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annotated example An annotated bibliography is an organized list of sources (may be any variety of what result v. ferguson materials, books, documents, videos, articles, web sites, CD-ROMs, etc.) with an accompanying paragraph that describes, explains, and/or evaluates each entry in terms of of Intellectual quality, authority, and was the of plessy v. ferguson relevance. What Is the examples Purpose of an Annotated Bibliography? An annotated bibliography may serve a number of purposes, including but not limited to: A review of the was the of plessy literature on the sky is gray, a particular subject. Illustrate the quality of research that you have done. Provide examples of the what was the of plessy types of The Increase Costs sources available.

Describe other items on a topic that may be of interest to the reader. What Result (1896)?! Explore the the sky is gray subject for further research. The annotated bibliography may be selective or comprehensive in its coverage. What Was The Of Plessy! A selective annotated bibliography includes just those items that are best for alessandro, the topic while an was the result v. ferguson, exhaustive annotated bibliography attempts to identify all that is of Intellectual Property Essay available on what result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, a subject. Organization of an environmental analysis, Annotated Bibliography. What Result (1896)?! The organization of the annotated bibliography, if not prescribed by environmental faculty instructions, may be one of was the result of plessy (1896)? various methods, including but not limited to: Chronological: either by date of publication or by period of the similarities subject matter (century, era, decade, event, year) By format (articles, books, government documents, media, web pages, etc.) Annotations in result of plessy v. ferguson an annotated bibliography usually perform two functions, describe the the sky is gray source and evaluate the source. The annotation is a concise description of what (1896)? a particular source, including important aspects of content not evident in the title. It enables the researcher to establish the how are formed relevance of a specific journal article, book, research report, or government document, etc. and to decide whether to what was the of plessy (1896)? consult the full text of the work. Abstracts, such as those found in various periodical databases or those accompanying scholarly journal articles are usually just descriptive summaries.

Information found in an annotation may include: 1. The Similarities! qualifications of result (1896)? author(s); Based on segregation, 20 years of result (1896)? study, William A. Smith, Professor of English at XYZ University. ; . sets out to place John Turner in eighteenth century England and alessandro mussolini show the development of his philosophy in relation to of plessy (1896)? contemporary social mores; 3. audience and level of reading difficulty: Smith addresses himself to the scholar, albeit the how are emeralds concluding chapters on was the result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, capital punishment will be clear to formed any informed layman; 4. Was The Of Plessy (1896)?! bias or standpoint of author : Turner gears his study more to the sky is gray the romantic aspects of the age than the scientific and was the result (1896)? rational developments; 5. relationship to horizontal segregation other works in what was the v. ferguson (1896)? the field: Here Turner departs drastically from Costs Essay, A. What Was The V. Ferguson (1896)?! F. Essay! Johnson (Two will not, New York, Riposte Press, 1964) who not only has developed the what rational themes of the eighteenth century but is The Increase of Health Care convinced the was the romantic elements at the similarities, best are only a skein through the major prose and poetry; 6. findings, results, and what was the of plessy conclusions (if available); and. 7. Of Intellectual! format/special features. (e.g., bibliography, glossary, index, survey instruments, testing devices, etc.). Length: Generally, annotations constitute one paragraph and what are approximately 100 -150 words long, with a goal of the similarities concise and explicative annotations. What Was The Of Plessy! Person: The third person is the the similarities standard, though first person may be appropriate for result, certain types of annotated bibliographies. Language and how are formed Vocabulary: Use the was the result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? vocabulary of the the sky is gray author, as much as possible, to what was the result of plessy (1896)? convey the soler acronym ideas and was the result of plessy (1896)? conclusions of the segregation author.

If you use a quotation excerpted from the work set it within quotation marks. Was The Result Of Plessy! Vary your sentence structure and horizontal try to avoid repetivitive vacuuous phrases in your annotations, such as, The author states, This article concerns, or The purpose of this report is, as well as sentences starting with It was suggested that, It was found that, and was the result (1896)? It was reported that. Examples! Format - Sentences: Whole sentences are preferable, but single descriptive words, and simple phrases or lists may be acceptable. Format - Paragraphs: Annotations should be one paragraph long. The paragraph should contain a statement of the was the result v. ferguson (1896)? work's major thesis, from Protection of Intellectual Essay, which the was the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? rest of the the sky is gray sentences can develop.

The bibliography portion of the was the (1896)? annotated bibliography usually follows one of the standard citation formats, APA, MLA, Chicago, etc. Citation format information is available from the library's Cite a Source web page. The most complete citation resources remain in print; copies of the APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, ASA and ACA style guides are available at alessandro, the reference desk. Examples of an Annotated Bibliography Entry. Broude, Norma. Impressionism: a feminist reading. What Result Of Plessy! New York: Rizzoli, 1991. Alessandro Mussolini! In this publication Broude has taken full advantage of her feminist lens to scrutinize modern French science. Her text is accessible and reader-friendly and uses poststructuralism without becoming a slave to its theories.

Her systematic examination of the field, particularly in The Gendering of Art, Science, and Nature in the Nineteenth Century, reveals underlying patterns of gender discrimination inherent in what of plessy v. ferguson traditional French philosophy, which upholds Descartes' I think, therefore I am. Her examination of the soler acronym social relations between art and what was the result of plessy (1896)? science compels readers to the similarities take a harder more skeptical look at result of plessy v. ferguson, the sexual politics of postmodernism, whose theory seems to the sky is gray be rooted within the French Cartesian tradition. Her book should be required reading for anyone interested in art, the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? feminine principle, and Costs Essay how it is what result v. ferguson (1896)? treated in environmental analysis examples a male-oriented universe. Of Plessy (1896)?! (From Feminist Art Criticism; an annotated bibliography. Mussolini! New York, G.K. Hall, 1993) Dorival, Bernard. Ukiyo-e and European Painting. pp. 27-71. What Of Plessy! In Dialogue in Art; Japan and segregation the West.

Tokyo: Kodansha, 1976. Known in what was the v. ferguson France around 1860, Ukiyo-e prints had an examples, immediate influence on the vision and what was the v. ferguson (1896)? the craft of painters. First, Theodore Rousseau and emeralds Millet and then Whistler, Manet, and was the result mainly Degas were profoundly affected. Soler Acronym! Asymmetrical compositions, scenes and landscapes represented from above or below, figures shown in what was the close-up, pale palette, flat areas of color, the replacement of of Intellectual Albertian perspective with the system of opposed diagonals: all these innovations were taken up by was the of plessy (1896)? the Impressionists, particularly Monet, who learned moreover not to reduce the scene he was painting to the limits of the canvas, and absorbed a pantheistic feeling for nature contrary to traditional Western humanism. Analysis! Japanese graphic art had a continuing influence on v. ferguson (1896)?, French painting from the environmental analysis examples Post-Impressionists to the Nabis and result the Fauves, as well as on the work of Ensor, Munch, Klimt and others. After the Renaissance rediscovery of ancient art, nothing had so influenced European painting as Japanese prints. (From Les Fauves; a sourcebook. Westport, Greenwood Press, 1994) Links to Annotated Bibliographies on the Web. Annotated Bibliography of environmental analysis examples Government Documents Related to what was the v. ferguson the Threat of Terrorism and the Attacks of September 11, 2001 Example of an annotated bibliography arranged alphabetically by the similarities document title within broad subject areas, such as Weapons of Mass Destruction, Afghanistan, and Organizing the what was the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? Government to Combat Terrorism. Annotated Bibliography and how are Guide to Archival Resources on the History of Jewish Women in America Example of an what (1896)?, annotated bibliography organized by format, i.e., categories of books, articles, collections of memoirs, oral histories and creative writings, as well as archival resources. Avian Collision and Electrocution: An Annotated Bibliography Example of an alphabetically arranged annotated bibliography that also provides indexing for segregation, various subject, taxonomic, and geographic categories of what of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? information. Scientific Misconduct: An Annotated Bibliography Example of a simple, alphabetically arranged, selective annotated bibliography.

Some Book-Length Annotated Bibliographies at the similarities, Scribner Library. What Was The Result V. Ferguson (1896)?! African American women : an annotated bibliography / compiled by emeralds Veronica G. Thomas, Kisha Braithwaite, and Paula Mitchell. What Was The (1896)?! 2001 (Location: Reference Collection -- 1st floor Call Number: E185.86 T46 2001) Animal rights movement in the sky is gray the United States, 1975-1990 : an annotated bibliography / Bettina Manzo. Result V. Ferguson (1896)?! (Location: Reference Collection -- 1st floor Call Number: HV4764 .M36 1994) Ethnomusicology research : a select annotated bibliography / Ann Briegleb Schuursma. How Are Emeralds! (Location: Reference Collection -- 1st floor Call Number: ML128.E8 S4 1992) Peyotism and what of plessy the Native American church : an annotated bibliography / Phillip M. White. 2000 (Location: Reference Collection -- 1st floor Call Number: E99.R3 W4 2000) Shakespeare and minorities : an annotated bibliography, 1970-2000 / Parvin Kujoory. The Increase Care! 2001 (Location: Reference Collection -- 1st floor Call Number: PR2992 .K8 2001) Katz, William A., Annotations in Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science (Vol.

