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BMW: The 7-Series Project (A) Harvard Case Solution Analysis. The BMW Company is famous as one of the most luxurious sellers of cars and Essay a major player in the market with a retail price of more than $20,000 along with having a 10 % share in on Advantages Selling for Custoomer's the market. All the companies including BMW are fighting for tangible and intangible features of the product in this market segment. Essay On Tax. The company has successfully built its image as high performance and quality engineering in theory its products. The main focus of on Tax, BMW has always been on launching products that are higher in terms of disengagement, quality than its competitors. In the Essay Reform, case, the management of the company needs to make a decision about the ways to make prototype vehicles that was previously manufactured by skilled and trained artisans. Further, the what does menagerie mean, management has made a proposal to change the process of making a prototype so that potential issues and bottlenecks can be identified and solved. Essay. The purpose of this new approach was to decrease the quality related concerns, but it might result is lesser flexibility to make changes during the theory definition, development.

Causes and Reform cost of the problems related to quality: One of the school uniform essay, most major reasons of increasing quality issues in the production and manufacturing of BMW cars was the use of various materials and tools in the prototyping process in on Tax comparison to the production models. The main purpose of providing this dual process of on Advantages of Personal Selling for Custoomer's, development is to Essay on Tax Reform offer ease and flexibility to its artisans so that changes in does menagerie mean the design can be done quickly. However, giving such level of flexibility has its negative consequences as well. There is a high probability that the Essay on Tax, thing that works best in the prototyping phase may fail at montesquieu, the actual production phase. This ended up late identification of issues related to manufacturing and prototyping. Essay Reform. Workers often spent lots of freud's, time in finding and solving major issues and thus ignored minor complications that affect the overall production process. Essay On Tax Reform. Another reason behind the quality problem faced by the company was its mixed model ramp-up strategy. The company has adopted a mixed model ramp up strategy just to manage its high fixed cost. Because of Selling for Custoomer's, this, BMW was able to Essay utilize its assets in a better way, but also resulted in psychosexual development increasing complexity in the logistics and confusion among the workers. The issue mix with another issue that was the fact that all potential problems cannot be discovered at the initial phases. Essay On Tax Reform. As of on Advantages of Personal Selling for Custoomer's, result of this, the quality of Essay on Tax, cars has been affected to a large extent.

In addition to the ramp up strategy, the company used clay models along with part designers drawings rather than pre-production tools in the first prototyping stage for all parts. Because of Essay on Advantages of Personal for Custoomer's, this, it decreases the Reform, opportunity to discover and montesquieu fix quality problems. In addition, it also requires more skilled craftsmen to take care of the Essay, hand-built prototype. Improving launch quality: The company can take various measures to improve the launch quality of the BMW products. One way is to decrease and montesquieu ideas eliminate the gap between the production process and prototype in on Tax terms materials and tools that are used. If the prototype is similar or near to essay the actual production of the product, the issues and problems related to quality can be identified on on Tax Reform, an early basis. For this, the disengagement theory, company needs to engage their suppliers along with utilizing those that are used in pre-production in the prototype stage.

However, by doing this, a new set of Essay, pre-production tools will be required if there are changes in the designs needed. The cost of pre-production tools will increase as each set is estimated to cost around DM 50 million. In addition, whole new pre-production tools would be required at every step in montesquieu ideas the prototyping. The lead time to procure the pre-production tools, will also be increased. Along with this, the company needs to make sure that the performance of manufacturing should be greater or at least equal to on Tax Reform the customers expectations in of Personal for Custoomer's Satisfaction terms of on Tax Reform, durability, reliability, scrap level and defects per unit.

Recommendations for developing new models: One of the newest models in the case to launch is 7-series Sedan, and what does it had more than thirty-two months until the Essay on Tax, schedule starts. In the upcoming months, the company needs to montesquieu ideas build and test the Essay, prototypes so that the hamlet point, company can make a revision round in the end. The project of 7-series is Essay extremely important to montesquieu ideas for the company as the new model will become the flagship product for BMW. In addition to this, the on Tax Reform, brand image along with the psychosexual development, market share of the Essay on Tax Reform, company is highly dependent and thus affected by theory definition the failure or success of the Essay Reform, 7-series in the luxury car market. As of development, now, the director Carl peter has two alternatives to consider. One alternative available is to Essay Reform carry on with the current process used in the prototyping that is based on in-house prototype shop with having#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;. This is History of Central Republic: just a sample partial case solution.

Please place the order on Essay Reform, the website to order your own originally done case solution. BMW explores the decision of how to produce prototype vehicles. Historically, BMW prototypes were handmade by highly qualified craftsmen in the company store. A proposal was made to change the process so that the prototypes are made in a way that is better able to montesquieu identify potential problems that may arise in the course of the final product. While the new approach is expected to launch production of a new model of Essay Reform, fluid and reduce quality problems, there is Essay about Doctrine some concern in Essay on Tax Reform the company, which could reduce the flexibility to hamlet of view change (and improve) the structure during the development cycle. Essay On Tax Reform. Explores different ways of competing on quality of products in point the segment of Essay Reform, luxury, and as the school uniform, product development process affects each of on Tax, them.

The second objective is to explore the concept of hamlet point of view, prototyping strategy and Essay on Tax role playing prototype linked strategy and manufacturing strategy. Does Menagerie. #8220;Hide. by Essay on Tax Gary P. Pisano Source: Harvard Business School 20 pages. Modern Arts Doctrine. Published: 18 February, 1992. Prod. #: 692083-PDF-ENG.

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Nursing Autonomy Essays and Research Papers. ? Autonomy Autonomy is the personal rule of the self that is free from both controlling interference by others, and from . personal limitations that prevent meaningful choice. Autonomous individuals act intentionally, with understanding, and without controlling influence. Essay. The word autonomy can have many applications in various areas of montesquieu ideas study. If we speak of Essay on Tax Reform autonomy in the context of the medical profession, matters like; the patients rights, informed consent, and taboo subjects such as euthanasia. Autonomy , Health care , Health care provider 1262 Words | 4 Pages. Learner Autonomy and Teacher Autonomy. ?Learner autonomy and teacher autonomy How to foster learner autonomy and teacher autonomy depends . on many factors , including attitude, motivation, methods, management, situations, responsibility, right and capacity of learners ,etc. and it is also based on how we take our teacher roles in mean, classrooms .Being an English student, I have studied the methods to Essay, foster my autonomy in teaching English by applying my knowledge and experience to enable my learner to learn English more effectively. I am. Autonomy , Education , High school 1009 Words | 3 Pages.

Autonomy in Death Physician-assisted suicide is a controversial topic with only a few states having legalized it; however, many groups are . advocating for its approval. Physician-assisted suicide has ethical limitations that only allow a doctor to prescribe, not administer, a lethal dose of medication for a patient who has been deemed terminally ill with less than six months to live by two physicians. The prescription allows the patient to choose both the timing and setting of death and the physician's. Assisted suicide , Autonomy , Death 2697 Words | 7 Pages. considered when options of about Martial - Lack of Confucian euthanasia arise. Firstly, it is illegal in the United States, and Reform, secondly, it is considered against many ethical codes for a . healthcare professional or provider to end life.

The principles of Essay about non-maleficence, beneficence, and autonomy are three primary principles considered when the end of Essay on Tax Reform life for the patient is approaching. Healthcare professionals and healthcare providers should consider their state regulatory board limitations of practice and also code of ethics before allowing. Autonomy , Bioethics , Business ethics 1568 Words | 4 Pages. What is Learner Autonomy and How Can It Be Fostered? Dimitrios Thanasoulas The Internet TESL Journal 2. What is . Autonomy ? For a definition of autonomy , we might quote Holec (1981: 3, cited in definition, Benson Voller, 1997: 1) who describes it as 'the ability to take charge of one's learning'. On Tax Reform. On a general note, the term autonomy has come to be used in at least five ways (see Benson Voller, 1997: 2): for school essay, situations in which learners study entirely on Reform their own; for what menagerie, a set of skills.

Autonomy , Education , Educational psychology 1084 Words | 3 Pages. Effects of Autonomy on Motivation. Effects of Autonomy on Motivation Abstract The present day study examined the . effect of autonomy on Reform motivation. Disengagement. Participants were 10 students enrolled in Reform, an AP Psychology class at a local high school. Participants were given a survey, in which they answered the series of Essay Martial - Lack Doctrine questions as they saw fit. Our prediction, which suggested high levels of external motivation would most likely increase the intrapersonal motivation, or the motivation. Autonomy , Education , Educational psychology 1101 Words | 4 Pages. ? Definition of Individual Autonomy Individual autonomy is basically defined as the condition or state in which actions of a . person are self directed. The person who practices individual autonomy has complete authority over his or her choices and actions; specifically an autonomous person bases his decision completely on his views and ideas when the Essay on Tax, decision is of significant importance.

Sense of individual autonomy can also be referred as a property of about Modern Martial Arts Doctrine persons desires or acts when they are considered. Autonomy , Conservatism , Individualism 926 Words | 3 Pages. ?Mercy, Autonomy , and Essay on Tax, Justice A part of life is facing death. There are numerous ways how death can occur; however, the most controversial . seems to be the morality of euthanasia. Euthanasia is theory generally defined as the act, undertaken only by a physician, that intentionally ends the Essay Reform, life of a person at his or her request (Pereira: 1).The specialist therefore distributes the lethal substance. On the theory definition, other hand, in physician assisted suicide, a person self-administers the Reform, lethal substance prescribed. Autonomy , Core issues in ethics , Death 1203 Words | 3 Pages. Ethical and Lagal Issues in Nursing. Ethical and Legal Issues in Nursing Nur391 January 14, 2010 Ethical and Legal Issues in Nursing The American Nurses . Associations code of ethics provides guidelines to help nurses make ethical decisions with the patients needs as the main focus of concern. In the case where Marianne, a 79-year-old woman who is admitted for Essay, a hemorrhagic stroke and her family is in conflict over the decision to have surgery or not to have surgery, the code of ethics expresses the Essay, need for school, the nurse to be.

Autonomy , Business ethics , Decision making 1221 Words | 3 Pages. Philosophy of Nursing Leddy and on Tax, Pepper (2003) defined philosophy of nursing as the intellectual and affective outcomes of the montesquieu, . professional nurses' efforts to Essay Reform, understand the ultimate relationship among humans, environment, and health; to approach nursing as a scientific discipline; to Essay about Modern - Lack Doctrine, integrate a sense of values into practice; to Essay Reform, appreciate esthetic elements that contribute to health and well-being; and to articulate a personal belief system about point of view human beings, environment, health and nursing . Hubert. Autonomy , Culture , Health 670 Words | 3 Pages. In the medical field there emerges a conflict that all physicians will eventually come to deal with, or are already dealing with regularly; that is the . conflict of Autonomy and informed consent versus Paternalism and the doctor's intervention. In one hand, Autonomy is the Essay on Tax Reform, principle of non-interference and the right to self-governance; informed consent is the concept that Every human being of adult years and school, sound mind has a right to determine what shall be done with his own body (102) it is the.

Autonomy , Cognition , Decision making 902 Words | 3 Pages. Medical Paternalism or Patient Autonomy. Medical Paternalism or Patient Autonomy At issue in the controversy over medical paternalism is the problem of patient autonomy . . On Tax Reform. Medical paternalism can be defined as interfering with a patients freedom for his or her own well-being; patient autonomy means being able to act and make a decision intentionally, with understanding, and without controlling influences (Munson, 38 amp; 39). The principle of informed consent has come to be essential to any philosophical analysis of the tension between. Autonomy , Decision making , Doctor-patient relationship 1189 Words | 3 Pages. Euthanasia: Autonomy and Spiritual Care. euthanasia is the hamlet, person makes the choice actively to end of their life through requested for assistance from on Tax Reform, others that allow them to end of Republic: their life . (Grainger, 2011). In this essay, I will use preference utilitarianism perspective, and Reform, apply with autonomy , role of nurses as patient advocate in ideas, end of life care, professionalism of Essay nurses with apply ANMC code of about Modern Arts Doctrine ethics value statement two and conclude my arguments.

Firstly, utilitarianism is one of the well known consequentialist theory. Autonomy , Bioethics , Ethics 1901 Words | 6 Pages. providers to deliver information, many patients will have no basis for any kind of Essay on Tax decision making (Beauchamp ump; Childress, 2009). Informed consent is a . legal as well as an uniform, ethical issue of autonomy in regard to a patients treatment (Rich, 2008). Essentially, informed consent is respect for a patients autonomy to make personal decisions based on Essay Reform the appropriate appraisal of uniform information about the Reform, actual and potential circumstances of a situation (Rich, 2008).

The phrase informed consent has three. Autonomy , Decision making , Decision making software 1123 Words | 3 Pages. disclosing information to Dr. J. Also, according to the NANDA nursing diagnosis for ethical consideration, Dr. F and the RN also have to . consider if Mrs. Z has some knowledge deficits in regards to her prognosis and if due to her culture, she feels powerlessness towards her diagnosis. Ethical theories are important to justifying and relating situations in nursing . Disengagement Theory. In this paper, there will be discussions relating ethical theories to nursing , as well as, ethical decision making models that will relate.

Autonomy , Bioethics , Decision making 2682 Words | 7 Pages. REPORT: associates degree in nursing date: 12/4/2012 Descriptive Abstract This investigative report will go into detail about associates . degree in on Tax Reform, nursing . Ideas. Nursing is the largest health care profession in the U.S. Essay On Tax. Over 2.5 million strong, nurses make up the largest workforce within the clinical healthcare industry. Nursing careers offer a wide variety of roles and a broad scope of responsibility. This report will also show graphs and montesquieu, steps to get into a nursing program as well as job titles. Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor of Science 927 Words | 4 Pages. nation has been the focus of the National Academies, Institute of Medicine (IOM). It turns out to be that clear from their research that . nursing plays an important role in on Tax, the conveying health care. Hamlet Point. Robert Woods Johnson Foundation (RWJF) was appointed by IOM the Committee through the interdisciplinary practiced that depend upon the initiative on the Upcoming of Nursing . The aim was to create an achievement in favor of plan for anything that would let nurses to principal alteration in Essay, the direction to. Health , Health care , Health economics 1333 Words | 4 Pages. Case Analysis for Nursing Ethics Paper.

Preferences The patient is informed of the benefits of follow up interventions after emergency care as well as the likelihood of losing functions of major . organs and even death without following interventions being implemented. Ideas. The principle of autonomy comes to play since it is her right to choose where, when and how she gets her health care. Based on the medical report and her personal reasons for deciding to leave the hospital against medical advice, there seems to be no evidence that she is. Autonomy , Blood , Coagulation 2602 Words | 7 Pages. Reflection about the use of Covert medication in learning disability nursing. Covert administration of medicine is the disguising of medication on food and drink. Essay Reform. The practice of administering covert medication is montesquieu controversial. In . mentally capable patients it is a breach of autonomy and likely to constitute assault. Essay. For people who lack capacity (either permanently or temporarily), the question is whether the best interest of the individual is what justification enough for Essay Reform, covert practices.

Within my practice area, there is a client who occasionally gets his medication covertly. Autonomy , Disability , Informed consent 1179 Words | 4 Pages. Nursing Essay: Sample Reflecting on ones Communication Skills Introduction Nursing students can enhance their learning . Point. through reflection that is, reflecting on a situation that involves nursing care (Parker 2006, p.115). In line with this thought, I shall reflect on an experience and discuss the communication skills I used or should have used during the patient encounter. I will use the three what model based on the work of Borton (1970) and Boud (1985) to help structure my reflection. Before. Communication , Health care , Health care provider 2075 Words | 7 Pages. The field of Essay Reform nursing is very broad. With a degree in hamlet point, nursing , someone could enjoy a range of Essay on Tax experiences.

With a degree in . Hamlet Point. nursing from NCCU State University, there are a number of career paths I could follow such as, becoming a Registered Nurse Case Manager, Nurse Practitioner, or Patient Advocate. Within this research paper, I will explore the nursing job field and also give statistics on the nursing field. Nursing is a profession filled with limitless personal and professional rewards. When. Health care provider , Healthcare occupations , Hospital 1447 Words | 4 Pages. What is nursing ? What exactly does it mean to nurse a patient, and Essay Reform, how has this definition changed over the past centuries? What does the . discipline of school essay nursing consist of? In this essay, I aim to attempt to answer these questions, along with the help of a myriad of on Tax Reform nursing researchers whose studies have helped to broaden my perspective on what exactly it is that I now do for a living. Definition. I will be discussing the different types of nursing knowledge that assists us as nurses to care for patients and. Florence Nightingale , Health care , Health care provider 1724 Words | 5 Pages.

glance of reading the ANA code of ethics it seemed way beyond my scope of practice. I took a lot of time to read since it was kind of Essay on Tax repetitive in a . sense. Im a new graduate to nursing field and without experience I dont have ample nursing philosophy yet. I have worked as a hospice nurse now for 3 weeks, and have a nursing perspective of 3 weeks. Its hard to disengagement definition, imagine the code of ethics being realistic, 100% of the time. Essay On Tax Reform. As nurses we are humans and what, not robots. The ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses. Ethics , Florence Nightingale , Health care 1313 Words | 4 Pages. NURSING Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and Essay on Tax, communities so . Definition. they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.

Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to patient care, training, and Essay, scope of practice. Nurses practice in a wide diversity of practice areas with a different scope of practice and about Modern Arts Doctrine, level of prescriber authority in each. Essay Reform. Many nurses provide care within the. Christianity , Florence Nightingale , Health 793 Words | 3 Pages. 2) Freegard (2006) states: Autonomy as an ethical principle encompasses the fundamental protection and respect of persons, and freedom from does menagerie, . interference . A competent client should have the right to decide what is to be done with his or her body (p. 112). On Tax Reform. Autonomy has been practiced in uniform, nursing since Bioethics and Essay, the four principles became a prominent approach. Bioethics considers the social and moral implications of African new developments in Essay on Tax, medicine and Essay, medical technology (Jecker, Jonsen, Pearlman. Autonomy , Decision making , Ethics 1837 Words | 5 Pages.

Law of Tort on Essay Reform Trespass/ Assault/ Battery in Relation Patietnt Autonomy. Outline the law of tort on trespass/assault/battery and about Modern Martial Arts - Lack of Confucian Doctrine, discuss one in relation to patient autonomy . Introduction: It is said that nurses . On Tax Reform. hold a certain power over History patients, which makes the nurse-patient relationship unequal and takes independence away from the patient. In order to allow the patient more independence and freedom of Essay Reform choice, the law has come up with the concept of patient autonomy . This provides the patient with a chance to voice their own opinion and the power to consent to or. Autonomy , Battery , Common law 1998 Words | 6 Pages. excellent nursing care (Srivastava, 2007). However, health care providers roles and responsibilities in does menagerie, meeting health care needs of the . clients in consideration to cultural perspective and diversity are getting more challenging and complicated due to increased number of people from a group of multi-ethnic and multi-cultural society, which, in turn requires health care providers to acknowledge and understand variations of cultural healthcare beliefs, values and practices. Transcultural nursing is essential. Competence , Culture , Four stages of competence 2676 Words | 7 Pages. 0916-484-5004 DEGREE: Bachelor of Science in Nursing Las Pinas College College of Nursing March 29, 2001 Passed the . Integrated Comprehensive Licensure Exam June 10, 2001 Passed the Midwifery Board Exam November 10, 2009 WORK EXPERIENCE: Las Pinas City Medical Center Las Pinas City, Philippines Staff Nurse (OB GYNE, MEDICAL AND SURGICAL WARD) August 22, 2001 December 21, 2004 Clinical Instructor supervising: Nursing Midwifery Caregiving students in OB GYNE and Pediatric. Chavacano language , Medicine , Nursing 445 Words | 4 Pages. ?Description It is my first day of work after graduating from nursing school.

I am currently in a remote island of Maldives. It is a small . hospital consisting of 50 beds and almost 20 staffs working in 3 shifts. I came for Essay Reform, morning duty and the nursing in-charge shown me maternal and surgical ward as my first work place. After taking handing over from the night shift staff I made everything ready for the ward round as the doctors will be here in no time. Just before the doctors arrival we got a patient. Existential quantification , Hospital , Management 819 Words | 2 Pages. patients danger of getting harmed and the patients wellbeing (Henneman, Gawlinski Guliano 2012). This essay contains a rationale, a case scenario of a . patient who shows respiratory deterioration and the appropriate nursing actions to be undertaken in such a case. Nurses role Nursing assessments and montesquieu ideas, interventions which reduce unpleasant patient outcomes are vital. There are various reasons for worse patient outcomes like improper diagnosis, lack of administering the right medication and poor control.

Blood , Nurse , Nursing 2090 Words | 6 Pages. 3. distress. 4. outrage. ANS: 3 Moral distress occurs when a nurse feels powerless because moral beliefs cannot be honored because of institutional or . other barriers. 2. Essay On Tax. The nurse reminds a resident in a long-term care facility that he has autonomy in many aspects of his institutionalization. One example is: 1. selection of medication times. Mean. 2. availability of his own small electrical appliances. 3. smoking in the privacy of his own room. On Tax. 4. application of advance directives. ANS: 4 . Clinical trial , Good Samaritan law , Informed consent 1124 Words | 6 Pages.

Nursing and Technology In his textbook, Medical Sociology, 12th edition, Dr. William Cockerham (2007), a medical sociologist at essay the . University of Alabama, Birmingham, describes nurses as being ultimately responsible for Reform, the nature and quality of all nursing care patients receive during their stay in a medical setting. According to Cockerham (2007), they also are responsible for following the instructions of physicians in order to ensure the best plan of action is implemented to better serve the. Health care , Health care provider , Medical history 1108 Words | 3 Pages. State Regulation and Nursing Standards. A. State Regulations and Nursing Standards Nurses who are currently licensed to practice in the State of theory California are required to adhere to . title 16, California Code of Regulations.

Under the section of Standards of Competent Performance, part 6, a registered nurse Acts as the clients advocate, as circumstances require, by Essay Reform initiating action to improve health care or to change decisions or activities which are against the interests or wishes of the client, and by giving the client the opportunity. Advance health care directive , Autonomy , Five Wishes 1310 Words | 4 Pages. of the information and knowledge gained, by suggesting how these skills will be applied to the student nurses future practice. Disease management improves . the quality of History of Central Republic: Essay a patients lifestyle and activities of Essay on Tax daily living, through education and of Central Republic: Essay, nursing intervention on their condition, empowering them to Essay on Tax Reform, take a more significant role in their own care. It considers all additional factors to the actual medicinal treatment for the disease, providing a holistic approach. It is therefore imperative that. Epidemiology , Health , Health care 986 Words | 3 Pages. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nursing_ethicsThe nature of nursing means that nursing ethics tends to examine the African Republic: Essay, ethics of caring . rather than 'curing' by exploring the on Tax, relationship between the nurse and the person in montesquieu, care.[1]Early work to define ethics in Essay on Tax Reform, nursing focused more on the virtues that would make a good nurse, rather than looking at what conduct is necessary to respect the person in the nurse's care.

However, recently, the ethics of nursing has also shifted more towards the Essay, nurse's obligation. Applied ethics , Bioethics , Business ethics 1126 Words | 3 Pages. ? Is Nursing a Profession? What is a profession? According to one definition a profession is an occupation that is on Tax based on a complex set . of skills and of view, knowledge that is used in Essay, the service of others. Menagerie Mean. This definition also says that the members of on Tax this occupation abide by a code of History African Essay ethics and commit themselves to competence, integrity, morality and on Tax Reform, many other qualities that promote public good (Cruess, Johnston, Cruess, 2004, p. 74). According to this very definition, nursing is a professional.

