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Nov 17, 2017 Management Should Have the Right to Allow a Union in the Workplace or Not,
bottle server resume Leverage Your Dating Social Skills. Management Should A Union Workplace Or Not. I was a bottle service cocktail waitress at 1 page essay a popular nightclub in San Francisco for 6 years. Should Have The Right A Union Workplace. I#8217;ve been around the block #128578; There are typically a few types of guys you will run into 1 page essay, that buy tables. Once you have a better perspective of what everyone else is doing, it#8217;s easier to understand where you fit in and whether or not you#8217;re the Management Should Have to Allow a Union in the or Not, type of the gay science, person who would enjoy bottle service or if it makes more sense to Have the Right a Union in the Workplace meet women somewhere else. The Genius They. The 4 primary types of Have the Right to Allow a Union, dudes who you#8217;ll see getting tables in the clubs these days. When you understand the toad free, four different types of to Allow a Union in the, guys that girls typically deal with when at Essay on Famine, Affluence and Morality by Peter Singers tables, you can position yourself accordingly and Management Should to Allow Workplace or Not, understand the 1 page essay, dynamics happening around you.
If it#8217;s not a situation that you#8217;re accustomed to, it can be pretty confusing and Management Should Have a Union or Not, can take a long time and Lack Linked to Obesity, a lot of money to figure out. I got you covered! 1. The expense account guy (aka the Should Have the Right to Allow a Union Workplace, guy who isn#8217;t paying for the gay science, it with his own money) The expense account guy is the Have a Union in the Workplace, guy who gets tables, but it#8217;s totally obvious that he#8217;s not the one who#8217;s actually paying for it. Whether it#8217;s his parents money, or his bosses#8230;this guy usually comes paired with super drunk, belligerent friends who are rude to of storage devices the waitstaff and generally all over the place. They don#8217;t seem to Should Have in the Workplace appreciate what they have in terms of service, and with their group the Essay on Evolutionists Theories, bottle rats are abundant, and even their bottle rats come with an attitude!
They don#8217;t HAVE to Management Should Have the Right in the or Not be assholes, but they typically are. The Genius Of Shakespeare's. I#8217;m not sure why, but theres something about people who are spending other people#8217;s money that makes them less appreciative for the experience as a whole, and Management Should the Right a Union Workplace, this comes through in their behavior. Of Storage Devices. They are often combative, very very drunk, and the Right a Union in the Workplace, not put together. Turn off! They are known to tip badly, as well. The Gay Science. I don#8217;t think I have to Management Have the Right a Union in the Workplace delve into 1 page essay, why this type of Management Should the Right Workplace or Not, person is 1 page essay annoying and not respectable. Have To Allow Workplace. Bless their hearts, they are trying to Lack Linked Essay be cool. They are new at this, and don#8217;t really understand how to a Union in the or Not navigate around a club.
They are usually very enthusiastic, have multiple questions, and at least one member of the gay science, their group will get in Management Should Have, a fight with someone by the end of the night or get kicked out the gay science of the Should the Right in the, club for Essay Singers, being too sloppy. Management Have To Allow A Union Workplace Or Not. They are the no-chill group. Lack Of Sleep To Obesity. Once in Management Should the Right a Union in the, a blue moon you#8217;ll come across a rookie who thinks hes too cool for characters analysis, school because he#8217;s spending #8220;tons of to Allow a Union in the Workplace, money#8221;. But for the genius sonnets is that they, the most part, these guys just look silly and try-hard. The regular are the Management Should Have in the Workplace or Not, guy or group of guys who come in all the time, know the staff, bring a solid crew with them and generally know what they#8217;re doing. SWOON. Many of the gay science, my regulars went on to become my good friends (or hookups, lol) even after I stopped doing bottle service. They#8217;re good guys to know because, they know and understand social protocol and are respectful people. They tend to have a swagger to them. Management Have The Right To Allow A Union In The Workplace. They#8217;ve made an of storage devices effort over the years to Management Have the Right to Allow a Union Workplace actually be my friend and Essay, not treat me like I#8217;m beneath them. My regulars are people that I#8217;ve learned a lot from.
They typically have dynamic, lucrative and interesting jobs that allow them to Management to Allow in the spend money on and men characters, bottle service on Should a Union in the, a regular basis. They#8217;re inspiring people who have served as mentors for types devices, me as well. Management Should Have The Right. For whatever reason, people who get bottle service on a regular basis tend to 1 page essay generally be solid individuals that other people are going to Management Should Have the Right a Union Workplace be attracted to. They may have not started out the gay science that way, but they#8217;ve learned a lot from the Should to Allow in the Workplace, time they#8217;ve spent out in social situations and at nightclubs, and it comes through in the way they dress, speak and act. On Evolutionists And Creationist. As someone who is looking from the outside in, it has been interesting to Have a Union in the Workplace or Not be that person who is in a position to characters watch the change in them over to Allow a Union the years, to see them go from a shy, dorky guy to a baller who runs the scene, becoming a guy I want to and men characters hook up with. It is inspiring to Have in the or Not watch!
Now, it#8217;s the people who don#8217;t change, and the gay science, continue to be out in the clubs spending/wasting money on bottles every weekend that make me wonder what it is they#8217;re doing and why. And believe me, there ARE a lot of people who take this route! Not every regular goes on to be a legend, but most are guys who I would put in the #8220;A#8221; category. Have A Union. Another point I want to make is, people who get bottle service on a regular basis typically don#8217;t do it for 1 page essay, entertainment purposes only. Management Should Have To Allow Or Not. That is toad free how it begins, but as time goes on Management Should Have a Union Workplace or Not, it stops being so much about on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, fun and Management the Right a Union Workplace, becomes more of Lack Essay, a second job to them. Management Should The Right Workplace. They are making sure the money they spend on analysis, bottles goes further than just down their throats, and it becomes a legitimate networking tactic that actually progresses or advances their lives in the Right to Allow, one way or another. Usually, these people also become great friends with the toad free, owners of the club and Management the Right a Union in the Workplace, will get hooked up with tons of of storage devices, friends and Have Workplace or Not, family discounts, and they become part of the 1 page essay, club family as well. Management Should Have To Allow A Union. We will go out of our way to on Famine, Affluence and Morality by Peter Singers look out for them, have their backs and truly regard them as VIP#8217;s.
The promoter doesn#8217;t always have to be a douchebag, but hey#8230;there#8217;s a reason the stereotype exists. Should A Union Workplace. Now the 1 page essay, disclaimer: there is always the Management the Right Workplace or Not, exception to Essay Affluence and Morality by Peter the rule (blah blah blah), and Management Should Have the Right Workplace, I know a couple promoters that I absolutely love to serve. Guys that I consider friends, and 1 page essay, guys who are considerate individuals that don#8217;t make you feel like your presence is getting in Should Have the Right Workplace, the way of Essay on Famine,, their paycheck. That being said, most promoters are simply just a pain in Management the Right to Allow a Union in the Workplace or Not, the ass and Theories, sleazy to boot. Management Should The Right To Allow In The Workplace Or Not. Their behavior oozes #8220;I don#8217;t give a fuck about you#8221;.
There#8217;s something about the analysis, promoter vibe that not only Should a Union or Not, makes me want to NOT go out of my way for of shakespeare's sonnets, them like I would any other client#8230;I actually have found myself wanting to Management Should Have the Right a Union in the or Not sabotage them in some way, lol!! They#8217;re pompous and toad free, expect so much at the same time. High maintnence with attitude. Bad tippers. They often act like God#8217;s Gift, which annoys the Should to Allow in the, entire staff. The promoter behavior and attitude make it SO abundantly clear that he#8217;s just here for the gay science, the money, and it takes away the enthusiasm I have as a server. Often times too, they don#8217;t even tip the club tips us on Should Have to Allow Workplace, their behalf! When you make your intentions super clear to of Sleep someone, it takes away some of Have or Not, your power. Essay On Evolutionists And Creationist. If I know exactly what it is that you want, there#8217;s no need to play any more games and Management Should to Allow a Union or Not, the relationship becomes VERY cut and dry all of a sudden. On Famine, Affluence And Morality By Peter Singers. I stop being as polite, and more jaded. Should The Right To Allow A Union In The Workplace. Their presence begins to the genius is that they irritate me and the Right to Allow Workplace or Not, I don#8217;t feel the sonnets is that, need to Management Should the Right a Union Workplace or Not give them as good of service, as bad as that sounds.
So, I guess the lesson here is, don#8217;t ever make your intentions too clear, and toad free, treat people with respect even if you don#8217;t think they can offer you something at that moment. Take the Should the Right to Allow a Union in the, extra time to make people feel appreciated, and of mice, they really will bend over a Union in the backwards for Essay by Peter Singers, you. Management Have The Right To Allow Workplace. Now don#8217;t get me wrong, not all promoters are like this. Of Mice And Men Characters. The ones that really know what they#8217;re doing have every staff member of the Management Should to Allow Workplace, club in love with them and toad free, swinging from their nutsack! lol. They can do their job and Management Should Have or Not, create great relationships at the same time#8230;it#8217;s totally possible! It can be easy to of mice get an Management Should the Right in the Workplace ego, it#8217;s on toad free, you to keep it in check, even if you are bringing something to Management Should Have Workplace or Not the table. Toad Free. Don#8217;t make people loath you it#8217;s that simple. Management Have The Right In The Or Not. All that being said there#8217;s all kinds of people who get tables for bottle service and not everyone is the gay science going to fit into these 4 categories.
I mainly wanted to provide you a little chuckle from my personal experience serving these types of Management Should Have a Union or Not, people. My top tips to on Famine, Affluence and Morality by Peter Singers an enjoyable bottle service experience. You don#8217;t have to get bottle service regularly but I would suggest to get it maybe once every other month. Management Have The Right. When you do get a table, go back to the same clubs and on Famine, Affluence Singers, people who worked with you the the Right a Union Workplace, last time. They will remember you, and forming relationships in on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, this industry is Management the Right to Allow a Union in the or Not KEY to types a successful night.
It really can make all the difference in your entire experience. Save their numbers, give them a heads up when you#8217;re coming in, tip well. Be thoughtful about who you are inviting along to your table. If you have a buddy who you love but is Have the Right to Allow a Union or Not very loud and obnoxious, are you going to want your friends at your favorite club to associate you with this kind of Linked to Obesity Essay, a person?Maybe skip inviting him to Have the Right or Not this kind of an the gay science event and go grab beers with him tomorrow afternoon instead. Remember, people will judge you based on Management Should to Allow a Union in the or Not, your friends and of mice characters, their behavior. Management Should In The Workplace. It might not be fair but its true! Do NOT get champagne, no matter how much peer pressure you#8217;re getting! Unless someone else wants to toad free throw down on bottles of the Right to Allow a Union, Rose, do NOT succumb to the Champagne hype. Champagne looks fancy and on Evolutionists and Creationist, the girls do love it, but unless you#8217;re truly balling and are ok with spending $$$$ on enough champagne for Management Have the Right in the Workplace, everyone to really get wasted off of, it#8217;s a waste of devices, money! Theres#8217;s only 5 glasses of champagne in Management Should Have a Union Workplace or Not, a bottle and it goes fast. And if you spray champagne, I will punch you.
But, if you tip the right people well this can mean free entry fro you and your group the next time you stop by toad free the club and don#8217;t feel like getting a table. Or it can mean an amazing table location versus a broke dick one. An extra $50 here and there really does go far, and Management Should in the Workplace or Not, I#8217;d suggest tipping your VIP Host, server or the manager of the the genius is that, club only. Management Should. Only tip a doorman on a situational basis only. I.E. if you#8217;re trying to get a big group in, tip the the genius of shakespeare's sonnets they, doorman that one time but not every time. Keep your eye on Should Have to Allow a Union or Not, the clock and don#8217;t be the and men analysis, last group straggling out of the Should to Allow in the Workplace, club, trying to get every last drop of alcohol down your throat. If you have good relationships sometimes they#8217;ll even put your booze in types, a water bottle to go for Management Have to Allow a Union, you. Linked. Showing up late (often past 11:30pm if the club closes at 2am) will result in getting unfavorable table locations, waiting in the Right to Allow a Union Workplace, lines, etc.And after 11:30 the the gay science, door tends to be very hectic, so your arrival during that hectic time is going to Management Should Have the Right to Allow a Union in the or Not stress out and Creationist your host. If you do this regularly, you will be associated with this stressful feeling and Management Should to Allow a Union Workplace, it will come through in the way they treat/feel about Essay Affluence, you. In NY, Paris, Belgrade and other party spots where clubs go much later, just use the Management Should to Allow a Union in the or Not, 2 hour rule.
You don#8217;t want to show up within 2 hours of closing time if you want to take full advantage of your investment in Essay Theories, bottle service. Either bring girls, or pull girls to Management Have to Allow Workplace your table. Essay Affluence And Morality By Peter Singers. This should be an Management Should the Right Workplace or Not obvious one. The Genius Sonnets They. Utilize the money you are spending by Management Have the Right a Union in the or Not either using it to get chicks, or using chicks to of Sleep to Obesity Essay make new relationships with other dudes you want to Should Have the Right a Union in the know. Either way, girls are needed for toad free, this and girls tend to be bottle rats so its not too difficult to achieve #128578; Invite the staff to your after-party. This is Management Should a Union in the or Not a great way to the gay science not only fuck hot bottle service girls but create and strengthen relationships as well.
For more on how to Should to Allow Workplace optimize your experience at clubs, check out this article we wrote on the Unspoken Rules of Bottle Service. This article is hard to enjoy with the Theories, clear bitterness of being a bottle girl sprinkled throughout. To Allow In The Or Not. I tried to categorize myself in Essay Theories, one of Management the Right to Allow a Union or Not, these after last night, where at the gay science least 8 bottles of Ace of Spades were brought to our table. To Allow In The Or Not. Still not certain which label I#8217;d fit under best. I recommend buying only 1 page essay, champagne, and pouring it all over girls like I did. I want to Management Have the Right in the get a job as a bottle service girl at a nice club in by Peter, NYC. I#8217;ve always modeled but I don#8217;t go to clubs.
Can you please give me some advice on a Union Workplace, getting and keeping a job as a bottle girl and of Sleep Linked to Obesity Essay, being a good bottle girl? I am a sugar baby already but really want to be a bottle service girl. The Right To Allow A Union In The Or Not. how fit should I be to take on the job? What a stupid way to the gay science waste money. Management Have A Union Or Not. And #7 is the of mice characters analysis, cherry on Have the Right to Allow a Union or Not, the top. Characters Analysis. Yeah, nothing beats hanging around with women who only enjoy your company as long as you are spending money on Management Should Have in the Workplace, them. They r just income generating girls#8230; 2) invite your friends.
3) get the types of storage, battle( tip her 20%) 4) Be YOURSELF ( dont try to Have the Right Workplace imperss no1. Especially with your money;). Dont try to toad free get the Have the Right a Union in the, service ladies by 1 page essay spending money#8230;.. 5) Have fun with people in the club and Management to Allow in the Workplace or Not, make new friends. The Genius Of Shakespeare's Sonnets. #8230;#8230; I don#8217;t fuck my customers at after parties. Management Have The Right A Union In The Workplace Or Not. A bottle service girl (aka not a prostitute) What if you had a crush on the gay science, one?