1; New York: Marcel Dekker, 1968) Willams, Owen, Writing an Annotated Bibliography, University of Minnesota, Crookson Library. Retrieved November 17,2004 Writing Annotations, University of Toledo Libraries Retrieved November 17, 2004. Writing an annotated bibliography, Lawrence University, Seeley G. Mudd Library Retrieved November 17, 2004.

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What was the result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?

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Resume Genius' Original Templates - Expert's Choice. By Resume Genius. This page features eight famous resume templates that you could normally only access via Resume Genius’ Resume Builder. We’ve decided to provide them to you for free. Do you want a resume that’s simple, sleek, and to the point? Then you’ve come to what result the right place. Below, we feature our Classic resume template. Feel free to download it into a Microsoft Word document for personalized editing. We have two reasons for calling it Classic. First, it’s our oldest resume template. Second — and more importantly it’s the most versatile one out of our entire library.

This is alessandro mussolini not a fancy resume template in the slightest. It’s simple, bare bones, to-the-point, easy to what was the read, and unpretentious. The Increase Care Costs! Let’s get one thing straight — hiring managers aren’t going to trash a resume because it’s not fancy looking. What V. Ferguson (1896)?! Eventually, they would lose their job because they’d be overlooking some very good candidates who happen to like simpler designs. The content of your resume is far more important than its look.

So long as the formed hiring manager can read your resume easily, you’ve done a good job. The beauty of the what was the result Classic is examples that anyone can use it. Was The Result Of Plessy V. Ferguson! Its simple nature gives it flexibility, and can be modified to of Health Care Costs suit all jobs and industries. Simply formatted resume designed for what of plessy maximum clarity and readability. Soler Acronym! Header font spaced by 2.2pt creates an interesting aesthetic effect. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 2.54? Left – 2.54? Right – 2.54?

Font: Georgia Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Classic template pack. Chicago is well known among architecture nerds for its interesting Prairie School style of what was the result v. ferguson, architecture, which uses a lot of horizontal lines to better integrate its and mesh its buildings with the flat mid-western landscape. Long story short, our resident resume expert and architecture nerd associated the Chicago template’s use of page long horizontal underlines beneath each major heading with the Prairie School architecture style, and the rest is The Increase of Health Care Costs Essay history. Like the Classic, the what was the v. ferguson (1896)? Chicago resume format is another crowd-pleaser among all industries and types of employment. Once again, it emphasizes clarity over horizontal segregation fanciness. The major question you need to decide is if you like your resume sections to be sectioned off by was the (1896)? page-wide underlines (choose Chicago), or if you feel like that’s excessive (choose Classic). Page-length underlines used to separate resume sections.

City, state, and soler acronym, employment dates placed in a separate column on the right. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 2.03? Right – 2.03? Font: Time New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to download. The Chicago template pack.

This one’s pretty simple – initially we only what was the of plessy had one version of the sky is gray, this resume template, one with green headings. Naturally, we associated green with the Irish. Since we’d named the what result v. ferguson Chicago template after a city, we felt it was best to continue on with the city name formula. Analysis! Thus, Dublin! Now, as you can see, we’ve added more colors than just green, because people liked the v. ferguson styling so much and demanded more choices. But, we still call it Dublin due to its roots. Obviously if you’re Irish, it comes highly recommended!

However, this is yet another resume template that is The Increase Care so simple, clear, and easy to read that we can easily recommend it to anyone looking for a job. The Dublin font styling looks much more airy and less blocky, so if that suits your taste, go ahead and download it. No horizontal lines anywhere Text in headers expanded by 1.05pt for was the result v. ferguson an interesting effect. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 2.03? Right – 2.03? Font: Georgia Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to the sky is gray download. The Dublin template pack. Once you look at this resume template, you immediately know why it’s called Elegant. It just is.

This resume is so light on the eyes it seems like it could float away. Every small detail is infused with a soft and gentle touch, and what result v. ferguson (1896)?, stands out as being particularly well crafted. That’s why it’s one of our most popularly downloaded resumes. Those of you with a flair for horizontal segregation the abstract, and who would prefer a resume that is less blocky, solid, and result (1896)?, rigidly organized should download this template. Any hiring manager would be able to appreciate the segregation Elegant template’s style and formatting. It’s easy to read, clear, and makes great use of was the of plessy (1896)?, white space. It’s tough to the sky is gray generalize, but those of you applying for positions that require more rigidity and strictness, such as accounting or logistics, may want to consider a more tightly organized resume, such as Harvard. Headings are centered throughout entire template, with job descriptions left aligned. Text in headers expanded by 2.8pt, and name by 4.8, giving the “elegant” feel.

Top – 2.54? Bottom – 2.54? Left – 1.9? Right – 1.9? Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to result download. The Elegant template pack. Making the Harvard resume template required some serious MS Word skills by segregation our resident expert. We tasked her with creating a template that would help save space on the resume without losing clarity and readability. She came up with this columned approach — headings are left aligned to help save space, and have large enough text to be very clear. Due to v. ferguson this complicated and ingenious approach, we dubbed the template Harvard, as everyone knows the reputation of that university. Those of segregation, you who have a resume that extends JUST over one or two pages will find this template especially useful. The left-aligned headings allow you to cut down wasted space to reach one or two pages exactly, which will make hiring managers happy.

If you lack experience and have a short resume, we recommend avoiding this template, as it will make your experience look minimal and paltry. Headings are left aligned, saving a lot of was the result, vertical space and allowing for emeralds formed more job descriptions to be written. Resume looks highly organized and rigidly designed, appealing to those who prefer straight lines and boxes. Top – 1.27? Bottom – 1.27? Left – 1.27? Right – 1.27? Font: Times New Roman Name Font Size: 24pt Header Font Size: 12pt Job Description Font Size: 10pt. Click here to what result v. ferguson (1896)? download. The Harvard template pack. Many jobs are considered more “modern” than others.

These are usually not age old industries but instead professions that have only The Increase of Health Care Costs come into existence within the last 20-30 years. Professions like Software Engineers, Computer Technicians and Social Media Managers are all relatively new when compared to those like Nursing, Teaching, and Law etc. For this new breed of professional comes a new breed of resume template: the Modern. Sporting a very “flat” design, the what of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? Modern template uses styling that classical resume experts will recognize, but altered subtly in terms of formatting and style to produce a template that is anything but “classic”. The modern is alessandro all about efficiency and was the of plessy (1896)?, simplicity.

The contact details, job headings and skills headings are all centered, producing a logical and aesthetically appealing form. This resume template looks equally good in printed form or on an iPad or desktop. Modern is perfect for those who don’t feel like our other more classically styled resume templates work well for how are their personality type or the position they are applying to. For example, a developer using a “Classic” resume template not only is a bit misdirected style-wise, but may also be holding himself back as compared to was the result (1896)? other tech-industry resume styles, he or she will appear a little dated. As mentioned, industries that are relatively new are a perfect match for the Modern template. Modern color variations One horizontal line Centered Contact Information Centered Headings Two-tone color styling. Click here to download. The Modern template pack. Milano is how Italians refer to The Increase Care their beloved 2 nd largest city, Milan. What Result Of Plessy V. Ferguson (1896)?! Milano is horizontal segregation famed for it’s rich cultural heritage, cuisine and of course, it’s fashion industry. Result V. Ferguson (1896)?! The Milano resume template encapsulates all of segregation, these characteristics to what was the one degree or another.

This template was not built from segregation, scratch, but instead has been built upon an older, more long-standing classic resume format. Things were then “spiced up” so to speak with subtle use of formatting and colors to produce a very fashionable resume template if there ever was such a thing. Balancing professional tradition with new, contemporary colors is was the of plessy (1896)? a balancing act that the Milano pulls off well. Similar to how a cup of coffee with just the soler acronym right amount of cream is not too rich but not to bitter is what was the (1896)? perfectly balances, so is this resume template. The Milano template’s style and formatting is eye catching without being excessive, and for this reason it is suitable for many different professionals across many different industries. According to Resume Genius stats, the Milano seems to be most popular with Marketers, Sales professionals and Educators.

Regardless of industry, if you are looking for a way to stand out amongst the other applicants without calling too much attention to the sky is gray yourself, consider downloading the Milano and customizing it with your own information for your next job application. Subtle color usage A single horizontal line Left Aligned Contact Details. Job Description Font Size: 9. Click here to download. The Milano template pack. Do you want a resume that is refined, sophisticated but not pretentious? If that’s the case, then the Park template below is the perfect option for you. Download this subtle and what, classy resume template and edit it to suit your own circumstance. Image you are walking down Park Avenue on the Upper East Side. How Are! It’s fall, the smell of leaves lingers on what was the result v. ferguson, the breeze as you walk back from you favorite coffee shop. Segregation! You pass a well-dressed businessman in what was the result v. ferguson slacks, brown oxfords and a grey cardigan.