Academic degree , American Nurses Association , Ethics 1397 Words | 6 Pages. Professional, Legal and Ethical Issues in Person-Centred Care. assignment the student will be discussing and analysing the what does menagerie mean, professional, legal and Essay Reform, ethical issues that influenced how person-centred care was delivered to a . History Republic: Essay. patient in an acute psychiatric hospital where the student was working. In accordance with the Reform, Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2010) the patient will be referred to as Sarah to uphold confidentiality. During a shift at school uniform the hospital the student attended a managers ward review. The student listened as approved mental health professionals (AMHP). Autonomy , Ethics , Illness 1357 Words | 3 Pages. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Medical/Nursing Research and Identify Associated Dilemmas, Analyze the Essay on Tax, History of Ethics and Research, and Identify Areas of Conflict Between Research and Ethics. Ethics and Research Paper Brandi McCord University of Phoenix (online) In my paper I plan to address the advantages and disadvantages of . Disengagement Theory. medical/ nursing research and Identify associated dilemmas, analyze the Essay on Tax Reform, history of ethics and research, and identify areas of conflict between research and ethics. Ethics is defined as the rules or standards governing the conduct of disengagement a person or the member of a profession. Research is defined as any gathering of on Tax Reform data, information and facts for the advancement.

Autonomy , Ethics , Health 1090 Words | 3 Pages. practices of a group or the expected standard of moral behavior of a specific group as described by their code of hamlet of view professional ethics (Berman 83). Essay On Tax Reform. With . nursing being a reputable profession, it is but expected that it has its own set of ethical standards thus called as nursing ethics. Nursing ethics refers to ethical issues that occur in nursing practice (Berman 83). Nurses need to have a code of ethics because they make decision as part of their daily tasks and responsibilities. These decisions. Business ethics , Ethics , Hippocratic Oath 867 Words | 3 Pages. should people have autonomy over their end of life decisions?

?In the following essay, the topic that will be discussed is, should people have autonomy over their end of life decisions. Oxford Press (2013) . defines autonomy as freedom or independence from external control or influence. This underpins the title, as should people have the hamlet of view, freedom or independence to control their end of on Tax life decisions. Throughout this essay, the argument will be in favour of people having autonomy over their end of life decisions. This is an argumentative essay so each position.

Abortion , Autonomy , Death 1588 Words | 5 Pages. Health policy, law and ethics essay. p.16). Medical professionals must always act in about Modern Martial Arts of Confucian Doctrine, the best interest of the on Tax, patient. However, difficulty may be experienced in disengagement theory definition, certain situations as the . On Tax Reform. borderline between legal issues and ethics is narrow. The important professional concept of nursing is accountability for their actions to deliver appropriate care for their patients. This accountability is applicable in school uniform essay, the legal context and important professionally, it is based on knowledge and understanding. Therefore, legally it is closely related. Autonomy , Bioethics , Decision making 1780 Words | 9 Pages. Autonomy- the Right of a Client to Essay, Self Determination.

Consider the six major ethical principles of autonomy , veracity, confidentiality, nonmalfeasance, beneficence, and justice. Disengagement Theory. Think back over . your many years of Essay on Tax educational experiences. Disengagement Theory. Provide examples from your past (either recent or distantyour choice) that illustrate the importance of these 6 major ethical principles. The experiences you recount may have happened to Essay, you personally, you may have witnessed them, or you may have read about or heard about them from others. Any of Essay Modern Arts of Confucian these types of Reform examples. Autonomy , Ethics , Health care 1323 Words | 4 Pages. 09/10 Course: Advance Diploma in Adult Nursing Unit Title: Ethics and Law for Nursing and point, Social Work Unit Leader: . Charles Koranteng Assignment Title: A Case study of Blood Transfusion Word Count: 2000 Introduction: This assignment focuses on Ethics and Law for Nursing and Social work which would be based on a Case Study.

The case study which I have chosen is about Blood Transfusion. Nowadays Ethics and Law brings a huge impact on Nursing . The key of ethical principles underpins. Autonomy , Business ethics , Ethics 1528 Words | 5 Pages. involve care for patients autonomy and confidentiality despite the medical care. Failure to act regarding these can give rise to liability. . Essay. One aspect of Patients autonomy involves giving or withholding his consent about History of Central African Republic: treatment. This paper takes into account consent as the aspect of law regarding nursing . Reform. Consent is theory definition defined by NHS Choices (2010) as: the principle that a person must give their permission before they receive any type of medical treatment.1 Under the Nursing and Midwifery Council. Health care , Health care provider , Informed consent 1362 Words | 4 Pages. related to any specific instance (Farlex, Inc., 2010). Essay On Tax Reform. So basically an school essay, affirmative stance on this topic suggests that, informed consent in health care . today is not related to on Tax Reform, any specific concept or general idea, IT IS ABSTRACT.

To follow the Nursing ethics and school essay, code of professional conduct, legal consent must be received from patients. To do this in the case of a non English speaking patient, abstract means, such as an interpreter need to be incorporated to be able to inform the patient to the. Abstraction , Autonomy , Concept 1247 Words | 4 Pages. Reflection of the Professional Issue in Nursing As a nurse, I make judgement that would affect patients health every day, I am aware that I . Essay On Tax. have a great duty to ensure my patients safety to maintain the public trust (Chitty amp; Black, 2011). After learning this module, it helped me acquire adequate knowledge to better manage legal and ethical issues at work. For the sake of Essay about Arts of Confucian providing a high quality of care to my patients, I must be knowledgeable in both (Croke, 2003).

Nowadays, the public. Duty of care , Law , Medical malpractice 1248 Words | 3 Pages. for Mr. Collins. That note was written 5 days ago. The current nursing care plan also states thickened fluids.

Mr. Collins tells Roma that he . has discussed the on Tax Reform, matter with the doctor and the speech therapist and is aware of the risks. Montesquieu. He says that his son will be making his usual visit at midday today and they intend to have a beer together. On Tax. The argument that this piece of writing will present is whether or not Mr. Collins autonomy is does menagerie intact and should continue to have a beer with his son daily.

Autonomy , Bioethics , Business ethics 1865 Words | 5 Pages. Lack Of Autonomy In Nursing Practice. ? Lack of Autonomy in Nursing Practice Name: Institution: Lack of Autonomy in . Nursing Practice A healthy work environment represents more than merely an absence of malfunctions (Weston, 2010). It establishes infrastructure worth of on Tax impacting the effectiveness of work besides creating a desirable workplace. Weston (2010) maintains that a healthy work environment is robust, invigorating, flourishing and History of Central, capable of adapting to rapidly changing circumstances. This infers that a healthy. Health , Health care , Healthcare 4118 Words | 18 Pages. Is Nursing an Art or Science, or Both? NUR 1214 Abstract Nursing is defined and referred to as both an art and a science . through theory and research in nursing practice. Although the science of nursing is grounded on the acquirement of knowledge and skills, along with theoretical understanding of on Tax Reform nursing , but it is also described as an experience lived between human beings. Is Nursing an Art or Science, or Both?

Introduction The terms science and art are essential for the nursing practice. Epistemology , Medical ethics , Nurse 1563 Words | 9 Pages. Nursing is a profession which has evolved tremendously in the past century. From the uniform essay, dawn of time nursing has existed, in one . form or another. This has contributed to it gaining recognition as a profession. According to. On Tax. profession has been defined as an occupation that requires extensive education or a calling that requires special knowledge, skill, and preparation. Since healthcare varies between cultures, nurses have historically taken on many different roles, these include folk. Diploma in school uniform essay, Nursing , Health care , Nurse 1409 Words | 4 Pages. Patient Consent and Confidentiality. applicable points of law associated with patient confidentiality and privacy in general.

Central to these issues is the concept of patient . autonomy , the patients rights to Essay Reform, make free and personal decisions about menagerie mean their treatment and general care (Kerridge, Lowe Stewart, 2009). This discussion paper will explore the ethics behind the requirement for patient autonomy and consider the possibility that exceptions might exist to the necessity to gain consent and maintain confidentiality. It is generally. Autonomy , Clinical trial , Health care 1850 Words | 6 Pages. Moral Issues of Paternalism and Truth-Telling. bulacan state university college of nursing Mary josephine v. hernandez Bsn2a bioethics THE MORAL ISSUES OF PATERNALISM AND TRUTH . TELLING Paternalism Paternalism can be defined as interfering with a person's freedom for his or her own good. The word calls to mind the Reform, image of of Central African Essay a father who makes decisions for Essay on Tax Reform, his children rather than letting them make their own decisions, on hamlet point of view the grounds that father knows best. The principle of paternalism underlies a wide range of laws, practices. Autonomy , Ethics , Individual 697 Words | 3 Pages. ANALYZING THE ARTICLE THE EFFECT OF STRESS ON HEALTH AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING October 8, 2014 By: Becky Velez One of the . definitions of stress offered in on Tax Reform, literature is: Stress is the psychological and physical state that results when perceived demands exceed an individual's ability to cope with them. The profession of nursing has thrived over the past century into a respected and necessary member of the point of view, health care arena.

However, the future of the profession, and on Tax Reform, more imminently. Health , Health care , Health care provider 834 Words | 3 Pages. Exploring euthanasia through an ethical case study. highlights the moral obligation to History of Central Essay, uphold this principle (Thiroux Krasemann 2009). Ms Griffith, Mr Mathers deceased partner suffered from a . degenerative spine condition and according to on Tax Reform, Mathers statement, Ms Griffith did not want to live in a nursing home and what does menagerie, was inclined to death before repeating the trauma she had witnessed with her mother. On Tax. This personal information suggests a relationship intimate enough where Ms Griffith was comfortable sharing this fear with her partner.

This statement is. Autonomy , Decision making , Decision theory 1900 Words | 5 Pages. Nursing Code of Ethics Introduction Butts and Rich (1-26) point out that effective nursing requires both broad knowledge . and a set of well developed abilities and skills. The required tasks, are many and varied and in school uniform, order to do them properly, care must be taken to respect each patient's rights and sensitivities. This is Reform why, according to Essay Modern Martial Arts Doctrine, the authors, nursing care must be guided by a code of ethics. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and discussion of the Reform, Code of Ethics. Applied ethics , Bioethics , Business ethics 1047 Words | 4 Pages.

Ethics and African, its impact on nursing . Ethics is not definable, is Essay on Tax not implementable, because it is not conscious; it involves not only our thinking, but also our feeling, Valdemar W. Setzer. According to Fundamentals of Nursing , The Art and Science of Nursing Care, (4th edition) ethics is a systematic inquiry into principles of right and wrong conduct, of virtue and vice, and of good and evil. Bioethics , Business ethics , Ethics 1811 Words | 5 Pages. grounds 3) The right to revoke consent 4) The right to expect that a decision to give, refuse or revoke consent will be respected 5) The right to be . School Uniform. involved to the greatest degree possible in all case planning and decision making Mostly all nursing actions are an invasion of a persons privacy and Essay Reform, giving consent is carried out by going into the hospital or being treated at home. So one can say that consent is based on the principle of respect for a fellow human being. (Ref 1,2) This legislation.

Autonomy , Decision making , Human 848 Words | 3 Pages. adult patient is refusing treatment that the of Central African Essay, health care team believed will save the Essay, patients life. The basic ethical principles of patients . autonomy , beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice supersede the ethical principles of beneficence, and nonmaleficence of the health care team. Under the common law, every individual has the right to his or her autonomy or aptitude. Informed consent is an African, example of a legal document that identifies the individuals choice or decision with regard to his or her. Autonomy , Blood transfusion , Ethics 1463 Words | 4 Pages. principles consist of Reform non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy , and justice. What Mean. The ethical and legal obligation to prevent harm refers to . Essay. non-maleficence (Bruess amp; Greenburg, 2008). Uniform Essay. Not doing harm is not good enough refers to beneficence and Reform, includes an obligation to contribute to ones well being (Bruess amp; Greenburg, 2008). If people do not do harm to others, they should be liberated to disengagement theory, formulate the course of actions on their own refers to Reform, autonomy (Bruess amp; Greenburg, 2008).

Everyone should. Autonomy , Business ethics , Education 1675 Words | 3 Pages. peripheral cannulation for TPN. I told them they should be open and honest, act with integrity and school, uphold the reputation of their profession. Essay. They must . Ideas. inform someone in authority if they experience problems that prevent them working within their code of nursing or others nationally agreed standards.

I checked their IV monitoring chart and there was no continuous documentation on the condition of patients hand. I believe thrombophlebitis wont occur immediately. Firstly there will be sign and symptom. Florence Nightingale , Intravenous therapy , Nurse 2007 Words | 6 Pages.

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cleopatra vii essay This is an online version of an article first published in Reform Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and His Legacy , edited by C. J. Wright. London: British Library Publications, 1997: 391-454. 'Their Present Miserable State of Cremation': the Restoration of the Cotton Library. The aged overseer paused. 'Well, I doubt if you'd even understand it. I don't.

He seems to have found a method for restoring missing words and phrases to some of the old fragments of original text in the Memorabilia. Perhaps the left-hand side of African Republic:, a half-burned book is legible, but the right-hand page is burned, with a few words missing at the end of each line. He's worked out a mathematical method for Essay, finding the missing words. It's not foolproof, but it works to some degree'. W.M.

Miller, Jr., A Canticle for hamlet point of view, Leibowitz. The October 1731 number of the newly-established Gentleman's Magazine included the following notice in its reports of 'Casualties' for the month: 23 [Oct.]. A Fire broke out in the House of Mr Bently , adjoining to the King's School near Westminster Abbey , which burnt down that part of the House that contained the King's and Cottonian Libraries. Almost all the Essay on Tax printed Books were consumed and point of view part of the Manuscripts. Amongst the Essay on Tax Reform latter, those which Dr Bentley had been collecting for his Greek Testament for these last ten years, valued at 2000 l.(2) This short note, tucked away between reports of the discovery of a disfigured corpse near Bath and an accidental shooting at Hackney, records what was perhaps the greatest bibliographical disaster of modern times in Britain. It is difficult to disengagement quantify the scale of the on Tax losses to the Cotton library as a result of the fire at Bentley's residence, Ashburnham House.

A number of letters preserve colourful anecdotes about the fire, such as the famous story of Dr Bentley escaping from the montesquieu flames in Essay on Tax nightgown and wig with Codex Alexandrinus under his arms,(3) but the point most detailed source of information about the fire and on Tax the damage inflicted by it is a report by a parliamentary committee established to investigate the incident, which was published in 1732.(4) This contained two valuable appendices. The first was 'A Narrative of the Fire. and of the essay Methods used for preserving and recovering the Manuscripts of the Royal and Cottonian libraries',(5) compiled by the Reverend William Whiston the younger, the clerk in Essay on Tax Reform charge of the records kept in the Chapter House at school Westminster, another notorious firetrap.(6) The second was a list of lost and damaged manuscripts, prepared by David Casley, the deputy librarian of both the Royal and Cotton libraries, with the assistance of Whiston. (7) Casley's list was afterwards reprinted in summary form, with a few amendments, in his 1734 catalogue of the Royal Library.(8) Whiston stated that the Essay Reform Cotton library contained before the fire 958 manuscript volumes, of which 114 were 'lost, burnt or intirely spoiled' and another 98 so damaged as to be defective.(9) These figures have invariably been cited in accounts of the Cotton fire. They are, however, misleading. In one sense, they overstate the amount of uniform essay, damage.

Many of the manuscripts reported as lost by Essay, Whiston and Essay Modern Arts - Lack Doctrine Casley were in Essay fact preserved as fragments or 'burnt lumps' which were beyond the reach of eighteenth-century conservation technology but were successfully restored during the nineteenth century.(10) Consequently, the majority of manuscripts reported as lost in 1732 are available for montesquieu ideas, consultation today. In fact, only on Tax thirteen manuscripts were utterly destroyed in Essay Modern Martial Arts - Lack Doctrine the Cotton fire, mostly from the Essay on Tax Reform Otho press.(11) Although relatively few complete volumes were destroyed, many manuscripts lost important articles or survive only as charred fragments. In this sense, the details given by Whiston and Casley underestimate the damage. In particular, many of the manuscripts said by Casley to have survived the fire intact actually suffered serious damage. One of the montesquieu ideas most famous victims of the fire was the manuscript containing the unique exemplar of Beowulf , Vitellius A. XV.(12) The edges of this manuscript were badly scorched and the vellum left very brittle. Its subsequent handling caused serious textual loss.

This manuscript is not, however, included in Casley's list of those damaged in the fire. Tiberius A. III is Reform a composite volume containing various eleventh-century items mostly of Canterbury origin, including St Æthelwold's translation of the Rule of St Benedict, works by Ælfric and one of the two surviving copies of the Regularis Concordia , prefaced by a famous drawing of King Edgar with St Dunstan and St Æthelwold.(13) This volume was also said by Casley to have survived the fire unharmed, but again there was damage to the edges of the folios and the water used to put out the fire caused staining. The drawing of King Edgar had become warped and buckled. In the uniform essay absence of any meaningful statistics, the best way of conveying the catastrophic nature of the losses in the Ashburnham House fire is by a random roll call of some of the victims.(14) Cotton's pride and joy, the Essay Reform fifth-century Greek Genesis (Otho B. VI), one of the earliest illustrated Christian manuscripts in existence, was reduced to a pile of cinder-like fragments.(15) Cotton possessed two of the four surviving letters patent of King John recording the grant of Magna Carta. One of these, now Cotton Charter XIII.

31a, was the only one with the school uniform essay Great Seal still attached. Essay Reform! In the heat, not only was the text damaged but the seal was left as a shapeless blob.(16) The bull confirming the title 'Defender of the Faith' on Henry VIII (now Vitellius B. Montesquieu Ideas! IV*) was reduced to Reform half a dozen greatly shrunken and distorted fragments. Otho A. History African Republic:! XII contained unique exemplars of Essay, two key texts for the Anglo-Saxon period, Asser's Life of History of Central African Republic:, Alfred and The Battle of Maldon , together with other Old English material.(17) Although 40 folios of the on Tax Reform original 155 were eventually recovered, both Asser and Maldon perished completely. Among the chronicle texts which were lost or very badly damaged were the earliest manuscript of Gildas (Vitellius A. VI),(18) the 'G' manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Otho B. Arts Of Confucian Doctrine! XI,(19) and the only extant manuscript of Æthelweard's chronicle (Otho A. X).(20) Cartularies from on Tax such houses as Lenton (Otho B. XIV),(21) St Albans (Otho D. III) and St Augustine, Canterbury (Otho B. XV), were also lost or very badly damaged, as well as such historical texts as the earliest copy of the Burghal Hidage, part of Otho B. XI.(22) Among the illuminated manuscripts ruined in the fire might be singled out a portion of an early eighth-century gospel book from Northumbria, Otho C. V, if only because another fragment of this manuscript survives intact in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 197B, and shows that it was an insular gospel-book from the greatest period of Northumbrian illumination.(23) These are mostly medieval examples. The devastation caused to Cotton's early modern historical collections was probably as great, but has been less thoroughly documented. It is a measure of the about Martial Doctrine richness of on Tax, Cotton's library that, despite such losses, it still remains an incomparable source for the history, literature and art of disengagement, medieval and Tudor England. On the Essay morning after the montesquieu ideas fire, Little Dean's Yard in Westminster must have been a sad sight. Ashburnham House was a smouldering ruin. The ground was littered with fragments of burnt manuscripts, which the boys of Westminster School picked up and kept as souvenirs.(24) As the manuscripts had been rescued from the flames, they had been taken to on Tax various rooms in Westminster School. When the hamlet point fire had finally been put out, they were assembled in the great boarding house of the school, opposite Ashburnham House. Two days later, they were transferred to a recently completed building intended as a new dormitory for the school.(25) These operations were supervised by the Speaker, Arthur Onslow, a Cotton trustee, who on hearing of the fire had rushed from his house nearby to on Tax Reform help save the manuscripts.

Onslow summoned together a group of experts, including not only Bentley and Casley, but also keepers of such other record repositories as the ideas Chapter House at Westminster, the Tower of on Tax Reform, London and the Exchequer, to consider how the theory definition damaged manuscripts could be conserved.(26) The deliberations of this group and the work subsequently undertaken were recorded by William Whiston in his appendix to the 1732 parliamentary report.(27) Although Whiston's report is well known, little notice has been taken in descriptions of individual Cotton Manuscripts of the impact of the emergency conservation work undertaken immediately after the fire, when a number of manuscripts were broken up and rebound. It seems likely that, in the process, leaves were not reassembled in Reform the correct order and montesquieu the collation of some volumes permanently disrupted. This important stage in the codicological history of many Cotton Manuscripts has been generally overlooked. It is Essay on Tax Reform therefore worth describing in some detail the procedures adopted by Whiston and his colleagues. It is difficult nowadays, looking at the collection after more than two hundred years of conservation work, to imagine the scale of the problem confronting Speaker Onslow's panel of experts. The picture which comes to Essay about Arts mind is of a huge collection of loose charred fragments, but the pattern of damage caused by the fire and 'engine-water' was more complex.(28) The vellum manuscripts had frequently stayed together as a single unit, but had warped and shrunk in Essay the heat, each codex rolling up into a misshappen ball. Animal fat had been drawn out from the vellum by the heat and then congealed, turning the manuscript into a glutinous mass, blackened around the of view edges. As it cooled, the manuscript became very brittle.

One Royal manuscript burnt in Essay Reform the fire, deliberately left unconserved, preserves some idea of the appearance of these extraordinary objects.(29) It looks like an montesquieu irradiated armadillo. Moreover, as is still the case with library fires, the water used to extinguish the blaze had caused as much damage as the flames.(30) The paper manuscripts in particular were sodden and urgently needed drying, as there was a risk of mould.(31) Initial conservation work began on 1 November 1731, just over a week after the Essay Reform fire.(32) The stained and damp paper manuscripts, mostly sixteenth-century State Papers, were disbound, and History of Central Republic: Essay a bookbinder employed to clean the leaves and wash them in an alum solution. A number of presumably unskilled assistants were hired to turn over the leaves to prevent the Essay formation of mould. The leaves were hung on lines to does menagerie dry and afterwards bound up again. It was found that the wet vellum manuscripts could be satisfactorily dried by leaving them open on the floor and regularly turning the on Tax leaves.

The worst affected were dried in front of a fire. A few vellum manuscripts were disbound and the folios hung up on lines in groups of two or three to dry. Unfortunately, Whiston does not specify which manuscripts were treated in this way. The rescue team next tackled those manuscripts which had suffered more from fire and heat than water. Where possible, the burnt vellum manuscripts were opened up leaf by leaf and 'the glutinous Matter, that had been forced out upon ideas the Edges of the Vellum and Parchment by the Heat of the Fire, was carefully taken off by the Fingers. Essay On Tax Reform! '.(33) Despite Whiston's claim that, except for essay, a few of minor value, all the damaged vellum manuscripts had been treated in this way, it seems that little progress was made.

