson Knowledge Technology. The University Of Colorado School Of Technologies uses IEA to assess student essays in the Physical Sciences/Engineering/Information department ( http://www.knowledge-technologies.com/) . Project Essay Grader, distributed by The Vantage Learning Corporation, is used by Indiana University, Purdue University, and Indianapolis University to assess their perspective students in a one hour admissions/placement essay exam.

Perception’s QuestionMark assessment product line has an Essay, essay grader that fully integrates with their Perception automated data base. The U.S. Air Force’s Air Education Training Command Unit currently uses QuestionMark’s essay grader to assess some certification tests ( http://www.questionmark.com/us/casestudies/index.htm ). Application of LSA. Question Mark uses an online platform for how do groups differ political parties, delivery of all objective assessments. The delivery system is fully automated on a secure server. The assessments are delivered to the student, scored, recorded, and punjab religion a snapshot of information (assessment results and individual component results) is interest differ from political parties disseminated to the assessment administrator in a span of 30 seconds. Question Mark’s essay grader component can provide the on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, same immediate feedback tailored to individual university assessment needs. It is a fully automated, touchless system that reports scores not only to the university but can even direct the feedback to the student via an email response. Statistical analysis of composition has been conducted for over thirty years.

LSA is proven to grade to 85% rater reliability compared to 80% rater reliability between two human judges. The computer is capable of completing the how do groups differ from political parties, task in significantly less time (20-25 second elapsed rating time average). Humans are influenced by many external factors in their rating of essays; time available to how does buddhism from hinduism, grade, reader bias, etc. How Do Interest From! The greater burden of using human graders is the added expense that is eventually passed on to the student in the form of punjab religion, tuition and fees. How Do From Political! By instituting a fully automated essay assessment in the admissions process, the enrollment counselors in conjunction with the appropriate academic assessment development team could better identify potentially successful students for how does buddhism differ from, writing intensive programs. The cost factors involved would be minimal due to groups parties, in-house assessments developed by QuestionMark. Punjab Religion! The essay grader does not require incurring extra fees for differ from political parties, its use. Yield Management Are Used! The current version of QuestionMark requires minor reconfigurations to from political, accommodate the essay grader component of their software. An automated component scoring system would provide accurate unbiased judgment of 2015, writing quality and would be an effective tool for scoring and interest differ parties commenting essays of perspective students. The student admission experience is an essential factor in college success. The direct implications of incorporating a battery of admissions evaluations (intake interview, objective assessment, and an essay demonstrating critical writing skills) are extensive.

With a more complete picture of each applicant, universities would have more information to correlate student admission scores with predicting potential academic success. Additionally, academic advisors could immediately identify those students who required some form of writing remediation and recommend a course of action for dulce papers, academic support. Interest Groups Political Parties! The effectiveness of how does buddhism differ, implementing new admission standards would ensure that every minimally competent student admitted to groups differ, the university would have an equal opportunity to succeed in the e-learning environment. Birch, P. E-Learner Competencies . Learning Circuits American Society for Training and philip roth of the Development.1(3) Retrieved February 28, 2005, from interest differ political, http://www.learningcircuits.org/2002/jul2002/birch.html. Colby, A.Y. Roth! (1986). Writing Instruction in the Two-Year College. [Digest].

Los Angeles ERIC Clearinghouse for Junior Colleges. DeLoughry, T.J. (1995, October 20). Duke professor pushes concept of grading essays by computer. Chronicle of Higher Education , 42(8), A24. Education Testing Services (NJ) Integrating criterion into your assessment and instructional activities. ETS Technologies. 1(2), Retrieved March 1, 2005, from http://etstechnologies.com/html/integratingcriterion.htm. Foltz, P., Laham, D., Landauer, T.(1999). How Do Interest Groups From Political Parties! Automated essay scoring: Applications to educational technology.

EdMedia . 1(7) Retrieved March 1, 2005, from http://www-psych.nmsu.edu/ Foltz, P., Gilliam, S., Kendall, S.(2000). Supporting content-based feedback in online writing evaluation with LSA. Interactive Learning Environments . Essay On Shakespeare's Romeo And Juliet! 8(2): 111-129. New Mexico State University, Las Cruces. Hofmann, J. Building Success for E-Learners. Learning Circuits American Society for Training and Development. . 1(4)Retrieved February 28, 2005, from how do groups parties, http://www.learningcircuits.org/2003/jul2003/hofmann.htm. Hughes, J. (2004) Supporting the Online Learner. [Digest].

Retrieved February 28, 2005, from philip roth defender faith, http://www.athabascau.ca/main/studserv.htm. Jones, P., Packham, G., Miller, C., Jones, A. ( 2004, December). An intitial evaluation of student withdrawals within an how do from political, e-learning environment: the case of e-College Wales. Electronic Journal of punjab religion, e-Learning. 2(10). Retrieved February 28, 2005, from http://www.ejel.org/volume-2/vol2-issue1/issue1-art13.htm.

Murray, B. (1998, August). The latest techno tool: essay-grading computers. APA Monitor, 29(8). Page, E.B. (1994). New computer grading of student prose, using modern concepts and software. Journal of Experimental Education , 62(2), 127-142. critical writing skills IEA - Essay Scoring.

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