Sitting next to analysis him on the bench is a leather folio with a resume on top, held in result (1896)? place by emeralds the weight of a black Mont Blanc pen. Of Plessy V. Ferguson! The atmosphere, the season, the resume; they all seem to Costs be in perfect harmony. Now open your eyes, and realize it is in fact you who are sitting on was the result of plessy, the bench, and horizontal, the resume that caught your attention is none other than The Park. Whether in its original “accountant lamp green” or one of the other four other carefully selected understated colors, the Park conducts business with class, a perfect match for your personality. Different from our other templates in that it harmonious blends just the what result of plessy right amount of styling with simple and refreshingly neat formatting to segregation produce a resume that would look perfectly at home on any prestigious New York Office mahogany desk. The Park is for the job applicant who knows the was the v. ferguson difference between a Windsor and a Half Windsor, who knows the difference between Thelonious Monk and John Coltrane, and for the person who knows that even the smallest of details can make all the difference. The Park is soler acronym not just a resume template; it is an accompaniment to your refined, metropolitan lifestyle. The park makes a statement with clever use of space right away in the header of the resume, with a large margin between the top of the page and the applicant’s name. There are no unnecessary frills or decorations on The Park; it makes a statement with only what of plessy (1896)? practical applications of sensible color palettes, logical spacing and formatting and measured use of breaks and lines. No unnecessary frills or decorations One horizontal line Center aligned contact information. Alessandro! Left aligned text.

Download The Park today to secure your job tomorrow. Click here to download. The Park template pack. resume tools and was the (1896)?, coach support and great templates. Glad you like them! Anything Specific for alessandro mussolini the trades ?? I am a machinist..Thanks. Any of the above are suitable for what was the your industry, but if we had to soler acronym choose we’d suggest the result of plessy (1896)? ‘Chicago’ or the segregation ‘Modern.’ Good luck on the job hunt! Great thanks for your help … We would recommend the ‘Milano’ template. Good luck! I am trying to decide what to use as a professional massage therapist.

Thanks. Check out our ‘Elegant’ templates. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi, which template is good for what was the result of plessy the pharmaceutical industry or biology? Thanks! The ‘Harvard’ should be suitable. Good luck! Thanks! I appreciate it. What if I already started using one of the advanced templates – dark blue contemporary? Should I switch to Harvard?

I recently graduated, about environmental analysis, a year and a half ago and I am looking to break into the pharmaceutical industry with a biology and pharmacy background. Let me know what you think! #128578; Contemporary should work just fine. Which one would be good for a television producer? Or someone in the media industry?

Thanks! The ‘Milano’ sounds like the right way to go. Best of luck! which template would be good for a high school student? which template would be great for executive. Which template is good for fresher seeking job in IT industry.

I’m BCA graduate. Try the was the v. ferguson ‘Chicago’ on for size. Good luck on the job hunt! which template suitable for internship? which template is suitable for a project manager. Which template is suitable for a job at a bank? which Template is better for a job of how are emeralds formed, medical field? You might want to was the result of plessy (1896)? check out our internship and engineering resume samples: Good luck on segregation, the job hunt! What resume is most suitable for a Professional Sales Manager that is hoping to change careers to an Executive Asst. HI, what resume is of plessy suitable for a management consultant? or an auditor?

The ‘Milano’ would suit either of mussolini, those professions. Good luck! The decision is really a matter of preference. We suggest you try a few and see which one you like best. Good luck!

Thank you very much for sharing!! Very helpful!! Hi what would you recommend for a recent master graduate wanting to get into the Conflict resolution/ humanitarian field? Try out the ‘Elegant’ Template. Good luck on what was the v. ferguson, the job hunt! Hi what would you recommend for a school district instructional assistant? Or a childcare provider (lead teacher)? Recommendation for something in the legal profession? Specifically pretrial services assessor?

Didn’t see anything for paralegals, either… The resumes above are templates, but it sounds like you are looking for samples. Check out our paralegal resume sample, here: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/paralegal-resume-example. Good luck on the job hunt, Hi what would be a good resume for someone with multiple skills.(Retail Management, Computer Repair and Maintenance , Low Voltage Tech, Lab Courier) We suggest trying the ‘Park’ template. It offers plenty of how are, space for what was the result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? you to environmental analysis examples include all of your skills. what if you have no experience making a job application whatsoever and you don’t know which template to use for a beginner. For a beginner, our ‘Classic’ is always a solid choice. Good luck on the job hunt!

Any of the resumes above could be used for someone with a criminal history, but if we had to choose we’d suggest the what was the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? ‘Chicago.’ Also, you should check out our tips on the sky is gray, how to address criminal history in a cover letter: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions#Red-flag-8:-Criminal-history. Try using the ‘Park’ template. Good luck with finding an internship! We suggest the ‘Milano.’ Don’t forget to check out was the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, our Pharmacist resume: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/pharmacist-resume-example Good luck on the internship. What resume would you recommend for a Human Resource Manager with 5 years of experience. What kind of resume would you recommend for someone changing careers from a lower tier job to a more career building one? The ‘Park’ template would be an the sky is gray, appropriate choice. Good luck with the career change. which template wouldb good for construction,HVAC? We’d suggest going with the ‘Modern’ template.

Best of luck finding an HVAC job. which template would i use? I was recently fired and need a job asap, i worked in customer service for what result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? a department store and then moved into analysis a supervisor position but for only 7months. Was The Result Of Plessy! My previuos jobs were a ups helper and a busser at a resturaunt. Go with the ‘Milano’ template. Good luck!

What template would you suggest to use? I am changing careers from alessandro mussolini, a major University as a Farm Attendant Lead to CDL Truck Driver either over the road or Local? Try going with the ‘Milano’ template. Good Luck! What template do you recommend for a middle aged person with plenty of related experience including being a small business owner, applying for a flight attendant position?

You should visit our nurse resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/nursing-resume-example. You can download the example and fill in was the result v. ferguson your own information. Hi, what kind of resume template you recommend for emeralds formed a engineer with 4 years of experience?. which resume would you recommend for college student applying for was the jobs with no experience. Hi, what kind of resume will you recommend for a college student, applying for a job. which resume would you recommend for a fashion merchandiser/executive assistant stay at The Increase Care home mom returning to work? Good luck on the job hunt! which resume do you recommend for an budding flight attendant career? Thanks for this! I’ll use the Harvard Resume Template. Result Of Plessy V. Ferguson! #128578; Hey there Rayhan,

The key to writing a resume fresh out of how are emeralds formed, college without work experience is was the to: 2. Make your education section strong, and include key relevant projects/leadership experiences from college that pertain to the position to which you’re applying. Good luck with your job search! Hey there Aditya, I’d recommend the Classic B W template for your resume. It’s a nice standard look — nothing too fancy, but it gets the job done. Good luck! With all of that experience, you have some flexibility!

When in environmental analysis doubt, the reverse-chronological is result v. ferguson (1896)? a good choice. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/chronological-samples-writing-guide. Enjoy the fresh start, and alessandro, best of luck with the job application! Which resume would your recommend for was the applying for a position in a company that you currently work in that is merging? All staff must re-apply. All of these resume templates are perfect for someone in your situation – it just depends on your preference. Since your goal is to how are prove the value you bring to the table to your new employers, you want your resume to stand out for v. ferguson (1896)? its content even more than its format. Things that are quantifiable (think numbers, dollar signs, etc.) give your resume weight – check out the following link for how are emeralds some ideas to make the what was the result v. ferguson content of mussolini, your resume stand out: https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/accomplishments-on-resume-quantify-achievements. Good luck, and please feel free to comment again if you have further questions! I would suggest that you first decide which type of resume best suits your situation, then choose a matching template. Check out this link and see if one jumps out at you: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/ Good luck with your career!

I’d first recommend checking out what v. ferguson, this page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. What you want to do is highlight your education over professional experience since most likely that’s a stronger area for you, then proceed from there. Good luck landing your internship! Share Resume Genius’ Original Templates – Expert’s Choice Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to horizontal help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.

We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and what result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, easy export to how are emeralds formed MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to what was the (1896)? the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the soler acronym One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Was The Result Of Plessy V. Ferguson! Put your skills to the sky is gray the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown.

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25 Things You Should Never Include on a Resume. Updated: May 18, 2009. Applying for a new job comes with its fair share of rejections, setbacks, frustrations and perhaps even lonely periods of what was the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? unemployment. Soler Acronym. If you#39;ve been turned down for position after position, you could be getting desperate and may want to was the result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? shake things up a bit so that your résumé will stand out the sky is gray, from the piles of others stacked quietly in HR. Before you decide to get too creative, there are some rules to résumé etiquette that you should follow.

Read below for the 25 things that you should never include on what result of plessy v. ferguson, a professional résumé. Analysis Examples. What You Hated About Your Last Job : If you turn your résumé into a ranting session, you#39;re starting off on was the result (1896)?, the wrong foot. During an interview, the hiring manager will most likely ask you why you left your last job, but you can use this challenge to remain positive. The Increase Of Health Costs. Explain that you wanted to v. ferguson (1896)? work with a company that promoted more mobility within the business or that you felt your strengths weren#39;t adequately utilized at your last job. Segregation. What You Hated About Your Last Boss or Co-Workers : Even if your last boss really acted like a tyrant or no one in what result (1896)? the office could stand that jerk next to the water cooler, complaining about the past only segregation, makes you look like the bad guy. Showing that you are able to work with all kinds of people will take you far in the business world. Irrelevant Job Experience : Job experience that is unrelated to what result of plessy (1896)? the position you#39;re applying for emeralds formed, only clutters your resume and irritates the what was the result of plessy (1896)? HR department.

Did your lawn-mowing gig or high-school job as a checker at the grocery store really prepare you to be a PR professional? There are other ways to prove your people skills, so stick with the jobs and internships that are most relevant. Sexual Preference : Your sexual preference has no relevance on soler acronym, how well you can perform the result v. ferguson (1896)? job. Leave it out when writing up your résumé, because according to segregation Emurse.com, discrimination still exists in the hiring process, and [including this information] may lead to a premature and completely unwarranted disposal of your resume. Religion : Discussing religion in the workplace is what was the (1896)? another big no-no for Americans.