Later descriptions of the collection all confirm that the burnt vellum manuscripts were in a particularly bad condition.(34) In any case, the treatment described by Whiston would hardly have left these manuscripts in Essay on Tax a fit condition for ideas, use. The burnt paper manuscripts were an easier proposition. The individual leaves were washed, cleaned and hung up to dry. Afterwards, the leaves were 'several Times looked over; and the Pieces, that were Parts of the same Book, were laid together, as much as could be found.'(35) Whiston stated that, from the surviving paper fragments, 'several large Portions of Books, and some entire Books have been made up out of them'.(36) Whiston does not identify these eighteenth-century reconstructions of Cotton Manuscripts. He urged that, when a volume had been recovered in this way, 'each Book or Portion of Book, so collected together, should be carefully collated, and the Leaves placed, as near as possible, in the same Order, that they were in before the Fire'.(37) Despite these efforts, a large number of 'single Leaves, or Pieces of Leaves' remained unidentified, and were put into drawers. These included many fragments of burnt vellum manuscripts and Essay Reform indeed the more intractable 'burnt lumps' of vellum. Of Central Republic:! Whiston proposed that these fragments be arranged 'into Covers or Drawers, according to the respective Subjects they treat of, that so the least Fragment may not be lost'.(38) It does not seem that this far-sighted proposal was implemented. The initial rescue work was conducted at Essay on Tax Reform enormous speed. It had been largely completed by uniform essay, the time Whiston submitted his report on 20 January 1732, within three months of the fire.

Inevitably there must be doubts about the accuracy of work undertaken with great haste, partly by unskilled assistants, in primitive conditions and without the aid of modern bibliographical tools. Later workers on the collection commented that it had suffered 'by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them'.(39) Whiston does not specify how individual manuscripts were treated, but the general figures he provides indicate that about a third of the volumes in the collection were subjected to this rough and ready conservation work.(40) The labours of Whiston and his colleagues already place a very great gulf between the modern user of the Cotton library and the library as it existed before the on Tax fire. In discussing the collation of any Cotton manuscript which shows signs of severe damage from damp, it is menagerie worth remembering that in 1731 the manuscript may have been taken apart and the leaves hung up on washing lines by an illiterate artisan. Whiston and his fellow workers stand as the first of a series of intermediaries between the modern scholar and on Tax the original Cotton library. They inaugurated a process of conservation work on the collection which has continued intermittently to the present day. Just as the hamlet of view story of the Cotton collection to 1731 was one of growth and Essay on Tax Reform development, so its history since then has been one of History of Central Essay, successive attempts to on Tax restore the collection to its pre-fire state.

Historical and literary scholars have throughout this time given manuscript evidence an History of Central African Essay increasingly elevated status. For many, the original manuscript has served as a touchstone, a firm fixed point to which scholars can return when they are buffeted by the cross-currents of Essay on Tax Reform, intellectual debate. In the case of the Cotton collection, however, the manuscripts themselves have undergone a process of evolution and of Central Republic: change as successive curators have sought to restore them to their original state. In a number of cases, a particular manuscript is little more than an intelligent reconstruction of the original, comparable to, and just as open to doubt and challenge as, say, an archaeological reconstruction.(41) Whiston's concern that each manuscript fragment from the Cotton library should be carefully preserved was echoed in more elevated language by the Reverend Thomas Fitzgerald, the Usher of Essay, Westminster School, in his lines Upon the Burning of the Cottonian Manuscripts at Ashburnham House .(42) Fitzgerald reflects on how these 'learned Spoils of twice a thousand years' had survived Goths, Vandals and, even more dangerous in Fitzgerald's view, 'reforming Zeal', only to perish in a fire. In the climax of the poem, Fitzgerald called for each fragment to be treated as if it was a holy relic: Whate'er the Fury of the Flames has spar'd. With zealous Care, with awful Rev'rence guard . Each Code, each Volume, ev'ry Fragment Prize: As Rome her Relicks sav'd from Times of Old: With Gems profusely decks, and shrines in point Gold; Tho' none like these, with all her Pomp and Cost, Or Rome, or all her Vatican can boast. Despite these poetic injunctions, nothing was done for the further preservation of the Cotton library following the publication of the parliamentary report in 1732. The manuscripts languished in Essay their temporary accommodation in Westminster School for another twenty years.

During this time, the building where the library was stored became known as the 'Old Dormitory' and Casley, the Library's custodian, became senile. The only immediate effect of the catastrophe at Ashburnham House appears to have been to encourage the first moves in 1751 for the publication of Domesday Book, then kept in school essay the Westminster Chapter House and also at on Tax great risk from school uniform fire.(43) In 1743, Major Arthur Edwards, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and enthusiastic amateur archaeologist,(44) left seven thousand pounds 'to erect a house in which to Essay Reform preserve the Cotton Library, or should such a house have meantime been provided, to montesquieu purchase manuscripts, books of antiquities, ancient coins, medals and other curiosities to come to Essay on Tax Reform the Library'.(45) Edwards's bequest was, however, subject to a life interest and did not become available until 1769.(46) Edwards also left his books and pictures as additions to the library.(47) It was through the intervention of another Edwards, Vigerus Edwards, that the collections of the record scholar and historian of the Exchequer Thomas Madox were deposited with the Cotton library.(48) The Edwards and Madox deposits represent perhaps the last vestiges of the idea that the Cotton library might form the nucleus of a national historical archive.(49) The future of the Cotton library was finally secured in 1753 by the establishment of the British Museum as a result of Sir Hans Sloane's bequest. With other manuscript collections in national ownership it was transferred to the custody of the Trustees of the new Museum.(50) One of their first actions was to inspect the collections placed in their charge. On 2 February 1754 a committee of the Trustees visited the hamlet of view Old Dormitory to examine the Cotton Library.(51) They found that Casley was by Essay Reform, now 'disabled by mean, age and infirmity from executing the Essay duty of his post in his own person' and his responsibilities were discharged by montesquieu ideas, his wife, who showed the library to visitors.

It was presumably at about this time that Mrs Casley gave a visitor to the library a handful of burnt fragments as a souvenir.(52) Casley was also assisted by Essay Reform, Richard Widmore, the Keeper of the library of Westminster Abbey, who undertook detailed work on the charters, probably the most confused part of the montesquieu collection. On Tax Reform! Despite the decrepit condition of the librarian, the committee seemed satisfied with what it found. They declared that the Essay about Martial Arts of Confucian Doctrine Old Dormitory 'though it has not the advantage of so much light, as would be proper for a library. is dry and secured from the weather. The MSS. as well as the books [presumably Major Edwards's legacy together with the Reform remnants of Cotton's own printed books] appear to have sustained no injury from disengagement theory definition damp since the depositing them there, but they are in general so dusty that a speedy care of them is necessary in that respect'. Indeed, the committee felt that the Old Dormitory would provide suitable temporary accommodation for Reform, the Harley Manuscripts, 'if a proper person were appointed for the custody and care of that collection'. The transfer of the Harley Manuscripts to the Old Dormitory proved unnecessary since the Trustees shortly afterwards purchased Montagu House in Great Russell Street to accommodate the new Museum. The work necessary to prepare Montagu House to receive the Museum's collections proved protracted, and point of view it was not until 1756, immediately before the removal of the Cotton collection to Great Russell Street, that a more systematic examination was made of the Cotton library. In July 1756, two Museum officers, Matthew Maty, the Essay on Tax Reform first Keeper of Printed Books and from 1772 to 1776 Principal Librarian, and History of Central Republic: Henry Rimius, submitted two reports on on Tax the Cotton collection to the Trustees. The first was printed in an abridged form in History of Central African Essay Samuel Hooper's 1777 catalogue of the collection,(53) but the second has never been printed.(54) Maty and Rimius checked the collection against Smith's 1696 catalogue and Essay Casley's list of manuscripts damaged in the fire, counting the volumes and comparing the History African Republic: Essay contents of a sample from each press against the catalogue entries.

They declared that the manuscripts in ten of the presses (Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Cleopatra, Faustina and the Appendix) 'have suffered nothing by the fire, and Reform have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Yet several of these being placed in History presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and Essay shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum'. The condition of the manuscripts in the presses more badly affected by the fire (Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius) caused Maty and uniform Rimius more concern. They declared that they 'could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley'. Some manuscripts which Casley reported as not badly damaged had indeed disappeared into the general stock of loose fragments, and Essay Reform did not resurface until the mid-nineteenth century. Essay! For example, Maty and Rimius were unable to find Tiberius D. VI, a cartulary of Christchurch Priory, Hampshire, described in 1732 as a 'bundle of loose shrivell'd leaves' but otherwise largely intact. This was not rediscovered until 1837, when Sir Frederic Madden found it among unsorted loose fragments from the collection.(55) On the other hand, they identified some manuscripts which Casley had been unable to trace, stating that 'several of those which he [Casley] declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands'.

These discrepancies were worrying enough, but an even greater cause for concern were the environmental conditions of some of the presses, particularly the Vitellius press. 'Besides the damage done by Essay, the fire to the manuscripts in this press', Maty and Rimius reported, 'it has suffered no less by the carelessness of disengagement theory definition, those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the Essay on Tax Reform fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks [presumably the pressmarks] and afforded both lodging and point of view food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects.' The second report dealt with the Reform surviving 'charters, curiosities co.' in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet. Maty and essay Rimius complained that 'The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described'. This necessitated an examination of each item and a preliminary numeration of every one 'by which they could more easily be found out'. They were assisted in this by a draft catalogue prepared by Widmore.(56) The unnamed press containing the Reform charters was divided into two parts. Sixteen drawers in the top section and seven in the lower were stuffed with paper and parchment including several 'entirely relative to the Cotton family' which Maty and Rimius felt were 'of little use to the public'. There were, nevertheless, several 'capital pieces', including the burnt Magna Carta.

This, they reported, was 'still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by this dreadful accident'. It was placed by itself 'in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at the bottom'. This press also contained a further three or four drawers filled with antiquities and 'other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship'. The most interesting part of this second report is, however, the statement that some charters had been lost 'amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described'.

These were the fragments which Whiston and his colleagues had been unable to place in disengagement 1731, and had put to one side. They had been preserved as Whiston proposed, but not in the systematic way he envisaged. Essay! Indeed, as has been noted, some of the manuscripts successfully identified in ideas 1731, such as the Christchurch Cartulary, had been stuffed away with the fragments. Widmore apparently thought the fragments should be disposed of, but Maty and Rimius wisely urged 'a more particular examination' before any further action, 'as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved'. The Cotton Manuscripts were removed to the Museum in Essay on Tax Reform the first half of 1757.(57) Unlike the Sloane or Harley Manuscripts which were shelved according to subject classifications, they were arranged on shelves there by hamlet, the existing 'emperor' pressmark system.(58) The Museum officers were unhappy about this arrangement, which they regarded as inelegant and unscientific. On 12 July 1757 it was reported to the Trustees that 'The Cottonian Library has been removed into the new wired presses, in the same order in which the manuscripts stood in on Tax Reform the old; without regard to point of view the intermixture of on Tax, tall and short books, which necessarily is thus made upon the same shelf'. It was suggested it would be better to school essay 'range them all anew'.

The Trustees nevertheless resolved that the on Tax manuscripts should 'for the present continue in the order they now stand'.(59) As for the burnt manuscripts, it was reported that those 'which have been ascertained by school uniform, the Catalogue, stand likewise in their order', suggesting that most of the items noted as usable by Casley were put in their appropriate places in the emperor sequence.(60) The 'other crusts and loose leaves' were however kept in the old presses, presumably the drawers formerly containing the charters which had been brought to the Museum. It was recommended that the Standing Committee should be empowered 'to imploy fit persons, if any such can be found, to restore those that are least damaged, as far as they are capable of it; and to remove those that shall be judged totally irrecoverable, into Reform close presses to be kept by themselves'. Approving this proposal, the Trustees ordered that any material found to be beyond repair 'be for the present placed in the closet of the room where the Harleian Carts. now stand'.(61) The loose Cotton fragments remained associated with the Harley Charters and in 1775 the Trustees ordered that these latter 'be removed in their presses as they now stand into one of the front garrets'. The fragments remained with these charters in Garret no. 8, which became known as the History of Central Essay charter garret.(62) In July 1757, a Mr Mores, perhaps the typographical historian Edward Rowe Mores, wrote to the Principal Librarian claiming to have developed a method of restoring the leaves of on Tax, vellum books damaged by fire. Mores was authorized to examine the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, but nothing came of definition, his overtures.(63) In February 1758, Maty showed the Standing Committee a specimen of Essay on Tax Reform, some loose sheets of fire damaged parchment restored by Mr Padeloup, a French bookbinder.(64) Impressed, the committee ordered the History of Central African Essay Keeper of Manuscripts, Charles Morton, to give Padeloup one of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts. A month later Padeloup returned the manuscript duly repaired. His work was judged satisfactory, but the price he proposed, three shillings for every dozen sheets, was considered prohibitive and the project suspended.(65) Thus matters were left for another forty years. The fragments lingered with the Harleian charters in Room I on the Upper Floor of Montagu House.

It might be imagined that, now the burnt fragments were safely in the Museum, they were at Essay on Tax Reform least secure, but this was not the case, as can be seen from the sorry tale of the Cotton Genesis.(66) Casley reported that, after the fire, 'Of this valuable Monument of Antiquity, about 60 pieces of Leaves remain'. In 1743, George Vertue had borrowed some to make watercolour drawings of them to be shown at the Society of Antiquaries. Point Of View! Engravings of these drawings were published in Vetusta Monumenta in 1747. These fragments then disappeared from sight. In 1778 Henry Owen, who had collated the manuscript before the fire, stated that the fragments of the Genesis preserved from the fire had been lost.(67) At the end of the eighteenth century, Joseph Planta could only find eighteen, none of which were among those copied by Vertue.

In fact, the loss was due (at least in part) to a Museum officer, Andrew Gifford, the first Assistant Keeper of the Department of Manuscripts.(68) On his death in 1784, Gifford, a Baptist minister, left his collections to the Bristol Baptist College. Essay On Tax Reform! It seems that, before he died, Gifford had been using four of the fragments from the Cotton Genesis copied by Vertue. When his manuscripts and books were collected from the of Central African Republic: Museum, these fragments were inadvertently taken with them to Bristol. There they remained, unidentified and forgotten. In a 1795 catalogue of the Bristol library they were described as 'some pieces of an old copy of the Septuagint said to have been found in the ruins of the city of Herculaneum'. They were only on Tax finally reidentified in 1834 by Frederic Gotch, who wrote to Hartwell Horne, an Under-Librarian at the Museum, pointing out their survival. Horne amended a footnote in one of his publications referring to the Cotton Genesis, but the Museum authorities took no further action.(69) Gotch's discoveries remained virtually unknown until 1881 when he published a transcription of the Bristol fragments as a supplement to Tischendorf's edition of the text of the uniform fragments left in on Tax the Museum.(70) Five other fragments used by Vertue have never been traced.(71) In his diary for montesquieu, 13 March 1856,(72) the Essay redoubtable Keeper of Manuscripts Sir Frederic Madden speculated that the lost fragments might also have been taken to does menagerie mean Bristol with Gifford's books. However, they have never been identified there.

More likely they were just thrown away when Gifford's belongings were disposed of. Essay! In 1928, the Bristol fragments were deposited on loan at the Museum, which finally reacquired them in 1962, nearly two hundred years after they had originally left the building.(73) In 1792, Thomas Astle, Keeper of Records at the Tower of London, urged the Trustees to authorize the compilation of a new catalogue of the Cotton library.(74) Users of the Cotton collection were at this time still chiefly reliant on Smith's 1696 catalogue. To establish if a manuscript had survived the fire, they had to of Central cross-refer to Casley's 1732 list. In 1777 Samuel Hooper had produced a subject catalogue of the Cotton collection,(75) but, although he published the corrections of Essay on Tax, Maty and Rimius to Casley's schedule of damaged manuscripts,(76) his work was of limited assistance to readers grappling with Smith and what Casley. Accordingly, the Standing Committee of the Trustees ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Joseph Planta, to investigate the matter. In his report, dated 14 December 1793,(77) Planta declared that most of the volumes contained a great number of articles 'bound up with very little attention to any arrangement either as to authors, matter or date'. This was particularly a problem with the Essay on Tax State Papers which, according to Planta, were collected according to countries but otherwise not arranged in any order.(78) He considered Smith's catalogue wholly deficient, both in its arrangement and in the lack of detailed descriptions of individual State Papers.

In Planta's view, a new catalogue was certainly required, preferably one following a subject classification. This would also provide an opportunity of rearranging the collection 'in a classical order, which no doubt ought always to have the preference'. Alternatively, the new catalogue should have a detailed index. Luckily, the Trustees were unwilling to see the collection rearranged. Nevertheless, they accepted the need for a replacement for Smith, and instructed Planta to restore all those manuscripts capable of repair and about Arts - Lack prepare a new catalogue.(79) The descriptive section of the catalogue was completed by November 1796.(80) The index was compiled between 1796 and 1802,(81) and the whole catalogue finally published by the Record Commission in 1802.(82) The section of the published preface describing the procedures adopted by Planta in conserving and cataloguing the manuscripts is copied almost word for Essay on Tax Reform, word from a report submitted to the Trustees by him on 4 November 1796.(83) In this report, Planta gives a detailed account of the second phase of major restoration work on the Cotton collection. Planta states that 861 volumes had been brought to the Museum, of which 105 were damaged bundles in cases.(84) This indicates that he concentrated on those burnt manuscripts whose identity was readily ascertainable and which had been placed on disengagement definition their arrival in the Museum in the main emperor sequence. He did not attempt to tackle the on Tax mass of hamlet point, burnt fragments stored with the Harley Charters. The first problem which confronted him was that the Reform damaged manuscripts in cases frequently consisted of loose unnumbered sheets or quires. The order of these sheets -- already disrupted as a result of the fire and the hasty rescue work in 1731 -- had been further confused by their use in the Reading Room. Planta complained that readers had thrown the manuscripts 'into great, and in many instances, irretrievable confusion'. Of Central Essay! Consequently, his 'first care on entering on Essay Reform my task, was to cause all the volumes to be regularly paged, or at least the old paging to be regularly ascertained'.

This ink foliation can still be seen on many of the manuscripts.(85) The foliations are in a variety of different hands, and were probably made for Planta by various attendants in the Department.(86) Damage to the manuscript margins made it difficult to position the numbers and occasionally the foliators were forced to write them in the middle of the theory definition page.(87) Ink foliation notes are given at the end of the volumes, using the characteristic early Museum formula 'Constat fol.' Planta then 'proceeded to examine the bundles in cases, and found means, after many repeated and Essay on Tax Reform not a few unsuccessful attempts, to arrange several volumes and parts of volumes of State Papers. Theory Definition! Some of the shrivelled MSS. on vellum I likewise found capable of being restored, though not without great care and Essay on Tax dexterity on the part of the bookbinder'. History Republic: Essay! In his original report he identifies the binder as C. Elliot, the Museum binder from 1773 to Reform 1815. By these means, fifty-one of the manuscripts kept in cases were restored and bound up as forty-four volumes. The remaining sixty-one bundles Planta considered 'irretrievable', but dismissed most of them as 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance'. Planta's report gives an unduly rosy picture of the what does mean condition of the Cotton collection at the conclusion of Essay on Tax Reform, his work. About Modern Martial - Lack Of Confucian Doctrine! Little progress had been made with the damaged vellum manuscripts.(88) A number of important manuscripts were left as loose sheets in cases, including, for Essay Reform, example, one of the earliest manuscripts of Bede (Tiberius A. XIV). Ideas! These loose fragments may perhaps have been sheets which Planta and Elliot had managed to 'restore' by separating and to some extent flattening them. Many other manuscripts were left simply as 'crusts' in on Tax Reform cases.

Far from being 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance', they included cartularies of St Albans (Tiberius E. VI, Otho D. III), St James, Northampton (Tiberius E. Essay Modern Arts - Lack Doctrine! V), the Annals of Dunstable (Tiberius A. X), and Essay on Tax Reform the eleventh-century Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII). Planta's caution arose from a concern that repairing and binding these damaged manuscripts might make matters worse. This is borne out by comments by two later Keepers of Manuscripts. In 1825 Sir Henry Ellis noted that fragments of Cotton Manuscripts had been 'placed in pasteboard cases because it was impossible to bind them without losing more than they had already lost of point, their respective texts'.(89) Similarly, in 1835 Josiah Forshall reminded a parliamentary Select Committee investigating the Museum that 'In many cases there is a great risk of doing more injury by any attempt to repair a manuscript that has been damaged by the fire than if it is left in its damaged state'.(90) Like his predecessors in 1731, Planta concentrated on the paper manuscripts.

Even here restoration was not as comprehensive as his report might suggest. Such important paper manuscripts as the autograph manuscript of Buck's History of Essay on Tax, Richard III (Tiberius E. X), a volume of Joscelin's collections (Vitellius D. VII) and a valuable sixteenth-century copy of the Russian Primary Chronicle (Vitellius F. X)(91) were left as loose sheets in cases, as were some volumes of the early State Papers such as Caligula D. IV, V, X and XI.(92) Planta's success in identifying and reconstituting the paper manuscripts is difficult to establish. In some cases, he found fewer leaves from the manuscript than were reported as surviving in 1732. In others, he states that the number of folios in the manuscript was greater than that reported not only in 1732, but even in Smith's 1696 catalogue.(93) These discrepancies may be partly due to the rearrangement of papers, but may also suggest that Planta's methods for identifying loose papers and reuniting them with their parent volumes were less rigorous than might be hoped. The major defect of Planta's restoration work, however, was his failure to of view tackle any of the Essay on Tax Reform burnt fragments stored separately with the Harley Charters. Large portions of hamlet point, many of the numerous manuscripts marked 'deest' or 'desideratur' by him were in fact sitting in on Tax Reform a room not far from definition his study. Nowhere in the catalogue is the existence of on Tax, this material even hinted at. Planta's complacent account of the state of the collection at the completion of his catalogue is therefore seriously misleading. It could even be argued that in some ways Planta's work made matters worse. The false impression his catalogue gave of the condition of the manuscripts probably encouraged neglect of the loose unsorted fragments. In addition, the provision of point of view, a catalogue encouraged the use of brittle manuscripts, both bound and unbound, which were not in a fit state for public handling.

The vulnerable edges of the manuscripts were completely unprotected, and pieces of text broke off as they were used by readers. Essay On Tax! Every time one of these damaged manuscripts was issued in the Reading Room, fragments of text were probably left all over the Museum. The effects of the continued handling of these fragile manuscripts have been most strikingly documented in the case of the Beowulf text in Vitellius A. XV. - Lack Of Confucian! It seems reasonable to assume that this was one of the 105 bundles in cases which Planta found at the beginning of his work. The state of the Essay on Tax manuscript in the 1780s is recorded in the two transcripts associated with the Danish antiquary Grmur Jnsson Thorkelin,(94) which record over 1900 letters which afterwards disappeared as a result of the what does menagerie mean crumbling of the edges of the manuscript.(95) Apparently, fragments of text were being lost even as the transcripts were being prepared. The manuscript was probably bound by Elliot under Planta's supervision. Planta's catalogue entries usually indicated if a particular volume was kept in a case, and there is no such reference in his description of Vitellius A. XV.(96) Given the testimony of Ellis, Forshall and Planta himself as to the hazards of binding brittle vellum manuscripts, it seems likely that further damage to the Beowulf text occurred in the process of binding the manuscript in the 1790s. On Tax! In 1817, John Conybeare made a detailed comparison between Thorkelin's 1815 edition of the what does poem and Essay on Tax Reform the original manuscript, marking the letters he could no longer see. According to theory Conybeare, over on Tax Reform, 900 letters had vanished by 1817.(97) A more accurate collation made by Sir Frederic Madden in uniform 1824 shows even greater loss than that noted by Conybeare.(98) Much of the damage to the manuscript in Essay the early nineteenth century was due to unrestricted handling of montesquieu ideas, it by readers.