Ain#8217;t no shame in it #128578; lol. Should Have The Right To Allow Workplace. Does any of this sound familiar? I’m a smart, funny, and cool dude, but when I get around really hot chicks, its like my mind goes blank and my IQ drops 50 points. I can’t think of the gay science, anything to say #x02026; Read More. Full Length Speeches Interviews Clips The 21 Convention Podcast Interview Click Here To learn more about Management Should to Allow in the or Not, The 21 Convention. Take This Free Quiz to Supercharge Your Confidence.
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Nov 17, 2017 Management Should Have the Right to Allow a Union in the Workplace or Not,
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resume medis pasien Dalam Permenkes 269/MenKes/Per/III/2008 tentang Rekam Medis, istilah resume medis disebut ringkasan pulang harus dibuat oleh dokter dan dokter gigi yang melakukan perawatan pasien. Management Should Have The Right To Allow Or Not? Isiringkasan pulang atau resume medis sekurang-kurangnya memuat : Identitas pasien Diagnosis masuk dan indikasi pasien dirawat Ringkasan hasil pemeriksaan fisik dan penunjang. The Gay Science? Diagnosa akhir, pengobatan dan tindak lanjut Nama dan tanda tangan dokter atau dokter gigi yang memberikan pelayanan kesehatan. Kemudian setelah rekam medis selesai digunakan dari ruang rawat, maka dalam waktu 2?24 jam rekam medis tersebut harus dikembalikan ke bagian Rekam Medis. Tidak hanya Permenkes yang menyebutkan dan menjelaskan tentang resume medis, menurut Depes RI dalam pedoman penyelenggaraan dan Prosedur Rekam Medi Rumah Sakit di Indonesia (2006:72 ) bahwa resume medis adalah ringkasan kegiatan pelayanan medis yang diberikan oleh tenaga kesehatan khususnya dokter selama masa perawatan hingga pasien keluar baik dalam keadaan hidup maupun meninggal. Informasi yang terdapat dalam ringkasan pulang atau resume medis merupakan ringkasan dari seluruh masa perawatan dan pengobatan pasien sebagaimana yang telah diupayakan oleh para tenaga kesehatan dan pihak terkait. Ringkasan keluar dapat ditulis pada bagian akhir catatan perkembangan atau dengan lembaran tersendiri, bagi rumah sakit-rumah sakit kecil hal ini ditentukan oleh kegunaan catatan tersebut.
Pengecualian bagi resume ini, terutama untuk pasien yang dirawat kurang dari 48 jam, cukup menggunakan rekam medis singkat, misalnya untuk kasus-kasu Tonsilectomy, Adenoidectomy, kecelakaan ringan dan sebagainya. Menurut dirjen yanmed depkes RI (1997:52) Tujuan dibuatnya resume medis ini adalah : Untuk menjamin kontinuitas pelayan medik dengan kualitas yang tinggi serta sebagai bahan referensi yang berguna bagi dokter yang menerima, apabila pasien tersebut dirawat kembali di rumah sakit. Management Should Have The Right? Sebagai bahan penilaian staf medis rumah sakit Untuk memenuhi permintaan dari badan-badan resmi atau perorangan tentang perawatan seorang pasien, misalnya dari Perusahaan Asuransi (dengan persetujuan Pimpinan) Untuk diberikan tembusan kepada sistem ahli yang memerlukan catatan tentang pasien yang pernah mereka rawat. Lebih lanjut Hatta,R (2013:107) menjelaskan kegunaan dari ringkasan pulang atau resume medis adalah untuk : Menjaga kelangsungan perawatan di kemudian hari dengan memberikan tembusannya kepada dokter utama pasien, dokter yang merujuk dan konsultan yang membutuhkan Memberikan informasi untuk menunjang kegiatan komite telaahan staf medis Memberikan informasi kepada pihak ketiga yang berwenang Memberikan informasi kepada pihak pengirim pasien ke rumah sakit. The Genius Of Shakespeare's? Tanggung Jawab Terhadap Resume Medis. Jika dilihat dari aspek hukum, yang bertanggung jawab terhadap kelengkapan rekam medis dimana didalamnya terdapat resume medis, yaitu : Tanggung jawab dokter yang merawat. Sebagaimana pasal 4 ayat (1) Permenkes 2008 menjelaskan bahwa ringkasan pulang dibuat ileh dokter atau dokter gigi yang melakukan perawatan pasien. The Right Workplace? Walaupun dalam kenyataan dilapangan untuk melengkapi rekam medis khususnya resume medis dapat didelegasikan ke staffnya, namun tetap tanggung jawab utama dari isi rekam medis khususnya resume medis adalah dokter yang merawat pasien. Tanggung jawab petugas rekam medis. Petugas rekam medis yaitu membantu dokter yang merawat dalam mempelajari kembali rekam medis. Essay Theories? Analisa kelengkapan dilakukan untuk mengetahui kekurangan dari kelengkapan isi yang terdapat didalam berkas rekam medis, termasuk kekurangan dari kelengkapan lembar resume medis.
Petugas rekam medis harus melakukan kegiatan analisa kelengkapan guna membantu dokter dalam kegiatan pencatatan dan pengisian berkas rekam medis yang lengkap dan akurat. Tanggung jawab Pimpinan rumah sakit. Pimpinan rumah sakit bertanggung jawab menyediakan fasilitas unit rekam medis yang meliputi : ruangan rekam medis, peralatan dan tenaga yang memadai. Staff medis terdiri dari dokter, perawat, dan tenaga kesehatan profesional lainnya. Should In The Workplace? Mempunyai peranan penting di rumah sakit dan pengorganisasian staff medis tersebut secara langsung menentukan kualitas pelayanan kepada pasien. Tanggung jawab Komite rekam medis. Komite rekam medis bertanggung jawab untuk meninjau ulang rekam medis adalah hal penyelesaian tepat waktu, ketepatan klinis, ketepatan dan kecukupan pelayanan pasien, pengajatan, evaluasi, penelitian dan berdiskusi secara legal. Of Storage? Dalam menentukan format kelengkapan rekam medis, formulir yang digunakan dan setiap masalah yang berhubungan dengan penyimpanan dan pengembalian.
Menurut Permenkes No 269 Tahun 2008, rekam medis harus dibuat secara tertulis, lengkap dan jelas. Management Should Have To Allow Workplace Or Not? Rekam medis yang bermutu salah satunya dapat dilihat dari kelengkapan isi rekam medis. Types Devices? Kelengkapan tersebut ditambahkan dengan autentikasi dari rekam medis seperti nama dokter yang merawat, tanda tangan dan tanggal pembuatan. Mengingat resume medis merupakan lembaran yang sangat penting dan mendasar dalam formulir rawat inap, maka kelengkapan isinya menjadi tanggung jawab semua pihak yang terlibat dalam pengisian resume medis tersebut karena resume medis yang lengkap adalah cermin mutu rekam medis serta layanan yang diberikan oleh rumah sakit. Resume medis harus diisi dengan lengkap untuk menjaga mutu rekam medis dan juga sering digunakan untuk administrasi persyaratan dalam klaim asuransi. Management Should Have The Right To Allow A Union Workplace? Selain itu juga, resume medis ini menjadi salah satu standar dalam penilaian akreditasi rumah sakit. Menurut Ensiklopedia Nasional, akreditasi adalah suatu bentuk pengakuan yang diberikan oleh pemerintah untuk suatu lembaga atau institusi (Poewarni, Sopacua dan Evie, 2006 :125). Pada Permenkes Nomor 012 Tahun 2012 tentang Akreditasi Rumah Sakit disebutkan bahwa pengertian akreditasi rumah sakit adalah pengakuan terhadap rumah sakit yang diberikan oleh lembaga independen penyelenggara akreditasi yang ditetapkan oleh Menteri Kesehatan, setelah dinilai bahwa Rumah Sakit itu memenuhi Standar Pelayanan Rumah Sakit yang berlaku untuk meningkatkan mutu pelayanan rumah sakit secara berkesinambungan.
Di Indonesia ketentuan akreditasi rumah sakit baik tingkat nasional maupun internasional sudah diatur oleh pemerintah melalui Undang-Undang maupun peraturan tertulis, yaitu Undang-Undang Nomor 44 tahun 2009 tentang rumah sakit pasal 40 yang mengatakan bahwa dalam upaya peningkatan mutu pelayanan rumah sakit wajib dilakukan akreditasi secara berkala minimal 3 (tiga) tahun sekali. Tujuan akreditasi rumah adalah meningkatkan mutu pelayanan kesehatan, sehingga sangat dibutuhkan oleh masyarakat Indonesia yang semakin selektif dan berhak mendapatkan pelayanan yang bermutu. Essay On Famine, Singers? Dengan demikian mutu pelayanan kesehatan diharapkan dapat mengurangi minat masyarakat untuk berobat keluar negeri (KARS, 2012). Menurut Permenkes Nomor 012 Tahun 2012 Pasal 2, akreditasi bertujuan untuk : Meningkatkan mutu pelayanan rumah sakit; Meningkatkan keselamatan pasien rumah sakit; Meningkatkan perlindungan bagi pasien, masyarakat, sumber daya manusia rumah sakit dan rumah sakit sebagai institusi; Mendukung program pemerintah di bidang kesehatan. Management Should Have To Allow In The Workplace Or Not? Manfaat Akreditasi Rumah Sakit. Menurut Kementerian Kesehatan RI, manfaat akreditasi rumah sakit adalah sebagai berikut : Bagi pasien dan masyarakat, antara lain : pasien dan masyarakat memperoleh pelayanan sesuai dengan standar yang terukur. The Genius? Bagi petugas kesehatan di rumah sakit, antara lain : menimbulkan rasa aman dalam melaksanakan tugasnya oleh karena rumah sakit memiliki sarana, prasarana dan peralatan yang telah memenuhi standar.
Bagi rumah sakit, antara lain : sebagai alat ukur untuk negosiasi dengan pihak ketiga misalnya asuransi, perusahaan dan lain-lain. Management Should To Allow In The? Bagi pemilik rumah sakit, antara lain : sebagai alat mengukur kinerja pengelola rumah sakit. Toad Free? Bagi perusahaan asuransi, antara lain : acuan untuk memilih dan mengadakan kontrak dengan rumah sakit. Should Workplace Or Not? Pelaksanaan Survei Akreditasi. Pelaksanaan survei akreditasi rumah sakit dijelaskan oleh Komisi Akreditasi Rumah Sakit (KARS) dalam buku Pedoman Tata Laksana Survei Akreditasi Rumah Sakit Edisi II Tahun 2013. Tujuan survei akreditasi ialah untuk menilai seberapa jauh rumah sakit mematuhi standar yang ditetapkan. Types Of Storage? Rumah sakit yang menjalani survei akreditasi untuk pertama kali diharuskan memiliki catatan balik ke belakang 4 (empat) bulan bukti sudah mematuhi standar. Have The Right To Allow A Union In The Or Not? Rumah sakit yang menjalani survei ulang diharuskan dapat menunjukan catatan balik ke belakang selama 12 (dua belas) bulan.
Pelaksanaan survei menggunakan metode telusur untuk mengikuti contoh dari pengalaman pasien memperoleh pelayanan di rumah sakit dan melakukan evaluasi komponen dan sistem pelayanan. Karakteristik penting proses survei adalah edukasi setempat oleh surveior. On Evolutionists Theories? Pelaksanaan survei memuat langkah-langkah yaitu sebagai berikut : Pembukaan pertemuan. Management To Allow A Union Workplace? Peningkatan Mutu dan Keselamatan Pasien dan MDGs. Of Storage? Perencanaan survei. Management The Right A Union In The Or Not? Telaah dokumen. Essay On Famine, And Morality? Verifikasi dan masukan. Should A Union In The Workplace? Telaah rekam medis pasien secara tertutup (pasien sudah pulang).
Kunjungan ke area pelayanan pasien yang di pandu oleh kegiatan telusur. The Gay Science? Kegiatan survei yang terarah (terfokus/diluar rencana; karena ada temuan). Management Should The Right To Allow Workplace? Telaah dari lingkungan, bangunan, sarana dan prasarana. They? Wawancara dengan pimpinan (beberapa jenjang). Management Should Have In The Or Not? Persiapan surveior membuat laporan. Toad Free? Pertemuan penutup survei dengan pimpinan (exit conference).
Penilaian Standar Pelayanan. Standar akreditasi rumah sakit edisi 1 tahun 2012 mengelompokkan standar ke dalam 4 (empat) kelompok yang dinilai yaitu sebagai berikut: Kelompok Standar Berfokus Pada Pasien, yaitu : Akses ke Pelayanan dan Kontinuitas pelayanan (APK) Hak Pasien dan Keluarga (HPK) Asesmen Pasien (AP) Pelayanan Pasien (PP) Pelayanan Anestesi dan Bedah (PAB) Manajemen dan Penggunaan Obat (MPO) Pendidikan Pasien dan Keluarga (PPK) Kelompok Standar Manajemen Rumah Sakit, yaitu : Peningkatan Mutu dan Keselamatan Pasien (PMKP) Pencegahan dan Pengendalian Infeksi (PPI) Tata kelola, Kepemimpinan dan Pengarahan (TKP) Manajemen Fasilitas dan Keselamatan (MFK) Kualifikasi dan Pendidikan Staf (KPS) Manajemen Komunikasi dan Informasi (MKI) Sasaran Keselamatan Pasien, yaitu : Ketepatan Identifikasi Pasien. Have The Right To Allow A Union Workplace Or Not? Peningkatan Komunikasi yang Efektif. Devices? Peningkatan Keamanan Obat yang Perlu Diwaspadai Kepastian Tepat Lokasi, Tepat Prosedur, TepatPasien Operasi. Management Have The Right To Allow A Union? Pengurangan Risiko Infeksi Terkait PelayananKesehatan. On Famine, Affluence And Morality By Peter Singers? Pengurangan Risiko Pasien Jatuh.
Sasaran Program MDGs, yaitu : Penurunan Angka Kematian Bayi dan PeningkatanKesehatan Ibu. Management Should Workplace? Penurunan Angka Kematian HIV/AIDS. 1 Page Essay? Penurunan Angka Kesakitan TB. Management Have The Right To Allow A Union In The Workplace Or Not? Kriteria Kelulusan Akreditasi. Kriteria kelulusan akreditasi rumah sakit menurut KARS (2013:22) adalah sebagai berikut : Kelulusan dibagi menjadi 4 tingkat, yaitu : Rumah sakit mendapat sertifikat akreditasi tingkat dasar bila hanya 4 (empat) bab yang mempunyai nilai diatas 80% dan 11 (sebelas) bab lainnya minimal nilainya diatas 20 %. Rumah sakit mendapat sertifikat tingkat madya bila 8 (delapan) bab mendapat nilai 80% dan nilai 7 (tujuh) bab lainnya minimal diatas 20 %. Rumah sakit mendapat sertifikat akreditasi tingkat utama bila ada 12 (dua belas) bab mempunyai nilai minimal 80% dan 3 (tiga) bab lainnya minimal diatas 20%. The Gay Science? Bila nilai bab yang lainnya diatas 60% maka rumah sakit dapat mengajukan Re-survei (Remedial). Re-survei atau remedial adalah survei yang dilakukan pada rumah sakit yang nilai bab-babnya minimal 60%. Kriteria Tidak Lulus Bab 4 dasar dibawah 80%.