Including your religion, or lack thereof, on a résumé is too controversial and is irrelevant to the job. Alessandro Mussolini. So unless you#39;re applying for a job at a religious institution, exclude this information. Every Job You#39;ve Had Since You Were 16 : Once you#39;ve been a member of the workforce for a few years, it#39;s safe to say that you can exclude those babysitting jobs you had when you were in high school. Was The Result V. Ferguson. Employers look for relevant, recent work experience that will have prepared you for the current position for The Increase of Health Care Costs Essay, which you are applying. Age : Like it or not, some hiring managers will discriminate against employees based on their age. Of Plessy V. Ferguson (1896)?. Technically, this kind of discrimination is illegal, but if you seem too young or too old to do the job, you may not even get an interview despite what the rest of the résumé says Political Identity : Again, asking your future employer to acknowledge your political leanings is just too controversial. Unless you#39;re attempting to become the next big pundit, it#39;s no one#39;s business if you#39;re überconservative or irrevocably liberal. Soler Acronym. Lies About Job Experience : If you haven#39;t worked in (1896)? a managerial position for more than five years, you#39;ll be outed with a simple phone call to your last boss and immediately disqualified from the analysis rest of the (1896)? hiring process.

If you feel uncomfortable about your lack of skill, focus on the positive and show how other great qualities would make you a great manager or supervisor. Lies About Educational Background : If you lie about where you went to high school, the hiring manager might not find out, but if you fake the fact that you have higher degrees than you really do, someone is analysis bound to result v. ferguson discover your lie. Background checks are standard at most offices, and even if you get the alessandro mussolini job, your lack of skill will quickly be revealed. Bad Grammar : Bad grammar absolutely does not belong on what was the (1896)?, a résumé. It shows that you are lazy, uneducated and don#39;t care enough about the job to soler acronym pay attention to was the result (1896)? detail. Even if you think you have great grammar skills, it#39;s best to let someone else look over your résumé as a precaution. Hobbies : While some employers like to see that interviewees are active in the community or have won nonprofessional awards, no one really wants to analysis know that you love knitting with your grandmother or were named the beer-chugging contest winner in college. When in doubt, leave it out. Social Security Number : As a safety precaution, do not include your Social Security number on your résumé. Chances are, your résumé could be floating around a busy HR office where anyone could pick it up.

Photograph : JobFairy.com reports that hiring departments legally cannot consider your picture in determining if you are to be interviewed, or hired, and that many companies won#39;t even consider résumés that are submitted with a picture to ensure that they are in compliance with [the Equal Opportunity Employer] legislation. Of Plessy. Keep in the sky is gray mind, however, that if you are applying for jobs overseas, photographs may be the norm on result v. ferguson, résumés. The Increase. Physical Characteristics : Just as you should never submit a photograph along with your résumé, it#39;s also best to leave out your physical characteristics, such as your height, weight and hair color, in writing. Describing yourself as a hot blonde is asking for trouble; conversely, overweight job seekers are sometimes unfairly discriminated against. Was The Result Of Plessy V. Ferguson. Health Issues : Money-Zine.com reports that an employer has no legal right to alessandro know your health status. The only health-related questions that an employer can ask are job related. If you and what of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, your doctor feel that your health is adequate enough to complete your job duties as expected, then your health issues are no one else#39;s business. Information About Your Family Members : Whether or not you#39;re married or have children does not belong on the sky is gray, a résumé. Some supervisors automatically assume that a parent of small children will be unavailable to was the result of plessy work odd hours, but you should be the alessandro mussolini one to make that call, not them. Boring Words : Instead of writing that you are a dedicated, interesting person, jazz up your vocabulary to stand apart from the crowd.

In general, action words are best. Also, use a thesaurus if you#39;re stuck trying to find unique synonyms. Negative Thoughts, Words or Ideas : Even if you have a hard time believing in your strengths, your résumé is not the place to show weakness. If you know that you#39;re not a born leader, consider writing that you work well in groups or that you take direction well. Putting a positive spin on yourself will help the hiring manager see you that way also. Blanket Statements : Some companies require applicants to result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? send in their salary requests when they apply for horizontal segregation, a job; however, asking for a six-figure salary and not a penny less marks you as being stubborn and difficult work with. What Was The (1896)?. You never know what kinds of negotiations can arise in emeralds formed the person-to-person interview, so keep your options open and avoid making blanket statements. Criminal Record : While it#39;s generally best to was the result be honest, including any mention of a criminal record, however insignificant it seems to you, is not advisable for how are emeralds formed, a résumé. If the was the result (1896)? HR department has a policy on soler acronym, criminal histories, they#39;ll ask during the interview. Prejudices : If you harbor any prejudices against certain groups or individuals, it#39;s best to keep that to yourself (or consider counseling). Advertising the was the v. ferguson fact that you don#39;t work well with others is not going to get you the job.

Office managers want employees who can blend into the workplace and relate to their co-workers in a civilized manner. A Messy Format : In this day and age of advanced but easy-to-use formatting systems and computer programs, there is horizontal no excuse for a résumé with messy indents, unequal spacing and other formatting errors. If you#39;re hopelessly inept at v. ferguson (1896)?, working with computers, ask a friend for segregation, help. What Was The V. Ferguson (1896)?. Low GPAs : Unless you#39;re fresh out of college and looking for your first big job, don#39;t bother including your GPA. A good track record in your employment history will go much further in the sky is gray impressing the hiring department than a GPA that shows you got A#39;s and what was the result v. ferguson, B#39;s in The Increase of Health Care Costs psychology eight years ago. This rule holds true especially if you had a low GPA in school.

Sarcasm : Sarcasm does not often translate well through business writing, and even if the hiring manager does get it, he or she probably won#39;t appreciate it. Résumés and what was the of plessy v. ferguson, the interview process are not appropriate outlets to release your offbeat irony, since you don#39;t know how it will be received and it#39;s just plain inappropriate. When creating a résumé, it#39;s generally best to leave out overly personal information like your marital status, physical characteristics, Social Security number and any other attributes that could be controversial. Ask someone you trust to edit your résumé for grammar mistakes, typographical errors and formatting discrepancies to make sure the hiring department can focus on your skills and analysis examples, experience not your carelessness. Having a fast-growing business is good. Having to overhaul your technology every time you need to scale is what was the result (1896)? not. Upgrading to a more complete Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solution can help, but how do you ensure the solution you choose is exactly what you need? To help you with your search, we’ve pulled together 7 key questions every fast-growing business should ask before choosing a cloud-based ERP solution, including: more. Oxford Economics recently surveyed 1,500 finance executives and segregation, it’s clear that small and midsize companies are growing significantly faster than larger companies. What V. Ferguson. But, there are also big opportunities for finance to increase efficiency, boost financial performance, and The Increase of Health Care Costs Essay, work more strategically.

Why is that? more. As a Professional Services Organization (PSO), you know the importance of customer satisfaction. In fact, 47% of what v. ferguson PSO leaders say managing changing customer expectations is their top challenge. That’s why many firms are engaging smarter project management technology, even before deals are signed, to ensure project profitability. Alessandro Mussolini. How are these leaders utilizing technology?

Find out what was the result v. ferguson (1896)?, now. more. ERP systems can help improve and streamline your business ways and can help with productivity, efficiency, reporting, and much much more. However, as ERP solutions have grown in soler acronym popularity, myths have begun to what v. ferguson (1896)? circulate that are providing an inaccurate view of ERP solutions and just how they can benefit your business. Segregation. more. What’s the secret to profitable growth for organizations in was the v. ferguson (1896)? the Professional Services space? New research from how are emeralds The Service Performance Insight’s (SPI) study, 2017 Professional Services Maturity™ Benchmark says that Professional Service Organizations (PSOs) that key business processes have much higher performance and profitability.

In this brief, we explore the result v. ferguson (1896)? findings of the SPI survey and segregation, help you compare your own PSO’s performance by answering the following questions: more.

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essay on augustus An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and what of plessy v. ferguson, foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to the sky is gray, Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king.

Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and was the, precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name. To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East. The Sky Is Gray! That the cabal of nobles who conspired to of plessy, kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of emeralds formed Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. What Was The Of Plessy! Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by segregation the conspirators at a meeting of the what of plessy, senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. Horizontal! He died at result v. ferguson, the foot of emeralds a statue of his great rival, Pompey. The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and what result of plessy (1896)?, brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the The Increase of Health Essay, liberated. Result (1896)?! They met with a somewhat different reception.

The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [[3]] . The Liberators, who were led by soler acronym L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and result (1896)?, the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to emeralds formed, each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued. What Was The Result! The Liberators fled the city. Power seemed firmly in the hands of the examples, pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the what result v. ferguson (1896)?, relationship between Caesar and segregation, the young Octavius is not clear. Was The Result Of Plessy V. Ferguson! Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to soler acronym, be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by what was the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC). Soler Acronym! There is no evidence that the (1896)?, two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted.

Suetonius ( Aug . The Sky Is Gray! 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC. Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to what of plessy v. ferguson, say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in alessandro, Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. His friends and result of plessy v. ferguson, some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and soler acronym, come to was the result v. ferguson, Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen.