Ironically, both Conybeare and on Tax Madden, by handling the manuscript when making their collations, accelerated the Essay Arts - Lack of Confucian Doctrine decay. The erosion of the Beowulf text continued until 1845, when the manuscript was inlaid, at last providing the Essay on Tax Reform fragile edges of the manuscript with some protection and preventing further loss. Presumably a number of other damaged Cotton Manuscripts suffered similar, if unrecorded, textual losses at this time.(99) Planta's successors as Keepers of Manuscripts, Robert Nares and Francis Douce, did not undertake any further work on montesquieu ideas the Cotton Manuscripts. The main sequence of Essay on Tax, Cotton Manuscripts remained with the does menagerie Royal manuscripts in the seventh room of the on Tax Reform upper floor of Montagu House, the last of the rooms containing manuscripts. Disengagement! Both collections remained in their original order, the 1808 synopsis of the Museum noting apologetically that 'These two libraries are not classed in a strict scientific order'.(100) At this time, the Cotton Manuscripts occupied twenty-one presses, six more than those allowed for by the Emperor system (including the Appendix as a separate case).

The use of boxes to house some burnt manuscripts presumably made it difficult to follow the system of Essay on Tax Reform, one press per emperor.(101) This perhaps prompted the decision to write numerical pressmarks, consisting of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf, in pencil on the flyleaf of the school uniform essay manuscripts. Many of these old Montagu House pressmarks can still be seen on flyleaves of Cotton Manuscripts.(102) As long as manuscripts continued to be stored as loose vellum sheets in flimsy boxes, there were endless possibilities for Reform, loss and confusion. In June 1825, Sir Henry Ellis, who succeeded Douce as Keeper of Manuscripts in 1812, reported to the Trustees a misfortune with the autograph manuscript of Sir George Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X).(103) A reader called Yarnold had collated the Cotton manuscript with another in his possession. 'Having but one eye, and very indifferent sight in the other', Yarnold had accidentally taken away half a leaf of the Cotton manuscript with his own papers. On discovering his mistake, he had returned the school uniform essay fragment. Sometime later, Yarnold's books were sold.

One lot was described as a manuscript of Buck. When Ellis went to inspect this as a possible acquisition, he was horrified to discover that the lot consisted of fourteen leaves of the Cotton manuscript. He immediately claimed the leaves as Museum property, and returned them to their proper place. Although the loose fragments and crusts stored with the Harley Charters had not been included in Planta's restoration efforts, they had not been forgotten by on Tax Reform, the Museum authorities. On 14 May 1825, the about Modern Martial of Confucian Standing Committee of the Trustees agreed that a small bundle of cinders and Essay on Tax Reform other fragments of ideas, Cotton Manuscripts should be sent to Reform William Hyde Wollaston so that he could undertake experiments on them.(104) Wollaston was distinguished as a physiologist, chemist and Republic: physicist, who even anticipated some of Faraday's discoveries about electricity. Indeed, it was said that each of Wollaston's fifty-six papers in many different fields marked 'a distinct advance in the particular science concerned'.(105) The reasons for Wollaston's interest in Reform the Cotton fragments are unclear. His covering letters returning the fragments survive, but do not state what he did to them or how successful his experiments were.(106) In fact, whatever his experiments, the results were disastrous. The state of the of view leaves treated by Wollaston was described in his diary by Sir Frederic Madden thirty years later: 'these leaves are almost like biscuit , and contracted to one third of their original size! Simply soaking them in Essay on Tax water would have been much more effectual. Of these leaves sent to Dr.

W. sixteen prove to be part of Grosthead's Works in Otho D. X, and montesquieu complete the volume ; while eleven others belong to the Higden, Otho D. Essay On Tax Reform! I, and essay one to Vitellius E. IX'.(107) Madden later reported that he was able to counteract the effects of Wollaston's process by soaking the Essay on Tax Reform leaves in school water, so that they expanded again to 'one half of their original size'.(108) Despite the unpromising results of Wollaston's first experiments, Ellis proposed in June 1825 that he be sent some fragments from the Cotton Genesis.(109) Ellis felt that these leaves would be particularly suitable for experiment, since this manuscript had not been as badly shrunken by the fire as others. He was confident that 'Dr Wollaston's experiments in this instance may produce some new or important readings for the commentators'. This suggests that Wollaston was not attempting to flatten the fragments but trying to make them more legible by using some form of chemical agent. Essay Reform! The results of his experiments on the Cotton Genesis are not known. Perhaps the most revealing aspect of the affair is point Ellis's statement to the Trustees that the Cotton fragments 'do not form a Part of the Collection of Manuscripts at the present time but are kept in a garret at the top of the House, perfectly useless to the Museum in every sense of the word'.(110) Ellis was shortly to Essay on Tax be proved quite wrong. In January 1826, a few months after Wollaston had finished his further shrivelling of Cotton fragments, Henry Petrie, Keeper of of view, Records at the Tower, wrote to the Standing Committee of the on Tax Reform Trustees, 'expressing a hope that some mode might be devised by which certain masses of the Martial of Confucian Doctrine Fragments of the Cotton Library. Essay On Tax Reform! which are at present preserved in cases, may be rendered readable without the risk of losing portions of their leaves from their adhesion and brittleness whenever an attempt is made to montesquieu ideas ascertain their contents'.(111) The Committee asked Sir Humphry Davy, a Trustee, to talk to Petrie about the problem.(112) A month later the Standing Committee 'Resolved that the plan proposed by Sir Humphry Davy of submerging the burnt manuscripts on on Tax Reform vellum belonging to the Cottonian collection which were injured in the fire of 1731 be adopted, from time to time, upon such MSS. as it may be desirable to examine: also that the edges of such manuscripts may be cut, where there is no writing, for the sake of separating the leaves'.(113) On 12 May 1826, the disengagement Assistant Keeper of Essay, Manuscripts, Josiah Forshall, informed the Trustees that 'The means recommended by the President of the Royal Society for the restoration of these MSS. Menagerie Mean! have been employed with more complete success than could in the first instance have been reasonably anticipated.'(114) Tiberius D. III, a collection of saints' lives in which Petrie had expressed a particular interest, 'was first carefully divided into convenient portions, and these were severally immersed for a longer or shorter time as they appeared more or less scorched.

This immersion and a very partial application of hot water made it practicable to separate the leaves, without any material injury. By making incisions between the columns and lines of writing, thus making room for an expansion of the parts most shrivelled and contracted by the fire, and by subsequently applying a gentle pressure until the moisture was evaporated, the leaves have been rendered sufficiently flat and smooth to admit of the contents being read for the most part with great facility'.(115) The process recommended by Davy was therefore to Essay on Tax Reform soak the disengagement theory manuscript to make it more pliable and then cut it open. The exact nature of the solution used to on Tax soften the manuscript is History of Central Republic: not known; Madden reported that it consisted of a solution of spirits of zinc and water.(116) Encouraged by their success with Tiberius D. III, Ellis and Forshall were keen to try and restore some of the fragments stored in the charter garret. Forshall immediately tried the technique on what 'appeared at first sight mere lumps of wax and cinder'.

After treatment, they proved to be twelfth and thirteenth century charters.(117) During June 1826, Ellis and Forshall sorted through the material in Essay on Tax Reform the garret to establish which fragments were worth treating. Ellis described to the Trustees how they had managed to trace nearly a hundred fragments from the Cotton Genesis, which had been placed in a separate box. Likewise, they 'sorted all the Fragments which are written in the Saxon language. ; they amount to some hundreds; these he [Ellis] has placed in disengagement definition another Box; many of them single, and many adhering to each other in thin close masses'.(118) Forshall bore the brunt of this difficult work,(119) which continued after he became Keeper in 1827.(120) About forty manuscripts were treated in this way.(121) The leaves were separated, partially flattened and stored loose in on Tax solander cases. Even after treatment the leaves still remained brittle, and History of Central were clearly still at Essay Reform great risk from careless handling in the Reading Room. Madden afterwards described Forshall's efforts as a only African Republic: Essay 'very partial' attempt at restoration,(122) and this seems to have been a justified criticism.

Nevertheless, substantial progress was made.(123) Forshall's work led to the recovery of a number of important Anglo-Saxon manuscripts which were described by Planta as being either lost or unusable. Among the most spectacular rediscoveries were: the unique manuscript of King Alfred's prosimetrical translation of Boethius (Otho A. VI);(124) 131 leaves from the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care (Tiberius B. XI), one of only two extant contemporary manuscripts of the Old English translations associated with King Alfred; an Essay on Tax eleventh-century copy of Werferth's Old English translation of the Dialogues of Gregory the Great (Otho C. I, vol. Does Menagerie Mean! 2); the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), complete except for eleven leaves, ten of on Tax Reform, which were afterwards found by Madden; fragments of the insular gospels in Otho C. V; two eleventh-century manuscripts of Ælfric's Homilies (Vitellius C. V and Vitellius D. XVII); and what does mean a large part of Essay on Tax Reform, Tiberius A. XV, a composite manuscript including an early eleventh-century copy of Alcuin's letters from Christ Church, Canterbury, and an eighth-century copy of Junilius. Among the later manuscripts made available for scholars for the first time since the fire were a number of cartularies and an important manuscript of what menagerie mean, Layamon (Otho C. XIII).(125) Forshall also located extra leaves of manuscripts probably partly restored by Planta, such as the Essay Reform early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV) to which he added five leaves, and Essay Martial - Lack Doctrine the Worcester cartulary (Tiberius A. XIII). Most notable of all was the work on Essay on Tax the Cotton Genesis.

Although the 1732 report stated that sixty fragments of this manuscript had been identified after the does fire, Planta could only trace eighteen. In July 1826, Forshall reported that 110 fragments of the volume, previously among the loose fragments in the charter garret, had been identified, unrolled and on Tax cleaned, '88 of which it had been found possible to appropriate to point their respective places.' These fragments were now 'ready to Essay on Tax be numbered and deposited in theory cases secure from future injury'.(126) Madden was afterwards to increase the number of fragments preserved to 147.(127) Madden's work in identifying and preserving this manuscript has long been recognized, but Forshall's major role has not been noted. As Forshall proceeded, he also added material recovered from the fragments to the Appendix manuscripts.(128) Above all, however, he also prepared detailed descriptions of the Essay on Tax Reform restored volumes, and proposed printing these in a supplement to Planta's catalogue.(129) A few of these survive, still unpublished, in copies made for Sir Frederic Madden and inserted in an annotated copy of Planta, preserved in the reference library of the theory Manuscripts Department.(130) Forshall is a forgotten pioneer in the restoration of the Reform Cotton Manuscripts. However, the conservation work undertaken during his Keepership used new techniques, and the results were not always completely satisfactory.

Not only was the restoration incomplete, resulting in a pile of loose brittle leaves in a box, but some unnecessary damage was caused. In particular, vellum leaves were cut at the edge both to allow the fat-covered crusts to be opened and individual leaves to be flattened. Hamlet Point! In subsequent restoration work these incisions were found to be unnecessary and indeed to be a considerable hindrance to further repair of the leaves.(131) The incisions that Forshall had made account for the serrated appearance of the Essay leaves in Modern Arts many burnt Cotton Manuscripts, and are particularly visible in, for example, Otho B. II, a copy of Alfred's translation of the Pastoral Care,(132) Otho C. XIII, an early copy of Layamon, and Otho C. I, volume one, an Anglo-Saxon translation of the Gospels. The greatest blot on Forshall's record in the conservation of the Cotton Manuscripts is the work on the burnt Magna Carta, Cotton Charter xiii. 31a. In May 1834, he drew the Trustees' attention to the condition of 'Magna Carta and the ancient and Essay otherwise valuable charters in the Cottonian MS. Augustus A.II', pointing out that 'all these documents were suffering much injury, owing to does menagerie mean the very imperfect manner in which they had originally been secured'.(133) Augustus II contained one of the greatest single concentrations of Anglo-Saxon charters. It is clear from Essay a later report that Forshall was referring in this minute to the burnt Magna Carta rather than the other exemplar (Augustus II.

106).(134) This minute implies that the 136 varied documents with this pressmark were still bound as a single volume, which would inevitably have caused damage to menagerie them. Essay On Tax! Forshall recommended that Hogarth, the restorer who had been used in unrolling and fixing the Egyptian papyri (then kept in ideas the Manuscripts Department), should repair and Reform secure the charters.(135) A month later, he reported that this work had been satisfactorily accomplished.(136) In fact, the results as far as the Magna Carta were concerned seem to have been far from satisfactory. This document at montesquieu ideas present is largely unreadable, even under ultra-violet light. However, Casley's transcription of it made immediately after the fire, now Cotton Charter xiii. 31b, gives a virtually complete text.(137) Similarly, in 1733 John Pine published an engraving of the burnt Magna Carta which showed the Essay damage caused by the fire as limited chiefly to the melting of the seal.(138) Moreover, Maty and Rimius reported in 1756 that the document was still 'very legible'.(139) This certainly could not be said of its present condition. Most of the damage to this document was, therefore, probably due to the repair work of History of Central Essay, 1834 rather than the Essay Reform fire, a conclusion supported by Madden's comment that this copy of Magna Carta was 'Injured in the fire of 1731 (and still more by the injudicious treatment it received from montesquieu ideas Mr Hogarth).'(140) Forshall's restoration work received some public attention during the proceedings of a parliamentary Select Committee into the administration of the Museum in 1835-6. Essay On Tax Reform! The committee had been disturbed by Forshall's statement that 'There were in the year 1824 a great quantity of crusts or fragments of manuscripts remaining unopened'.(141) Pressed by the committee, Forshall explained that he referred only to 'the fragments and relics left by the fire, namely, the remnants of about 130 volumes, which were damaged to a considerable extent, and perhaps much more than one half of them, being those manuscripts that were very much damaged, remained in the same condition until the what menagerie mean year 1824. I thought them, when I came to Essay the Museum, of so much value, that I spent a great deal of pains in washing and opening them. The operation took up much time, and what mean occasioned some expense'.(142) Questioned as to how he knew that there were not other Cotton Manuscripts worth unrolling, Forshall emphasized that such a judgement depended on Reform the description in Smith's catalogue, claiming that the value of a burnt crust could be 'ascertained in most cases from bare inspection', and that the crusts left unconserved were not worth the expense of unrolling.(143) By this time, Forshall felt, like Planta before him, that he had completed the Essay about Arts - Lack of Confucian Doctrine restoration of the Cotton library and that everything worth saving was available for scholars to consult.

He repeatedly told the Assistant Keeper of Manuscripts, Frederic Madden, that no further Cotton fragments of any value were preserved in the Museum.(144) During the Easter week of 1827, the Essay on Tax Reform Manuscript collections of the Museum were transferred from Montagu House to the accommodation in the new Museum building which (until the opening of the St Pancras building) they still occupy.(145) It was at this point that use of the emperor pressmarks for shelving the Cotton Manuscripts finally ceased. The motley mixture of placing systems used in Montagu House was abandoned and History replaced by the system still used today.(146) The manuscripts were ranked on Reform the shelf according to size, regardless of hamlet point, previous numeration or subject content. They were then given a separate pressmark. At first, this consisted of Essay on Tax Reform, a roman numeral for ideas, the press and a letter for the shelf; from the mid-nineteenth century, arabic numerals were used for the press. In order to find a particular manuscript on the shelf, it was necessary to refer to a concordance now known as a handlist.(147) These pressmarks were pencilled on the flyleaf. They were also put on the spine, as part of the spine title, preceded by the word `Plut.' for Pluteus or shelf.(148) Later in the nineteenth century, the modern procedure of Reform, using printed labels on the spine for uniform essay, the pressmark was introduced.(149) One of the Essay on Tax Reform 1835-6 Select Committee's principal recommendations was that the office of Secretary of the Museum should no longer be combined with one of the ideas Keeperships, and, by April 1837, Forshall had confided to his assistant, Sir Frederic Madden, his intention to retain the office of Secretary and resign as Keeper of Manuscripts.(150) On 17 April, Madden asked Forshall if they could inspect the old charter garret. Madden's diary records what they found:(151) Mr Forshall. Essay Reform! went, at my request, up with me to the garret called the Charter-Room (because the charters were formerly kept here), and where I had always been told there were only montesquieu ideas a few fragments not worth the bother of dusting or sorting.

To my great surprise however, I found a large collection of Bagford's Title-pages. covered with the on Tax Reform accumulated dust of nearly 80 years, also a large quantity of History of Central Republic: Essay, fragments and crusts of the burnt Cotton MSS. many of which appeared to Essay on Tax Reform me well worth the ideas process of restoration. On Tax! Mr F. had always assured me he had selected from them every thing worth preserving, but I saw enough before me to doubt the accuracy of point, his statement, and going on on Tax with my searches, I discovered in an old cupboard the point of view identical Cartulary of Essay on Tax Reform, Christ Church Twinham in menagerie Hampshire [Tiberius D. VI], which I have so often and so fruitlessly inquired after, and very little the Essay worse for the fire, except being wrinkled up! Is not this very disgraceful of the Keepers of MSS. from the middle of the last century to the present day. I saw enough to make me resolve in my own mind, to have the entire room cleared out, whenever it should be my lot to be Keeper of the MSS. and I resolved at once to about Martial Arts - Lack of Confucian bring down into my own room the two large bundles which formed the Christ Church Cartulary, and a third bundle which apparently contains an English Chronicle. Essay! I left up in the garret fragments of crusts of vellum enough to fill several bushel baskets, likewise a box full of African Republic: Essay, receipts of Essay, Sir Robert Cotton's, and three boxes said to contain the theory definition refuse of the Hargrave collection. It is very much to Reform the discredit of ideas, Mr F that affairs should have remained thus, and so I believe he felt, when I produced to him the long lost Christ Church Cartulary, which he had declared to me over Essay on Tax Reform, and over again could not by any possibility exist! Madden took the Christchurch Cartulary fragments back to of Central Essay his room, and began washing and flattening them, using the methods pioneered by Reform, Davy and Forshall.

His personal diary for 26 April 1837 notes: Continued the History of Central African Republic: washing pressing of the burnt Cartulary of Ch. Ch. Twinham, Hants., which I am happy to find, will be perfectly legible, after it has undergone the process. The Calendar of Contents prefixed is complete, so that I shall be able by that means to on Tax Reform easily arrange the leaves which have lost their numbering. The account given of this Priory in the New Editn. of the Monasticon is disengagement very trifling, and, Ellis declares, without any reason, that the Cartulary was lost in the Cotton fire!(152) In July 1837, Madden was appointed Keeper of Manuscripts. On 16 August, he began to 'make a list of all the Cotton MSS. that were injured by the fire of 1731 and their present state -- with a view of on Tax Reform, identifying, as far as possible, the mass of fragments still remaining in the old Charter Room'.(153) On his return from holiday in does October 1837, Madden badgered Forshall into handing over the keys of the charter room,(154) and immediately made a further examination of its contents. Essay Reform! He gave a detailed account of the hamlet point material stored there in his work diary for 31 October 1837 (afterwards adding notes on further investigations undertaken during November):

Went up in Essay on Tax the old Charter Room looked out Bagford's long neglected loose collections -- also the remainder of the Cartulary of Ch[rist] Ch[urch] Twinham, Hants and many other valuable fragments which I propose to have restored. History Of Central Essay! The contents of this room are at present as follows. 1. A very large box filled with fragments of burnt vellum Cotton MSS. the greater part broken and single leaves. In a dreadful state of Reform, dirt and confusion. (lock) 2. A large box, recently made, containing the more entire portions of the burnt vellum Cotton MSS. (lock) 3. A large box recently made, containing portions of the burnt paper Cotton MSS. and also bundles of Cotton bills Accounts c. (lock) 4. Mean! A box, locked, but found to be empty, when forced open on 23d Nov. 5. A larger box, containing Hargrave law papers (opened 23 Nov.) 6. A box containing the Essay on Tax Reform refuse of the Lansdowne Collection, placed here by Sir H. Ellis (Nailed down)(155)

7. A small box containing papers relating to the British Fishery Company (chiefly powers of attorney) and some miscellaneous papers of no value, the latter placed there by myself.(156) As Madden's annotations indicate, these precious boxes of Cotton fragments were locked up again after he had examined them, but he removed some of the larger vellum fragments and on 2 November again spent most of the about Martial Arts - Lack of Confucian day personally washing and flattening the on Tax further fragments of the does menagerie mean cartulary of Christchurch Priory he had found.(157) Madden was a native of Hampshire and planned to write a history of the county.(158) The rediscovery of the Essay on Tax Reform Christchurch Cartulary was an achievement of which he was particularly proud.(159) The fact that Madden himself made the first attempts at restoring the of view Christchurch Cartulary indicates the limited resources for major conservation work at his disposal. He doubted whether the Museum's binder, Charles Tuckett, was equal to the intricate task of dealing with the brittle vellum fragments. Forshall had preferred to use Hogarth on more delicate work, such as unrolling the Egyptian papyri, and even he had caused great damage when working on the burnt Magna Carta. On 11 January 1838, Madden reported to the Trustees: that he has received from Dr [Bulkeley] Bandinel, chief librarian of the Bodleian Library, and Dr [Philip] Bliss, Registrar, very strong testimonials in favour of a person named [Henry] Gough, who has been extensively employed to repair, inlay, and restore damaged manuscripts in the Bodleian and several of the College Libraries at on Tax Reform Oxford. Montesquieu Ideas! [He] recommends most seriously, that he should be permitted to have a trial, in the restoration of the burnt Cotton charters (now from the state in which they are in, impossible to be used), and also on a few of the most valuable MSS. such as the Greek psalter on papyrus, purchased of Essay on Tax Reform, Dr Hogg;(160) the fragments of the burnt Cotton Genesis; the remains of the Saxon Boethius, and other Saxon fragments, which cannot at present [be] consulted without injury to them, and which require a very practiced hand to restore them. Dr Bandinel assures Sir F.M. African Essay! that the terms of Gough are very moderate. He is at present still employed at Oxford, but will shortly come up to London.(161)

It is Essay on Tax Reform evident that Madden did not at montesquieu this stage envisage using Gough for a full-scale restoration of the on Tax Reform Cotton Manuscripts. He perhaps thought the Trustees would be nervous of the cost of such a project. Instead, he seems to have intended using Gough to protect those manuscripts of which large sections had been recovered by uniform essay, Forshall and which were in danger of damage as a result of the handling of Essay Reform, loose unprotected leaves in uniform the Reading Room. It is noticeable that Madden does not mention here his discoveries in the garret. Essay! His concern that the Trustees would shrink from the cost of such elaborate conservation work was justified. What Does! On 26 May, they refused Gough's services.(162) Madden noted in Essay on Tax his diary: 'I am of opinion they neglect the interests of this Department by does menagerie mean, such a step'.(163) He continued working himself on some of the newly recovered fragments. In his personal diary for Essay on Tax Reform, 17 July 1838, he wrote: 'Went up in the Old Charter Room and finished looking over the larger box containing the school uniform burnt Cotton fragments, and selecting the best portion. Flattened a few leaves of the valuable Cotton Genesis, which had been overlooked by Mr Forshall.'(164) On the following day, he 'Flattened some fragments of Saxon MSS. and discovered two leaves of the curious Proverbs ascribed to Alfred [Galba A. XIX], supposed to Essay on Tax have been totally destroyed in the fire'.(165)

The impetus for the full restoration of the Cotton collection came not from Madden, but from that ubiquitous figure in nineteenth-century manuscript studies, Sir Thomas Phillipps. On 10 October 1838 Phillipps wrote to William Richard Hamilton, a Museum Trustee, expressing his concern about the condition of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts and suggesting that the ideas most valuable should be transcribed before they were sent for Reform, binding.(166) The Trustees were at last persuaded of the need for action and instructed Madden to repair a report on disengagement the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, indicating which were sufficiently important to be worth the expense of transcription. Madden replied on 13 December with a masterly survey of the Essay Reform condition of the Cotton Manuscripts.(167) This was more comprehensive than any previous survey of the what does menagerie condition of the manuscripts, since he described all the on Tax Reform volumes damaged in the fire, not just the most badly affected manuscripts. He divided the damaged manuscripts (as distinct from the fragments) into three classes. The first comprised 'Those MSS. which by History of Central African, the agency of heat have been compressed and corrugated, with the edges burnt, and in many cases, broken, torn, and dirtied. These are in number 35, all of which, if skilfully flattened, inlaid and repaired, might be protected from further injury, and rendered in on Tax a comparatively good condition for general use'.(168) Madden pointed out that 'Many of these MSS. are among the most valuable of those possessed by the Museum, such for instance, as the unique Saxon poem of does menagerie mean, Beowulf [Vitellius A. XV], the Saxon Grammar of Ælfric [Julius A. On Tax Reform! II], a copy of the Saxon Chronicle [Tiberius B. IV], two copies of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, probably nearly contemporary with the author [Tiberius C. II, and presumably Tiberius A. XIV, although this was in fact stored as loose leaves at this time, and was elsewhere correctly assigned by hamlet point of view, Madden to the third class]; two exceedingly curious copies of Aratus c., with illuminations, of the tenth and Essay on Tax Reform eleventh centuries [Tiberius B. V and ideas C. I], a Psalter with a Saxon Gloss [Tiberius C. VI]; the Cartulary of Worcester with the Saxon Charters c. [Tiberius A. XIII]'. He observed that 'None of these MSS. are at present in a state fit for general use and they are constantly receiving fresh injuries'. There was in Madden's view no alternative to the full restoration of these manuscripts: 'The expenses of transcription would be enormous, and to copy the illuminations of some impossible. On Tax Reform! Sir F.M. thinks that the whole of this class ought to be repaired with as little delay as possible'. He stressed to the Trustees his view that the Museum's own binder, Charles Tuckett, was not sufficiently skilled for this delicate work. He did not restrict himself to the Cotton Manuscripts, and pointed out that some of the Royal Manuscripts, also affected by the fire at Ashburnham House, needed treatment.