Dan atau ada bab 11 lain dibawah 20%. Management To Allow Or Not? Rumah sakit dapat mengajukan akreditasi secepat-cepatnya 1 tahun, selambat-lambatnya 3 tahun. The Gay Science? Rumah sakit TIDAK diberi kesempatan remedial. Management Should A Union In The? Ketentuan Penilaian Akreditasi Rumah Sakit. Ketentuan penilaian akreditasi rumah sakit menurut KARS (2013:14) adalah sebagai berikut : Penilaian akreditasi rumah sakit dilakukan melalui evaluasi penerapan Standar Akreditasi Rumah Sakit KARS yang terdiri dari 4 kelompok standar yang telah dijelaskan. The Genius Is That? Penilaian suatu bab ditentukan oleh penilaian pencapaian (semua) standar pada bab tersebut, dan menghasilkan nilai persentase bagi standar tersebut. Should Have The Right To Allow A Union Or Not? Penilaian suatu standar dilaksanakan melalui penilaian terpenuhinya Elemen Penilaian (EP), menghasilkan nilai persentase bagi standar tersebut. Toad Free? Penilaian suatu EP dinyatakan sebagai : Tercapai Penuh (TP) diberikan skor 10. Should Have The Right Workplace Or Not? Tercapai Sebagian (TS) diberikan skor 5. Essay And Creationist Theories? Tidak Tercapai (TT) diberikan skor 0. The Right To Allow A Union Workplace Or Not? Tidak Dapat Diterapkan (TDD) tidak masuk dalam proses penilaian dan perhitungan. Essay Affluence And Morality? Penentuan skor 10 (Sepuluh) Temuan tunggal negatif tidak menghalangi nilai “tercapai penuh” dari minimal 5 telusur pasien/pimpinan/staf.
Nilai 80%-100% dari temuan atau yang dicatat dalam wawancara, observasi, dan dokumen (misalnya, 8 dari 10) dipenuhi. Management The Right A Union Workplace? Data mundur “tercapai penuh” adalah sebagai berikut : Untuk survei awal : selama 4 bulan ke belakang. And Morality By Peter Singers? Survei lanjutan : selama 12 bulan ke belakang. Management The Right Workplace? Penentuan skor 5 (Lima) Jika 20% sampai 79% (misalnya, 2 sampai 7 dari 10) dari temuan atau yang dicatat dalam wawancara, observasi dan dokumen. Types Of Storage? Bukti pelaksanaan hanya dapat ditemukan di sebagian area atau unit kerja yang seharusnya dilaksanakan. Management Should Have The Right To Allow In The Workplace Or Not? Regulasi tidak dilaksanakan secara penuh/lengkap. 1 Page Essay? Kebijakan/proses sudah ditetapkan dan dilaksanakan tetapi tidak dapat dipertahankan. Management Have The Right To Allow? Data mundur sebagai berikut : Untuk survei awal : 1 sampai 3 bulan mundur.. On Evolutionists Theories? Untuk survei lanjutan : 5 sampai 11 bulan mundur.
Penentuan skor 0 (Nol) Jika 19% dari temuan atau yang dicatat dalam wawancara, observasi dan dokumen. Should The Right Or Not? Bukti pelaksanaan tidak dapat ditemukan di area atau unit kerja dimanan harus dilaksanakan. On Famine, Affluence By Peter? Regulasi tidak dilaksanakan. Should The Right In The Or Not? Kebijakan/prosedur tidak dilaksanakan. Of Shakespeare's? Data mundur sebagai berikut : Untuk survei awal : kurang 1 bulan mundur Untuk survei lanjutan : kurang 5 sampai 11 bulan mundur. Should Have To Allow A Union In The Workplace Or Not? Penentuan Tidak Dapat Diterapkan (TDD) Jika persyaratan dari EP tidak dapat diterapkan berdasar atas organisasi rumah sakit, pelayanan, populasi, pasien dan sebagainya, contohnya organisasi rumah sakit tidak melakukan riset. Dasar Hukum Akreditasi Rumah Sakit Undang-undang Nomor 44 Tahun 2009 tentang Rumah Sakit. Toad Free? Undang-undang Nomor 36 Tahun 2009 tentang Kesehatan.
Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Nomor 147/Menkes/Per/I/2010 tentang Perizinan Rumah Sakit. Management Have The Right To Allow A Union? Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Nomor 340/Menkes/Per/I/2010 tentang klasifikasi Rumah Sakit. Essay On Famine, Affluence And Morality By Peter? Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Nomor 012 Tahun 2012 tentang Akreditasi Rumah Sakit Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Nomor428/Menkes/SK/XII/2012 tentang Penetapan Lembaga Independen Pelaksana Akreditasi Rumah Sakit di Indonesia. Management Should Have The Right In The Or Not? Penilaian Resume Medis Dalam Akreditasi Rumah Sakit Standar APK 3.2.1. Kelompok standar pelayanan rekam medis khususnya lembar Resume Medis pada akreditasi rumah sakit edisi 1 tahun 2011 terdapat dalam kelompok standar pelayanan berfokus pada pasien yang dijelaskan dalam bab 1 yaitu akses ke pelayanan dan kontinuitas pelayanan atau disingkat APK.
Rumah sakit seyogyanya mempertimbangkan bahwa pelayanan di rumah sakit merupakan bagian dari suatu sistem pelayanan yang terintegrasi dengan para profesional di bidang pelayanan kesehatan dan tingkat pelayanan yang akan membangun suatu kontinuitas pelayanan. The Gay Science? Maksud dan tujuannya adalah menyelaraskan kebutuhan pasien dibidang pelayanan kesehatan dengan pelayanan yang tersedia di rumah sakit, mengkoordinasikan pelayanan, kemudian merencanakan pemulangan dan tindakan selanjutnya. The Right To Allow? Hasilnya adalah meningkatkan mutu pelayanan pasien dan efisiensi penggunaan sumber daya yang tersedia di rumah sakit. Of Storage Devices? Informasi diperlukan untuk membuat keputusan yang benar tentang : Kebutuhan pasien yang mana yang dapat dilayani rumah sakit. Management Have The Right In The Or Not? Pemberian pelayanan yang efisien kepada pasien. Sonnets Is That They? Transfer dan pemulangan pasien yang tepat ke rumah atau ke pelayanan lain. Management To Allow Workplace Or Not? Standar, Maksud dan Tujuan serta Elemen Penilaian. Dalam kelompok standar pelayanan berfokus pada pasien khususnya akses ke pelayanan dan kontinuitas pelayanan terdapat beberapa standar. 1 Page Essay? Resume medis termasuk dalam standar APK.3.2.1.
Pada standar APK.3.2.1 dijelaskan bahwa resume pasien pulang diisi lengkap. Resume pelayanan pasien pulang menggambarkan tindakan yang dilakukan selama pasien tinggal di rumah sakit. To Allow A Union In The Workplace? Resume dapat dipergunakan oleh praktisi kesehatan yang bertanggung jawab untuk pelayanan selanjutnya dan mencakup: Alasan masuk rumah sakit. Sonnets Is That? Penemuan kelainan fisik dan lainnya yang penting. Have A Union In The Or Not? Prosedur diagnosis dan pengobatan yang telah dilakukan. Essay Affluence And Morality? Pemberian medikamentosa dan pemberian obat waktu pulang. Management Have The Right A Union Workplace Or Not? Status atau kondisi pasien waktu pulang.
Instruksi follow-up atau tindak lanjut. The Gay Science? Elemen Penilaian APK.3.2.1. Penilaian akreditasi rekam medis standar APK.3.2.1 terhadap resume medis dapat dinilai dengan elemen penilaian standar APK.3.2.1 dengan memberikan skor sebagai berikut : Skor 0 = persentase kelengkapan resume medis antara 0% – 19%. Have The Right In The? Skor 5 = persentase kelengkapan resume medis antara 20% – 79%. Skor 10 = persentase kelengkapan resume medis antara 80%-100%.
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10 Free PDF Business Plan Templates. Business plan templates come in all forms, shapes and sizes. The beauty of PDF business plan templates, however, is that users can create their own business plans while having a guide or reference point readily available in front of them. Management The Right A Union In The Workplace Or Not. Whether a business owner wants to create his or her own business plan or replicate one, PDF business plan templates eliminate the arduous task of of storage devices starting from scratch. Below are 10 PDF business plan templates to help you get started. Should Have The Right A Union In The. If you need a business plan template for a small business, there is no better place to look than the toad free, U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). The SBA not only offers a Web-based business plan creator, but also a downloadable PDF business plan template from Management Should or Not sba.gov#39;s 8(a) Business Development Program. This no-fuss, straightforward business plan template hashes out the details of a business, with more than 50 prompts to Essay on Famine, Affluence Singers, help users answer the questions needed for a complete business plan. [ How to Start a Business: Step-by-Step ] Another government organization, the the Right a Union or Not, U.S. 1 Page Essay. Department of Veteran Affairs (VA), also provides useful resources for starting a business. In addition to offering a business plan template and Management the Right a Union in the or Not financial projections charts, the VA#39;s Writing a Business Plan PDF contains information on why an entrepreneur should create a business plan, basic business plan guidelines and tips on the do#39;s and don#39;ts of toad free writing a business plan.
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IPlanner.net, a Web-based business planning software provider, offers a simple business plan template specifically for startups. Of Storage Devices. The downloadable PDF business plan template includes instructions and tips for completing each section, as well as sample charts to help users complete the Management Have the Right, financial areas of the business plan. 10. SNIEDC fill-in-the-blank business plan. If you want to cover all of your bases, look no further than the Seneca Nation of Indians Economic Development Company#39;s (SNIEDC) PDF fill-in-the-blank business plan template. This all-inclusive, 50-page business plan outline asks a series of questions so you can fill in each section of the the genius they, business plan. It also includes detailed financial charts and a glossary of business terms. Management Should Have The Right To Allow A Union In The Workplace. The SNIEDC is a Salamanca, N.Y.-based organization that aims to provide financial services and the gay science working capital support for enrolled members of the Seneca Nation of Indians. Management Should Have Workplace Or Not. Sara is a tech writer with a background in business and marketing. After graduating from UC Irvine, she worked as a copywriter and blogger for nonprofit organizations, tech labs and on Famine, Affluence by Peter lifestyle companies.
She started freelancing in 2009 and joined Business News Daily in 2013. Follow Sara Angeles on Twitter @sara_angeles.
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Essay: Oral administration of drugs. Today various routs available for the administration of drugs but the oral route is the simplest and most preferable route for Have the Right or Not, the administration of dosage forms. Different dosage forms are available for the administration orally. 3. Emulsion suspensions. 4. Solutions etc. But the problems is there in the recently invented drugs having problem with there bioavability approx. 50% of newly marketed drugs can not be given orally due to poor solubility.
The poor solubility of drugs can reduce the bioavability of types, dosage forms. Recent approaches have included the administration of Should Have the Right to Allow in the Workplace or Not, drug components with lipid vehicles such as oils, liposomes and self-emulsifying formulations [1, 2]. Of Shakespeare's Sonnets They! This system was not use commonly but know the days importance of lipid based drug delivery system is very height due to poor water solubility of drugs. For the improving bioavability we formulate a new drug delivery system called self emulsifying drug delivery system By example, the bioavailability of Tipranavir (TPV), a nonpeptidic protease inhibitor anti-HIV drug, was doubled when dosed to rats in a SEDDS formulation versus delivered as solid powder in a hard filled capsule . developed a self-emulsifying drug delivery system for Coenzyme Q10 using polyglycolyzed glycerides as emulsifiers with a resultant 150% increase in bioavailability.4 Numerous other examples exist in the literature demonstrating enhanced bioavalibility with self emulsifying drug delivery systems 5-6 but most focus on a single formulation or small. set of formulations with little explanation of how this formulation was developed. Should A Union! Current SEDDS formulation development, consequently, in general occurs through resource-intensive trial and error. Some mechanistic studies have been conducted exploring a range of 1 page essay, SEDDS formulations and a specific aspect of their function, most commonly ability to emulsify [7, 8]. . Improved quantitative understanding of how properties of a specific self emulsifying formulation interact with the biological environment to enable oral absorption could help optimize SEDDS formulations for Have the Right in the Workplace or Not, enhancing bioavailability. Although a significant amount of literature exists from other fields concerning the function of emulsions [9-10], pharmaceutical formulations have not been broadly studied with respect to fundamental aspects of emulsion function, with few studies statistically developing predictive models that relate emulsion properties with formulation parameters . In particular, analysis and optimization of emulsion function across a broad range of formulation parameters via experimental design has not been widely explored. One poorly understood aspect about SEDDS is the influence of different formulation components on the overall performance of these drug delivery systems in vivo.
Different types of oils with different characteristics and toad free, different surfactants combined at different ratios may influence the performance in Management Have the Right to Allow a Union Workplace vivo drastically. There is no guidance currently available for formulating a drug with specific properties with self. emulsifying drug delivery formulations.12 It is therefore necessary to investigate the influence of formulation components with a quantitative and statistically designed and analyzed manner. 1 Page Essay! 3 Another knowledge in which there is a lack of Management Have to Allow a Union, understanding is the Essay on Famine, and Morality mechanism of how self emulsifying drug delivery systems work to enhance the overall bioavailability of to Allow a Union, a hydrophobic drug orally. Suggested mechanisms responsible of functioning of SEDDS in the GI tract environment includes the increased drug solubilization in the aqueous lumen phase due to alterations in the composition and 1 page essay, character of colloidal environment in the GI tract fluid and Management Should the Right a Union in the Workplace, increased drug absorption due to enhanced permeability permeability (e.g. widening of tight junctions, changes to cellular processing) and lymphatic transport [13-14-15]. Important mechanisms that would influence drug solubilization in the lumen is the rate and extent of digestion of lipidic formulation components. The Gay Science! Another one is the rate at which the drug is released from oil droplets especially during the process of ‘degradation’ of the emulsified drug carriers by the digestive enzymes in vivo. It is essential to investigate the rate of digestion of self emulsifying formulation lipids, rate of drug release, as well as the rate and extent of drug transport across intestinal monolayer incorporated with SEDDS in order to understand and predict formulation functioning in GI tract. Knowledge gained from Management Should the Right to Allow a Union in the, these mechanistic understandings can be used as quantitative expressions which then can be incorporated into a pharmacokinetic model that will predict oral bioavailability of a drug administered with self emulsifying drug delivery systems. Types Of Storage Devices! To define and understand challenges involved with oral delivery of hydrophobic drug compounds it is necessary to present a overview of current technologies.
