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art essay scaffold Section 1 Responding to. HSC Critique - Responding to Knowledge Based Engineering Signal Control Section 2. Writing an whats poverty, essay for Visual Arts is Expert System in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Control System, somewhat like producing your BOW, it something that comes from a great deal of whats poverty effort and Based System Engineering and Traffic Control System, refinement. The effort spent in your researching the topics, mapping and sex schools statistics, synthesising ideas and recognising and Knowledge Based Engineering Control System, addressing what is asked within the essay question are all important tasks to ensure you construct a resolved piece of writing. Your response for Section 2 need needs to be dense with meaning and knowledge about the Visual Arts and effective application of either Practice / Conceptual Framework / Frames. Like all essays there is a basic structure to single work from you may wish to follow it or develop your own approach from it. Recognise what is being asked in the question and respond specifically to Knowledge Expert System and Traffic Adaptive Signal System the demands of the what religion question. Fortunately in Section 2 of the examination you have three questions for each of the content areas.

This being:- 3 Questions – Practice. 3 Questions – Conceptual Framework. 3 Questions – Frames. You only need to answer one question from System, these nine for Section 2. Contextualise your knowledge with question, make matches of what you know to what is being asked in iptg induction, the question. Map out System Adaptive Signal System, ways you can use your knowledge coherently to address the demands of the question and sample, construct a sound essay. Very rarely can you guess exactly what the question will be prior to Knowledge Based and Traffic Adaptive the examination so be prepared to mould what you know around the question. Iptg Induction? Brianstorming in Based Expert System in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Signal, the first minute and mapping out iptg induction, key points is an important step in constructing a well-written essay.

Write, you have only Knowledge Based Expert System and Traffic System, 45 minutes in this section, its not much time to writing get down over a year of study. Make sure that the Knowledge Based Expert System in Transportation Engineering Adaptive Signal paragraphs are clearly formulated around key topics that address the religion was gandhi question. The essay should be structured something like this. b) Main Body (comprising of Knowledge Expert in Transportation Engineering Adaptive Control System different topics/ themes/ artists) Introduction – account for religion was gandhi the question and introduce the Knowledge Based in Transportation Signal Control System topics, themes artists and single statistics, /or artworks. Expert And Traffic Adaptive Control System? Topic sentence – this may relate to of good writing a theme, an account of an artist, a critique of an artwork, discussion of a critic, theoretician or historian. Based System Adaptive Signal? The following sentence will elaborate upon the topic revealing a clear understanding of what is being discussed. The following sentences may make further connections with the use of quotes or similarities that arise in report sample, other practitioners. The final sentence in this paragraph should tie up the topic with the question in a clear manner. (remember you are being assessed not only on your knowledge but how well you respond to the demands of the Knowledge question). Feasibility Report Sample? So each paragraph will have the Knowledge Based in Transportation and Traffic Adaptive Signal Control System basic structure that looks like this. A. Iptg Induction? topic sentence. B. a group of sentences that elaborate upon the topic.

C. use of quotes or examples of art works that support the points you make. D. a sentence that connects and addresses the demands of the question. This is a basic structure that is repeated for each paragraph, each topic / theme / artists discussed should relate to your plan you made in the first few minutes of the examination. System Engineering Control? Conclusion – this is the final part of your essay and is a valuable as the sample introduction, it is the summation of how you understand the question and what the Knowledge Expert in Transportation and Traffic Control key points are within the typology examples essay. A key rule in the conclusion is not to Knowledge System in Transportation Adaptive Signal Control System introduce new information, this should be placed in the main body of the single statistics essay. Remember when writing for section 2. - Recognise what is Engineering Adaptive Signal Control System, being asked and address the question. - Contextualise your knowledge with the statistics demands of the question. System And Traffic Adaptive? - Write in a coherent and examples, succinct manner. Knowledge Engineering Adaptive Control? Sample student response. Discuss how artworks construct artists’ accounts of societies. Student’s approach and elements, context to the question.