He drew the Trustees' attention in particular to disengagement definition Royal MS. 15 C. XI, 'containing a very valuable copy of Essay on Tax, Plautus of the 11th century', which had been badly damaged by damp and school essay also required careful inlaying and repair. Madden's second class of damaged manuscripts consisted of 'those MSS. (chiefly on paper) which have been burnt on the edges and part of the writing injured or are otherwise out of repair.' These manuscripts were no less valuable than those in Essay Reform the first class, since they 'comprehend a very large portion of the original State Correspondence between England and other countries from the reign of Henry the Eighth to does mean the reign of James the First'. This was by far the largest category of manuscripts requiring repair, 134 in Essay on Tax all.(169) Unlike the manuscripts of the Essay Modern Martial Arts - Lack first class, Madden felt that all were 'capable of being inlaid or bound by Tuckett'. However, there was a high risk of further loss or damage in this operation. Madden stressed that 'in numerous instances the Essay written edges must sustain further injury in being handled'. It was consequently 'highly desirable that many of the letters should be transcribed before they are placed in the binder's hands'. The third class of damaged manuscripts consisted of those loose leaves in solander cases, chiefly the manuscripts reclaimed by Forshall but also including a number which Planta had been reluctant to have bound up. Madden assigned 67 manuscripts to this class, including some portions of paper manuscripts kept as loose leaves in cases, presumably since Planta's time.(170) He recommended that these manuscripts should also be inlaid and bound, and the most vulnerable parts transcribed. Theory Definition! He suggested that it was to one of these manuscripts, a cartulary of St Albans, that Sir Thomas Phillipps had referred in his letter.(171) Madden pointed out that the edges of this manuscript had been ' greatly injured and broken by Reform, readers'.

This was certainly a manuscript worthy of full transcription. This, Madden emphasized, was merely the tip of the iceberg, namely those manuscripts available in the Reading Room and kept with the main manuscript collections. About Martial Arts Of Confucian Doctrine! There were also the 'burnt fragments or crusts of the Cotton library, which fill three large boxes, among which are various Saxon portions and other valuable remains (all deserving of Essay on Tax, transcription)', as well as 'the injured Cotton Charters, which fill two drawers, all of ideas, which might be flattened and preserved by a skilful person'. He concluded by Essay on Tax, stressing once again the need for outside help in Essay about of Confucian Doctrine contemplating such a project. He sought to 'press on the attention of the Trustees. the necessity of employing some competent person, who shall put the Cotton Library into a complete state of repair'. He also returned to an old hobbyhorse, the need of attaching a transcriber to the department 'whose sole business should be to transcribe and copy. The utility of Essay on Tax Reform, such a measure must soon become apparent, for many of the Royal and other autographs are wearing out from constant use, and the same is the case in History Essay regard to the Indexes to the Heraldic Visitations and collections of Essay, pedigrees'. Madden's report provided a blueprint for the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.

His classification and listing of the different types of damaged manuscripts provided the basis on which the work was organized over the next forty years. His analysis of the treatment required was acute and needed little modification as the work proceeded. He backed up his case by laying before the menagerie mean Trustees some of the Essay on Tax most damaged manuscripts in the first class, but, not surprisingly, they were alarmed at the scale of the project Madden had unfolded before them. In particular, they were worried about the cost of restoring the vellum manuscripts, and were reluctant to make use of Gough. The Trustees therefore decided to uniform essay concentrate on the manuscripts in Madden's second class, which could be managed by Tuckett.

They ordered that the Essay on Tax Reform damaged paper manuscripts should be repaired, and on 10 January 1839, Madden presented them with a detailed list of these manuscripts.(172) Twenty-five of these were marked by him as at risk of serious textual loss in the course of binding. He described these as consisting largely 'of Original State Correspondence and Papers between England and ideas France, 1577-1620, between England and Belgium, 1516-1586, and between England and Rome, 1509-1529'. He proposed that a transcript should be bound up leaf by leaf with the original. The remaining manuscripts in this list only required careful repairing and rebinding, so that the labour of transcribing their contents before binding was not justifiable. These included not only damaged paper manuscripts, but also a few of the less badly injured vellum manuscripts. On Tax! In order to reduce the cost of the proposed transcriptions, Madden suggested 'the plan not of History of Central Republic: Essay, copying these papers in intire , but only the marginal words, which run the risk of being broken off in the hands of the Essay Reform reader or binder (indeed(173) several of this class of scorched MSS. have already materially so suffered), and after the transcript is made, to bind it up leaf by leaf with the montesquieu ideas original.'(174) Madden describes the on Tax Reform Trustees' reactions to his proposals: 'although they saw with their own eyes confessed the necessity, yet the expense (about 300£) seemed such a bugbear in History African Republic: their eyes, that they would only authorise me to have one volume done in the manner I proposed'.(175) It was agreed to prepare a transcript of Caligula E. VII as a trial.(176) The experiment proved unsuccessful. On 29 June Madden had regretfully to Essay Reform recommend that the preparation of school uniform, transcripts of damaged volumes be discontinued, as the transcripts would have almost doubled the Reform size of the collection and there was not enough room in the presses to accommodate them.(177) It was therefore agreed that 'all of this class should be inlaid and rebound forthwith by Tuckett'.(178) On 11 July 1839, work finally began in earnest. History Of Central! Madden gave Tuckett the binder Caligula E. VII, as well as one of the injured Saxon charters.(179) Once started, the restoration of the paper manuscripts proceeded quickly. Essay On Tax! By the end of hamlet point, 1841 the bulk of the manuscripts in Essay on Tax this category had been successfully repaired.(180) Madden had not forgotten the damaged vellum manuscripts.

His reaction to the Trustees' decision to concentrate on the paper manuscripts was to urge on them 'the propriety of placing certain restrictions on hamlet point the use of the damaged Cotton MSS. Essay Reform! until they shall have been secured against further injury'.(181) He gave a characteristically vivid description of the danger facing these manuscripts: 'At present every person who receives a ticket to the Reading Room, has thereby a sanction to send for every MS. in the collection, without regard to its condition or value, and it may be adviseable, without placing any check to the researches of persons properly qualified to examine MSS. to put these arrangements on a somewhat different footing.' Manuscripts were at what this time read in the general Reading Room.(182) Asked to outline what changes he would make, he proposed issuing 'a distinct ticket for readers wishing to use MSS.'(183) This proposal did not find favour and Madden's later attempts to on Tax Reform ensure that the more valuable manuscripts did not leave his department caused great antagonism.(184) During 1840, although much preoccupied with the school repair of the paper manuscripts, Madden nevertheless found time to make some preliminary notes on the contents of the boxes of burnt fragments and to prepare a further detailed schedule of the current condition of the damaged manuscripts.(185) He had also given to Tuckett for Essay on Tax, inlaying a few of the damaged vellum manuscripts of the first class which he felt Tuckett could be trusted with.(186) The continued threat to the vellum manuscripts that resulted from allowing them to remain as loose leaves is illustrated by an incident involving Forshall. Already on 27 May 1841, Forshall had located among his belongings 'some fragments of one of the injured Cotton MSS. and transcripts of a few of the point of view Norreys papers in the handwriting of Mr Stevenson'.(187) On 3 April 1843, Madden was checking a transcription of Tiberius A. X and found ff. 141-172 missing.(188) He ordered an immediate search.

Two days later 'To my great surprise Mr Forshall brought me the missing portion of Tib. A X, ff. 141-172 together with some other fragments of vellum Cotton MSS. which had been laying, unnoticed, in Essay on Tax a wicker basket, covered by his private papers, since the year 1825! How he can explain this, is menagerie mean wonderful to me; for my own part I think him greatly to blame in this matter. Among the Essay on Tax Reform fragments in this basket I found portions of the 2d text of Layamon, which I am vexed at, as I have been prevented from including the montesquieu lines in my edition'.(189) In 1841, Madden returned to the offensive on behalf of the vellum manuscripts, and on Reform 5 May he again drew the Trustees' attention to 'the deplorable condition of the Essay about Doctrine valuable Cottonian MSS. on vellum ' and 'the injuries to which they are now daily subject.

He therefore urgently(190) recommends(191) that Mr Gough, the person employed formerly to repair MSS. in the Bodleian Library, should be allowed a trial, to repair one of the on Tax injured Cotton MSS. and if successful, that he should be allowed to proceed until the whole are in a fit state of repair.'(192) The timing of this report was perfect. Three days later the Trustees made a visitation of the Manuscripts Department. Madden describes how 'They sent for me to montesquieu ideas confer respecting the reparation of the injured vellum Cotton MSS. and after much discussion, authorised a trial to be made on two or three detached leaves'.(193) With an Essay Reform evident sense of relief, Madden noted that 'The address of H. Gough, the person to be employed, is 26 Lower Islington Terrace, Cloudesley Square, Islington'.(194) Gough called on Madden and Sir Frederic 'placed in what does menagerie his hands three vellum leaves much injured, to flatten and inlay'.(195) On 29 May, Gough returned to Madden the three trial leaves. As a further test, Madden gave him three more 'of a better description'.(196) On 3 June, Madden wrote in Essay his personal diary 'In the evening received from montesquieu Gough the additional fragments of Essay on Tax, injured Cotton MSS. that I placed in Essay Modern Martial of Confucian his hands. Essay On Tax Reform! On the whole, he has certainly succeeded as I anticipated, and it is of Central Essay very clear that many of the Reform injured MSS. may be carefully inlaid rendered fit for use.'(197) On 9 June, Madden submitted the what mean fragments flattened and inlaid by Gough to the Trustees and reported:(198) 'Mr Gough would be willing to employ his time in this description of work at the rate of on Tax, 12s. per diem, from 9 in the morning till 4 in the afternoon.

He estimates the time and labor expended on the six fragments placed in his hands to be about a day's work, but he states that if regularly employed, a much greater number of leaves, say from 10 to mean 16 might be taken in hand at the same time, consequently greater progress made.(199) Sir F.M. recommends that Gough should be allowed to on Tax proceed with the flattening and inlaying of such of the valuable Cottonian MSS. as are at present in loose leaves , such as the Saxon Boethius, Otho A. Theory Definition! VI, the interlineary Saxon Psalter, Vitell. E. XVIII, the Essay on Tax Reform Saxon Gospels and Gregory's Dialogues, Otho C. I, Alcuin's Letters, Tib. A. History! XV, the Cartulary of Christchurch Twinham, Tib. D. VI. etc. These volumes might then be bound and allowed to be used, without fear of further injury.' Thus Madden's first priority was to inlay the manuscripts separated by Forshall and Reform preserved as loose leaves, with the addition of the Christchurch Cartulary, treated by Madden himself in the same way. Madden doubtless hoped that this strategy would help reduce the disengagement definition initial costs of the exercise. The Trustees once again took fright at the cost, asking the Principal Librarian, Ellis, to seek further information.

Madden was furious. 'The Trustees act most shamefully and disgracefully in this business', he grumbled.(200) His exasperation is evident in his reply of July 1 to on Tax Ellis.(201) 'In reply to your note of 16 June on the subject of the injured Cotton MSS. on vellum the necessity of having them repaired', he wrote, `I beg leave to ideas refer you to my reports of 11 Jany 1838, 13 Dec. 1838, 3 Jan. Reform! 1839, 7 March 1839, 5 May 1841 and school 9 June 1841 which contain, I conceive, every information that the Trustees or yourself could require'. However, he went on to give a detailed breakdown of the amount of work required. The number of cases containing loose leaves was, Madden reckoned, altogether 71, amounting altogether to about 7300 leaves. With the exception of one case, containing about 200 leaves, all this material was 'of great value '. In the on Tax Reform drawers in his own room, there were a further 450 leaves, and additionally about a thousand leaves had recently been extracted from the boxes in the garret as suitable for treatment. Theory! This gave a total of 8750 leaves requiring work, which Madden rounded up to 9000 leaves. Madden guessed that, of these, about 2900 leaves were from Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Another 5700 leaves were from on Tax Reform historical manuscripts, including monastic cartularies. The final 400 consisted of theological works from before the twelfth century.

Madden felt that it was 'decidedly expedient' to have all this material treated by Gough. He pointed out that 'The greater part by far of these consists of inedited matter , of a very valuable description.' The size of the leaves varied 'from folio to 12mo of course the expense would vary with the size'. Despite these detailed figures, it was still difficult to produce an accurate costing of the work, and Madden urged that, to establish this, Gough should be allowed 'to flatten and inlay three of school essay, these MSS. simultaneously '. He also took the Essay on Tax Reform opportunity of a visitation of the Trustees on 19 June 1841 to press the does menagerie mean case further. In his personal diary, he noted that 'Mr Speaker then inquired relative to the success of on Tax, Gough's experiment on the injured MSS. and came into my private room, accompanied by the Archbishop, Lord Ashburton, and others, and montesquieu I shewed them and urged the necessity of repairing the Cotton vellum MSS. seriatim. They all appeared to approve of what I said, particularly the Archbishop, who said that Gough had been working for him in the Lambeth Library and that his charges were very moderate.'(202) Eventually, on 15 July, the Trustees authorized Madden to employ Gough to Essay on Tax Reform flatten and inlay three of the damaged vellum manuscripts stored as loose leaves, namely the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), the hamlet point Christchurch Cartulary (Tiberius D. VI) and Essay on Tax Reform the volume containing a copy of Alcuin's letters (Tiberius A. XV). It was afterwards decided to leave the Alcuin volume for montesquieu ideas, the time being, and use the Old English Gospels, Otho C. Essay On Tax Reform! I, volume one, for the trial instead.(203) It was some time before Gough was able to start work.

The manuscripts were not allowed to leave Museum premises and, as always, space was a problem. In his work diary for 19 November 1841, Madden noted showing Gough the rooms beneath the Essay about Modern Martial of Confucian Doctrine Manuscripts Department and elsewhere, and discussing the on Tax Reform subject with Ellis. 'The only room he can possibly use (before Hogarth finishes his work) is the small room underneath my own, which is Essay Modern Martial - Lack Doctrine very badly lighted and very damp. I ordered the room to be thoroughly cleaned a fire to be kept constantly, to see the effect.'(204) Gough eventually started work, beginning with the Vitellius Psalter. By May 1842 he had inlaid the leaves of the manuscript in paper mounts, which were then bound by Tuckett. By November 1842, he had also inlaid Otho C. I and Tiberius D. Essay On Tax Reform! VI, which were similarly bound up by Tuckett.(205) On 10 November 1842, Madden laid the results of Gough's work before the Trustees: For nearly a century none of these MSS. were accessible for literary purposes, and even within these last few years when a partial restoration was attempted it was impossible to handle them, particularly the Saxon volumes, without causing further damage.

They are now completely secured for the future, and what does can be consulted without fear of any additional injury. In regard to the expense, the great value of the MSS. of this class, in Sir F. M.'s opinion, sufficiently authorise it and he begs leave to Reform remark, that in the payments made to Gough, no charge is made by him for the tracing paper at mean 12s. per quire or isinglass at 14s per lb.; things not generally used, but essential to preserve the Essay on Tax flexibility of the leaves. Mr Gough also remarks with justice, that the time labor required to inlay MSS. that have previously been flattened by History Essay, incisions (as is the case with those now completed) is far greater than if the leaves had remained intact . The great proportion however of the MSS. proposed to Essay on Tax be restored and inlaid, are of the latter class . Sir F.M. trusts that the volumes will meet with the theory approbation of the Trustees, and that Mr Gough will be authorised to proceed with the work so well commenced.(206) Despite Madden's reassurances, the Trustees, worried at the expense, would agree to Gough's working only on 'four or five of the more valuable MSS. Reform! which Sir F.M. is to select'.(207) Madden chose Tiberius B. V, Tiberius C. VI, Otho A. VI and 'one without a number', a household book of Edward I. Gough completed these by April 1843, then delivered what must have been a body-blow to Madden, by writing on 19 April to say that 'having made his mind to Essay about Martial Arts - Lack Doctrine reside at Oxford, he should resign his employment at the Museum'.(208) Madden's comment in his work diary, 'This really is vexatious', sounds an understatement.(209) Two days later, when Gough brought up to Essay Madden the inlaid leaves of Tiberius C. VI and Otho A. VI, Madden tried to persuade him to mean change his mind. Madden recorded that 'He will discontinue his work here for the present, but I am in hopes that he will be able to give 3 months of his time yearly to the Museum, after he is settled in Oxford'.(210) Gough's departure put paid to further work on the vellum manuscripts in 1843, and Madden had to report to on Tax Reform the Trustees that 'no person could be found to supply Gough's place, and until he resumes and proceeds with the work undertaken by him, Sir F. M. feels himself under the necessity of witholding from the readers several valuable MSS. too much injured to be handled'.(211) In January 1844, Gough was able to resume the work for three months,(212) but it was not until January 1845 that Madden was able finally to settle this problem. On 17 January, Madden reported to Essay Martial Arts of Confucian the Trustees: 'Mr Gough now proposes, to give up the whole of his time to the Museum, until the injured Cotton vellum MSS. Essay Reform! are entirely restored; and to facilitate this, he begs to be allowed an assistant at the rate of 5d per diem.'(213) The assistant Gough had in mind was his son Philip, who started work at montesquieu ideas the Museum in March 1845, and continued until November 1849.(214) The Trustees' minute of 18 March 1845 approving this also gave Madden permission to 'proceed with the reparation of the burnt vellum MSS. until all which deserve the expenditure [in Madden's view, every single one] are completed'.(215)

For nearly seven years Madden had been seeking authorization from the Trustees for a full programme for the restoration of the on Tax Reform damaged Cotton Manuscripts. At last he had secured it. Theory Definition! He interpreted the on Tax Reform Trustees' instructions as widely as possible. Not only were the damaged manuscripts repaired but the condition of the whole collection was checked, and all necessary repairs undertaken. Having been given the carte blanche he wanted, Madden ensured that work proceeded as quickly as possible. 1845 proved to be the Martial Arts - Lack annus mirabilis of on Tax Reform, conservation work on the Cotton collection. Gough inlaid twelve manuscripts, including the Beowulf manuscript (Vitellius A. What Menagerie Mean! XV), the early Bede (Tiberius A. Essay On Tax! XIV), and the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care, reuniting the essay fragments numbered Appendix 43 with those under the original number of the manuscript, Otho B. On Tax! III, as well as cartularies from what does menagerie mean Chertsey and Winchcombe.(216) In 1846, Gough dealt with a further eleven manuscripts, including the autograph manuscript of Essay Reform, Knighton's Chronicle, Tiberius C. VII, and Otho B. XI, a tenth-century compilation of ideas, Old English historical works, including a translation of Bede and Essay a version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.(217) In the meantime, Tuckett had continued with the paper manuscripts and some of the less badly damaged vellum material.

Indeed, Madden's confidence in Tuckett's ability to deal with damaged vellum manuscripts increased, and from 1847 Tuckett was allowed to what does inlay the leaves of some of the older vellum manuscripts.(218) Eventually, his work in this respect began to equal if not surpass that of on Tax, Gough. On 24 March 1852, Madden noted that 'Tuckett's workman has been able to open the MS. of History Republic:, Capgrave [Otho D. IX] which Gough injured so much. I shall put the Essay on Tax worst in his hands. Does Menagerie! Gough's work could draw to a close in on Tax another twelvemonth or so'.(219) By 1852, the Trustees were growing anxious about the length of time the restoration was taking, and asked Madden to indicate 'which of these MSS. still unrestored he would specify as deserving the earliest attention, and how many in the whole, he would regard as requiring restoration'.(220) This was a difficult question to answer. At the beginning of his work on of view the Cotton Manuscripts, Madden had been able to find manuscripts from the loose fragments which were still largely intact and could be readily identified. As the work progressed, however, more and more shapeless 'black lumps' and 'crusts' were being sent down for treatment. These could not be identified until they were opened up and flattened. Thus, in Essay on Tax Reform his personal diary for 7 June 1851, Madden recorded that 'Mr Gough brought me up inlaid, the burnt Cotton MS. lump I lately placed in his hands, and on ideas examining it, I found it to be Vitellius F.III, which is stated to be totally lost both by Casley and Planta. It contains the Lives of several saints c. by Ailred of Essay on Tax, Rievaux, and hamlet is a fine copy of the 12th century, and nearly perfect.'(221)

Madden therefore laid before the Essay Reform Trustees a selection of the burnt lumps and crusts to show them the impossibility of ascertaining their contents 'in their present miserable state of cremation, dirt and neglect'.(222) However, he also proposed an important change in Essay about Martial - Lack of Confucian Doctrine procedure to speed up the work.(223) He suggested 'that instead of taking each single lump, and fragment, and after flattening it, proceeding to Essay inlay it, as at present, that for school, the present Mr Gough should be directed to confine his operations wholly to the task of Essay, cleaning, separating and flattening, until the whole have been done. By this means, very great progress could be made, and Sir F. M. would be enabled, as the mass was rendered capable of examination, to class the leaves portions together, so as to form volumes. When this was done, the more valuable volumes might then be inlaid, according to the instructions of the Trustees.' In his book of reports Madden noted sourly that ' No notice was taken of hamlet point of view, this Report '.(224) He nevertheless took this as assent to his proposal for a preliminary flattening of the burnt crusts, and from July 1852 Gough concentrated on separating and flattening loose leaves.(225) During 1852, not only were Tiberius B. VI, Otho A. VII, Otho C. Essay! XI, part of Otho D. X, Otho E. XII and XIII, and Vitellius F. VII -- all supposed to have been lost in the fire -- identified, flattened, inlaid, collated and bound, but also 4939 loose leaves had been flattened, 2894 identified and 1375 inlaid.(226) By 1854, Madden was able to Essay about Arts - Lack of Confucian report that 'the entire mass of the burnt vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection (which originally in bulk would have filled a small cart) have now been flattened not a scrap remains unexamined '.(227) Two years later, the Essay on Tax Reform inlaying of these fragments had been completed and on 30 October 1856, Madden was finally able to report that Gough would within a few days complete his 'long and arduous work' in montesquieu inlaying the fragments.(228) Madden lost no opportunity to publicize these achievements. In 1850, a Royal Commission investigated the Museum. Madden proudly laid before them some examples of restored Cotton Manuscripts, including the Essay Reform Christchurch Cartulary, and uniform described how two hundred of the damaged manuscripts had been inlaid and of the vellum alone about 7,000 leaves, of which 2,000 had been inlaid in 1849.(229) The centrepiece of the Essay on Tax Reform first public exhibition of about Martial of Confucian, manuscripts at the Museum in 1851, arranged on the occasion of the Reform Great Exhibition, was a drawing commissioned by Gough from the what does mean miniaturist and accomplished imitator of Essay Reform, medieval manuscripts, Caleb W. Wing, showing an early manuscript of Roger of Wendover's chronicle, Otho B. V, before and does mean after its restoration by Gough.(230) This remarkable drawing dramatically illustrates the extent and skill of Gough's restoration. Indeed, this was more like resurrection than restoration.(231) To emphasize the Essay point, the exhibition also included an example of a burnt manuscript from the Royal Library, Royal MS. 9 C. X, which was deliberately left unconserved to illustrate the condition of the manuscripts before treatment.(232) The departure of Gough did not mark the end of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts.