16. Oral intake has been the most sought-after route of drug delivery by the patients as well as the manufacturers for the treatment of most pathological states. Despite tremendous strides made in novel non-oral drug delivery systems (DDS) till date, majority of the drug formulations available in the commercial world today are the oral ones.17 Nevertheless, oral delivery of over one-half of the drug compounds through gastrointestinal (GI) tract gets diminished owing to their high lipophilicity and consequently poor aqueous solubility. Oral bioavailability of such drugs, being primarily a function of their solubility and dissolution,[18-19] tends to exhibit inadequate magnitude with high intra- and inter-subject variability. Besides, oral bioavailability also depends upon a multitude of other drug factors such as stability in Should the Right GI fluidsintestinal permeability, resistance to metabolism by cytochrome P450 family of and Morality by Peter, enzymes present in gut enterocytes and liver hepatocytes, and interaction with efflux transporter systems like P-glycoprotein (P-gp).[20,21] explicitly illustrates the mechanisms of the physiological pathways through which the bioavailability of a drug from the conventional formulations tends to get impeded. Several formulation approaches have been employed to Management Should the Right a Union in the or Not, improve the toad free oral bioavailability of diverse drugs.
Amongst these, oral lipid-based DDS have proved their immense potential in improving the Have to Allow a Union in the poor and inconsistent drug absorption of many poorly water-soluble drugs, especially following their administration after meals.22 These include various types of lipid suspensions, solutions and emulsions.23 With applications in specific domains, the lipidic formulations, thus, have carved a singnificant niche in oral drug delivery. And Morality By Peter! Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) are relatively newer lipid-based technological innovations with immense promise in oral bioavailability enhancement of drugs. Management Should Have To Allow A Union Or Not! These formulations have shown to reduce the slow and types devices, incomplete dissolution of Management the Right to Allow in the or Not, a drug, facilitate the formation of its solubilized phase, increase the extent of its transportation via intestinal lymphatic system, and bypass the toad free P-gp efflux, thereby augmenting drug absorption from the GI tract.24. Self emulsion having grate capacity yo increase the bioavability of poorly water soluble drugs. It’s a isotropic mixture of oil ,surfactant, co-surfactant.in this system oil globules bind with drugs and increase the solubility of drugs. SEDDS is also known as microemulsion system. It will increase bioavability of drugs 50-100% .25-26. 1. Should The Right A Union In The Workplace Or Not! Solid self emulsifying drug delivery system (SSEDDS) 2. Liquid self emulsifying drug delivery system (LSEDDS)
Recently day by day a new drug molequle was found but the on Famine, Affluence and Morality by Peter Singers only problems is that the bioavability of the drugs. Because oral route is the most preferable route for the administration of drugs but poorly water soluble drugs having problems to formulates solid dosage form because it will reduce the bioavability of drugs.26. In the Have a Union in the Workplace or Not solid dosage forms numbers of excipients are use for and Morality Singers, the increasing drug solubility. They can be help in enhancing the solubility of drugs. In the SEDDS we number of a Union in the Workplace, excipients are use. 3. Co- surfactants. 4. Solidifying agent. They all the excipients help in the inhancing the bioavability of the gay science, drugs.26. SEDDS is the isotropic mixture of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant. Thy having the capacity to rapidely dissolve in stomach and Should Have a Union Workplace, instinal fluid and cover large surface area. due to this nature of the genius, SEDDS it will also use in the sustain relese drug delivery system for the instant delivery of drugs. This system can be use to increase the solubility of drugs by the help of excipient’s in the oral dosage forms we can use PH modifier, water soluble organic solvents, surfactant, co-surfactants.
And oils are use long chain triglicryde and medium chain tryglyceried we also use PEG 400, propylene glycol, glycerin, non-ionic surfactants as water soluble organic solvents.36,37. 1.1 Composition of SEDDSs:- ‘ The nature of the Should to Allow oil’surfactant pair. ‘ The surfactant concentration. ‘ The temperature at which self-emulsification occurs. 1.1.1 Oils:- Oils can solubilize the lipophilic drug in a specific amount. It is the most important excipient because it can facilitate self-emulsification and the gay science, increase the fraction of lipophilic drug transported via the intestinal lymphatic system, thereby increasing absorption from the GI tract . Long-chain triglyceride and medium-chain triglyceride oils with different degrees of saturation have been used in the design of SEDDSs. Modified or hydrolyzed vegetable oils have contributed widely to the success of SEDDSs owing to their formulation and physiological advantages. Novel semisynthetic medium-chain triglyceride oils have surfactant properties and are widely replacing the regular medium- chain triglyceride. 1.1.2 Surfactant:- Nonionic surfactants with high hydrophilic’lipophilic balance (HLB) values are used in formulation of SEDDSs (e.g., Tween, Labrasol, Labrafac CM 10, Cremophore, etc.). The usual surfactant strength ranges between 30’60% w/w of the formulation in order to form a stable SEDDS.
Surfactants have a high HLB and Have the Right to Allow a Union in the Workplace, hydrophilicity, which assists the immediate formation of of storage, o/w droplets and/or rapid spreading of the formulation in the aqueous media. Surfactants are amphiphilic in nature and they can dissolve or solubilize relatively high amounts of hydrophobic drug compounds. This can prevent precipitation of the drug within the GI lumen and for Management Have a Union in the Workplace, prolonged existence of drug molecules. 1.1.3 Cosolvents:- Cosolvents like diehylene glycol monoethyle ether (transcutol), propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, polyoxyethylene, propylene carbonate, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol polyethylene glycol ether (Glycofurol), etc., may help to devices, dissolve large amounts of hydrophilic surfactants or the hydrophobic drug in the Right to Allow a Union the lipid base. These solvents sometimes play the role of the devices cosurfactant in the microemulsion systems.27.
1.2 Microemulsions or Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS) Emulsions in general are thermodynamically unstable systems. The droplets of the Should the Right to Allow in the Workplace or Not dispersed phase are large. Microemulsions on the other hand are emulsion systems that have a droplet size of a few to hundreds of nanometers and are typical complex fluids that consist of three essential components: two immiscible fluids and a surfactant. Typically these are water-in-oil or oil-in-water microemulsions where the rheological properties of these two liquids and microstructure of the surfactant strongly affect the resulting microemulsion . Microemulsions and micellar solutions are distinguished from emulsions by the fact that the average drop size does not grow with time, which is a manifestation of thermodynamic unstability. Micellar solutions and microemulsions on the other hand are assumed to be thermodynamically stable. Reasons why there is tremendous attention on SEDDS include industrial trend towards the discovery and development on hydrophobic drugs and the resolution of 1 page essay, technology transfer, stability and regulatory issues by SEDDS and the fact that they have proven pharmaceutical benefit with commercially available compounds of Should the Right a Union or Not, up to 5 fold increase in bioavailability (cyclosporine, lipid soluble vitamins, HIV protease inhibitors etc.) Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems by types, definition are mixtures of an oil, one or more surfactants and optionally a co-solvent or co-surfactant which when introduced into an aqueous media, under gentle agitation, forms fine oil-in-water emulsions. These systems when incorporated with a drug compound, drug is Should the Right in the, distributed in the aqueous solution entrapped inside oil droplets. SEDDS enable distribution of the gay science, hydrophobic drug component in the aqueous media and Have Workplace or Not, creates a drug solubilization in the gastrointestinal environment. Distribution of drug inside oil droplets prevents drug from the gay science, being an Have to Allow in the or Not, undisolved substance, precipitating and being excreted from body.
However their mechanisms of action in the body are not limited to 1 page essay, solubilization enhancement and also include other processes such as intestinal permeability and lymphatic transport enhancement. SEDDS by nature are thermodynamically stable emulsions compared to unstable regular emulsions. Management Should Have The Right A Union In The Workplace! Their stability is of storage devices, thought to be dependent on Should the Right to Allow a Union in the their relatively small dispersed oil droplet size and narrow range of droplet distribution. SEDDS are typically composed of emulsion droplets having a diameter of toad free, 50 nanometers to Management Should Have the Right to Allow in the Workplace or Not, 500 nm whereas systems having droplet size less than 50 nm are called self nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS). For a given drug only very specific formulations will give efficient emulsification and toad free, a self-emulsifying system that will work to Should a Union Workplace or Not, enhance bioavailability. Efficiency of SEDDS therefore, as explained in detail by Gursoy et al., is governed by the gay science, surfactant concentration, oil/surfactant ratio, polarity of the emulsion, droplet size and Have to Allow Workplace, charge of the droplets. Types Of Storage! However, the mechanism that governs self-emulsification has not yet fully understood. It is suggested that water penetrates through the gel and LC phases that occur at the surface of the Have in the or Not droplets. This is followed by the solubilization of the water in oil phase until the solubilization limit is reached. After the limit is reached, formation of dispersion of LC phase is formed and the gay science, this depends on the surfactant concentration. Wit this formation, SEDDS become resistant to coalescence.
Emulsion stability is governed by a variety of Management Should Have the Right a Union in the or Not, factors such as physical nature of the interfacial film, presence of electrostatic or steric barriers on the droplet, viscosity of the continuous phase, droplet size distribution, oil to water ratio, temperature and the amount of surfactant that is absorbed on the surface of the oil droplet. Types! The more surfactant is absorbed on the surface, the more decreased the in the Workplace interfacial tension between oil and water which consequently yields delayed coalescence of the gay science, droplets by electrostatic and steric repulsio. Although with the addition of high amounts of Have to Allow a Union Workplace, drug, which is common case for potential oral dosage forms, it is harder to 1 page essay, have stabilized emulsions. In this case, the need of Management Should Have the Right a Union in the or Not, using more surfactant arises that have negative aspects such as increased toxic effect of the formulation. 1.3 ADVANTAGES OF SEDDS :- ‘ More consistent drug absorption, ‘ Control of delivery profile. ‘ Reduced variability including food effects.
‘ Enhanced oral bioavailability enabling reduction in dose. ‘ High drug loading efficiency. ‘ For both liquid and solid dosage forms. ‘ These dosage forms reduce the gastric irritation produced by 1 page essay, drugs.25-26. 1.4 APLLICATION OF SEDDS : Main application of this SEDDS to increase the bioavability by increasing the solubility of drugs. In this system we use oils for the increasing the Management the Right a Union Workplace solubility of drugs . the toad free oils can form a layer of globules on the drug so it will easily dissolve in the water.27.
1.5 Solubility and Process of Solubilization. In bioavailability of drug, solubility plays a key role because it is vital determinant of drug release and absorption. Any drug showed pharmacological response when it achieves desired concentration in systemic circulation and it is depending upon solubility. Solubility is the Management Should Have to Allow Workplace maximum amount of solute dissolved in a certain amount of and Morality Singers, solvent at a specified temperature. (Shinde A. J., 2007) 1.5.1 Process of solubilization. Factors affecting solubility.
1. Management Have To Allow A Union! Particle size. 4. Other: Nature of the Essay and Creationist solute solvent, Molecular size, Polarity, Polymorphs. 18.104.22.168 Absolute bioavailability and Relative bioavailability. Absolute bioavailability Intravenous dose is selected as a standard because the drug is administered directly into the systemic circulation (100% bioavailability) and Management the Right to Allow a Union Workplace or Not, avoids absorption step. Intramuscular dose can also be taken as a standard if the drug is of shakespeare's, poorly water soluble. An oral solution as reference standard has also been used in Management Should a Union or Not certain cases, but there are several drawbacks of using oral solution as a standard instead of an i.v. The Genius Of Shakespeare's They! dose. Relative or comparative bioavailability. It is also termed as comparative bioavailability. It is denoted by Fr.
In contrast to absolute bioavailability; it is used to Should Have a Union or Not, characterize absorption of a drug. 22.214.171.124 Methods for enhancement of bioavailability. As per definition of bioavailability, poor permeability through the 1 page essay biomembrane owing to inadequate partition coefficient or lipophilicity or large molecular size such as that of protein or peptide drugs are poor bioavailable drugs. Both poor solubility and Management Have the Right to Allow a Union in the Workplace, permeability of drug is toad free, depends upon its physicochemical property. Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) Based on intestinal permeability and solubility of drugs, Amidon et al., developed Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) which classify drugs into one of the four groups. Class I: These are well absorbed orally since they have neither solubility nor permeability limitation. Class II: Shows variable absorption owing to Should the Right to Allow a Union in the or Not, solubility limitation. Class III: also shows variable absorption owing to 1 page essay, permeability limitation. Class IV: are poorly absorbed orally owing to Management Have the Right to Allow a Union Workplace or Not, both solubility and permeability limitation. There are three approaches in overcoming bioavailability problems are: It includes alteration of formulation, manufacturing process or physicochemical properties of drug devoid of changing chemical structure.
It includes modification of pharmacokinetic of drug by changing its chemical structure by developing new chemical entity with desirable feature or prodrug design. 126.96.36.199 By enhancing drug solubility or dissolution rate: 3. Supercritical fluid recrystallization. 4. Spray freezing into liquid. 5. Evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution. 6. Use of surfactants. 7. Essay Affluence Singers! Use of salt forms. 8. Use of precipitation inhibitors. 9. Alteration of pH of drug microenvironment.
10. Use of amorphous, anhydrates, solvates and metastable polymorphs. 11. Solvent deposition. 13. Selective adsorption on insoluble carriers. 14. Solid solution. 15. Eutectic mixture. 16.
Solid dispersion. 17. The Right To Allow Workplace Or Not! Molecular encapsulation with cyclodextrin. 188.8.131.52 By enhancing drug permeability across biomembrane. 1. The Genius They! Lipid technology. 3. Penetration enhancers.
184.108.40.206 By enhancing drug stability. 1. Enteric coating. 3. Use of metabolism inhibitors. 1.5.3 Problems and Breakthroughs of Bioavailability Enhancement Techniques. When poor wetting properties and difficulties in Management processing of powders are problems reduction in particle size can not applicable in such conditions. So as to avoid such problems many other techniques have been used such as solid dispersions, permeation enhancers, cyclodextrins and nanoparticles. In fact, in some special cases, such approaches have been doing well.In the technique of reducing the size of particles, there is the gay science, affinity for agglomeration of particles due to high surface charges on small discrete particles. 1.5.4 Lipid based drug delivery. Ideal properties of Lipid based formulations. 1. Management Should Have The Right To Allow Workplace! It should solubilize therapeutic amounts of the drug in the dosage form. 2. It should maintain adequate drug solubility over is that they the entire shelf-life of the drug product (generally 2 years) under all anticipated storage conditions.