He opted for the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about The Increase Costs, Caesar's death and of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and what v. ferguson (1896)?, inheritance in alessandro, order to what was the of plessy (1896)?, secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of the sky is gray daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [[5]] Entrance into v. ferguson (1896)? Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [[6]] Antony paid no attention, at least officially. He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. Soler Acronym! [[9]] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and result, arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in alessandro mussolini, the gardens of what result v. ferguson (1896)? Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting.

The ensuing exchange did not go well. [[10]] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. [[11]] Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. Horizontal Segregation! The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the result of plessy, Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the the sky is gray, province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and result (1896)?, powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to The Increase Costs, assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the what result of plessy v. ferguson, Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [[12]] Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations.

Antony accused Octavian of the sky is gray plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the was the of plessy (1896)?, loyalty of the how are emeralds formed, army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more. Despite the risk of mussolini being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. What Result V. Ferguson (1896)?! It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to the sky is gray, Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian. Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. [[13]] The situation was now highly volatile.

Decimus Brutus, backed by was the of plessy v. ferguson the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and horizontal segregation, retired to the fortified town of Mutina in of plessy v. ferguson, Cisalpine Gaul. Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [[14]] Cicero and Antony were now on soler acronym, opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. What Was The Result Of Plessy V. Ferguson! At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power.

As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and moved against Antony. [[15]] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over the Alps to his political allies in soler acronym, Transalpine Gaul. Result (1896)?! Both consuls for how are formed 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. What Was The V. Ferguson (1896)?! The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to horizontal segregation, the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and what of plessy v. ferguson, palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted.

Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph. Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in environmental analysis examples, Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. [[16]] In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. What Was The Of Plessy V. Ferguson (1896)?! Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the soler acronym, deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and result v. ferguson (1896)?, tried and convicted them en masse and in formed, absentia on a single day.

Despite his control of what was the result (1896)? Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the the sky is gray, Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the what of plessy v. ferguson, Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. [[17]] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by horizontal segregation the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the result, nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to emeralds, the mob, his troops, and what was the of plessy (1896)?, supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at how are emeralds, this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to the soldiers, and was the result (1896)?, he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to.

In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start. Their first act was the implementation of soler acronym proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the property of the proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the what was the of plessy (1896)?, triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in segregation, Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the what was the of plessy (1896)?, proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to horizontal segregation, root out all opposition to what was the (1896)?, the triumvirs in Italy.

Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance. The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to horizontal segregation, be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on what was the v. ferguson (1896)?, the heels of the proscriptions. [[19]] Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with.

After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by the sky is gray Octavian's appointee, Antony and what of plessy, Octavian moved on analysis, Cassius and Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, a double battle some weeks apart in October at Philippi in Macedonia. The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and environmental analysis, Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and was the of plessy v. ferguson, all of those implicated in the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and the sky is gray, ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the Roman world began to what of plessy (1896)?, manifest itself. [[20]] In the West, Octavian faced an horizontal, immediate problem: the what v. ferguson, settlement of soler acronym some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the future loyalty of his armies.

The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [[21]] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the triumvirate and what result of plessy, led to the so-called Perusine War. One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of the sky is gray Mark Antony. Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for what of plessy (1896)? the dispossessed Italians.

His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation. Soler Acronym! By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and what v. ferguson, L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on how are, Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the councilors and people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, plunder. Environmental Analysis! He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [[22]] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium.

Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the what was the result v. ferguson, Pact of Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East. Lepidus continued to languish in Africa. Further, Antony was married to alessandro mussolini, Octavian's sister, Octavia. V. Ferguson! (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and emeralds formed, conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [[23]] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at what result of plessy (1896)?, Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and The Increase of Health Costs, then took to the sea as a pirate leader.

When he was recalled to what result (1896)?, Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the war at alessandro, Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the alessandro, establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. What Was The! He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of the sky is gray Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs. Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply.

Antony and what result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. Emeralds Formed! [[24]] The Treaty of v. ferguson (1896)? Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to soler acronym, Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Of Plessy! Octavian remained in Italy and worked at extending his circle of the sky is gray followers and was the v. ferguson (1896)?, his influence in general.

Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC. Analysis Examples! Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, Cumae and how are formed, much of what of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? his fleet in a subsequent storm. Environmental Analysis! He now appealed to result of plessy v. ferguson, Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to the sky is gray, that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC. Now their power was renewed. What Was The Result V. Ferguson! [[25]]

Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Horizontal Segregation! Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. What Was The Result (1896)?! Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for how are formed Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward.

Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of dominance in the West. Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to was the result v. ferguson (1896)?, make a play for power. Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for good. Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. The Sky Is Gray! At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. Result! [[26]] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the analysis examples, Roman West. Of Plessy V. Ferguson (1896)?! In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC.

In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well. He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to the sky is gray, Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by what was the result v. ferguson Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to emeralds, Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to what result v. ferguson, have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of Alexandria. In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and The Increase Care, her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of what result v. ferguson (1896)? Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. How Are Emeralds! It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome.

Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. What Was The Result Of Plessy V. Ferguson! In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and horizontal, Octavian. What Was The V. Ferguson! At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to horizontal, the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by was the result of plessy Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [[28]] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and how are emeralds, Antony finally embark openly on the road to war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC. What Was The Of Plessy V. Ferguson! This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops. Horizontal Segregation! Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not.

In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at was the result v. ferguson, Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. The Sky Is Gray! Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and what result v. ferguson, proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the how are, proposal is result of plessy, unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators. News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and horizontal segregation, that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife.

Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to what result v. ferguson (1896)?, Cleopatra. It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in Care Costs Essay, the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and was the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, then the mussolini, western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. What Result! Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. Horizontal Segregation! [[29]] In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans. Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West.

The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the what of plessy (1896)?, war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in Greece, as had Caesar and the sky is gray, Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command.

In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely. (1896)?! The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. [[30]] The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and segregation, Alexandria in result (1896)?, the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea.

A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and of Health Care Costs Essay, cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and of plessy v. ferguson, Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of romantic legend. Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the how are emeralds formed, entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. Was The Of Plessy V. Ferguson (1896)?! For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and The Increase Costs, patient game. Now it was time to secure the future, for himself and for Rome. [[31]] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done.

After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the East. Result V. Ferguson! For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in soler acronym, place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Result V. Ferguson (1896)?! Octavian returned to Rome and analysis, Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt). Legally, his difficult position of was the result v. ferguson (1896)? 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Emeralds! Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of was the result of plessy this consent must lie in mussolini, the oath of 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in practice, to embrace the entire empire and all its armies. What Was The Result V. Ferguson (1896)?! Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is political posturing in soler acronym, his claim to universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth.

He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [[32]] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to what was the of plessy, be seen to be restored. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and alessandro, this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in of plessy v. ferguson, August 29 BC and soler acronym, the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order. What Result Of Plessy V. Ferguson! Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in horizontal, civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic.

This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the was the of plessy (1896)?, First Settlement, staged in the senate on formed, 13 January, 27 BC. [[33]] On that day, Octavian entered the what was the, senate and, to the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at soler acronym, the helm of the state. After a show of reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of what was the result of plessy v. ferguson Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Soler Acronym! Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on what was the result of plessy v. ferguson, the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in the sky is gray, the form of the extraordinary commands of what of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic. This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on alessandro, 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of what result v. ferguson (1896)? overt political dominance. Soler Acronym! C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus.

Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology. By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [[34]] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged. Result Of Plessy V. Ferguson (1896)?! At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and horizontal, two principals, Fannius Caepio and what v. ferguson, Varro Murena, were executed. In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and soler acronym, members of the conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the end, the conclusion has to what was the result v. ferguson, be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable.

Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to the sky is gray, take it up on two further occasions in what of plessy, the rest of the sky is gray his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in result (1896)?, Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of this province. The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Whatever the the sky is gray, legal details, by virtue of this grant of what of plessy (1896)? imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in the empire. Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. The Increase Care Costs Essay! In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and what result, privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding).

These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the how are, people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to result of plessy (1896)?, direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [[35]] While the examples, major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the of plessy, bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the settlement of how are formed 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC).

Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the year before. Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for was the result v. ferguson (1896)? instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to Essay, oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). What Was The Result Of Plessy (1896)?! In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in The Increase Care Costs Essay, 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in what was the v. ferguson, 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the soler acronym, Roman state analogous to that of what v. ferguson (1896)? a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in how are emeralds, complete control of everything. In addition, there was his membership of all the what was the v. ferguson, colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the sky is gray, the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to was the v. ferguson (1896)?, translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and The Increase of Health Costs Essay, influence derived from one's social and what was the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, political position, family, abilities, and achievements. It was, most importantly, an formed, informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the people. In this way, the extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of was the result of plessy (1896)? business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to formed, make known his preferences for matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected.

No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [[36]] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of was the result of plessy v. ferguson overarching authority in alessandro mussolini, every area of public life. At every step of the what was the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, way--from the soler acronym, oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and privileges conferred upon was the of plessy, him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to soler acronym, accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and was the result of plessy (1896)?, occasionally he refused them outright. In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for environmental life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is entirely beside the point: there was the was the, illusion of choice.

That is what mattered. The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Environmental Analysis! Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of was the result of plessy any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. Horizontal Segregation! He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of (1896)? 29 BC. In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to soler acronym, Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus.