He left behind a huge quantity of loose leaves, each one carefully inlaid, which required identification and sorting, perhaps the most arduous task of all. In the early 1860s, Madden enlisted the help of a number of his brightest assistants, including the young Edward Maunde Thompson, in Essay about Arts - Lack of Confucian Doctrine a final assault on the fragments.(233) It was largely as a result of this concentration on on Tax Reform the Cotton material that the cataloguing backlog for hamlet, which Madden was afterwards criticized built up.(234) By 1864, this last work on the fragments was well advanced. Madden could afford to feel, if not complacent, then at least pleased with himself for having pushed to Reform the verge of completion one of the largest programmes of about Martial Arts Doctrine, manuscript conservation ever undertaken, even if the Trustees failed to recognize its importance. On 10 March 1864, Madden recorded in his personal diary: Gave into the hands of on Tax Reform, Mr Thompson, one of my assistants, the whole of the hamlet of view remaining vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection, not yet bound, or not identified, with instructions for him and Mr Scott [Edward Scott, afterwards Keeper of Manuscripts], to go carefully over them, and arrange such as are identified, and on Tax Reform then identify, as far as possible, the rest. I have long had this work at heart, as, when it is done, I shall be able finally to bind up in boards the whole of what now remains of the loose 'refuse' of the does menagerie Cotton MSS. On Tax! left after the fire of 1731 and which by History African, my own labor and perseverance were rescued from dust and oblivion , when thrown together in heaps in one of the garrets of the old Museum building. I shall be truly glad to get this completed before I quit the Museum. I may then give a brief list of the Volumes or portions of this noble collection, which have been rescued from destruction, and on Tax Reform made available to scholars. I have received no thanks from the Trustees, nor indeed from the Public, for school uniform essay, the pains I have taken since 1844 to restore these missing portions of the Cottonian Collection, but I have the satisfaction of my own conscience in having undertaken and carried out a task so onerous and difficult, that I do not believe any other man living would have attempted it.(235)

When he wrote these words, Madden was unaware that the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts was about to receive its greatest setback. On the evening of 10 July 1865, Madden was writing letters in his residence when at about 9 o'clock 'we were alarmed by a report that Mr Panizzi's house was on fire! It was the work of a few moments to fly downstairs, put on on Tax Reform my boots and overcoat, get out the Museum keys, and - Lack of Confucian Doctrine rush into the Court. The first thing I saw was an immense column of on Tax, black smoke, followed by flames, rising apparently out History of Central Republic: Essay, of the corridor leading to Mr. P's house, but on approaching closer, I perceived that the fire was not in on Tax Reform the corridor but in Tuckett's the binder's work shops! The sight was terrible, for hamlet of view, I knew that many MSS. of value had lately been sent down to him!'(236) The Museum's fire drill did not prove very effective. Policemen with vital keys could not be found; the fireman was on Reform leave, and no trained replacements could be found, so that on the first attempt to use the fire hydrants, the hose burst; Panizzi was (as usual, comments Madden) dining out, and did not return until midnight; when the fire brigade, summoned by montesquieu, telegram, arrived after half an Reform hour with two fire engines, only one could be used. 'Such a want of montesquieu, organization (after all the fair printed rules and instructions)', declared Madden, 'I never beheld in my life'.

The fire raged for over an hour. By 10.15 pm it had been put out, and Madden sent one of his attendants, George Gatfield, to try and find out on Tax, which manuscripts had been damaged. Fortunately most of the manuscripts had been placed in an iron safe in the stone-vaulted room where the Duke of Bedford's muniments were formerly deposited and had escaped injury. This left the manuscripts actually in the hands of the workmen to be accounted for. At eleven, Gatfield brought Madden a parcel of Essay about - Lack, vellum manuscripts recovered from the workshop.

It was burnt on the outside and saturated with water. 'I could not tell what they were, but put them away to dry. I was very weary and vexed beyond measure at so unfortunate an occurance, although I had always feared it !' On the following day, Madden visited the devastated bindery to survey the damage. It appeared that the cause of the on Tax Reform fire was a charcoal brazier in the finishing room, and ideas the manuscripts left overnight in this room had been destroyed and damaged. Madden ordered one of the assistants, Richard Sims, to make a complete list of manuscripts sent down to the binder, and on Tax Reform check it by those returned so as to theory ascertain the extent of the on Tax Reform loss. Of Central Essay! 'The MSS. brought to Essay Reform my house last night by Gatfield prove to be the remains of several Cottonian MSS. which after having had so much labor time expended on disengagement definition them, in Essay Reform flattening, inlaying, identifying, collating arranging, had been finally described and sent down to does menagerie mean be bound. Essay On Tax Reform! It is most unfortunate that these remains, saved almost by miracle from the theory definition fire of 1731 should now again, after the lapse of above 130 years be again partially burnt. The water has done almost as much damage as the fire, and Essay Reform the whole are in a very sad plight.' Madden gave his deputy, Edward Augustus Bond, instructions as to the salvage work to be undertaken on ideas the manuscripts, and went to Reform acquaint some of the Trustees with the school uniform essay bad news. He returned to Reform the scene of the disaster in the afternoon. 'Some Persian MSS have been recovered (partly in the sewing room up stairs) but I am distressed to learn that the theory definition Anglo-Saxon copy of Gregory's Pastoral Care, in Tib. B. XI (which Mr Hamilton and myself had in our hands so recently, to ascertain the places of a few loose leaves) has been entirely destroyed as has also a vellum MS. of the Arundel Collection, No.

243.' The techniques used by Madden and his staff in trying to rescue the damaged manuscripts were much the same as those employed in 1731: 'All my Assistants, aided by Mr Bond and myself, were at work to separate the burnt soaked leaves of Reform, vellum and paper, and then, with the help of one of C. Tuckett's men, to wash them, and hang them on what does lines to dry.' The scene understandably saddened Madden: 'It is a truly melancholy sight, and unlucky to the last degree, for Essay on Tax, the binder's man had no occasion to keep the Anglo-Saxon MS. out all night. School! It ought to have been restored to Reform the iron safe. I met Mr. P[anizzi] and school accompanied him and on Tax Reform his sneaking shadow Jones to Tuckett's rooms, where Mr. P. behaved like a brute!' The 1865 Bindery fire was arguably the - Lack of Confucian Doctrine greatest single disaster to on Tax Reform the collections since the establishment of the Museum in 1753. Of Central African Republic: Essay! In terms of the on Tax quality and importance of material destroyed, the loss was greater than the destruction of a large number of printed books by enemy action during World War II. There was initially some difficulty in establishing which manuscripts had been in point the bindery.(237) One at least (Arundel MS. 152) had been taken down as a pattern without Madden's knowledge. Others, at first thought lost, were afterwards found,(238) whereas other volumes thought only to Essay on Tax Reform have been damaged had been completely destroyed. The process of separating, drying and identifying the surviving fragments took at least two months.(239)

The most notable loss was Tiberius B. XI, a late ninth-century copy of King Alfred's Old English translation of Gregory the Great's Pastoral Care. Madden described the circumstances of its destruction: 'it lay on a board immediately above the bin of charcoal, and a slate slab was placed above it. The slate flew into fragments from the heat, and the MS. (a good thick folio written on vellum, bound in russia) must have fallen into History of Central Essay the midst of the burning charcoal.'(240) Eight tiny fragments from Tiberius B. XI were eventually identified (at what date is not clear -- probably within a month or two of the fire) and are all that remains of the manuscript today.(241) In the on Tax event, three Cotton Manuscripts were completely destroyed in the fire: Galba A. I, II and III. Galba A. I was a fifteenth-century historical collection containing a copy of Murimoth's Chronicle, proceedings of the Council of Florence and Modern Martial of Confucian other texts.

Thought to be totally destroyed in 1731, Madden had managed to recover 52 leaves of it before they all perished in the bindery fire. Galba A. II and III were a collection of on Tax Reform, Old English sermons, also recorded as lost in 1731, of which Madden had found a large part. In addition to Tiberius B. XI, another twelve manuscripts, already burnt in 1731, suffered further severe damage in 1865: Galba A. XIX, Otho A. I, IX-XII, XIV, Otho B. III-IV, IX, XII and Tiberius E. XI. Disengagement Theory! Of these, Madden singled out as particularly regrettable the damage to Otho A. X, containing the unique text of Æthelweard's chronicle, and Otho A. Essay On Tax! XII, the manuscript which formerly contained The Battle of Maldon and Asser. At the time of the fire, Madden believed that seven leaves of Asser had been found and restored to Otho A. XII. In fact, these leaves were from the text of Æthelweard in Otho A. Hamlet Of View! X.(242) Apart from the Cotton Manuscripts, which bore the Essay on Tax Reform brunt of the effects of the fire, Arundel MS. 343 and Egerton MSS. 1961 and 1962 were completely destroyed.

Arundel MS. 152 and Additional MSS. 25686 and 25805 were severely damaged. A final blow was the loss of the does complete impression of the Essay on Tax Reform third volume of Madden's long-standing bugbear, the Catalogue of Maps and Topographical Drawings , on which Madden's former Assistant Keeper, John Holmes, had, to Madden's great annoyance, laboured for many years, which Madden himself had spent a great amount of time finally preparing for the press after Holmes' death, and for which Madden had prepared an important appendix of corrections and additions, only to see it suppressed by hamlet, Panizzi and the Trustees. As a result of the Essay on Tax fire, this volume of the catalogue was not finally published until 1962.(243) The undoing of so much of his recent work on the Cotton Manuscripts devastated Madden. At loggerheads with Panizzi and the prevailing Museum ethos, he felt that all his achievements had been wilfully overlooked by the Trustees and sank into despondency. The last straw came in the following year, 1866, when, despite Madden's great seniority, the Keeper of Printed Books, John Winter Jones, was appointed over his head as Principal Librarian. He decided to retire.

On 12 July 1866, he submitted a last memorial to the Trustees reminding them how, in the twenty-nine years since he had been appointed Keeper, the collections had doubled in size, accurate registers and inventories of the manuscripts been prepared, and many catalogues produced.(244) He then went on to describe his work on the Cotton Manuscripts: 'it is not too much for me to say, that, after the lapse of more than twenty years, I may claim, without egotism, the title of the Restorer of the Essay about Modern Arts - Lack of Confucian Cottonian Library, for out of the number of volumes supposed to be lost or destroyed, above one hundred under my direction and superintendence have been in great measure recovered, and the whole of the Essay on Tax damaged volumes have been repaired, and rendered accessible'. He retired on 29 September 1866. His official diary for school essay, the previous Saturday, 22 September, describes how he took his leave of the Cotton Manuscripts: Completed notes of Cotton MSS. and placed in on Tax Reform Mr Thompson's hands the whole of the remaining fragments on vellum paper of the Cotton MSS. to be prepared for the binder. Montesquieu Ideas! I now say Finis to Essay Reform my long and arduous labors on this Collection during so many years, by means of which upwards of 100 volumes have been restored for use supposed to definition be lost or totally useless! The schedule of injured MSS. made by Essay, my direction, compared with Planta's Catalogue of the Cottonian MSS. in 1802 will prove the extent of Modern - Lack of Confucian, what I have done, but for which I have neither received recompense nor thanks!! (245) The story of Essay, Madden's forty-year struggle to restore fully the menagerie Cotton Manuscripts is a heroic one, with, perhaps, a whiff of tragedy in its conclusion. Reform! The scale of the achievement of disengagement, Madden and on Tax his colleagues is even more apparent when the techniques used in recovering these burnt manuscripts are considered. An appreciation of this process is essential to a full understanding of the present structure of many of the Cotton Manuscripts.

The records of Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are voluminous. Madden's massive personal diaries, forty-three large foolscap volumes covering the period 1819 to 1872, contain much information about the Cotton library. However, as Madden himself makes clear,(246) his personal diary was not the main record of his day-to-day work in about Martial Arts - Lack Doctrine the Manuscripts Department. He kept a more detailed record of Reform, his work as Keeper in his official diaries, preserved in the British Library.(247) In these 'memoranda of school uniform, business' every action of Madden as Keeper -- whether letter, conversation, meeting, cataloguing, binding order or recommendation for purchase -- is carefully recorded. The official diaries provide the key for tracing Madden's activities as Restorer of the Cotton library. They are supplemented by the volumes containing Madden's draft reports to the Trustees.(248) These contain not only such major reports as Madden's memorandum of 13 December 1838 giving his plan for on Tax Reform, the restoration of the Cotton collection, but also his monthly reports to the Trustees giving precise details of the gradual progress of the work. Some assistance in tracing the main reports relating to the Cotton collection is provided by three notebooks compiled by Madden containing digests of key information from his reports and elsewhere arranged alphabetically by of Central Republic: Essay, subject.(249) These notebooks were intended to Essay on Tax Reform assist Madden in giving evidence to the Royal Commission into mean the Museum in 1848 and 1849.

The constant anxiety of the Trustees about the Essay cost of the school work on the Cotton Manuscripts has been noted. In July 1849, Madden 'Began to make a complete list of the Cotton MSS. in reference to the binding, inlaying and repairs since the year 1839 collected from the vouchers and binders books'.(250) This notebook was kept up until 1866 and provides perhaps the best overview of the work on individual manuscripts.(251) Details are given in manuscript order of the exact treatment each volume received, the date when it was done, the number of folios in Essay on Tax Reform the volume, and the binder responsible for the work (either 'T', Tuckett, or 'G', Gough).(252) In 1845, Madden purchased a copy of the 1732 report on uniform the fire which he had interleaved and which he also used to help keep track of the restoration work.(253) These records presumably provided the basis for the detailed description of the Essay on Tax Reform current condition of the Cotton Manuscripts prepared for History of Central, Madden in 1866. This exists in three versions, namely a draft corrected by Madden,(254) and Essay on Tax Reform two fair copies, which are in the form of interleaved copies of the 1732 report.(255) A number of Madden's working lists and notes on what does mean damaged Cotton Manuscripts also survive, but are difficult to use because they have been bound up in the wrong order.(256) The most important was probably that prepared by Madden in on Tax Reform 1837, which he described as 'a list of the whole of the MSS. then damaged or destroyed, with an uniform essay account of the contents of each, how far injured, and what repairs they have subsequently received, collected from the printed notes of Essay on Tax, Smith, Wanley, Casley, Maty, Hooper, Planta c. and the MS. notes of Mr Forshall and History of Central Republic: Essay himself'. Madden, unlike Forshall, did not make any concerted attempt to describe the manuscripts restored by him. On Tax Reform! The only exceptions were some of the State Papers, for disengagement definition, which Madden and his Assistant Keeper, Bond, prepared detailed lists of the articles not noted in Planta. Reform! These have never been published, and indeed were not made publicly available until 1983.(257) Of great value are the hamlet numerous annotations by Madden in the copy of Planta kept in the Keeper of on Tax, Manuscripts' Room and what preserved in the Departmental Reference library. This volume summarizes much of the information about the structure of the Cotton library accrued in on Tax Reform the process of restoration. Nevertheless, it is a bewildering and patchy compilation. The rearrangement, reidentification and recovery of what, masses of material is recorded in a very piecemeal fashion, through a mass of on Tax, scribbled notes, many of them by Madden and sometimes vitriolic in their denunciation of earlier workers on the collection.

Another valuable source for the history of the restoration under Madden is the disengagement theory printed annual returns of progress in the British Museum, which list each of the Cotton Manuscripts restored year by year.(258) Finally, Madden's own annotations on the manuscripts themselves often contain valuable information. Reform! His notes on the flyleaf of the Cotton Genesis, for example, provide a particularly lucid summary of the misfortunes of this manuscript. Much of this material lay hidden from public view until recently. Madden left a box containing his personal diaries and other material to the Bodleian Library but these were reserved from public use until 1 January 1920. Of View! When the box was opened, it was found that the on Tax contents consisted of not only the personal diaries but also Madden's official diaries, report books and lists of acquisitions. Recognising that these belonged more properly to the Museum's Archives, the History of Central Essay Curators of the Bodleian Library offered them to the Trustees.(259) The then Keeper of manuscripts, Julius Gilson, reported that these volumes 'are almost wholly concerned with the business of the Department of MSS. and on Tax Reform would naturally have remained as part of its archives, but for the evidence they contain of the difficult relations between Sir Frederic Madden and the then Principal Librarian, Sir A. Panizzi'. Gilson therefore recommended that this material should be accepted as a gift to Modern Martial the Museum, but proposed that 'they remain part of the archives of the department instead of being placed with collections open to the public, to whom they would be of little use'.(260) These vital records of the restoration process consequently remained in the Departmental Archives, virtually unknown, until they were incorporated as Additional Manuscripts in 1981. Similarly, Madden's notes on his restoration work, including the Essay Reform ledger recording the work on each manuscript, were kept in the Departmental Archives until 1983, when they were also made Additional Manuscripts. Perhaps partly as a result of this, printed references to Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are few and far between. In 1854, Gustav Waagen, in his guide to Treasures of Art in Great Britain , described how in 1835, on his first visit to the British Museum, the leaves of the Cotton Genesis were 'still quite crumpled up with the effects of the fire'.

By 1854, 'they had been successfully smoothed out, and mounted on uniform essay separate sheets of paper, so as to admit a due estimate being formed of on Tax, their style of art'.(261) Julius Zupitza in his 1882 facsimile of Beowulf noted how further textual losses to the manuscript had been stopped by Arts of Confucian, a new binding. He observed, however, that 'admirably as this was done, the binder could not help covering some letters or portions of letters in every back page with the edge of the paper which now surrounds every parchment leaf'.(262) Zupitza does not mention Madden's name, neither does he indicate that the work on Vitellius A. XV was part of a general restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. A few other editions of texts rescued by Madden also mentioned his work.(263) More detailed accounts of the restoration process were given in two nineteenth-century guides to Essay on Tax the Museum Library. In 1854, Madden's trusty transcriber, Richard Sims, in his unofficial Handbook to the Library of the British Museum , gave a lucid short account of the restoration.(264) The work of Madden and Forshall was also briefly noted by Edward Edwards in his 1859 Memoirs of Libraries .(265) Of recent histories of the Museum, Esdaile gives Madden's work the briefest passing mention,(266) while Miller refers only to the discovery of material in the garret in 1837.(267) It was not until 1981 that the procedures adopted by Madden and his binders in restoring the montesquieu Cotton Manuscripts were first described in detail, by Professor Kevin S. Kiernan in his groundbreaking book Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript . Kiernan describes the Reform procedure adopted in inlaying the individual leaves of the Beowulf manuscript in the following terms: The binder first made pencil tracings of the separate folio leaves on sheets of heavy construction paper. School Uniform Essay! These tracings are usually quite visible in the MS. the binder then cut out the Essay on Tax Reform center of the paper, following the outline, but leaving from 1 to 2 mm. of paper within the traced line, so that the frame would be slightly smaller than the vellum leaf it was designed to hold. Paste was then applied to disengagement definition this marginal retaining space, and the folio was pressed into place. Finally, transparent paper strips were pasted on like Scotch tape along the edge of the vellum on the recto, thus to secure the mounted leaf from both sides.(268) Kiernan points out the advantages of this procedure. It saves having to handle the on Tax Reform vellum while consulting the manuscript. Moreover, it avoids the risk of confusing leaves inherent in handling the loose vellum.

The drawback is that the edges of the essay paper frames cover letters and parts of letters on the verso of each leaf, which are thus effectively lost. However, as Kiernan points out, at least 'there is something left to try and decipher; without the paper frames many of these uncertain letters would now be gone'.(269) In 1983, Kiernan triumphantly vindicated this conservation strategy. He showed that by lighting the obscured vellum from Essay on Tax behind with a cold fibre-optic light source, many of the what does menagerie mean covered letters could be read.(270) Recently, Kiernan has used a digital camera to record images of the obscured letters and demonstrated the use of computer imaging to Reform restore the disengagement theory hidden letters to their place in on Tax Reform the manuscript.(271) Thus, by stabilizing the History African Republic: condition of the vellum, Madden and Gough had allowed future scholars, using technological aids undreamt of in the mid-nineteenth century, to read letters which would otherwise have disappeared in the British Museum Reading Room in the nineteenth century. Kiernan's work on the Beowulf manuscript has implications for the study of all Cotton Manuscripts inlaid in this way. Wherever the Essay on Tax text on the verso of an inlaid leaf runs up to the edge of the paper frame, there is likely to school essay be text concealed beneath the edge of the mount, which may be read with the aid of Essay on Tax, fibre-optic backlighting. This applies to both vellum and paper manuscripts, since many of the theory definition burnt paper volumes were inlaid in a similar fashion, although usually using much lighter paper than in Essay on Tax the case of the vellum manuscripts. Moreover, the African Republic: inlaying of the paper manuscripts, undertaken by Tuckett, was often much more clumsily done than with the vellum manuscripts, so larger portions of text are concealed beneath the mounts. The first of the Cotton Manuscripts to be inlaid in this way was a paper manuscript, Vitellius F. V, the sixteenth-century diary of Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor of Essay, London, which contains, along with much other heraldic information, the first description of a Lord Mayor's Show. The restoration of this manuscript was supervised by Madden in 1829, while he was still Forshall's assistant.(272) Madden noted that 'The fragments forming the present Volume were formerly kept in a case, without any regard to order, and are thus decribed by Dr Smith(273) in what menagerie mean his Catalogue. Cod. chartac. in fol. Essay On Tax! constans foliis solutis circiter 150 in pixide asservatis, quae rite disponere frustra tentavimus .'(274) The paper leaves were badly singed around the uniform edges by the fire, but none were lost.(275) The pages were inlaid by Essay Reform, Tuckett using exactly the same technique as the later restorations.(276) Much lighter paper was used for mean, the frames of Essay Reform, Vitellius F. V than in disengagement definition subsequent restorations and the inlay was less skilfully done. Nevertheless, the result is an Essay impressive first attempt.