3. It should provide adequate chemical and physical stability for the drug and formulation components. 4. It must be composed of approved excipients in safe amounts. 5. It should adapt to Should Workplace or Not, the digestive processes of the GI tract such that digestion either enhances or maintains drug solubilization. 6. It should present the drug to the intestinal mucosal cells such that absorption into the cells and into the systemic circulation is optimized. 2.0 NEED FOR STUDY OBJECTIVE. Oral route is the most convenient and Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, preferable route for the administration of drugs but the problems is occurs due to the low solubility of drugs. A Union Workplace! About 50% of the genius of shakespeare's they, recently find drug molecules can not be formulate in the solid dosage form because of there low solubility. The need of Have to Allow in the or Not, this study was to on Famine, and Morality Singers, increase the solubility of poorly soluble compound. Have The Right Workplace Or Not! In this formulation we can formulate a self emulsifying drug delivery system with the active ingredient telmisartain. Telmisartain practically water insoluble drugs. And having poor bioavability by the help of the genius sonnets, LSEDDS we can increase solubility of telmisartain.
3. LITRATURE SURVEY. 1. . Management Have To Allow Workplace! Saritha,D. et al. Toad Free! (2014) Prapration a stable formulation for self emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) in Should Have to Allow a Union order to enhance the the gay science solubility, release rate, and Have the Right to Allow, oral absorption of the poorly soluble drug, indomethacin. Based on Essay Affluence and Morality the solubility of indomethacin in oil, surfactant and cosurfactant, pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were developed in Have the Right to Allow a Union or Not 1:1, 1:2, 2:1, 1:3, 3:1, 4:1 ratio for Essay on Famine, and Morality by Peter, SEDDS composed of labrafil, cremophor EL and transcutol P. Formulations were evaluated for drug content, phase separation, turbidimetry, zeta potential, globule size, refractive index and in vitro release. Management Should The Right A Union Or Not! The study illustrated the potential of indomethacin SEDDS for oral administration and its biopharmaceutic performance.33. 2. Damineni,S et al (2014) developed self emulsifying drug delivery system of the genius, ibuprofen to Management Have the Right a Union in the Workplace, enhance solubility, dissolution rate which may improve therapeutic performance and drug loading capacity so as to develop alternative to traditional oral formulations to improve bioavailability. In this study Labrafac, Tween 80 and PEG 200 were selected as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant respectively.
Formulation development and on Evolutionists Theories, screening was done based on results obtained from Workplace or Not, phase diagrams and characteristics of of storage, resultant microemulsions. The developed SEDDS were evaluated for droplet size analysis, zeta potential, polydispersibility index, viscosity, refractive index, % transmittance, drug content and in Management Should the Right to Allow a Union Workplace or Not vitro diffusion profiles.34. 3. Kumar,S. On Famine, And Morality By Peter! et al (2014) in this article we have study upper surface of SEDDS. The main advanced topic in Management Have to Allow in the this article is solidification process of of storage devices, LSEDDS and the development of solid SE dosage forms.at the last find he prolems of the Management Should Have the Right to Allow a Union or Not system and solve it.35. 4. Reddy,M. et al (2014) In this article we have conclude, today huge numbers of of shakespeare's they, formulation avalables for the increasing poor water solubility of drugs , dissolution rate and Should to Allow in the, bioavailability of insoluble drugs. One of the promising techniques is Self’Micro Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SMEDDS).
Liquid SEDDS were prepared using LLWL 1349, Labrafac PG as oils and cremophor EL, cremophor RH40 as surfactants and labrasol, transcutol HP as co-surfactants. Prepared liquid SEDDS were evaluated for stability, particle size, zeta potential and percent transmittance. Selected liquid formulations were converted to solid SEDDS by adsorbing onto a solid carrier Neusilin. Prepared solid SEDDS were evaluated for flow properties and types, in-vitro drug release studies. Results proved that prepared solid SEDDS have good flow properties and improved drug solubility and dissolution profiles (99.95%) when compared to pure efavirenz.36.
5. Amrutkar,C. et al (2014) The aim of the present study is to improve solubility and hence bioavailability of Rosuvastatin calcium using self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). self emulsifying property of various oils was evaluated with suitable surfactant and co-surfactants. Ternary phase diagram was constructed based on Rosuvastatin calcium solubility analysis for optimizing the systems. Management Should A Union Workplace! The prepared formulation were evaluated for self emulsification time, dispersibility study, average globule size, Polydispersibility index (PDI). The globule size of optimized system was less than 100nm which could be an acceptable nanoemulsion range. The average globule size of the selected F2 SNEDDS formulation (Capmul MCM [20%], Tween 20 [40%] and PEG 200 [40%]) was 88.01nm. In vitro drug release studies showed remarkable increase in dissolution of F2 SNEDDS compared to marketed formulation.37. 6. The Genius Of Shakespeare's Sonnets Is That They! . Choudhary,S.B. et al (2014) revealed formulated and characterization solid self emulsifying drug delivery system (SSEDDS) of domperidone for filling into soft gelatine capsule.
Pseudo ternary phase diagrams were constructed and liquid SEDDS formulations were prepared which consists of oleic acid, tween 20 and propylene glycol as oil phase, surfactant and cosolvent respectively. Should To Allow In The Workplace! The self emulsification properties, globule size, polydispersity index of liquid SEDDS formulations were studied upon dilution with water. The solid SEDDS was prepared by spray drying method and kneading method using Aerosil 200 as solid career. The solid state characterization of the solid SEDDS was performed by SEM, DSC, and X-ray powder diffraction. The results from this study demonstrate the the gay science potential use of Management Have the Right Workplace or Not, SEDDS as a means of improving solubility, dissolution, and concomitantly the bioavailability.38. 7. .Gikwad,S. et al. (2012) A reaserch on self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) to enhance the solubility of the poorly water-soluble drug Orlistat. These drugs can be successfully formulated for oral administration, but care needs to be taken with formulation design to ensure consistent bioavailability.
Solubility of Orlistat was evaluated in various nonaqueous carriers that included oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants. Of Shakespeare's! Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the self-microemulsification region. The self microemulsification properties, droplet size and thermodynamic stability of to Allow in the, these formulations were studied upon the gay science, dilution with water.38. 8. . Sachan,R. et al. (2010) To develop a formulation For the Management the Right a Union Workplace improvement of bioavailability of drugs with such properties presents one of the greatest challenges in drug formulations dissolution rate which may improve therapeutic performance and drug loading capacity so as to develop alternative to traditional oral formulations to improve bioavailability. In this study Labrafac, Tween 80 and PEG 200 were selected as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant respectively. Formulation development and screening was done based on results obtained from phase diagrams and characteristics of resultant microemulsions.39. 9. Liu Y., et al., (2009) optimized and characterized an oridonin SMEDDS formulation using central composite design. In this study effect of concentration of oil andsurfactant and co-surfactant ratio has been studied. Study concluded that, this model is useful for optimization of SMEDDS formulation. In-vitro drug release showed that, there was increase in drug release as compared to Essay Affluence and Morality by Peter Singers, powder formulation.40. 10.
Balakrishnan P., et al., (2009) prepared a solid SMEDDS of dexibuprofen by spray drying technique using Aerosil 200 as a solid carrier. After conversion in to Management Should, solid form S-SMEDDS retains its self emulsification capacity. In-vitro drug release showed that, there was increase in drug release as compared to powder formulation. In-vivo study showed that increase in bioavailability. Study concluded that, in the form of Solid SMEDDS it retains all characteristics of liquid and it can become helpful solid dosage form.41. 11. Essay On Famine, And Morality! Singh A. K., et al., (2009) prepared and evaluated SMEDDS of Exemestane using Capryol 90, Cremophore ELP, and Transcutol P. They compared drug release with marketed formulation in different pH. They found extensive increase of drug release than marketed formulation. They also compared absorption of drug with that of drug suspension. They found enhanced drug absorption from SMEDDS.
Study concluded that, SMEDDS have potential of Management Have to Allow or Not, enhancing solubility, absorption and the gay science, hence bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug.42. 12. Management Should The Right To Allow Workplace! Shaji J., et al., (2008) formulated and evaluated SMEDDS of Affluence by Peter, Celecoxib. To Allow A Union Workplace! They optimized formulation using 33 factorial design. Particle size was taken as response variable. Toad Free! Study showed that, concentration of different components showed prominent effect on particle size and appearance of Should the Right in the Workplace or Not, dispersion. They found enhanced drug absorption from SMEDDS. Study concluded that, SMEDDS have potential of enhancing solubility, absorption and 1 page essay, hence bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug.43.
13. Atef E., et al., (2008) formulated and evaluated SMEDDS of phenytoin and compared its relative bioavailability with marketed formulation. Results showed that, extensive increase in drug release form SMEDDS as compared to that of marketed suspension. Also in-vivo study showed improvement in bioavailability. Study concluded that, SMEDDS is Should Have the Right to Allow a Union in the Workplace or Not, promising formulation to increase drug release as well as bioavailability of poorly water soluble compounds In-vitro drug release showed that, there was increase in drug release as compared to powder formulation.44. 14. Fatouros D. G., et al., (2008) studied dynamic lipolysis model for absorption of drug from SMEDDS formulations. They also studied IVIVC with the help of neuro-fuzzy networks.
Study concluded that, in evaluation of SMEDDS for on Famine, Affluence and Morality Singers, prediction of in-vivo behavior in-vitro dynamic lipolysis model is a possible means.45. 15. The Right To Allow Workplace! Shikov A., et al., (2008) Prepared and types of storage, characterized SMEDDS of flavonoids. Prepared SMEDDS formulation was evaluated for self emulsification capacity, droplet size and for bioavailability. Results showed that, They found enhanced drug absorption from SMEDDS. Study concluded that, SMEDDS have potential of the Right to Allow a Union Workplace, enhancing solubility, absorption and hence bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug. there was 2-5 fold increase in bioavailability as compared to flavonoid in types of storage devices powder form.46. 16.
Woo J. S., et al., (2008) developed SMEDDS of Itraconazole and studied and compared in-vivo study in human volunteers with marketed formulation having double dose. Study concluded that, there is extensive increase in bioavailability with reduced food effect by SMEDDS formulation as compared with marketed formulation. They found enhanced drug absorption from SMEDDS. Study concluded that, SMEDDS have potential of enhancing solubility, absorption and hence bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug.47. 17. Mandawgade S. Management Should The Right Workplace! D., et al., (2008) developed SMEDDS using natural lipophile as oil phase and Essay on Famine, and Morality, also compared its performance with synthetic oils. For this study beta-Artemether was used as drug.
Oil was previously evaluated for toxicity studies. Prepared SMEDDS was evaluated for globule size, in-vitro and in-vivo study. Study concluded that, performance of natural lipophiles is Management to Allow in the Workplace, better than that of 1 page essay, commercially available synthetic oils hence can be used in SMEDDS as it is safe.48. 18. Should Have A Union In The Workplace Or Not! Yi T., et al., (2008) developed a controlled release solid SMEDDS of of shakespeare's sonnets is that they, nimodipine using HPMC. They have prepared batches by mixing drug with HPMC and another batch by dissolving drug and HPMC in the SMEDDS. Prepared self emulsifying formulations were evaluated for surface characterization, reconstituted properties, inner physical structure and in-vitro drug release study. Study concluded that, It can be possible to formulate controlled release formulations of poorly water soluble drug by SMEDDS using high viscosity grade HPMC.49. 19.
Yi T., et al., (2008) developed a S-SMEDDS of nimodipine. Prepared S-SMEDDS was evaluated for in-vitro and in-vivo absorption study. They have studied effect of dilution media and enzymatic digestion on solubilization of drug .Results showed that, there is faster dissolution rate of drug from S-SMEDDS than that of conventional tablet and enhancement of absorption as compared to liquid SMEDDS. The Right A Union In The Workplace Or Not! . Prepared SMEDDS was evaluated for the gay science, globule size, in-vitro and in-vivo study. Study concluded that, performance of natural lipophiles is better than that of commercially available synthetic oils hence can be used in SMEDDS as it is safe. Study concluded that, S-SMEDDS can become constructive dosage form for oral use.50. 20. Abdalla A., et al., (2008) Study concluded that, S-SMEDDS can become constructive dosage form for oral use. Management The Right To Allow A Union! developed self emulsifying formulation in the form of on Evolutionists Theories, pellets by extrusion and spheronization technique. Management Should Have To Allow A Union Workplace! In. this study they found that, droplet size decreases after dilution. Study concluded that, solubilzation depend on concentration of secretions like bile salts and phospolipid.
SMEDDS can besuccessfully transformed into pellets form and can become another method to 1 page essay, encapsulate material into Should to Allow in the, hard gelatin capsule.51. 21. Lu J. L., et al., (2008) developed SMEDDS of 9NC to Essay, enhance bioavailability and anticancer effect. They prepared microemulsion of 9NC and characterized for citotoxicity and Management Should the Right to Allow Workplace, bioavailability study. The Genius Of Shakespeare's Is That They! Bioavailablity and anticancer effect have been compared with suspension of 9NC. Study concluded that, antitumor activity has been enhanced in the form of SMEDDS.52. 22. Patel D., et al., (2007) developed SMEDDS of Acyclovir. Prepared formulations were evaluated for different parameters.
Absorption of drug from SMEDDS was compared with plain drug solution. Results showed that, there was 3.5 fold increases in bioavailability by a Union in the Workplace or Not, SMEDDS. Study concluded that, bioavailability of drug can be enhanced using SMEDDS approach. . Results showed that there were 5 fold reductions in plasma cholesterol and 4 fold reductions in plasma triglycerides when compared with reference formulation of drug suspension. Toad Free! Study concluded that, there was better biopharmaceutical performance of drug from SEDDS.53. 23.
Cirri M., et al., (2007), formulated oral liquid spray formulation of xibornol using SMEDDS. Prepared formulations were evaluated for rheological, stability, SAXS and in-vivo study. Have To Allow In The Or Not! The study found that, SMEDDS can be used to prepare stable and effective oral liquid spray formulation. Absorption of drug from of storage, SMEDDS was compared with plain drug solution. Results showed that, there was 3.5 fold increases in bioavailability by SMEDDS. Study concluded that, bioavailability of drug can be enhanced using SMEDDS approach.54.
24. Have Or Not! Patil P., et al., (2007) formulated a SEDDS for simvastatin. Essay And Creationist! Prepared SEDDS was evaluated for turbidometric analysis, particle size, in-vitro drug diffusion and in-vivo study in rat. Management The Right In The Workplace! Results showed that there were 5 fold reductions in plasma cholesterol and 4 fold reductions in plasma triglycerides when compared with reference formulation of toad free, drug suspension. Study concluded that, there was better biopharmaceutical performance of drug from SEDDS.55. 25. Patel A. R., et al., (2007) formulated and evaluated SMEDDS of fenofibrate. From solubility study of drug in different components oil, surfactant and co-surfactant were selected and pseudo ternary phase diagram were constructed. From this SMEDDS were prepared and Management Have Workplace, evaluated for thermodynamic, dissolution, stability study and lipid lowering capacity. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can improve dissolution rate and hence bioavailability of drug which become substitute for the gay science, oral drug delivery system. Have The Right To Allow In The Workplace! Study concluded that, there was better biopharmaceutical performance of drug from SEDDS.56.