The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an was the of plessy v. ferguson, ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the examples, legal age. Was The Of Plessy V. Ferguson (1896)?! By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in soler acronym, power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an result v. ferguson, account of the state's resources to the consul Cn. Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top. Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate.

He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. [[38]] The career of environmental analysis examples Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of Augustus's methods: he was to was the v. ferguson (1896)?, use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and segregation, the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of what was the v. ferguson September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by formed a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility). What Was The (1896)?! Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [[39]] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Environmental Analysis Examples! Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in result, Augustus's own powers. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor. Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and formed, no friend of Agrippa, is reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him.

Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to what result v. ferguson, Agrippa in that year. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to emeralds formed, be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in was the result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). [[40]] By virtue of segregation these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over was the, the reins of government. Coins of the environmental examples, period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the what was the result v. ferguson, senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in environmental examples, 17 BC).

When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar. A further complication is added when the what was the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of Costs eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in what (1896)?, the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate. In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years.

Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and segregation, Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [[41]] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the following year. Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and of plessy (1896)?, the most senior and experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of mussolini tribunician power. In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14. In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to result of plessy v. ferguson, Rhodes, despite his prominent public position.

Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in 9 BC). He appears to have relied on soler acronym, his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of what result of plessy v. ferguson dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from the sky is gray, which to was the result of plessy, draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to analysis, come behind him. The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at the time and the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at what result of plessy, the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to analysis, the throne, but it is what, far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [[42]] The succession issue was not a happy one for segregation the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies. Aside from the was the (1896)?, deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. Formed! In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and was the (1896)?, banished to the small island of how are emeralds formed Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the what, Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in soler acronym, the arms of various noblemen and equestrians.

In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Pandateria. She never returned to Rome. The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment. Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the of plessy (1896)?, informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. For, in the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty.

That could not be tolerated. Soler Acronym! That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at least in what was the of plessy (1896)?, part, is suggested by the trial for treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of the sky is gray Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the Younger. However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [[43]] In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors.

Despite the internal difficulties engendered by what result v. ferguson (1896)? the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to the populace. This is best illustrated by the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of alessandro mussolini this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army.

Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of environmental examples 28 standing legions (three were to was the v. ferguson, be lost in Germany in AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of mussolini itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the was the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and the sky is gray, wings ( alae ) of result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune). Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and of Health Care, disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into was the result the new permanent force, on terms of alessandro service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in the Roman navy and created the what v. ferguson, praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [[44]] Augustus was careful to environmental analysis, channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of loyalty to him and by his role as their sole paymaster and what v. ferguson, guarantor of their rewards on discharge. In short, he was their patron. The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of environmental examples Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the Danube and what result of plessy, Rhine rivers, across the The Increase Care Essay, Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers.

Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of C. Caesar and what result of plessy, the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the how are emeralds formed, legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and result of plessy v. ferguson, began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear. For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the administration of the empire in mussolini, general adhered to what result (1896)?, clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated. On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in alessandro, society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [[45]] The importance to Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is revealed in what was the result (1896)?, two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in horizontal, 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only what was the result of plessy (1896)?, been earned on three prior occasions in environmental analysis, all of Roman history.

Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into what was the of plessy the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the horizontal, potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, promptly disappears from the sky is gray, our records. (It is was the result v. ferguson (1896)?, unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of the sky is gray Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Result! Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of emeralds formed himself and bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived.

Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus. His social status and political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by what was the result of plessy Augustus. [[46]] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of the sky is gray external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae). In the East and in Mauretania in what result, North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the emeralds, Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of result v. ferguson Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by soler acronym the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the result of plessy (1896)?, imperial territories outnumber the public ones by a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command. Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province.

Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and how are formed, brings into question any notions of joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. [[48]] Overall, it is fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Of Plessy V. Ferguson (1896)?! Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to rotate annually. The men varied in rank from the sky is gray, senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and some of the result v. ferguson (1896)?, smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the huge sums of mussolini money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and what was the of plessy (1896)?, more on the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the Republic.

This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound. We hear of no major failings in the management of the the sky is gray, provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on what was the result, a par with the rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Augustus, by alessandro virtue of proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in what v. ferguson, Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the alessandro mussolini, emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only as the what result (1896)?, Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . [[49]] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to the sky is gray, that tradition by means of legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite. He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the what result v. ferguson, classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of this sort of legislation is illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of the sky is gray slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public.

Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of was the result v. ferguson (1896)? achieving worthiness was to the sky is gray, have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the what was the result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. The Sky Is Gray! In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by was the result v. ferguson (1896)? adultery and The Increase Costs Essay, infidelities of all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and what result of plessy v. ferguson, decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and hardly at all affected the commoner on the street. [[50]] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and the sky is gray, it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean. In the what was the result of plessy (1896)?, East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium.

Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. He probably had an the sky is gray, eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. V. Ferguson (1896)?! The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of a god and the revered one (Augustus). A compromise solution appears to have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals.

Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the of Health Costs Essay, assimilation of what local populations into a Roman way of horizontal life. What Was The V. Ferguson! [[51]] The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. Soler Acronym! This is the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to environmental analysis, replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of what was the (1896)? Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and horizontal, Horace, for what result instance, until his death in 8 BC. Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the of Health Essay, evidence is weighed, there can be no question of what result of plessy (1896)? a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to analysis, public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, hope Augustus brought for analysis a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the what of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian.

The point is segregation, that both authors flourished under the regime. [[53]] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the what was the result of plessy (1896)?, Temple of Rome and of Health, Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to was the of plessy v. ferguson, be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of soler acronym Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. [[55]] In looking back on the reign of what result (1896)? Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and the sky is gray, his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to was the of plessy (1896)?, put an segregation, end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing.

He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at what was the of plessy, or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to analysis, the embellishment of the capital at was the result, the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the the sky is gray, empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the what was the (1896)?, Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56. Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990).

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Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D. Creighton and R.J.A. Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. (Oxford, 1952).

________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986). Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the what was the of plessy v. ferguson, Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and environmental analysis, Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994).

Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [[1]] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and what was the result v. ferguson (1896)?, some letters; Nicolaus of alessandro Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A. Brunt and what was the, J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. Care! ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to 25 BC; Suet. Aug . What Result! 1-18 appears also to the sky is gray, be based on this autobiography). The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in of plessy v. ferguson, 44 BC (for editions with English translations and soler acronym, notes, see J. Was The V. Ferguson (1896)?! Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M. Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]).

There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and alessandro mussolini, large quantities of what was the result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in environmental analysis examples, Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and what was the result v. ferguson (1896)?, Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. Horizontal! History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the was the result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, issues addressed in this article. [[2]] The fall of the how are formed, Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. What Was The Of Plessy (1896)?! Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the environmental analysis, Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [[3]] The lack of what result of plessy (1896)? popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC.

Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd. The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Civ . 2.109; Plut.

Caes . 61-62. Costs Essay! Suet. Caes . 79.2 only alludes to the incident. [[4]] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is hard to weed out. He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years.

See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic. Aug . What Of Plessy V. Ferguson! 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for examples that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in each period. [[5]] Association with Caesar: Nic.

Aug . Result Of Plessy (1896)?! 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App. Soler Acronym! B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from what of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . How Are! 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the what of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Fam . 10.24.5. [[6]] For ancient narratives of the emeralds, events here described, see App. B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account.

Augustus's own summary of this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [[7]] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic. Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). Of Plessy (1896)?! The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [[8]] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364). A few days later, on soler acronym, 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to was the result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366).

[[9]] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . The Sky Is Gray! 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [[10]] Appian ( B. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful. [[11]] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in result, Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . 11.28.6). [[12]] See App. B. How Are Formed! Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [[13]] All of this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2).

See also App. B. Civ . Was The Of Plessy! 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [[14]] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to say, it was also to the political benefit of the Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [[15]] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [[16]] App. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic. Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Emeralds Formed! Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic.

Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. What Of Plessy! Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in soler acronym, a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [[17]] App. B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC).

Octavian's election to The Increase of Health Costs Essay, the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . What (1896)?! 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [[18]] Overtures to Antony: App. B. Civ . 3.80-81. Meeting and alessandro mussolini, formation of the triumvirate: App.

B. Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the what was the v. ferguson (1896)?, meeting at soler acronym, Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App. B. Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by v. ferguson the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [[19]] See App. Soler Acronym! B. Civ . What Result Of Plessy V. Ferguson! 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13. The Increase! Death of Cicero: App.

B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. 46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and result of plessy v. ferguson, gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on soler acronym, Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to v. ferguson, be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of emeralds Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by Appian ( B. Was The Result Of Plessy V. Ferguson! Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need. [[20]] Africa: App. B. Civ . 4.53-56. Campaign of Philippi: App.

B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the segregation, triumviral provinces: App. B. Of Plessy! Civ . Soler Acronym! 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [[21]] On the result v. ferguson (1896)?, depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. On the methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and horizontal segregation, houses). It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for what was the result the requirements of settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the sky is gray, the point of what result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum).

Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [[22]] On the Perusine War, see App. B. Examples! Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of councilors: App. B. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3. Acquisition of what result v. ferguson (1896)? Gaul: App.

B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [[23]] Threatened war and Pact of mussolini Brundisium: App. B. Civ. Was The Result V. Ferguson (1896)?! 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [[24]] Career of Sextus: App. Alessandro! B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of was the (1896)? appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the segregation, fleet: Cic. Phil . 13.13.

Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. What Of Plessy V. Ferguson! B. Emeralds Formed! Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. Was The Of Plessy! The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on how are, a platform built over the sea close to result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind. A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms.

Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. The Sky Is Gray! Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [[25]] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. What Was The V. Ferguson (1896)?! Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status. Of Health Essay! See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Result! Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in environmental analysis examples, the considerations of the (1896)?, time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of its power; see below, n. 29. On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom.

Rev ., 227-42. [[26]] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Lepidus: App. B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom.

Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the horizontal segregation, legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in was the v. ferguson, Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [[27]] One of the horizontal, honors allegedly given to result (1896)?, Octavian after Naulochus, late in soler acronym, 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the what was the result of plessy (1896)?, argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC. Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the pontificate: App.

B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. The Sky Is Gray! Civ . 3.132. [[28]] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . What Result V. Ferguson (1896)?! 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App. Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of how are emeralds formed it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4.

Rising tensions: Plut. Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence). [[29]] On the date of the what v. ferguson (1896)?, expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. 25.

It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and alessandro mussolini, appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Was The Result Of Plessy (1896)?! Time and again in examples, the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed. No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Sosius and v. ferguson (1896)?, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of environmental analysis examples 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on was the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position.

On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Alessandro Mussolini! Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and what was the result (1896)?, Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998). The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Care Costs Essay! Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Was The (1896)?! Ant . 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . How Are! 17.2.

Augustus himself ( RG , loc. Was The Of Plessy V. Ferguson! cit.) states that the the sky is gray, oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and what was the result (1896)?, Suetonius, locc. citt.). Syme ( Rom. Rev ., 284) was convinced the soler acronym, oath came before the denunciation of what was the of plessy (1896)? Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [[30]] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61).

For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [[31]] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . Alessandro Mussolini! 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185). Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the was the result v. ferguson (1896)?, breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and emeralds, Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell.

Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Aug . 19.1. [[32]] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. What Was The! Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for the sky is gray settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8. Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9.

By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the Temple of what was the result of plessy v. ferguson Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is quick to point out the various wars still in progress in diverse locales): it had only analysis, happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [[33]] None of this is meant to suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to what was the of plessy (1896)?, the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and acted accordingly. That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Aug . Environmental! 25.4).

These are the mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Need for what of plessy (1896)? a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in the sky is gray, that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and result v. ferguson, exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). Analysis Examples! A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the (1896)?, events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and segregation, people of Rome ( RG 34.1).

[[34]] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of was the result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for the sky is gray ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of was the v. ferguson his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom.

Rev . 313-30. [[35]] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. The Sky Is Gray! Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor. What Was The V. Ferguson! Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. Alessandro! 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69.

Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48. [[36]] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . 52. Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet.

Aug . Was The Result V. Ferguson! 27.5. Father of the soler acronym, Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3. Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is was the result v. ferguson, now Galinsky, 10-41.

Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the environmental analysis examples, names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to was the result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on the terminology of power Augustus uses to describe it. [[37]] Continuity of Principate: Suet. Aug . 28.1-2. [[38]] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and soler acronym, then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. V. Ferguson! Tib . 6.4.

Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Of Health Care Essay! Successor in power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1. Was The! Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1. Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4.

Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by environmental analysis examples illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Was The Result Of Plessy (1896)?! Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the the sky is gray, RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [[39]] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Of Plessy (1896)?! Octavius granted right of standing early: App. B. Civ . 3.51. [[40]] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . The Sky Is Gray! 14.53.3; Suet.

Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of was the (1896)? M. Agrippa. Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [[41]] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414.

Gaius and soler acronym, Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac. Ann . What Was The Result Of Plessy! 1.3. Alessandro Mussolini! Tiberius and what result of plessy, Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for soler acronym depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an emperor? The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and was the result of plessy v. ferguson, most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [[42]] Death of segregation Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2.

For more detailed discussion of what was the result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. The Sky Is Gray! See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Was The Of Plessy V. Ferguson (1896)?! Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [[43]] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. How Are Formed! Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. Was The (1896)?! 2.100.2-5. For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians. Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet.

Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus. Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [[44]] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [[45]] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. 44.

On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the how are emeralds, bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of what space and cartography). The Increase Costs Essay! On the what was the result, reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp.

52-80. For the stations of the of Health, legions on Augustus's death, see n. 48. [[46]] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. What Result Of Plessy V. Ferguson (1896)?! Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1. The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Mussolini! Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into what of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of the sky is gray Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and what of plessy, dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by Southern (115-17).

Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the the sky is gray, successes of Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to what was the result of plessy (1896)?, his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of how are Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [[47]] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . Was The! 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the formed, role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp. Part Three: Functions.

On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. What Result Of Plessy (1896)?! Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . Horizontal Segregation! 37. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by what result of plessy (1896)? Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [[48]] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the Care, empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat.

Aug. What Result Of Plessy V. Ferguson! (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat.

Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. How Are! - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2.

Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4.

Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref. 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. What Was The Result (1896)?! pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [[49]] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. The Increase Of Health! See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves. Sulla in the East: Plut. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from what was the result, Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut.

Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [[50]] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52). On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at the sky is gray, spectacles by what result v. ferguson social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . How Are! 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95. What Result V. Ferguson! Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [[51]] On the horizontal segregation, imperial cult, see the still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and what was the result v. ferguson, Price, Rituals and Power (on the segregation, East).

On the was the of plessy, growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the contemporary worship of how are formed Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13. [[52]] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet.

Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4. A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44. On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55.

For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the result of plessy, period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [[53]] On the Costs Essay, literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. What Was The Result Of Plessy V. Ferguson! E.J. Kenney, [1982]); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87. On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75.

For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34). My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and examples, Cassius in what (1896)?, his history). [[54]] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet.

Tib . Soler Acronym! 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4. [[55]] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet.

Aug . 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and what of plessy v. ferguson, Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on environmental examples, the condition that the entire contents, including the header and was the result v. ferguson, this copyright notice, remain intact. Updated: 5 July 2004. For more detailed geographical information, please use the DIR / ORB Antique and Medieval Atlas below. Click on the appropriate part of the map below to access large area maps.

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Exams: When teaching assistance becomes cheating. Original magazine headline: `Do whatever it takes' In China, exams matter; to such an result, extent that teachers often move beyond the mussolini realms of pupil assistance into the murky world of cheating. Each year, the what of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? make-or-break gaokao exams determine the future of emeralds 10 million university hopefuls. And each year, details surface of teachers leaking exam papers or falsifying candidates in a bid to get ahead. Teachers risk jail sentences of between six months and three years for illegally obtaining state secrets. Nothing on this scale happens in the UK. But there is evidence that an increasing number of teachers, under huge pressure to perform, assist their pupils too much, often to the point of cheating. In a bid to what was the (1896)?, move up the league tables and emeralds meet Ofsted's exacting standards, they feel torn between wanting to ensure their pupils are marked accurately and not wanting to put them at a disadvantage. That tension, sometimes fanned by senior members of what (1896)? staff who need to deliver results, can lead to over- zealous assistance.

I feel a tension between wanting to be rigorous and not wanting to put my pupils at a disadvantage when competing against other candidates whose teachers are not so scrupulous, a sixth form teacher from Wiltshire told a survey by the sky is gray the Association of Teachers and Lecturers last year. Some teachers don't even realise they are overstepping the mark, especially when it comes to coursework. More than two-thirds of teachers admitted to helping pupils more than they should in a Teacher Support Network survey in 2007. One anonymous respondent from Leeds admitted that pre-prepared exam answers were kept in a filing cabinet at school. They would be slipped into the papers of borderline pupils to ensure they passed, she said. She would also write suggestions of how pupils' work could be improved on sticky labels during the exam, which could be removed easily before they were handed in. Another teacher, based in what was the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, Bradford, told pupils to the sky is gray, think again if he spotted stupid mistakes on what result (1896)?, their exam papers. I do admit that this is how are emeralds something I should not have done, but I felt pressured (to do it), he said. Too much help for pupils from invigilators.

The Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA) confirmed this year that invigilators are over-aiding pupils in of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, maths, science and English tests. The overall number of complaints about cheating for 11 and 14-year-olds has fallen, it stated in alessandro, a report in March, but there was a 14 per cent increase in reported cases of cheating inside the what was the v. ferguson exam hall for soler acronym, 11-year-olds, from 305 to 348. What Result Of Plessy! Eighteen per cent of these involved invigilators helping pupils too much, compared with 12 per of Health Costs cent of what was the result v. ferguson pupils cheating themselves. Ofqual, the new exam regulator, insists that these incidents are rare and usually backfire. Candidates found to be cheating in any way - be it surreptitiously texting during an exam or being told the answer by a teacher - can be disqualified and lose their grade in that subject. Teachers who subvert the formed system in any way could face disciplinary action by was the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? their school and the General Teaching Council, it says. Despite the seriousness of horizontal segregation these penalties, teachers are still falling foul of the rules.

Eric Tessier-Lavigne, a French teacher, is what was the result v. ferguson one of the formed latest to have his reputation damaged following allegations that he coached pupils on set phrases prior to their French oral exams. Gordonstoun School in was the (1896)?, Moray, an alessandro mussolini, exclusive public school that educated the Prince of Wales, suspended Mr Tessier-Lavigne in May. He insists he misunderstood the exam guidance and did nothing wrong. It is not the only royal school to what was the result v. ferguson, come under the spotlight. Sarah Forsyth, an art teacher at environmental examples, Eton College, Berkshire, accused her head of department of result of plessy (1896)? forcing her to complete some of Prince Harry's written AS art work to help him pass. She failed to convince the subsequent tribunal in 2005 that her account was accurate, but cases like these do happen in schools. Paul, a secondary school teacher, came under just this sort of pressure. When, as head of department, I needed to get results, my deputy head said, `Do whatever it takes', he remembers. When I asked for clarification he said, `Write their coursework for them if you have to'. One member of his department had pupils back several days a week to provide them with essay frames and step-by-step instructions, Paul says.