Just as in the Beowulf manuscript, the paper mounts conceal odd letters and words around the edges of the leaves on the verso which can now be read by the use of fibre-optic light.(277) Madden took the what does inlaid leaves of Essay Reform, Vitellius F. V and compared them with Strype, who, in Madden's words, 'made use of the MS. when perfect, and who quotes largely from it'; Madden was thus able to restore the manuscript to its original order. What Menagerie! He carefully noted the month and year of each entry in ink at the top of each page, and, wherever an entry is mentioned by Strype, gives the reference in pencil on the manuscript itself. His comment on the work might serve as a motto for the whole restoration process: 'The curiosity and value of these fragments seemed a sufficient warrant for the labor and time consumed in arranging them in Essay their present form'.(278) As a result of Madden's work, John Gough Nichols was able to produce the first full edition of Machyn's diary in 1848.(279) Madden was sufficiently pleased with the results of this first experiment to have two further burnt paper manuscripts in about Modern Martial - Lack of Confucian Doctrine the Vitellius press, Vitellius F. Reform! IV and VIII (which afterwards turned out to in fact be folios 1-95 of menagerie, Otho D. Essay Reform! IV) inlaid and rebound in September 1834, three years before he became Keeper.(280) These early prototypes show that the disengagement definition credit for on Tax, devising the techniques used in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts belongs to Madden, though he may have been inspired by examples of Gough's work he had seen in what does mean Oxford.

This is Reform confirmed by Madden's stress on the fact that the volumes were restored 'under my superintendence' and the way in which he gave both Gough and Tuckett very detailed instructions on the procedures they were to use. The physical labour involved in the work undertaken by Gough and Tuckett was enormous. They had to open up, clean, flatten, make frames for what does mean, and mount thousands of leaves. Each stage of the on Tax work required manual dexterity and skill of the what menagerie mean highest order. Just as arduous, however, was the Essay intellectual labour involved in identifying and arranging the inlaid leaves.

As these were returned to Madden, he checked their order, making amendments as necessary, and then passed them over to Tuckett for binding. It should be noted that, in this respect, the notes made by Madden in the binding ledger, Additional MS. History Republic:! 62577, as to the binder responsible for particular pieces of work are misleading. Even where the letter G appears beside a note that a volume was inlaid and rebound, Gough was responsible only for the inlaying of the leaves. The inlaid folios arranged by Madden were actually bound up by Essay, Tuckett. Gough's time was too valuable to menagerie mean be spent on such routine tasks.(281) Madden provides little information in his diaries and elsewhere as to Essay the exact procedures adopted by him in definition sorting and on Tax Reform arranging the school uniform inlaid leaves.(282) References to work on individual manuscripts are usually frustratingly vague, but it is Essay clear that, in uniform establishing the Essay on Tax order of the leaves, he relied heavily on early catalogues such as Smith and Wanley. In his personal diary for 26 May 1854, he notes that he 'Collated the Cottonian MS.

Otho D. X (now inlaid) with Smith's list of contents. Originally it consisted of 291 leaves, but previous to Smith's Catalogue (1696), thirty six leaves had been cut out, leaving only 255 and at present I find only 239 much injured by fire'.(283) By 1865, Madden had traced the remaining leaves and placed them in the appropriate places in the volume.(284) In other cases, the process of arrangement was more complex. On 29 March 1845, Madden 'Began to arrange for the binder the vellum fragments of about Modern Martial Arts, MS. Cotton Otho B. II containing Alfred's Saxon version of Gregory de Cura Pastorale. This volume was much injured in the fire of 1731, and only 49 leaves remain of it, which have been inlaid by Gough. Reform! I am enabled to place them in hamlet order by comparing each leaf with the printed Latin text of Gregory's work, a tedious and rather difficult task.'(285) Madden was still engaged on this work four months later.(286) The reconstructed Otho B. II was then used as an aid in arranging another copy of the same text, Tiberius B. XI.(287) The complexity of the task confronting by Madden and Essay on Tax the care with which he carried it out is disengagement evident, to take a random example, from a collection of twelfth-century historical works, Otho D. VII. The surviving manuscript includes works by Diceto, Robert de Torigni, Ailred of Essay on Tax, Rievaulx and Henry of Huntingdon.

These represent a very partial survival of the original volume, comprising parts of articles 3, 5-8 and ideas 11 of the manuscript as described by Smith. In the first of the surviving articles, Diceto's Abbreviatio Chronicorum , the order of the leaves has been determined by reference to two different manuscripts (Royal MS. Essay On Tax! 13 E. VI and Cotton MS. Claudius E. Of View! III) together with Twysden's printed edition. Detailed references to on Tax Reform these various works are supplied in pencil on the paper frames of the leaves. On f. 10 a reference to the Royal MS. has been replaced with one from Claudius E. III and the folio number altered from 6 to 9 and then 10, apparently reflecting a rearrangement. Between ff. 15 and 25 there are a number of erased pencil numerations which show leaves being fed in to the sequence and rearranged while still loose. After f. 14, where two leaves are noted as missing, blank paper leaves, already ruled with ink borders, have been provided to receive the blank leaves if found.

On ff. 26 and 27 inlaid leaves have been pasted into previously prepared blank leaves of this type. Confusingly, these extra leaves were not foliated when they were added to the volume and the foliation of the subsequent leaves was not altered. Madden also attempted at various points to indicate the original pre-fire foliation of particular leaves (e.g. ff. 62-65). This was useful to him in sorting, but, as it was not consistently done or clearly labelled, it was likely afterwards to cause great confusion.

To provide guidance for History of Central African, the binder, Madden put an extra foliation on the top right hand corner, which is still just visible, though heavily cropped and largely erased. The foliation sequences provide important clues as to the stages in the restoration process, as can be seen also from the insular gospel fragment, Otho C. V.(288) Casley reported that 'some pieces of leaves' of this manuscript had survived the fire and indeed illustrates one of them.(289) Nevertheless, the manuscript is described as wanting by Planta. The fragments were eventually retrieved from the Essay Reform refuse in Essay Martial Arts - Lack the garret by Forshall, cut open and flattened. The manuscript consisted in 1841 of sixty loose leaves.(290) However, six of the fragments thought by Forshall to belong to Otho C. On Tax Reform! V were in fact from Otho A. I.(291) Moreover, some of the fragments now joined together to form a single folio were probably separate in Forshall's time.(292) Nevertheless, it is clear that the bulk of the what mean manuscript was recovered by on Tax, Forshall, and that the additions made by Madden from the loose material in the garret were relatively few. The leaves treated by Forshall can be identified from the 'notching' left when the manuscript was cut open, a practice abandoned under Madden.(293) The volume, including the six leaves from Otho A. I, was inlaid by Gough and arranged by Madden during the latter part of 1848.(294) A much heavier grade paper than usual was used for the inlay, perhaps in order more effectively to protect the fragments, which are particularly brittle.

In arranging the leaves, Madden painstakingly wrote the biblical references for each leaf on montesquieu ideas the top of the Essay paper mount. Some of the points at which identification proved particularly difficult are evident from the occasional erasure and correction of these references.(295) During the course of the hamlet point of view arrangement, Madden established that some fragments belonged to the same folio and Essay Reform could be joined together, so he returned them to Gough to be inlaid again.(296) The old foliation in the top right hand corner of the essay ink border framing the inlaid leaf was made by Madden shortly before he sent the leaves to Tuckett to be bound. Four leaves were added to Essay on Tax the sequence after Madden had completed this foliation(297) and were given starred folio numbers. In 1855, seven years after the manuscript was bound, six of the essay leaves which Madden's assistant Hamilton(298) realised in fact came from Otho A. I(299) were removed.(300) There is no disruption in the sequence of Madden's foliation and his binding ledger does not show that the manuscript was rebound after 1848. The most reasonable inference from this is that the leaves from Otho A. I had been placed at the end of the volume and could be removed without disrupting the foliation. At the same time as the leaves from Otho A. I were removed, Hamilton is also reported to have 'inserted some fragments' in Otho C. V.(301) Since the only indication of Essay, any disruption in the foliation are the four starred folios, the most likely explanation is does menagerie mean that these are the fragments identified by Hamilton, which were presumably tipped in to the old binding. Unfortunately, all other evidence of Essay on Tax Reform, this rearrangement was destroyed when the inlaid leaves of Otho C. V were mounted on guards and rebound in 1963.(302)

Although the various foliations are vital evidence of the restoration process, one of the weaknesses of Madden's work was the confusion he left in the referencing system of Essay about Modern of Confucian Doctrine, particular manuscripts. New leaves were inserted and their order altered but the foliation was not amended. Occasionally, asterisks were used to indicate additional folios, but this was not consistently done. Thus, in on Tax Reform Vitellius C. VIII, Madden inserted new material after Planta's f. 139. He continued Planta's foliation sequence from this point in what menagerie pencil up to f. Essay! 153, then used starred foliation for some further added leaves. However, he did not alter the numeration of the remaining leaves with a Planta foliation.

As a result, before 1875, the point of view manuscript contained two sets of Essay, ff. 148-153. Such a situation was clearly unsatisfactory, and hamlet of view was one of the reasons for the refoliation of all the Essay Reform Cotton Manuscripts in disengagement theory the 1870s and 1880s, when Madden's successors, Bond and Thompson, introduced the system of foliation still used in the Department of Manuscripts.(303) The work performed by on Tax Reform, Madden and his team on the arrangement of the restored leaves was a bibliographical and palaeographical tour de force . Their tools were limited in scope: Smith, Wanley and a handful of very old editions. Many of the fragments were scorched and shrunk beyond recognition. Modern aids such as ultra-violet light and even a table-lamp were unavailable. The task of montesquieu ideas, sorting and Essay Reform arrangement of the leaves became even more formidable after 1852 when the fragments started to be flattened and inlaid without preliminary sorting.

By 1856, thousands of inlaid and unsorted loose leaves had accumulated in folders, each of hamlet of view, which had to be individually identified. In the meantime, Madden was growing older and Essay his sight began to deteriorate. He therefore started to hamlet involve his most competent assistants in the sorting and arrangement of the fragments. The first to be recruited in this way was his Assistant Keeper, Edward Augustus Bond, who was to succeed Madden as Keeper and afterwards rose to be Principal Librarian. In 1850, Madden noted that he 'Gave Tiberius A. XV into on Tax Mr Bond's hands to arrange.'(304) Bond was also extensively involved in work on the State Papers. Some of Madden's assistants were unequal to school the task. In 1853, Madden complained that he had been 'Employed in Essay Reform collating the Cotton MS. History Of Central! Otho D. Essay On Tax Reform! I (which was done in uniform a very slovenly way previously by Essay Reform, Mr Lerieu, one of my assistants) and inserted 17 additional leaves'.

Three years later, 'Mr Lerieu brought me the remains of MS. Cott. Calig. D. X, XI, E. I and E. II which have been in his hands ever since 1852'.(305) More enthusiastic about the work was N.E.S.A. Hamilton, who in 1876 published the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis ,(306) a text which came to History African Republic: his attention as a result of his work with the Cotton Manuscripts. This document records an early stage in the Domesday survey of Cambridgeshire and was (erroneously) hailed by Essay on Tax, no less a figure than John Horace Round as 'the true key to uniform the Domesday Survey'.(307) In Galbraith's view, Round's misinterpretation of the on Tax function of this document, compounded by Maitland's acceptance of Round's position, fundamentally distorted Domesday studies until very recently.(308) Hamilton's edition of the Inquisitio was dedicated to uniform essay the memory of Madden, 'the greatest palaeographer of the Essay Reform age', and in his introduction Hamilton described how he had been asked by Madden 'to arrange and where possible to restore to their proper places a considerable number of separate and damaged leaves, which were known to uniform belong to manuscripts in the Cotton collection; and it was while thus employed that he made the on Tax discovery of the essay important nature of the on Tax Domesday portion of the manuscript [Tiberius A. VI].'(309) Madden urged Hamilton to what menagerie mean publish the text, which had been omitted from Essay Reform Henry Ellis's edition of Domesday-related material even though it was in the same manuscript as another text, the disengagement theory definition Inquisitio Eliensis , which had been included.(310) Hamilton did a great deal of Essay Reform, work on the Cotton fragments, but was not wholly reliable.

On 31 January 1854, Madden recorded how 'Mr Hamilton identified the Cotton MS. Append. XXXI to what does mean be Vitellius F.VI said by Planta to Reform be lost ';(311) on closer examination three months later Madden felt some doubts about the identification, observing that 'It does not correspond satisfactorily with Smith, but it maybe'.(312) In the 1860s, Hamilton was assigned the arrangement of the remaining Old English fragments, most of theory, which are now in Otho A. VIII, Otho B. X and Otho B. XI.(313) These three volumes are among those where recent work has revealed serious deficiencies in the arrangement, with leaves inserted upside down and assigned to the wrong manuscripts.(314) It seems that these volumes were in Reform an even worse state when they left Hamilton's hands and were sent to Madden for school essay, checking. Essay On Tax! On 12 May 1863, Madden, while examining these volumes, 'Identified 5 leaves of the African Anglo-Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, and on Tax directed them to be inserted in their places which I ascertained by collation with Rawlinson's edition. Mr Hamilton (to whom I have previously given the Anglo-Saxon fragments) made sad work of them. Five leaves of Boethius he notes as Colloquy. Description of Britain!!'.(315) Even so, when Madden sent the checked volumes to the binder, very obvious errors in hamlet the reconstruction remained, evidence perhaps of his own failing powers.(316) Madden's most important associate in the task of identifying and arranging the fragments was the young Edward Maunde Thompson. Thompson had been a clerk in Panizzi's office, and on Tax Reform was transferred, at Panizzi's insistence, to Manuscripts in 1862.(317) Despite this unpromising start, he soon distinguished himself. In May 1863, Thompson identified article 3 of Vitellius A. Essay About Modern Martial Arts - Lack! III(318), located a number of fragments from Otho A. III and rearranged Vitellius A. VII.(319) On 1 June, he found the last eleven leaves of the chronicle of Roger of Essay on Tax, Wendover, Otho B. V.(320) 'This is important', Madden declared.(321) On the disengagement definition following day, 'Mr Thompson identified the leaves of the commencement of Tib.

A. IX which were missing before 1734 when the Report on Essay the Library was printed, also the school uniform essay nine last leaves of Vitell. Essay Reform! A. VIII.'(322) Madden was delighted: 'Mr Thompson is a most useful assistant his services more valuable than several of the older ones'.(323) However, even Thompson was not above making mistakes. He seems to have been responsible for identifying seven leaves from Æthelweard's chronicle, Otho A. X, as part of the unique manuscript of Asser, the first article of Otho A. XII,(324) a mistake which seriously misled Henry Bradshaw in his account of the placenames in Asser(325) and theory was only rectified by Sir George Warner some years later.(326) These leaves, further damaged in the bindery fire, still form the first seven folios of Otho A. XII. It is perhaps only when mistakes like this come to light that the Essay modern reader becomes conscious that many of the Cotton Manuscripts are in does menagerie mean a way replicas or reconstitutions, made from the original materials by Madden and his colleagues. The words of Susan Sontag describing the 1845 restoration of the smashed Portland Vase come to mind: 'neither replica or original.

A perfect job of reconstruction, for the time'.(327) Madden's great enterprise has been exhaustively described here, but there are still many other aspects of the work which would be worth further investigation. The Cotton Charters, which, as Madden noted, were in a particularly bad condition in 1838, were also repaired. The charters had perhaps the most complex history of any part of the Cotton collection. They were the only part of the collection which was renumbered when it came to the Museum, being assigned a roman number representing the drawer in which the charter was stored and an arabic number recording the piece number of the charter within the drawer. The original Cotton Charters only extend as far as XVI.3.

The numbers from on Tax this point onwards were assigned by Samuel Ayscough to various unnumbered charters and seal impressions while he was compiling his catalogue of of view, charters in the 1790s.(328) These included a number of Harleian charters.(329) Madden was afterwards to lament the 'sad confusion' that Ayscough had caused in the charter numeration.(330) In Madden's time, these later additions to the charters were distinguished, following Ayscough's usage, as 'Cartae Miscellaneae Addendae' or 'Various Collections'. During the Bond's Keepership (1866-78), the Essay Reform use of a separate designation for school essay, these charters ceased, and they have since always been referred to as Cotton Charters and Rolls. This has led to the confusing situation where the item known nowadays as Cotton Charter XXIV.17 was in fact presented to the Museum by Essay on Tax Reform, Mr Leake of History Republic: Essay, Middlewich in Essay Reform 1788.(331) Madden not only restored damaged charters but also recovered many charters from the damaged fragments in the garret.(332) The numeration assigned to these charters presumably reflects Madden's view of their likely provenance. Hand in hand with the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts went a closer investigation of the history of the collection, leading to the rediscovery of much lost and stray material. Madden compiled a detailed list of lost or strayed Cotton Manuscripts.(333) He persuaded Sir Thomas Phillipps to sell a stray Cotton manuscript in disengagement definition his possession, Vitellius D. IX, to the Museum at on Tax Reform a special price.(334) Perhaps the most exciting rediscovery was that of the Utrecht Psalter. On 1 December 1856, Madden 'Received a letter from Mr D. Laing giving me a description of a MS. in the University Library Utrecht [the famous Utrecht Psalter], which proves to be one of the lost Cotton MSS. Claudius C.VII which is marked Deest in Smith's Catalogue of 1696. Mr Laing recommends that the Trustees should negotiate for does menagerie mean, its acquisition. I think so too .'(335)

The second half of the nineteenth century saw a great leap forward in Essay on Tax critical and editorial standards. Madden's work with the menagerie Cotton Manuscripts was of fundamental importance in this movement. The connection between Hamilton's influential edition of the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis and Essay the restoration work has already been mentioned. Montesquieu Ideas! Madden rescued important manuscripts of many of the on Tax Reform key English historical sources edited in the Rolls Series and elsewhere, such as (to take two random examples) one of only two extant manuscripts of Roger of Wendover's Flores Historiarum (Otho B. V) and a presentation copy of Capgrave's De Illustribus Henricis (Tiberius A. Menagerie Mean! VIII). Essay Reform! Moreover, the work on the restoration of the Essay Martial Arts - Lack of Confucian Cotton Manuscripts, by establishing the exact extent of the survival of particular manuscripts, helped clear the Essay Reform ground for new editions of texts whose chief witnesses had been destroyed or reduced to a few fragments, such as Gildas and hamlet of view Asser. Madden's achievements as 'Restorer of the Cotton library' may not have achieved much public recognition, but they can be seen as underpinning the emergence of modern historical technique in on Tax Reform Britain. This is reflected in the prominence of those most closely associated with the work on the Cotton Manuscripts -- Thompson, Hamilton, Bond and Madden himself -- in the editing of the Rolls Series. The two main published catalogues of the Cotton Library, those of Thomas Smith, published in 1696, and Joseph Planta, published in History African Republic: 1802, had both, within fifty years of their publication, ceased to be accurate guides to the collection they describe. The 1731 fire reduced Smith's catalogue overnight to Essay on Tax Reform the status of a historical document: an indispensable guide to the contents of the collection before the fire but no longer an up-to-date working catalogue. The process by which Planta's catalogue became equally outmoded was more complex but equally devastating.

Criticisms of it had begun to be widely voiced as early as the 1830s. Most telling were those made by Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas in definition his Observations on Essay on Tax the State of Historical Literature , published in 1830. This attacked the work of the Record Commission which, rather than the Museum Trustees, had published the catalogues of the Harley, Lansdowne and Cotton Manuscripts. That these three catalogues were 'often erroneous and generally unsatisfactory', Sir Nicholas declared, 'is well known to all who have consulted them'.(336) He complained that the Cotton catalogue, like the third volume of the Harley catalogue, was full of short and vague descriptions of complex manuscripts.(337) He also attacked the accuracy of the catalogue: 'The descriptions of the manuscripts are not unfrequently erroneous, and hamlet point of view what is equally material, the general index at the end of the volume is extremely incomplete. For example, the Cottonian collection contains the highly valuable chronicle of on Tax Reform, Lanercost, but no special reference is to be found to it in of view the general index; and other omissions of on Tax, equal consequence might easily be cited.'(338)

In giving evidence to the 1836 Select Committee on the Museum, Nicolas not only repeated the criticisms in Essay about Modern Arts his earlier pamphlet, but also also drew attention to the problem of the burnt manuscripts. He noted that Planta did not give any indication as to the contents of manuscripts thought to on Tax Reform be completely lost, and offered no hint that any further fragments might still be surviving in the Museum.(339) Forshall's initial restoration work had, of course, already rendered Planta seriously out of school essay, date in this respect and it was no longer an accurate statement of those Cotton Manuscripts which were available for Essay Reform, consultation in the Reading Room. Forshall conceded to History of Central African the Select Committee that a supplement to Planta's catalogue was needed. Essay Reform! The basis for this would be the 'considerable materials' which he had already begun to gather.(340) Planta's inadequate treatment of the burnt and missing manuscripts was a glaring deficiency in his catalogue. An even more serious fault, however, was his failure to distinguish between manuscripts lost in the fire and those already noted as wanting in Smith's 1696 catalogue.

Some of these were lost to the Library as a result of loans and Martial Arts of Confucian Doctrine survive elsewhere. Others may simply have been phantoms which never existed.(341) As Madden's restoration work proceeded, the refrain of 'deest' and Essay on Tax Reform 'desideratur' which echoes through Planta's catalogue became more and more misleading. Increasingly, manuscripts dismissed by essay, Planta as lost or useless were being made available for public consultation. Moreover, as Madden's facelift of the collection continued, manuscripts described by on Tax, Planta were rearranged, so that the description itself became out of date. Essay Modern Arts - Lack! This was communicated to readers, if at all, by brief written notes, often very inadequate or confusing, in Essay on Tax the margins of copies of Planta's catalogue in the Reading Room. Not surprisingly, towards the end of Madden's time as Keeper, readers became very frustrated with this situation. Madden's personal diary for 6 December 1861 contains the following entry: Saw Mr Panizzi in his room, who shewed me a printed sheet sent to him by the post, anonymously, in which some person bearing no good will to the Dept. of MSS. has taken the trouble to collect from my Annual Reports to the House of Commons the references to the injured Cottonian MSS. which have been restored by my direction and under my superintendence, and then by way of montesquieu ideas, a grievance, asking why a copy of Smith's Catalogue of 1696 has not been placed in the Reading Room, with an account of those MSS. which had been restored. My answer is thus, to Reform this anonymous piece of History of Central African, spite.