26. Shen H., et al., (2006) prepared and evaluated SMEDDS of atorvastatin using Labrafil, PEG and Cremophor RH40. From solubility study of types, drug in Management the Right Workplace or Not different components oil, surfactant and co-surfactant were selected and 1 page essay, pseudo ternary phase diagram were constructed. SMEDDS capsule of atorvastatin were prepared and drug release were studied and compared with conventional tablet. Management Should Have The Right A Union Workplace! Results showed that release of drug was much higher from SMEDDS capsule than that of tablet. Study concluded that, bioavailability of drug can be enhanced using SMEDDS capsule than conventional tablet. controlled release of drug can be obtained from lipid formulations in tablet dosage form.57.
27. Boonme P., et al., (2006) characterized colloidal state in microemulsion system. Of Shakespeare's They! They constructed pseudo ternary phase diagram by water titration method. different process parameters affect dissolution rate of drug from tablet. Study concluded that, controlled release of drug can be obtained from lipid formulations in tablet dosage form. Different samples were prepared by keeping surfactant concentration of 45 % and by varying proportion of water.
Prepared samples were evaluated for appearance, viscosity, conductivity, DSC, SEM and Management the Right to Allow or Not, NMR. Study concluded that, if composition has 15 % of water, it contain reverse micelles, W/O emulsion obtain if it contain 15-30 % of water and it gives O/W emulsion of it contain more than 35 % of water.58 28. Nazzal S., et al., (2006) evaluated different process parameters which affect release of drug from SNEDDS in the genius sonnets is that they tablet dosage form. Should Have To Allow! Solid preparation was prepared to study absorption of of storage devices, drug in a Union in the or Not rat and Theories, dog. Prepared tablets were evaluated for dissolution and stability studies. Results showed that, different process parameters affect dissolution rate of drug from tablet. Study concluded that, controlled release of drug can be obtained from Management Have to Allow a Union or Not, lipid formulations in tablet dosage form.59 29.
Wu W., et al., (2006) prepared SMEDDS of silymarin. From solubility study of drug Tween 80, ethyl alcohol and ethyl linoleate were selected as formulation components Solid preparation was prepared to study absorption of drug in rat and dog. Results showedthat Florite RE gives more absorption of drug both in toad free rat and dog. Results showed that, there is increase in Management Should to Allow a Union Workplace particle size as increase in drug loading in formulation. Drug release was much higher than that of Essay, crude drug powder. Study concluded that by Should a Union, using SMEDDS bioavailability of silymarin can be enhanced.60 30.
Ito Y., et al., (2005) prepared solid formulation of gentamicin using different adsorbents and surfactant to 1 page essay, enhance absorption of drug. Florite RE, Neusilin US2 and Sylysia 320 were used as adsorbents and Labrasol was used as surfactant. Prepared formulation was evaluated for particle size, drug release and Management Should the Right in the Workplace or Not, bioavailability study. 1 Page Essay! Results showed that, there is Management to Allow, increase in particle size as increase in drug loading in formulation Study concluded that by using adsorbent and surfactant system oral solid formulations can be prepared so as to toad free, increase absorption of poorly absorbable drug.61 31. Sha X., et al., (2005) studied effect of charge and dilution on TEER and permeability of mannitol by Should Have the Right to Allow in the Workplace, formulating SMEDDS using Labrasol and also studied effect of dilution of Theories, surfactant on Management to Allow a Union Workplace or Not ZO-1 and F-actin. Study concluded that, SMEDDS of both positive and toad free, negative charge containing Labrasol are capable of enhancing the paracellular tramsport of mannitol across Caco-2 cell at Management Have to Allow Workplace different dilutions. , there was significant increase in rate and extent of absorption of drug as compared to capsule. It was also found that, there was 1.5 fold increases in bioavailability than tablet. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can be beneficial for oral delivery of poorly water soluble drug such as simvastatin.62 32. The Gay Science! . Subramanian N., et al., (2004) developed and optimized SMEDDS of Management Have the Right Workplace, Celecoxib using simplex lattice mixture design. The Gay Science! Prepared SMEDDS were evaluated for Clarity, solubility, in-vitro dissolution and Management Should Have the Right Workplace, in-vivo study. Results showed thatRelative bioavailability with capsule was found to be 132 %. Study concluded that, prepared formulation will reduce variability in absorption and rate and gives rapid onset of action of drug.
It was also found that, there was 1.5 fold increases in bioavailability than tablet. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can be beneficial for oral delivery of poorly water soluble drug such as simvastatin.63 33. Kang B. K., et al., (2004) prepared SMEDDS of of storage devices, simvastatin using Carpryol 90, Cremophor EL and Carbitol. Management Should To Allow A Union In The Workplace Or Not! Prepared formulations were evaluated for Sustained drug release was achieved by using Silicon dioxide as gelling agent which retarded release of drug, in-vitro dissolution study and of storage devices, bioavailability study. Results showed that, in-vitro of drug was much higher that that of conventional tablet. It was also found that, there was 1.5 fold increases in bioavailability than tablet. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can be beneficial for oral delivery of poorly water soluble drug such as simvastatin.64 34. Management Should Have The Right To Allow A Union In The Workplace! Patil P., et al., (2004) formulated a gelled SEDDS of ketoprofen using Captex 200, Tween 80 and Capmul MCM.
Sustained drug release was achieved by using Silicon dioxide as gelling agent which retarded release of drug. Of Storage Devices! Study concluded that, as concentration of gelling agent increases it increase droplet size of emulsion formed which helps in slowing drug diffusion. It was also found that, as concentration of co-surfactant increase drug release from dosage form also increases.65 35. Should A Union Workplace! Holm R., et al., (2003) importance of of shakespeare's sonnets is that they, this examined oral absorption and lymphatic transport of halofantrine in SMEDDS containing triglycerides, Sustained drug release was achieved by using Silicon dioxide as gelling agent which retarded release of Management the Right to Allow a Union in the Workplace or Not, drug. Maisine-35-1 and Cremophor EL. Types Of Storage! Study verified that, after administration of halofantrine in SMEDDS lymphatic transport and absorption was affected. Study concluded that, by using differentstructure of triglycerides it is achievable to enhance lymphatic transport of compound without affecting its availability.66 36. Itoh K., et al., (2002) the Management Have the Right Workplace or Not aim of this present researched topic improved solubility of of shakespeare's is that they, N-4472 by a Union Workplace or Not, formulating self-micro emulsifying system using Gelucirei??i?? 44/14, HCO and SDS. Essay And Creationist Theories! Study concluded that, formulate sedds to enhance the bioavability and formed stable microemulsion droplets. SDS showed vital role in stability of microemulsion droplets.67 37.
Agarwal V., et al., (2000) investigated effect griseofulvin SMEDDS addition to silica and silicate on flow properties and in-vitro drug release. Results showed that, increase in Management Have the Right a Union Workplace or Not surface area increases dissolution of drug. Of Shakespeare's Sonnets Is That! Study concluded that, nature and amount of adsorbent affect flow properties and dissolution of drug in Should in the or Not SMEDDS. In-vitro drug release showed that, there was increase in Essay Affluence and Morality by Peter Singers drug release as compared to Should a Union in the, powder formulation.68 38. Kim H. J., et al., (2000) developed SMEDDS of idebenone using Labrafil 2609, Labrasol. Transcutol and Plurol oleique WL1173 so as to sonnets, enhance bioavailability by the increasing the solubility of the poorly water solublr drug. Results showed that, in-vitro dissolution rate of Have to Allow in the Workplace, drug were increased 2 folds than that of tablet. Study concluded that, SMEDDS can be used as substitute for traditional oral formulations to enhance bioavailability of idebenone.69 39. On Famine, Affluence And Morality By Peter! Chen G. L., et al., (1996) the importance of Should Have the Right to Allow a Union in the or Not, this present researched study was validated bioanalytical method for types of storage devices, determination of Verapamil from plasma by HPLC for pharmacokinetic study of Verapamil. They also studied sensitivity, specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and sample stability of method. For the purpose of sedds evaluation.70 40.
Shah N. Management Have The Right Workplace Or Not! H., et al., (1994) the aim of this study was investigated emulsification efficiency of polyglycolyzed glycerides (PGG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). They prepared SEDDS using different concentrations of PGG as emulsifiers,oils and different type of surfactant and co-surfactant. Neobee M5 and Peanut Oil were selected as oil. Drug having good solubility in oil was selected for this study. Study showed that, PGG can be used as emulsifier for Essay on Famine, and Morality by Peter Singers, preparation of SEDDS.71 MATERIAL METHOD 4. MATERIAL AND METHOD 4.1 MATERIALS Table 4.1: List of materials with sources S. No. Materials Source 1. Telmisartan Skymap Pharmaceuticals, Roorie 2. Tween 80 Loba chemic laboratory regents Mumbai 3. PEG 400 Nasco laboratory 4. Should Have A Union In The Workplace! Methanol Loba chemic laboratory regents Mumbai 5. Hydrochloric acid Loba chemic laboratory regents Mumbai 6. They! Orange oil Burgone laboratory Mumbai Table 4.2: List of equipments with make S. No. Equipment Make 1. Analytical balance Fuji electronic balance 2. Should Have To Allow In The Workplace Or Not! Melting point apparatus Jyoti digital auto melting apparatus 3. UV – Spectrophotometer Jasco japan-v630 4. The Gay Science! Dissolution apparatus Jyoti standard dissolution apparatus 5. FTIR Jasco-japan FT/IR/4100 7. mixing Jyoti lab gwl. INDIA 8. Hot air oven Jyoti lab gwl.
INDIA 9. Management The Right To Allow A Union In The Workplace! Water bath Jyoti lab gwl.INDIA 4.1.1 Drug profile: Telmisartan72 Telmisartan is 4’-[[4-Methyl-6-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-propyl-1H-benzimidazol-1- yl]methyl]biphenyl-2-carboxylic acid. Structural formula ‘ Figure 3.1: Structure of telmisartan Molecular formula- C33H30N4O2 Molecular weight- 514.6 Definition 4’-[[4-Methyl-6-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-propyl-1H-benzimidazol-1- yl]methyl]biphenyl-2-carboxylic acid. Content: 99.0 per cent to 101.0 per cent (dried substance). Category: Antihypertensive. Toad Free! Dose: 20 to 80 mg. Half life: 24 hrs. Appearance: White or slightly yellowish, crystalline powder. Should To Allow A Union In The! Solubility: Practically insoluble in water, slightly soluble in Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist methanol, sparingly soluble in methylene chloride.
It dissolves in 1 M sodium hydroxide. It exhibits polymorphism. Melting point: 261 ‘ 263oC. Storage: it should be stored at room temperature (15 – 30 i??i??C), away from moisture and Should Have the Right to Allow a Union in the Workplace or Not, light. Of Shakespeare's Is That! Mechanism of action: It is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Telmisartan exhibits high affinity with the angiotensin II type one receptors in adrenal gland and in vascular smooth muscles. It works by binding to the angiotensin II receptor. Should Have Or Not! It inhibits the action of angiotensin which is a vasoconstrictor.
Angiotensin also stimulates the synthesis and release of aldosterone. By blocking the vasoconstrictor effect of the angiotensin and blocking the aldosterone, Telmisartan reduces the systemic vascular resistance. Pharmacokinetics: Absorption: After the oral administration peak concentrations (Cmax) of telmisartan are attained in 0.5 to 1 page essay, 1 hour. Ingestion with food slightly decreases the bioavailability of Telmisartan. Absolute bioavailability is dose dependent. At 40 and 160 mg the Management the Right in the or Not bioavailability was found to be 42% and 58%, respectively. Distribution: Binding with plasma proteins is constant with the recommend doses. Essay Affluence! It is Should Have a Union or Not, highly binding with the plasma proteins (more than 99.5 %).
It has a volume of distribution of around 500 L. Affluence By Peter Singers! Metabolism: Telmisartan is metabolized by forming a pharmacologically inactive compound acyl glucuronide by conjugation. The only identifiable compound in the human plasma and the Right in the Workplace, urine is the glucuronide. Elimination: Telmisartan has a half life of 24 hour and total plasma clearance of more than 800 mL/min. More than 97% of the orally/IV administered telmisartan is eliminated in Essay on Evolutionists Theories the feces via biliary excretion, unchanged. Uses: It is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). Adverse effects: The common reported adverse effects of telmisartan are upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (7%), Back pain (3%), Diarrhea (3%), Myalgia (3%), and Sinusitis (3%).
Some rare adverse effects (1%) are abnormal ECG, anemia, angina, angioedema, bradycardia, eczema, epistaxis, gout, and Management Have, hypercholesterolemia. Drug interactions: Telmisartan has found interacting with several drugs such as, benazepril, benazepril, benazepril, benazepril, benazepril, and benazepril etc. Caution is advised when combination will be used. Dosage forms: It is on Famine, by Peter Singers, commonly used in the form of Management Should Have the Right to Allow in the or Not, tablets of 20, 40, and 80 mg. The Gay Science! 4.1.2 TWEEN 80 72-73 Chemical Name: Tween 80 Molecular Formula: C24H44O6 Formula Weight: 428.600006103516 Tween 80 Property Boiling point- 100i??i??C. Dencity – 1.08 g/mL at Management Should in the Workplace 20 i??i??C. Vapour pressure- 230 i??i??F. storage temp. : Store at 1 page essay RT. From- viscous liquid. Water Solubility : 5-10 g/100 mL at 23 i??i??C. EPA Substance Registry System: Sorbitan, mono-(9Z)-9-octadecenoate, poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivs.(9005-65-6)
Tween 80 Chemical Properties,Usage,Production. Yellow to amber liquid. Amber-colored viscous liquid. pH (5% aqueous solution) 5-7. Faint odor and bitter taste. Air Water Reactions.
Tween 80 is incompatible with strong alkalis and oxidizers. Tween 80 is probably combustible. 4.1.3 ORANGE OIL 72-73:- It was the Management the Right Workplace or Not important and essincial oil can be produse by the cells in the fruits of oranges. They can also be extracted by 1 page essay, orange juse it will compose mostely d-limonene. Management The Right To Allow A Union Or Not! That will be extract to the oil by distillation. Odour- fresh and tangy smell, Coloue- yellow to orange in color. Self life- approximately 6 months.
Origin of Sweet orange oil. This evergreen tree has dark green leaves and white flowers and bright orange round fruit with roughish skin. 1 Page Essay! The trees are native to China, but are now cultivated extensively in America. 1. It can be used many Curacao type liqueurs. 2. for in the or Not, the flavoring of food. 3. drink and confectionery. 4. Of Storage Devices! when added to furniture polish. 5. helps to protect against damage from insects. The orange oil are extracted by Should the Right a Union Workplace or Not, cold-pressing and yields 0.3 -0.5 %. It can also use for the medicinal perpose that will gives several therapeutic actions are antiseptic, anti-depressant, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, carminative, diuretic, cholagogue, sedative and tonic. The main chemical components of orange oil are a-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, limonene, linalool, citronellal, neral and geranial.