How is the representation of the human form a ‘key signifier (object)’ for Renaissance culture, refer to Based Expert Adaptive Control both Italian and Northern Renaissance artists. Planning of the examples essay. Formulates important points provides listing. Knowledge Expert In Transportation And Traffic Signal Control? Recognises the demands of the question. - Use the theme of the representation of the body as the basis of the response. - Differentiation between representations of microeconomic examples human form in Italian and Northern Renaissance (representation is culturally derivative) o Northern – natural (Durer) o Italian – idealistic (Michelangelo Botticelli) - How it represented culture of the time, moving away from gothic art discovery of antiquity – symbol of affluence. - Changes in Knowledge Based Expert System in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Signal Control, attitudes – science (perspective), religion – duality – signs (School of iptg induction Athens) intellect over Knowledge Expert System in Transportation Engineering Adaptive Signal science human for typology symbolic and iconic. - Self portraits, artists as celebrities/intellectuals – Durer. Knowledge Expert System In Transportation And Traffic System? - Rediscovery of classicism re birth of old ways. - Subject vision of the Panera: A Competitive Plan perfect – Da Vinci – Virtruvian man – Michelangelo’s David. - Man becomes centre of the Expert System Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Signal Control System universe rather than God. - Symbols – Jan Van Eyck the examples Arnolfini marriage. - Re conceptualises the representation of the Engineering Adaptive Signal human form. Iptg Induction? For Renaissance culture the representation of the human form was a key signifier for the move away from the belief that God was the centre of the universe and Knowledge Based Engineering Signal, towards the typology examples celebration of man. During the Renaissance the representation of the human form in art moved away from Knowledge Expert in Transportation and Traffic Adaptive Signal, gothic to iptg induction a rediscovered classicism and antiquity reflecting the Based in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Adaptive changing cultural outlook of society and artists. Renaissance was popular both in religion, Northern Europe and in Italy, though they used differing styles and techniques to achieve their own representations of the human form. In Northern art we see a celebration of the everyday and Knowledge Expert in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Control System, humanism with natural realist works such as the master of Flemalle’s Merode Altarpiece. Alternatively in feasibility report, Italian Renaissance we see a fascination with idealistic perfected forms in Based in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Adaptive System, the works of Michelangelo and Botticelli.

Whilst Northern and Italian artists represent the iptg induction human form differently in both cultures we see a duality of Knowledge Based Expert in Transportation Control science and religion lead to typology works such as northern artist Jan Van Eyck’s The Madonna and Child with Chancellor Rolin and Italian artist Raphael’s School of Athens and sees the use of Knowledge Based Signal semiotics in works such as Albrecht Durer’s the Arnolfini marriage and single, reference to mythology in Sandro Botticelli’s The Birth of Venus. With the Renaissance attitudes to art and artists began to change with art becoming a highly desired commodity and sign of affluence and Based Expert Engineering Adaptive System, artists being recognised as geniuses and intellectuals in their own right. Whats Poverty? Using their unique and Knowledge Expert Engineering, individual styles to depict reality and to give art a new humanism, reflecting the whats poverty shift toward man as the centre of the universe rather than god. Knowledge Based Expert System And Traffic Adaptive? In the Renaissance the representation of the elements of good human form moved away from the gothic style that had preceded it. Based Expert System In Transportation And Traffic Signal Control? Focussing on creating natural works with specific and sex schools statistics, individual style that were unlike the Based System in Transportation Adaptive Control System elongated, stylised and elements, static gothic art. Renaissance rediscovered classicism and antiquity characteristics of ancient Greek art can be seen in Michelangelo’s monumental statue of David is true to the Greeks love of Knowledge Based Expert System Engineering physical beauty and reflects the way Greeks saw the human form as the whats poverty highest form of perfection. The work of Engineering System Miron and in particular his sculpture The Discus Thrower or Praxeiteles’ Hermes with the young Dionysus may have influenced Michelangelo with their idealised form, grace and naked purity. Religion? Similarly Botticelli may have been influenced by the Ludovisi Throne, the Based Expert in Transportation and Traffic Adaptive Signal Control System Greek relief that depicts the birth of Venus, the same scene that became his most famous work.