1. There is a copy of Smith's Catalogue in on Tax the Reading Room always has been. 2. At the end of Casley's Catalogue of the school uniform essay Royal Library there is a short list of those MSS. damaged or lost by fire in 1731. 3. A great part of the MSS. so restored have been bound placed on the shelves, are accessible to every reader. 4. Practically the whole are easily accessible, for every reader who wishes to know of Essay on Tax Reform, any remains of Essay about Modern Martial of Confucian Doctrine, a MS. (said by Planta to Reform be lost ), exist, has only to ask, and hamlet point he is immediately informed. 5. For a long time past I have [purposed] an interleaved copy of Planta's Catalogue for the Reading Room, in which are to be entered descriptions of the MSS. wholly or in part recovered or restored; but up to the present time, it has been found impossible to execute this, since it would require the services of an extra assistant devoted especially to the task.(342)

Despite his dusty reply to this anonymous criticism, Madden was conscious of the need to provide better information about the availability of particular Cotton Manuscripts. In June 1861, he had pointed out to the Trustees that all the restored manuscripts needed to Essay be described, and that Planta's catalogue 'requires careful revision, and additions to school uniform be made; to do which would require a good palaeographer one well versed in English History and on Tax Middle Age literature'.(343) As Madden approached the end of his work on the manuscripts, he had prepared a detailed account of the disengagement theory current condition of those reported as lost or injured by the parliamentary committee of 1732.(344) This information was inserted in two interleaved copies of the committee's report. One was retained for Essay Reform, internal Departmental use. The other was placed at the catalogue desk in the Reading Room shortly before Madden submitted his resignation.(345) This provided an authoritative account of the what does menagerie mean restoration work, but unfortunately it did not stay in the Reading Room for very long.

It was withdrawn from the Essay Reform catalogue desk, perhaps when a separate Manuscripts Students' Room was opened in 1885. School Uniform! It was at first placed in the general printed book collections with the pressmark 362.b.14, but was afterwards returned to Essay on Tax Reform the Manuscripts Department, where it rejoined its companion in the Departmental Reference Library.(346) The two volumes remained there until 1983, when the copy originally intended for hamlet, the Reading Room was incorporated in the Manuscript collections as Additional MS. 62573. In 1984 this information was finally made available in print, when one of the volumes was published in facsimile in Essay Reform Colin Tite's indispensable edition of Essay about Martial Arts - Lack, Thomas Smith's catalogue.(347) The interleaved copy of the parliamentary report is the only convenient statement available of the work done by Madden on the Cotton Manuscripts but is nevertheless unsatisfactory in a number of ways.

It was not kept up to date and does not record the further work on the collection done after Madden left the Museum.(348) Moreover, Madden's notes are restricted to the manuscripts listed by Casley as lost or effectively destroyed but his work was far more wide-ranging than this. Essay! Many leaves were added to manuscripts described by Casley as damaged but usable, and there are only History indirect references to Essay on Tax Reform the extensive work undertaken in rearranging and sorting the manuscripts in the Appendix. Ideas! Had it been made more widely available, the interleaved copy of the parliamentary report would have provided a useful stop-gap, but it was never a replacement for a new catalogue. The preparation of a new catalogue was a constant aspiration of successive Keepers of Manuscripts, rather as the restoration of the Reform fragments had been up to Madden's time. In the 1870s, while George Warner was arranging the loose inlaid fragments left by Madden into a separate series, he compiled detailed descriptions of them.

Shortly before the First World War, Eric Millar described the bulk of the appendix and the remaining loose fragments. Disengagement! These descriptions may perhaps have been intended to be the first stage in the preparation of Reform, a new catalogue. With the outbreak of the First World War, however, this project was abandoned, and Millar and Warner's descriptions filed away. Does! They were not finally typed up until 1973, and only made available in the Students' Room in 1981.(349) In 1931, the Essay Reform tercentenary of Cotton's death, a special exhibition of his finest manuscripts was held in the King's Library. The then Keeper, Sir Harold Idris Bell, expressed a hope in the preface to the exhibition catalogue that it would be soon be possible to of view start work on a new catalogue, similar to that recently produced for Reform, the Royal and King's Manuscripts.(350) Shortly afterwards, the Trustees gave permission for this work to begin.(351) Manuscripts in the Julius, Tiberius and Caligula groups were assigned for hamlet, description to various officers including Bell himself, Robin Flower, Francis Wormald, Eric Millar, and Theodore Skeat. The rules drawn up for the new catalogue still survive. They stressed that 'The new catalogue was sanctioned by Essay, the Trustees on the understanding that the work for it would be done concurrently with that on the General Catalogue. Essay About Modern Martial Arts - Lack Of Confucian Doctrine! It is important that it should not interfere too much with the latter, the Essay arrears in hamlet point which, though reduced, are as yet by no means overtaken. It has therefore been decided that Officers should devote no more than two days a week to the Cotton catalogue'. Reform! It was proposed to issue the catalogue in a series of fascicules, with the first volume containing descriptions of the earlier manuscripts, arranged in Emperor order.

It was hoped to draw on the expertise of readers and an appeal for information on the manuscripts was to be circulated among readers. F. M. Powicke and V. H. Galbraith were to be consulted on the treatment of ideas, chronicles and F. M. Stenton was to act as advisor on the cartularies. This ambitious scheme, which would undoubtedly have produced a first-rate catalogue, was again cut short by the outbreak of war. The dispersal of staff and collections during the war, as well as such vicissitudes as the destruction during the Blitz of the printers stock of the descriptions of the Catalogue of Additions to the Manuscripts for 1921-1925 and part of 1926-1930, meant that an arrear of publication built up which is on Tax Reform only just being eradicated.(352) The retirement of Madden did not mark the does menagerie mean conclusion of work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. He had passed over to Maunde Thompson a large pile of inlaid fragments not yet identified and a little loose material.

The annual reports of the Museum for 1867 and on Tax 1868 indicate that work continued on these fragments,(353) but it was soon abandoned as Madden's successor, Bond, began to concentrate on his pet project, the creation of the classed catalogue. When Maunde Thompson himself became Keeper in definition 1878, the Essay on Tax decision seems to have been taken to bind up the remaining inlaid fragments in separate volumes. Rather than attempting to reunite these with their parent volumes, detailed descriptions were prepared which indicated as far as possible the provenance of particular fragments. This was the origin of the present series of Cotton fragments, which represent the remnant of the material found by Madden in the garret in 1837. The loose material which had not been inlaid by Madden was kept respectively in mean a 'case', a 'portfolio' and 'box'. Detailed work on the identification of this material was undertaken by Millar, but does not seem to have led to any extensive rearrangement. The loose material was not generally available for public consultation. Essay On Tax Reform! Eventually in 1990 the decision was taken to sew the uniform loose material into inert transparent plastic sleeves to facilitate its use in on Tax the Students' Room. This work was undertaken by Cyril Titus of the Manuscripts Conservation Studio under the supervision of Rachel Stockdale, relying on the work of Millar and Warner. Ideas! The material from the former 'case' is now available as Fragments XXX. It is intended that the contents of the on Tax Reform 'box' and 'case' will also be bound up in uniform essay this fashion.

The story of the restoration is on Tax not yet ended. Indeed, it may be beginning afresh. Apart from the possibilities opened up by the use of computer imaging as demonstrated by Kevin Kiernan, Madden's restoration work is beginning to show signs of age. Vellum behaves in a different way to point paper. As the Reform vellum moves in one direction, the paper moves in another. Gough's paper frames are buckling and in one or two places the vellum is becoming detached from the paper frames. Even more seriously, in the later stages of the restoration process, acid paper was used for the mounts of some of the fragments. This accounts for the yellowing of about Modern Martial, some frames in a manuscript like Otho B. X.(354) In order to stabilise the situation, some of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts have been recently encapsulated in plastic(355) but, as David Dumville has observed,(356) this makes study of the manuscripts difficult. A conservation technique which balances the need to Essay preserve the manuscripts against uniform essay, the requirements of public access needs to be developed. On Tax Reform! In some respects, we are back in menagerie mean the time of Ellis and Forshall. Again the words of Essay on Tax, Susan Sontag in school essay respect of the Essay on Tax Reform Portland Vase seem apposite. 'A perfect job of reconstruction, for its time.

Until time wears it out. Transparent glue yellows and bulges, making seamless joints visible. Can something shattered, then expertly repaired, be the same, the same as it was? Yes, to the eye, yes, if one doesn't look too closely. No, to the mind'.(357)

Reports of Matthew Maty and History of Central African Essay Henry Rimius on the condition. of the Cotton Library, July 1756. These reports are printed from the copies in the minutes of the Standing Committee of the Museum Trustees, vol. 1, 1754-1757 (British Museum Archives CE 3/1), 102-106, 110-114. [ The initial report ] The report of Dr Maty and Mr Rimius concerning the state in which they have found the manuscripts and medals in the Cottonian collection. According to the order given us by the Honourable Committee of the on Tax Reform Trustees of the British Museum, Friday July 16th, 1756, we waited upon Mr Widmore at school essay the Cottonian Repository, and examined the manuscripts, by comparing them both with the catalogue, composed by Mr Smith and printed in Essay Reform 1695, and with the account which was given by Mr Casley in 1732 of the state of the manuscripts after the fire. For this purpose we opened the several presses distinguished by the names of the disengagement definition twelve Caesars, those of Cleopatra and Faustina, and the Appendix; and having counted the number of volumes under every division, we took one or two of each and Essay compared them with the catalogues, to hamlet point be satisfied they answered to the accounts given of them.

And though, for want of Reform, time, we could not be as particular as we could have wished in our examination, we hope the following account will be found agreeable to the actual state of this valuable, though hitherto much neglected, collection. The manuscripts contained in the presses called Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasianus, Titus, Domitianus, Cleopatra, Faustina, and those of the Appendix, have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Does Mean! Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us to have been very assiduous) be preserved from must and mouldiness and will want to Essay on Tax Reform be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum. The condition of the manuscripts contained in the presses called Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius, obliges us to be a little more particular, as we could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley, and as several of those which he declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands. Beginning therefore with Tiberius we find the division. A. Answering to hamlet point the two catalogues; 12 and 15 entirely destroyed; all the books damaged besides 1, 5 and 6. On Tax Reform! Yet the most damaged still capable of being read, either in part or entire.

B. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and of Central Republic: Essay 8 still subsisting; 9, though said to be burnt to a crust, very legible in the inside. C. On Tax! Though nothing is said of them in the account, have most of them greatly suffered by the fire. D. 6 is wanting; 9, marked with a star in the account as entirely destroyed, has been found by us. E. Answers to the catalogue compared with the report. A, B, C. Suffered nothing, or very little by the fire, and have been collated with Mr Smith's catalogue. D E. Answers to about - Lack of Confucian Doctrine Mr Casley's account of the effect of the fire upon them. A. 6 is Essay Reform not found; 15 exists, though damaged; and 18 which was referred to in Mr Smith's catalogue as being transferred to Caligula A.14 was reported to be lost by Mr Casley. B, C, D, E. Answer to the catalogues compared one with the other. A. According to the report consists of Essay of Confucian, 18 numbers all destroyed; yet we discovered the first part of number XII being the Life of Essay on Tax Reform, Alfred by Asser Menevensis. C. 1, 4 and 13, said to be destroyed, are in part legible.

The other numbers answer to of view the catalogue as well as. D E. Several bundles and loose papers not taken notice of by Mr Casley may, in part, be recovered and read. Besides the damage done by the fire to the manuscripts in this press, it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the Reform place. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the of Central Essay marks and afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects. In this state we cannot answer whether number 15, under the division C, all those that were under D, number 13 under E, and 15 and 17 under F, which were the only ones under the Reform several divisions we could not find, besides those that have been marked in Mr Casley's report as entirely destroyed, may not still be recovered, at least in part, among the sad remains of disengagement definition, this precious part of the collection. The medals or coins, of which Mr Pegge and the late worthy Mr Folkes gave some manuscript account in 1747 and 1748 have been found by us in a most confused state. The Reverend Mr Widmore has never examined them according to Essay on Tax these accounts, and school answers only to Essay Reform the number, which we found to be as follows:

Pope's Heads, Seals co. Medals or English coins. The account of the charters, curiosities co. and what menagerie mean of Major Edwards's books, we beg leave to refer to the meeting of the committee, as we have not had time hitherto to examine them. London. July 22 1756. [ The further report ] The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described. But as nothing of all this has to our knowledge hitherto been done, and as no other assistance could be procured but the rough draft of a catalogue, which the Reverend Mr Widmore has made of them for his own use, we were obliged to look them over one by one, to pick up the late learned Keeper's loose sheets, and to affix to every one of them a number by which they could more easily be found out. We cannot and indeed we ought not to Reform be very particular in our account of these precious relicts, as such an account would not only be dry and tedious, but also in Essay Modern a manner useless, since Mr Widmore has promised to lend his notes. These, though he himself modestly owns them imperfect, will still be of great use in the future arrangement of this part of the Essay on Tax collection.

We declare that of above five hundred pieces mentioned by him in his rough draft, no more than four or five have escaped our researches. Hamlet Point! These few appeared to Essay on Tax Reform us to be of little consequence, to lose more time than we could spare in looking for them amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described. We think however a more particular examination will be necessary, as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved. As this Honourable Board required from us not an accurate description but simply a general survey of the whole, we flatter ourselves that what we have said hitherto and are now going to add will in some measure answer their intention though not our desire of fulfilling our duty. The upper part of this last press contains sixteen, and the under one seven, drawers filled with papers or parchments. History Of Central Essay! Several of them being entirely relative to the Cotton family seem to be of little use to the public, and the same may be said of many more, which only serve to swell but in our opinion by no means to enrich this collection. Some capital pieces are already sufficiently known, and their importance seems to require the greatest care of them. Among them deserves the first rank, King John's famous grant of Essay Reform, privileges, which though one of the sufferers by the fire, is still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the what mean damages done by this dreadful accident. We have put this piece by itself in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at bottom.

The explanations of Magna Carta and Reform of that of the Forests by Edward the about Martial Arts of Confucian First are likewise subsisting, and Essay on Tax ought we think to be brought nearer than they now are to the preceding piece. Amongst the public records preserved in our collection, we beg leave to mention Pope Innocent's Bull containing the cession of the weak king, Robert de Bruce's claim to the crown of Scotland as laid before Edward I in French in 1297, the Scotch Barons' submission to the English King's determination, the declaration of John, King of France, about the quarrel between the African Republic: Dukes of Lancaster and Brunswick in 1352, the Reform Archbishop of Canterbury and of York's letter to Henry VIII containing their synod's compliance with his desires in the affair of the African Republic: Essay divorce with Ann of Cleves, an instrument of the Dutch commissioners in 1585 confirming the cautionary cession of some of their towns. Some original, though not very remarkable, letters of Essay, Queen Elizabeth, Prince Maurice and disengagement theory definition co. are likewise found there. The antiquity of Reform, many of the pieces contained in this press is alone sufficient to school render them venerable. Several of Essay, them are of the ancient Saxon and Danish kings, viz. Ethelbert, Edred, Kinewolf, Canut, Alfred and co. and must be very near a thousand years old. Historical, chronological and genealogical rolls, drawn up by monks, in montesquieu ideas the ages of ignorance and darkness, may still afford some satisfaction. Inventories of the books and effects of the several monasteries, expenses for the table of their abbots, and orders for the table of some princes, will probably likewise be examined and Reform compared.

But what constitutes by much the greatest part of these records relates to the church, viz. Pope's Bulls, indulgences, grants and dispensations, ordinations of bishops, but especially pious gifts and grants to monasteries. Some of them have appeared in print, others have not, though deserving of that honour, and proper to ascertain the Essay Martial Arts titles of several churches to on Tax Reform their estates. The antiquities contained in three or four of the drawers of this press do not appear to us of very great value. Some ancient little brass statues of Egyptian or other heathen gods or heroes, a few scales, instruments, and other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship do not deserve, at least at present, a more particular description, and we already too much fear to have abused the patience of this learned assembly by our hasty and theory very imperfect account. London. July 30th 1756. Description in chronological order of the lists, etc., of damaged Cotton Manuscripts in Add. Essay Reform! MS. 62576. (1) Labels from boxes containing loose fragments of of Central African Republic:, Caligula D. On Tax Reform! V (f.

11) and school Vitellius E. IX (f. 15). (2) Notes of lost Cotton and on Tax Reform Royal MSS., early 19th cent.(?). ff. Disengagement Definition! 59-60. (3) List by Forshall of 'Saxon MSS. wanting', circa 1827. ff. 52-52v.

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Let’s say you’ve even held lots of part-time cashier jobs in Reform, the past. You don’t have to include every job in your cashier resume experience section. Instead, choose those that had similar responsibilities and skills. Just be careful not to leave large gaps on an experienced cashier resume, as this can raise red flags with the hiring manager. June 2016 - September 2016. JC Penny’s Department Store. Trained 5 new members as full-time cashiers. Of Central? Managed 3 junior staff members in Essay, the Accessories Department.

Dealt with customer requests and about Martial Doctrine issues, helping the store achieve the highest customer satisfaction rate in the region. June 2016 - September 2016. JC Penny’s Department Store. Head cashier on department floor. Greeted customers and dealt with requests. Helped junior members of the team. Notice how the “right” candidate uses achievements to Essay on Tax Reform, illustrate the montesquieu value of her work. Her customer service skills helped the store achieve the highest customer satisfaction rating. The hiring manager will now imagine that she can do the same for them. Also, notice the addition of numbers.

She trained five employees and managed three. Using numbers gives the Essay on Tax hiring manager a realistic idea of what you can handle. Plus, it draws the eye of the recruiter to the item. So, use numbers when you want to school essay, highlight a skill and show what happens when you use it. But what if you’re a teenager applying for your first job? What can you put in the experience section of your teen cashier resume? You can include non-traditional work.

Examples of Essay on Tax Reform, non-traditional work include: Internships Student Organizations Practicums (Student Teaching) Volunteer Work Babysitting Personal Projects Work Study. October 2016 - March 2017. Daisy Care Home For The Elderly. Greeted all residents in a friendly, polite manner. Patiently listened to montesquieu, resident requests to on Tax Reform, help make them more comfortable. Essay Of Confucian? Participated in on Tax Reform, daily priorities, taking responsibility for cleaning tasks.

October 2016 - March 2017. Daisy Care Home For The Elderly. Visited a care home once a week to History of Central Essay, help staff with various tasks. List responsibilities that use skills that can translate to Essay Reform, a cashier job. Definition? For example, the “right” candidate has listed greeting residents as a responsibility.

That responsibility translates to customer service skills in action. Pro Tip: Include powerful action words instead of starting every responsibility with “responsible for.” Action words can make your cashier resume sample shine. Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. I know what your thinking.

Is the Essay on Tax Reform education section necessary for ideas a basic cashier resume template? After all, some cashier jobs have no educational requirements. Well, you’re not wrong. But if you’re a student, your education is your strongest experience. So, you’ll want to consider putting your education section after your introduction.

Plus, hiring managers may favor candidates with high school diplomas for full-time roles. Essay On Tax Reform? So, it’s best to put what education you have on your resume. Here’s how to add your high school education to cashier resume: River Creek High School, River Creek, PA. Here’s how to add your education as an ongoing college student: Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. Expected to graduate in 2019 with a BS in Athletic Training. Here’s how to add education that you did not complete as a college student: Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. 2010-2012 Completed 50 credits toward a BS in Athletic Training.

Pro Tip: You can add awards and point a coursework description to this section to fill out your resume for Essay on Tax a cashier position. How to History Republic:, Put Skills on a Resume for Essay Reform a Cashier. For a cashier resume, including a skills section is uniform, crucial. A skills section shows hiring managers that you have the skills and abilities to be a cashier. But which skills should go on Essay Reform, a resume for a cashier? Start by listing any cashier skills that you have that the hiring manager also listed in the cashier job description. Then consider adding a couple of your best universal cashier skills to your resume. What are universal cashier skills? They are skills that you use as a fast food cashier at McDonald's one day and as a pharmacy cashier clerk the Essay about - Lack of Confucian Doctrine next.

A good example is Reform, cash handling. No matter what, you have to know how to handle cash to be a cashier. One of the top universal skills for a cashier is active listening. African Republic: Essay? And you don't need cashier experience at a restaurant or department store to list active listening on your cashier resume. Here are some more universal hard and soft skills that are great for on Tax cashier resumes: Of course, the list is point, not exhaustive. And you can use these cashier skills whether you’re applying at a gas station or a Target. Just remember to start with the skills you find in Essay Reform, the cashier job description. Now, you have a list of lead cashier resume skills, but how do you add them? Excellent active listening and communication skills. Efficient with customer complaints and requests.

Operate cash registers and various POS systems. Math - can make most calculations mentally. Handle cash, checks, and returns. Speak intermediate Spanish and what does French. Remember to be specific. The hiring manager will have a clearer idea of what you can do. Would you rather hire someone who can do math in their head or someone who can do “math?” Pro Tip: You will want to go beyond adding a skills section. Often, hiring managers scan resumes looking for skills mentioned in on Tax Reform, the cashier job description. That's why you'll want to sprinkle cashier resume skills throughout your document.

How to Add Other Sections for an Effective Resume. Let’s face it. Hamlet Point? You're going to compete with other qualified candidates. So, what do you have that other candidates don't? One way to set yourself apart from the competition is to include a hobbies and on Tax Reform interests section. Adding hobbies can help you in two ways: Hobbies can show that you fit in with the culture of the company. Your interests will show the hiring manager a bit of your personality. Try to choose hobbies that either fit with the company’s brand or work culture. Disengagement Definition? And, in the case of a customer service cashier resume, you can choose hobbies that show you have a social personality.

Let’s say you’re writing a retail cashier resume for a women’s retailer. Here are some examples of hobbies and interests to include: I enjoy pairing accessories with outfits and keeping up with the latest fashion trends. Reform? I do volunteer work at my local second-hand clothing store. Pro Tip: Your hobbies can be great icebreaker topics during your interview. Make sure you only montesquieu, add things to your cashier resume in which you have a genuine interest. That way you can talk about them with passion if they come up in on Tax Reform, conversation later. Here’s the hamlet point Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. You might assume that cashiers don't need to write cover letters. A resume is more than enough. At this point, you’re surprised you have to turn in Essay, a simple cashier resume in the first place.

So, a cashier cover letter would be overkill, right? Well, not always. Some hiring managers still want cover letters. History Republic: Essay? And sending one can only help your chances of landing the job. Cover letters can show you have excellent communication skills. On Tax? You get a chance to tell the does mean hiring manager more about your personality. You can explain inconvenient gaps or shortcomings in your work history.

The good news? Cashier cover letters don’t need to be very lengthy. All you have to do is Reform, use your letter to tell the what menagerie hiring manager why you want the Essay job. Show some enthusiasm. But let’s be honest. Let’s say you only want the job for of view the extra cash. Do you believe in on Tax, the products they sell? Would you be proud of representing the company’s brand? If yes, go with it.

Selling products is one of the responsibilities of a cashier. And that's especially true in a retail environment. Pro Tip: Always address the hiring manager by name if you know it. If you’re not sure, call the company or ask in person who will read your resume. You won't often find yourself in a position where you must turn in a resume for a cashier job. But when you do, resist the temptation to send a weak, generic document. Use the opportunity.

Set yourself apart from the competition. Even if you only want to point, be a cashier to bridge the Reform gap between school and “real work,” don’t say that. Treat your entry-level cashier resume as a serious, professional document. And when you do, that could open a lot of doors for what does mean you. The least it will do is land you that cashier job you want right now.

Did we miss anything? If you are still struggling with how to write a cashier resume, let us know in the comments, and on Tax Reform we will do what we can to help. Thanks for reading! Simran is of view, a UK based freelance researcher and Essay Reform writer covering careers and self-development. Essay? She has spent over on Tax six years in headhunting and talent insight and point has a Masters in on Tax, Social Research.