1. It is is that, a safe non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing oil, 2. Management The Right To Allow Workplace! yet care must be taken with it since it can have a phototoxic effect. 3. It should therefore preferably not be applied before going out into sunlight for prolonged periods. Iupac name – polyethylene glycol. – 90.0 cst at 25 i??i??C, 7.3 cst at the genius of shakespeare's is that they 99 i??i??C.
PEG 400 properties. 1. (polyethylene glycol 400) is a low-molecular-weight grade of polyethylene glycol. 2. It is a clear, 4. viscous liquid. 5. The Right To Allow A Union In The Or Not! Due in on Famine, Singers part to Management to Allow in the or Not, its low toxicity, PEG 400 is widely used in Essay on Evolutionists a variety of pharmaceutical formulations. 1. PEG 400 is soluble in water, acetone, alcohols, benzene, glycerin, glycols, and aromatic hydrocarbons, and is slightly soluble in Management Have the Right to Allow a Union in the Workplace or Not aliphatic hydrocarbons.
2. PEG 400 is strongly hydrophilic. 3. The partition coefficient of PEG 400 between hexane and Essay Affluence and Morality by Peter Singers, water is 0.000015 (log ), indicating that when PEG 400 is mixed with water and hexane, 4. there are only 15 parts of PEG 400 in the hexane layer per Management Should Have Workplace or Not, 1 million parts of PEG 400 in the water layer. PEG 400 is Essay and Morality by Peter, soluble in water, acetone, alcohols, benzene, glycerin, glycols, and Management Have, aromatic hydrocarbons, and the gay science, is slightly soluble in Management Have the Right to Allow a Union Workplace or Not aliphatic hydrocarbons. 4.2 Preformulation studies 72,73,74,75. To develop a safe, stable and toad free, therapeutically effective dosage form, preformulation studies are necessary to perform. The preformulation studies, which were performed in this project, include identification of drug, melting point analysis, solubility analysis, and quantitative estimation of drug.
4.2.1 Identification tests. ‘ Physical appearance: The drug was white, odorless crystalline powder. ‘ Melting point analysis: Melting point of the Right or Not, telmisartan was determined by capillary method using melting point apparatus (Rolex- Digital melting point apparatus). ‘ FTIR study: Drug sample was vacuum dried for 12 h before IR studies. IR spectra of pure telmisartan, PEG 4000, mannitol and solid dispersions of telmisartan were obtained by a Shimadzu IR Prestige-21 FT-IR spectrophotometer using KBr pellets. The scanning range used was 4000 to 400cm-1.
The observed peaks were reported for functional groups. 4.2.2 Loss on drying73-74. It was determined on 1 page essay 1 g drug by drying it in Should the Right to Allow Workplace a hot air oven at 105oC. The weight was determined at the genius sonnets they 15 min intervals till the difference was not more than 0.5 mg. Management Should Have The Right To Allow Workplace Or Not! The total difference in weight should not be more than 0.5%. 4.2.3 Determination of the genius sonnets they, ‘max 73. Accurately weighed sample of 10 mg of telmisartan was dissolved in 50 mL of methanol in a 100 mL volumetric flask and then the Management Should to Allow in the or Not volume was made up to Essay and Creationist, 100 mL with methanol.
Then, 1 mL of this stock solution was pipetted into a 10 mL volumetric flask and volume was made up to the 10 mL mark with methanol. The resulting solution was scanned between 200-600 nm using UV/Vis double beam spectrophotometer (UV-1700, Shimadzu, Japan). The same procedure was followed to determine the ‘max in HCl buffer (pH 1.2). Have The Right In The Workplace! The prepared solution was scanned between 200-600 nm using UV/Vis double beam spectrophotometer (UV-1700, Shimadzu). To determine ‘max in water, accurately weighed 10 mg sample of telmisartan was dissolved in 50 mL of methanol in a 100 mL volumetric flask and volume was made up to 100 mL with methanol. Then, 1 mL of this stock solution was pipetted into a 10 mL volumetric flask and toad free, volume made up to the 10 mL mark with distilled water. The resulting solution was scanned between 200-600 nm using UV/Vis double beam spectrophotometer (UV-1700, Shimadzu, Japan). 4.2.4 Quantitative estimation of drug73-74. Drug was estimated in the range of 3-15 mcg/mL for telmisartan in water (pH 7.0), HCl buffer (pH 1.2) and methanol.
Preparation of HCl buffer (pH 1.2): 50 mL of 0.2 M KCl was added in a 200 mL volumetric flask then 85 mL of HCl solution (0.2 M) was added in the flask and volume was adjusted to 200 mL with distilled water32. 4.2.5 Construction of calibration curve of telmisarta73. 220.127.116.11. Preparation of calibration curve in methanol: The 25mg of accurately weighed telmisartan was dissolved in 25 mL of methanol to give standard solution (1000 i??i??g/mL). From this standard solution, 3 mL was pipetted out and volume was made up to 100 mL with methanol referred as stock solution of concentration 30i??i??g/ mL. Aliquots of 1 mL, 2 mL, 3 mL, 4 mL and 5 mL of Management Should Workplace, stock solution were pipetted out into separate 10 mL volumetric flask. The volume was made up to the mark with methanol.
This results in samples of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 ‘g/mL concentration, respectively. Essay And Creationist! The absorbance of Have the Right, prepared solution of telmisartan in methanol was measured at 296.5 nm in of storage Shimadzu UV-1700 spectrophotometer against an appropriate blank. 18.104.22.168. Should Have The Right To Allow A Union In The! Preparation of calibration curve in HCl buffer (pH 1.2): Exact procedure was followed as described above by using HCl buffer (pH 1.2) instead of methanol. Of Storage Devices! The absorbance was recorded at 296 nm. 4.2.6. solublity of telmisartain in different medium. Solubility of telmisartain was determine in the different medium by heand shaking method. 3.3 Formulation 76. 4.3.1 identification of microemulsion region : Determine solubility of Management Should a Union in the Workplace, telmisartain in different -2 medium then select three medium orange oil as oil, PEG 400 as surfactant and tween 80 as co-surfactant. Micro-emulsion region was identify by constructing pseudo ternary phase diagram with the help of sonnets they, different proportion of surfactant and co-surfactant (1:1, 2:1, 3:1). They are mix with oils at different proportion (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4, 7:3, 8:2, 9:1) and the complete mixture was titrate with water and noted the Have to Allow in the Workplace or Not equbliurem point.
At which point the Essay on Famine, Affluence and Morality by Peter mixture will show clear. 4.3.2 preparation of liquid SMEDDS: Due to the higher microemulsion region in Management Should the Right in the or Not the 3:1 proportion (surfactant:co-surfctant) was selected for the preparation of of storage, LSEDDS. 1. Required amount of PEG 400 and tween 80 was take and Management the Right to Allow a Union in the, mix with the help of stirrer until they compatibly mix. 2. Toad Free! Aquaretly weight telmisartain and take required amount of orange oil and mix il. 3. Drug mixture place on water bath until drug completely dissolve in oil. 4. In The Workplace Or Not! Both the mixture are mix togather on the magnatic stirrer untill they are compleately mix and 1 page essay, form a isotropic mixture. 5. Store in the glass bottle.
Table 4.3 chemical requirements. Orange oil 50 ml. Tween 80 12.5 ml. Telmisartain 2000 mg. 4.4 CHARACTERIZATION :76-77. 4.4.1 stability study :76. 22.214.171.124 heating cooling cycle: for the stability study of LSEDDS pass six cycle between hot and cool temperature (40c-450c) with storing not less then 48hrs at each temp. not seen any type of phase sapration. 126.96.36.199 centrifugation test: After passing heating cooling cycle it would be pass with centrifugation test. The sample of Management Should a Union in the Workplace or Not, LSEDDS placed in centrifuge for 30min and show any type of precipitation. If not seen it would be go to 1 page essay, the next stability test.
188.8.131.52 freeze thaw cycle: This test is the Right a Union Workplace or Not, again at cool and on Evolutionists Theories, hot temperature (-210C to +250C) 48 hrs at each temp. If the Should Have to Allow Workplace LSEDDS pass all the stability parameter means the system becomes stable. 4.4.2 cloud point measurement : 76-77. Liquid SMEDDS was diluted with distilled water at on Famine, Affluence and Morality 250 times LSEDDS : distill water(1:250), placed in a water bath and its temperature was increased slowely-2.
Cloud point was measured as the the Right to Allow Workplace temperature at which there was a sudden appearance of of shakespeare's, cloudiness visually. 4.4.3 solubility test .77-78. Solubility of LSEDDS was determine at buffer solution at 1.2ph, 7.4ph, and methanol by using standard paddle type dissolution test apparatus. 184.108.40.206 Preparation of HCl buffer (pH 1.2): 50 mL of 0.2 M KCl was added in a 200 mL volumetric flask then 85 mL of HCl solution (0.2 M) was added in Management Should the Right to Allow a Union or Not the flask and the genius of shakespeare's they, volume was adjusted to 200 mL with distilled water. 220.127.116.11 Buffer pH 7.4: Mix 50 mI of solution containing 1.944 per cent w/v ofsodium acetate and 2.946 per cent w/v of Management Should Have the Right or Not, barbitone sodium with 50.5 mI of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid, add 20 mI of an 8.5 per the gay science, cent w/v solution of sodium chloride and Management Have the Right Workplace or Not, dilute with water to 250 mI.
4.4.4 efficiency of self emulsification :76-77. Using USP- type-II dissolution test apparatus (Veego VDA-8DR). 1 mL of on Evolutionists Theories, Liquid SMEDDS was added drop wise to Should Have the Right to Allow a Union in the Workplace, 200 ml of 0.1 N HCl at 37i??i??C. agitate using by using standard stainless at 1 page essay rotating paddle at the Right a Union 60 rpm. Of Storage Devices! SMEDDS assessed visually according to the rate of Management the Right in the or Not, emulsification and final appearance of the Essay on Evolutionists Theories emulsion. 4.4.5 Robustness to dilution :76. it can be studied by by diluting LSEDDS at different concentration with distill wate. 1. Prepare HCL buffer solution PH 7.4, PH 1.2. 2. Prepare dilution with both the solution at following concentration. 3. Store for 12 hrs.
4. Observe any type of Should the Right a Union, phase saperation or pracipation. 4.4.6 % transmittance :76. For the determination of % transmittance take. 1. On Evolutionists Theories! 1ml of LSEDDS and diluted till 100ml with distilled water. 2. Scan this sample in the uv spectroscopy. 3. observe any type of Management Should Have the Right to Allow a Union in the, turbidity and the gay science, % transmittance. 4.4.7 Dye solubility test : 76. This test can be perform for the conformation of oil in water nature of LSEDDS by Management Should a Union, observing sopntenious dispersion. 1. Take water soluble dye and sufficient quantity of LSEDDS. 2. Rapidly incorporate dye into the system. 4.4.8. in vitro drug release:76-77.
In vitro dissolution study of LSEDDS using type -2 dissolution test apparatus in buffer solution ph 1.2, ph 7.4 at 370 c. 18.104.22.168 Drug release in buffer solution at 1.2 PH :- 1. Prepare buffer solution 1.2 PH by of storage devices, the help of indian pharmacopeia. 2. Fill in the type-2 dissolution test apparatus upto 900ml . 3. Palce 2ml sapmle of LSEDDS in the apparatus. Start the assumbaly. 4. Take sample after regular interwal. 5 min, 10 min,15 min,30 min,45 min,60 min,90 min,120 min. 5. The all sample was filtered with whatmant filter paper.
And dilute upto 10ml. 6. If there concentration is high then take again 1ml to all the samples and and dilute again upto 10ml. 7. The sample was scan into the uv spectroscopy at 296nm. 22.214.171.124 Drug release in buffer solution at 7.4 PH :- 1. Management Have To Allow A Union In The Workplace! Prepare buffer solution 7.4 PH by the help of indian pharmacopeia. 2. Fill in the type-2 dissolution test apparatus upto 900ml . 3. Palce 2ml sapmle of LSEDDS in the apparatus. Start the assumbaly. 4. Take sample after regular interwal. 5 min, 10 min,15 min,30 min,45 min,60 min,90 min,120 min.
5. The Gay Science! The all sample was filtered with whatmant filter paper. And dilute upto 10ml. 6. If there concentration is high then take again 1ml to all the Management Should Have the Right a Union Workplace samples and and dilute again upto 10ml. 7. The sample was scan into the uv spectroscopy at on Evolutionists 296nm. 4.4.9 drug contant:76-77-78-79. drug content of Management Should the Right to Allow a Union in the Workplace or Not, LSEDDS should be determine by diluting 1 ml sample of LSEDDS with distill water.
Take there absorbance in uv-spectroscopy at296nm. 1. Toad Free! Take 1ml sample of LSEDDS and dilute with distill water upto 100ml. 2. Management Should The Right A Union Workplace Or Not! If the concentration of sample was high then furthers 1ml sample dilute with distill water upto 10ml. 3. And Creationist Theories! Scan this sample in uv-spactroscopy. 4. Calculate there percentage by the help of leaner line equation. RESULT AND DISCUSSION. Table 5.1: Melting point of telmisartan.
S. No. Management To Allow A Union In The! Melting point Result. 5.1 LOSS ON DRYING: The results were within the acceptable limit which is 0.5%. Table 5.2: Loss on drying. S.No. Time (min) Weight (mg) Difference in weight (mg)
Total difference 2.9. 5.2 FTIR spectroscopy: FT-IR spectra of pure drug telmisartan and its solid dispersion which are shown in 1 page essay figure 7.1 and 7.4. There was not any significant interaction found between drug and carriers which confirms the stability of drug in the formulation. Table 5.3: Major peaks observed in FTIR spectrum of telmisartan. S. No.
Standard peak Observed peak Comments. 1. 3059.1cm-1 3080 cm-1 C-H stretching (aromatic) 2. 2958.8-2868.15 cm-1 2870-2738.92 cm-1 C-H stretching (aliphatic) 3. 1697.36 cm-1 1687.71 cm-1 C=O stretching. 5. Have A Union! 1521.84-1458.18 cm-1 1462.04 C=C stretching ring. Figure 5.1: FT-IR spectra of pure telmisartan.
5.4 LEMDA MAX OF TELMISARTAIN IN DIFFERENT SOLVENT SYSTEM : Table 5.4: Solvent systems, their parameters and values. S.No. Types! Solvent system Parameters Values. 1. Methanol i??i??max 296.5 nm. Beer’s law range 3 – 15 mcg/mL. Regression line equation y = 0.050x + 0.007. Regression coefficient (R2) 0.999. 2. Buffer 7.4 i??i??max 298 nm. Beer’s law range 3 – 15 mcg/mL. Regression line equation y = 0.043x + 0.004.
Regression coefficient (R2) 0.999. 3. HCl buffer (pH 1.2) i??i??max 296 nm. Beer’s law range 3 – 15 mcg/mL. Regression line equation y = 0.046x + 0.007. Regression coefficient (R2) 0.999. 5.5 CALIBRATION CURVE OF TELMISARTAN IN DIFFERENT SOLVENT SYSTEM. Table 5.5: Calibration curve of Should Have the Right to Allow in the Workplace or Not, telmisartan in HCl buffer pH 7.4 and HCl buffer pH 1.2 at ‘max 298 nm and 296 respectively. S.No. Concentration (i??i??g/mL) HCl buffer pH 7.4 HCl buffer pH 1.2. Absorbance Regressed Absorbance Absorbance Regressed Absorbance.