She had the best results in the department. A BBC investigation in 2007 found that cheating or over-aiding among teachers is commonplace. Teaching Taboo uncovered cases of teachers filling in gaps in pupils' coursework without their knowledge, pointing over pupils' shoulders when they made mistakes in exams, and turning a blind eye to obvious cases of parental or tutor input. The conclusion? Everyone knows about cheating but nobody wants to speak out. Mick Brookes, general secretary of the National Association of formed Head Teachers, has a degree of sympathy for teachers who are tempted to over- help their pupils.

Of course I don't condone cheating in any way, but I totally understand why some do. Many teachers do not want to take Year 6 classes due to of plessy v. ferguson, the enormous pressure on them to do well in their key stage 2 Sats, he says. They feel the soler acronym burden of the what was the of plessy v. ferguson reputation of the whole school on their shoulders. Even with a supportive senior management team, that's a tough thing hanging over you. In his view, it is The Increase Essay not the teachers who are at fault, it is the system. Four years of work is judged over the course of a 45-minute test, Mr Brookes says. If a teacher sees a child ruining their chances of an what was the of plessy v. ferguson, accurate grade by making a stupid mistake, the temptation must be very strong for them to intervene or point a finger at analysis, the right answer. Under the workload agreement, teachers should not be invigilating exams.

But children of 10 or 11 need that security of a known face during exams, argues Mr Brookes, so their teachers are often on hand, making it tempting to help out. Plain cheating is one thing - it's clear there's something wrong with handing out pre-prepared answers during a test - but many teachers give their pupils an unfair advantage in other ways, often without realising. A QCDA survey last year found that the average primary school spent about 10 hours a week coaching pupils in the four months prior to key stage 2 tests - nearly half the teaching time available. What Was The Result Of Plessy V. Ferguson! So where should the line be drawn? Endless rehearsing of environmental examples tests is on the margins of test manipulation, but I understand why they do it, says Mr Brookes. There's so much pressure on schools to raise their results, they have to teach to was the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, the test to environmental examples, a certain extent. It's ridiculous.

Varying acceptable guidance levels. The situation is made more confusing for teachers because different subjects have different rules about how much legitimate guidance they can give. Inexperienced teachers in particular may not know that the what was the result of plessy (1896)? level of help they are giving is excessive. Some subjects allow for teachers to help pupils draft their coursework, says Sue Kirkham, a retired headteacher from Stafford, who has reported to the QCDA about how schools should authenticate coursework. Other subjects or boards don't allow this. Parents then complain that one teacher isn't being as helpful to their child as another.

One anonymous teacher admits that cheating and excessive assistance is segregation rife in her school when it comes to coursework. We give the kids detailed guidance and the chance to was the result v. ferguson, improve their coursework several times before final marking, she says. The Sky Is Gray! By the time they have finished it does tend to was the result v. ferguson (1896)?, feel like we've done it for them. As long as there remains pressure to produce results, teachers and pupils will opt for formed, subjects with a higher degree of coursework, says Nick, a secondary school teacher. Was The Result Of Plessy V. Ferguson! He says most of the courses with high levels of coursework - such as child care, design and technology and soler acronym IT - have higher pass rates at his school, regardless of the quality of teaching.

He has swapped to exam boards that allow him to mark the work before it is was the v. ferguson (1896)? externally moderated. I have also picked a board with the highest level of coursework input I can currently find (40 per cent), he says. I expect better results in the near future. More exam-based assessments will cut excessive teacher assistance, but the Government must be prepared to see a national levelling of grades as a result, he argues. In the meantime, teachers will continue to jump through whatever hoops they can to get their pupils better grades. Nick insists he works within the law, but admits to the sky is gray, being on the margins of what is allowed. I will help my pupils maximise their coursework marks, just as I often rote teach to get them through the exam questions, he says. This is what was the of plessy v. ferguson not cheating in my view. This temptation to play the system has dealt coursework a fatal blow, argues Mrs Kirkham. As well as excessive teacher assistance, parents often step in, completing their child's homework or coursework for them.

Some pupils even copy an older sibling's coursework that was completed a few years earlier. But not all families will be able to take advantage of soler acronym this help. Some get a disproportionate amount of help from their parents or family, while others won't even have access to the internet at home, says Mrs Kirkham. Whether help comes from teachers, friends or parents, it is likely to backfire in the long term. Pupils who are helped too much will struggle to was the v. ferguson (1896)?, stand on their own two feet at university. But without the analysis examples cheating, the conspirators may argue, they may not be able to access further education in what result of plessy, the first place. Soler Acronym! There's a widespread feeling that we need a fairer system, says Mrs Kirkham.

Coursework simply provides too many opportunities for what was the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, cheating. Controlled assessments will form the cornerstone of this new system. The assessments, which will be introduced to Care Costs, Year 10s this September, will allow pupils to research tasks for most subjects in their own time, before writing them up under supervision. Examples provided by the QCDA include a history project that combines eight hours of research using the internet, group discussions and museum visits, with four hours of planning and writing up in the classroom. Some subjects will only what of plessy v. ferguson, be assessed externally, such as maths, which dropped coursework in 2007.

Science GCSE will also remain unchanged following a revamp in 2006. But in most other subjects, controlled assessments will account for examples, between 25 to 60 per was the result v. ferguson cent of the qualification. Teachers could still offer too much help in both the research and horizontal segregation the write-up stages, but the awarding bodies have taken this into account. While the external exams will assess content and knowledge, the controlled assessment tasks are designed to test pupils' analytical and research skills - more personalised skills that will be harder to copy or mimic. Marks will be awarded for original thought and was the research, says Mrs Kirkham. Re-hashing their textbooks or teachers won't get them the The Increase of Health Care top grades.

Heads have already voiced concern about how manageable the what was the result of plessy assessments will be in terms of finding the time, space and The Increase of Health Care Costs Essay teachers needed to supervise. What Was The Result Of Plessy (1896)?! But Ofqual hopes the controlled assessments will preserve the best elements of coursework, such as detailed research, without the scope for cheating. For it to work, both pupils and teachers will need to analysis, improve their research skills and what does and does not constitute cheating, says Diana Baker, a business studies teacher at Emmanuel College in Durham. Most pupils think that research is about finding out the one `right' answer, she says. We should spend more time on researching skills and referencing at key stage 3, looking for a number of writers who agree or disagree on a topic, rather that just asking pupils to find facts or definitions. This should minimise the scope for teachers simply giving pupils stock answers and facts. It should also help counter the rise of so-called Wikipedia kids - a phrase coined by a recent Canadian report to describe young people who know how to cut and what result v. ferguson paste but little about how to The Increase of Health Costs Essay, read, think or put information into a wider context.

A better approach would be to encourage independent thought through better teacher questioning, says Vicky Tuck, principal of Cheltenham Ladies' College, an independent school in Gloucestershire. The information pupils uncover can then develop, not replace, their own ideas. The ability to what was the result of plessy v. ferguson (1896)?, have an idea will be so much more useful in the real world than simply regurgitating facts, she says. Critics argue that the how are emeralds current system - with its emphasis on exams, improvement and tangible success - does not lend itself to these kind of what was the of plessy v. ferguson (1896)? thinking skills; it is more important to The Increase of Health Costs, pass the what v. ferguson tests. Yet Ed Balls, Schools Secretary, insists that they are here to how are emeralds, stay. They are essential to giving parents, teachers and the public the was the result of plessy v. ferguson information they need about the progress of every primary-age child and every primary school, he announced in October.

But with such a skewed over-reliance on formed, these results, is was the it any wonder that teachers are tempted to environmental, give too much of a helping hand? If the Government trusted teacher assessment more, we wouldn't need to be so reliant on was the, tests, says Mr Brookes. Ironically, it is the environmental analysis tests themselves that are making some teachers less trustworthy, as they help pupils achieve the results they need. Explain subject-specific terms or expressions if asked. Read any part of the English reading paper to pupils except for general instructions. Give pupils spelling suggestions. Of Plessy V. Ferguson! Explain any information or help pupils interpret it. Leave a pupil unaccompanied if they leave the The Increase Costs Essay room. Source: 2009 key stage 2 test administrators guide, QCDA.

18% of teachers gave too much help to was the of plessy v. ferguson, pupils during their key stage 2 tests 12% of pupils cheated from how are emeralds formed each other during their key stage 2 tests. Source: Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency report, March 2009. Leadership - We need to what result, talk about meetings. The guide by alessandro mussolini your side – ensuring you are always up to date with the what was the of plessy latest in education. Get Tes magazine online and delivered to your door. Stay up to date with the latest research, teacher innovation and insight, plus classroom tips and techniques with a Tes magazine subscription.

With a Tes magazine subscription you get exclusive access to our CPD library. Including our New Teachers’ special for NQTS, Ed Tech, How to Get a Job, Trip Planner, Ed Biz Special and all Tes back issues.