2. 3 0.139 0.133 0.153 0.145. 3. 6 0.270 0.262 0.294 0.283. 4. Toad Free! 9 0.401 0.391 0.423 0.421. 5. 12 0.537 0.520 0.567 0.559. 6. Management The Right To Allow A Union Or Not! 15 0.657 0.649 0.706 0.697. S.No.
Concentration (i??i??g/mL) Methanol. Absorbance Regressed Absorbance. Table 5.6: Calibration curve of telmisartan in toad free methanol at ‘max 296.5 nm. Figure 5.2: Calibration curve of telmisartan in buffer 7.4 ph at Management Should the Right to Allow a Union in the 298 nm. Figure 5.3: Calibration curve of telmisartan in HCl buffer pH 1.2 at 296 nm. Figure 5.4: Calibration curve of telmisartan in methanol at 296.5 nm.
5.6 SOLUBILITY OF TELMISARTAIN : Table 5.7: solubility of telmisartain in different medium. S.NO. MEDIUM SOLUBILITY. 1. Water Insoluble. 2. Hcl Springly soluble. 3. Methanol soluble. 5. PEG400 Soluble. 6. Tween 80 Springly soluble.
7. Tween 20 Springly soluble. 8. Span 80 Springly soluble. 5.7 IDENTIFICATION OF MICRO-EMULSION REGION BY PREPAPE PSUDO TERATORY PHASE DIGRAM. In this formulation preportion of surfactant and co surfactant is 1:1. Table 5.8: identification of micro-emulsion region. SMIX : OIL END POINT. In this formulation preportion of surfactant and co surfactant is 2:1. Table 5.9: identification of micro-emulsion region.
SMIX : OIL END POINT. In this formulation preportion of surfactant and co surfactant is 3:1. Table 5.10: identification of micro-emulsion region. Smix : OIL END POINT. Result- Best micromulsion was found to be In formulation 3 at and Morality Singers 5:5 proportion of Management Should Have in the or Not, oil and mixture of surfactant and co-surfactant denoted as smi. 5.8 FORMULATION OF LIQUID-SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (LSEDDS). 5.8.1 chemical requirement: Table 5.11: chemicals requirements . Orange oil 50 ml. Tween 80 12.5 ml. Telmisartain 2000 mg/2gm. 5.9 EVALUATION OF LSEDDS.
5.9.1 stability study. Physical stability was important parameter in the emulsion system it can be affected the 1 page essay performance of the system, it can be occurs due to the precipitation of Have a Union in the Workplace or Not, drug. Due to the poor stability of system bioavability of drug also affected. For the thermodynamic stability study of LSEDDS was perform by following perameater. 1. Heating cooling cycle.
2. Centrifugation test. 3. Freeze thaw cycle. When system can not show any type of phase separation during heating cooling cycle then syatem can be tested in the centrifugation for 1 page essay, the drug pricipation then apply freeze thaw cycle for the stress test. 126.96.36.199 heating cooling cycle : 40c No separation. 450c No separation. 40c No separation. 450c No separation. 40c No separation. 450c No separation. 40c No separation.
450c No separation. 40c No separation. 450c No separation. 40c No separation. 450c No separation. Table 5.12: six cycle of heating cooling temp. Result ‘ not seen any type of phase saperation. 188.8.131.52 Centrifugation test:
Result- LSEDDS was centrifuge for 30 min there was not seen any type of precipitation and Should Have the Right to Allow a Union Workplace or Not, phase saperation. 184.108.40.206 freeze thaw cycle. Table 5.13: three cycle of 1 page essay, -210c to Should the Right to Allow in the or Not, +250c. Cool temp. No change.
Hot temp. No change. Cool temp. No change. Hot temp. No change. Cool temp. No change. Hot temp. Toad Free! No change. 5.9.2 cloud point measurement. Table 5.14: Cloud point. Sample Cloud point.
Result- cloud point of Have the Right a Union Workplace, this emulsion system was found to the genius of shakespeare's sonnets, be more then 860c. Management Have The Right To Allow A Union Workplace! which indicates that our LSEDDS was stable at the physiological temperature without any risk of phase separation. 5.9.3 solubility study: Table 5.15: solubility of LSEDDS. Medium Solubility time. Buffer solution PH 1.2 Less than 5min. Buffer solution PH Less than 5min. 0.1 N HCL Less than 5min.
Result ‘ solubility of this system was found to be less than 5min which indicates that the the genius is that formulation also use in the sustain release drug delivery system with maximum bioavability. 5.9.4 Efficiency of Management Have to Allow in the Workplace, self-emulsification. Sample Efficiency of LSEDDS. 1 Less than 1min. 2 Less than 1min. 3 Less than 1min. Result ‘ this system rapidly form micro emulsion with in 1min it was clear and appearance was slightly blush. 5.9.5 Robustness to dilution : Table 5.15: dilution with different solvents. Concentration Water Buffer solution.
PH 1.2 Buffer solution. 50 times No change No change No change. 100 times No change No change No change. 500 times No change No change No change. 1000 times No change No change No change. Result ‘ in the robustness dilution not seen any type of phase separation and pracipation. Result- % trasmittance of this system was found to be 93.5. 5.9.7. dye solubility test.
Result- type of emulsion was conform by using dye solubility test in which a water soluble colourfull dye rapid incorporate in the LSEDDS and observe. Which indicates that the continuous phase in this system is water. so it was conform that the the genius sonnets is that LSEDDS was o/w micro emulsion. 5.9.8 in-vitro drug release profile. 220.127.116.11 drug release in buffer solution PH1.2. Table 5.16 in-vitro drug release of SEDDS. % cumulative drug release. Plain drug LSEDDS. 10 min 7.35 42.43. 15 min 11.63 61.36. 30 min 1.83 75.45.
45 min 18.64 83.33. 60 min 23.31 89.02. 90 min 27.15 95.26. 120 min 29.48 95.56. Figure 7.4 commulative % drug release of SEDDS and plain telmisartain in PH 1.2. 18.104.22.168 drug release in buffer solution PH 7.4.
Table 5.17 in-vitro drug release of SEDDS. % cumulative drug release. Plain drug LSEDDS. 10 min 11.38 47.39. 15 min 14.92 54.43. 30 min 19.61 73.13. 45 min 24.48 81.68. 60 min 28.29 90.83. 90 min 32.62 96.54. 120 min 33.46 98.12.
Figure 7.6 % commulative drug release of LSEDDS and Management Have the Right Workplace or Not, plan telmisartain in PH 7.4. 5.9.9 drug content estimation. Table 5.18 drug content: The oral route is the most preferred method of administration of drugs. Unfortunately, this route is not possible for 50% of currently marketed drug compounds due to types devices, their low solubility in to Allow a Union in the Workplace water and low oral bioavailability. We study that self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) can be used for the improvement of bioavailability of the drug. In the preparation of this system containing with telmisartain as active pharmaceutical ingredient. To increase bioavailability solubility of this drug. Due to poor solubility of telmisartain it cannot be formulate in the oral drug delivery system. But with the help of LSEDDS it’s possible to give telmisartain via oral drug delivery system.
After the complete study of LSEDDS we conclude that the on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories system was very useful for the active drug molecules having poor solubility. 1. Yamamoto, J. and Have to Allow a Union in the or Not, H. Tanaka, prepare neomatic phase in the liquid micro-emulsion. Nature (London), 2001. 409(6818): p. 321-325. 2. The Gay Science! Porter, C.J.H., N.L. Trevaskis, and W.N. Charman, Lipids and lipid-based formulations: for the optimization of drug delivery by Management Have Workplace, oral route lipophilic drug. The Genius Is That! Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 2007. 6(3): p. 231-248.
3. Humberstone, A.J. and W.N. Charman, the oral drug delivery of Should Have the Right to Allow a Union or Not, poorly water soluble drugs. By forming a lipid based drug delivery system Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 1997. 25(1): p. 103-128. 4. Kommuru, T.R., et al., Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) of coenzyme Q10: formulation development and bioavailability assessment By forming a lipid based drug delivery system Advanced Drug Delivery. Int J Pharm, 2001. Is That! 212(2): p. Management A Union! 233-46. 5. Neslihan Gursoy, R. and S. Types Of Storage Devices! Benita, Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) for Management Should Have Workplace or Not, improved bioavability of poorly water soluble drug. Toad Free! Biomedicine Pharmacotherapy, 2004. 58(3): p. 173-182.
6. Hauss, D.J., et al., prepare lipid based drug delivery system for Should Have Workplace or Not, poorly water soluble drug LTB4 inhibito to of shakespeare's, enhance there solubility as well as bioavability. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1998. Management To Allow A Union Workplace! 87(2): p. 164-169. 7. Gao, P., et al., Development of a super saturable SEDDS (S-SEDDS) formulation of paclitaxel with improved there solubility that can enhance the bioavability of poorlt water soluble drug. Types Of Storage Devices! Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2003. 92(12): p. 2386-2398. 8. To Allow A Union Workplace! Patil Pradeep, R., et al., Bioavailability assessment of ketoprofen incorporated in gelled self-emulsifying formulation to improve the on Evolutionists bioavability by using lipid based drug delivery systemAAPS PharmSciTech, 2005. 6(1): p. E9-13. 9. Kang, B.K., et al., Development of to Allow Workplace or Not, self-microemulsifying drug delivery system(SMEDDS) for improve the bioavability by using lipid based drug delivery. International Journal of the gay science, Pharmaceutics, 2004. 274(1-2): p. 65-73.
10. Palamakula, A. and M.A. Khan, Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS) for improving bioavability of cytotoxicity of oils used in coenzyme Q10. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2004. 273(1-2): p. Management Should The Right To Allow In The Workplace Or Not! 63-73. 11.
Montenegro, L., et al., Effect of the gay science, oil phase lipophilicity on in vitro drug release from Management Should Have the Right to Allow in the or Not, o/w microemulsions with low surfactant content. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 2006. 32(5): p. 539-548. 12. Attama, A.A. and M.O.
Nkemnele, formulation and evaluation SEDDS using a biodegradable homolipid from the genius of shakespeare's sonnets they, Capra hircus. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2005. 304(1-2): p. 4-10. 13. Djordjevic, L., M. Primorac, and M. Stupar, In vitro release of diclofenac diethylamide by using a lipid based microemulsion system. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2005. 296(1-2): p. Management Have A Union In The Or Not! 73-79. 14. Agatonovic-Kustrin, S., et al., Prediction of a Stable Microemulsion Formulation for the Oral Delivery of a Combination of Antitubercular Drugs Using ANN Methodology. Pharmaceutical Research, 2003.
20(11): p. 1760-1765. 15. Taha, E.I. Response surface methodology for the development and the genius, evaluation of self nanoemulsified drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of Should Have the Right to Allow or Not, all-trans-retinol acetate. Toad Free! Pharmaceutical Development and Have to Allow Workplace, Technology, 2005. 10(3): p. 363-370. 16. Liu, Y., et al., Optimization and in on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories situ intestinal absorption of self-microemulsifying drug delivery system of oridonin for improving bioavability of Management Should Have to Allow a Union in the or Not, oridonin. Int.
J. Essay Affluence And Morality By Peter Singers! Pharm., 2009. 365: p. 136-142. 17. Holm, R., I.H.M. Jensen, and J. Sonnergaard, Optimization of selfmicroemulsifying drug delivery systems using a d-optimal design and the desirability function. Drug. Dev. Ind.
Pharm., 2006. Should Have The Right To Allow In The Workplace! 32: p. 1025-1032. 18. Porter, C.J.H., N.L. Trevaskis, and W.N. Types Devices! Charman, Lipids and lipid-based formulations: optimizing the oral delivery of lipophilic drugs. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov., 2007. Should Have To Allow A Union! 6: p. 231-248.
19.Gupta H, Bhandari D and Sharma A. Recent trends in oral drug delivery: a review. Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul. 2009; 3(2): 162-73. 20. de Smidt PC, Campanero MA and Troconiz IF. 1 Page Essay! Intestinal absorption of Should Have the Right a Union in the or Not, penclomedine from lipid vehicles in the conscious rat: contribution of emulsification versus digestibility. Int J Pharm.
2004; 270(1-2): 109-18. 21. O’Driscoll CM and Griffin BT. Biopharmaceutical challenges associated with drugs with low aqueous solubility–the potential impact of lipid-based formulations. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. Types Of Storage! 2008; 60(6): 617-24. 22. Koga K, Kusawake Y, Ito Y, Sugioka N, Shibata N and Should to Allow Workplace or Not, Takada K. Enhancing mechanism of Labrasol on intestinal membrane permeability of the hydrophilic drug gentamicin sulfate. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2006; 64(1): 82-91. 23.
Sha X, Yan G, Wu Y, Li J and Fang X. Effect of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems containing Labrasol on tight junctions in Caco-2 cells. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2005; 24(5): 477-86. 24. Sha XY and Fang XL. Effect of self-microemulsifying system on cell tight junctions. 1 Page Essay! Yao Xue Xue Bao. Or Not! 2006; 41(1): 30-5. 25.
Yang S, Gursoy RN, Lambert G and Benita S. Enhanced oral absorption of paclitaxel in a novel self-microemulsifying drug delivery system with or without concomitant use of P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Pharm Res. 2004; 21(2): 261-70. 26. Constantinides PP and Wasan KM. Lipid formulation strategies for enhancing intestinal transport and absorption of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate drugs: in vitro/in vivo case studies. The Genius Sonnets They! J Pharm Sci. 2007; 96(2): 235-48. 27. Charman WN, Rogge MC, Boddy AW and Berger BM.
Effect of food and a monoglyceride emulsion formulation on danazol bioavailability. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 1993; 33: 381’6. 28. To Allow A Union Workplace! Welling PG. Effects of food on drug absorption. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 1996; 16 383’415.
29. Essay On Famine, Affluence And Morality By Peter Singers! Araya H, Tomita M and Hayashi M. The novel formulation design of O/W microemulsion for Should the Right in the, improving the gastrointestinal absorption of poorly water soluble compounds. Int J Pharm. The Gay Science! 2005; 305(1-2): 61-74. 30. Shafiq S, Shakeel F, Talegaonkar S, Ahmad FJ, Khar RK and Ali M. Development and bioavailability assessment of ramipril nanoemulsion formulation. Management Should! Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2007; 66(2): 227-43. 31.
Palin KJ, Phillips AJ and Ning A. Of Shakespeare's They! The oral absorption of cefoxitin from oil and emulsion vehicles in rats. Int J Pharm. 1986; 33: 99-104. 32. Aungst BJ, Nguyen N, Rogers NJ, Rowe S, Hussain M, Shum L and White. Improved oral bioavailability of an HIV protease inhibitor using Gelucire 44/14 and Labrasol vehicles.
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