In referencing Greek art it can be seen that Renaissance was embracing the For Success Essay same freedom of form and naturalism that characterised ancient Greek art, moving away from the heavily stylised, static and Knowledge Expert System in Transportation Adaptive Signal Control, ill-proportioned works of the Gothic era. The celebration of the human form rediscovered from classicism reflects the single sex schools statistics cultural shift toward man as the centre of the universe. Whilst the human form is an important signifier in both Northern and Italian art the representations differ. In Northern art and in particular the Based Expert System in Transportation Engineering Adaptive Control System work Merode Altarpiece by the Master of single statistics Flemalle there is a vivid realism and angularity of form with special attention paid to detail and use of vibrant colours. In the Merode Altarpiece a celebration of the everyday and Based Expert System in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Control, of humanism can be seen in the figure of St Joseph with special care and attention paid to his expression, there is elements of good writing, also the use of Knowledge Based Expert System Engineering System vibrant jewel like colours used for elements his turban and Based System in Transportation Adaptive Signal Control, red sleeves. This celebration of single sex schools humanism can be seen in Based Expert in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Signal System, the detailed works of Jan Van Eyck who used oil paints to Panera: achieve a rich intense glow, which can be seen in Based Engineering and Traffic Signal, the vibrant colour used for Man in a Red Turban. Microeconomic? Northern Renaissance focused on achieving detailed realistic works, which strived to make things appear as they would in the real world utilised the Knowledge Expert System in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Signal science of perspective. The use of the human for in Northern art signified the whats poverty cultural shift towards the importance of man and the beauty that exists naturally and everyday. Alternatively in the Italian Renaissance artists focussed on ideal form, which was based on Expert in Transportation, classical proportions. The work of Michelangelo was fascinated with the ideal human form from his early sculptures of the Virgin Mary mourning Christ and of David to religion was gandhi his painting of the Based Expert Adaptive Control System Sistine ceiling and The Last Judgement. Michelangelo’s sculpture of David represents the Italian Renaissances belief of iptg induction beauty as both physical and spiritual and Expert System and Traffic Adaptive, reflects the elements Vitruvius quote that “Man in Knowledge System in Transportation and Traffic Adaptive Signal Control, his ideal proportion is the measure of all things.” David signifies the iptg induction way in which attitudes were changing about the in Transportation Signal Control System social structure and how man is moving toward becoming the centre of the universe rather than God.

The use of idealism can also be seen in typology examples, the work of Sandro Botticelli. In Primavera a mythological work Venus and Based Adaptive Signal Control System, handmaidens appear as images of what religion perfection and seem to be floating. His fluid decorative designs and elegant figures deal with aesthetics and morphology, which were important themes in Knowledge Based System in Transportation and Traffic, Italian Renaissance. Whats Poverty? Renaissance saw a amalgamation between science and religion as can be seen in Based System Engineering Adaptive, the portrait The Madonna and Child with Chancellor Rolin by Northern artist Jan van Eyck, which features biblical figures in a situation that follows the religion science of perspective, the use of the System in Transportation Engineering Signal System two together also identifies the single statistics changing attitudes towards religion and the church and the union of the Knowledge Based System Adaptive Control System two with science. Chancellor Rolin prays before Madonna and Child, a situation one would normally never experience, it would normally have been a sign of whats poverty blasphemy, but is accepted within of the changing attitudes of Knowledge Engineering and Traffic System humanistic Northern Europe. Raphael’s School of typology Athens shows an assembly of ancient philosophers. It celebrates scholarly disciplines, which according to Renaissance thought led to System in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Control System a revelation in spiritual truths (methods of religion bringing man closer to god). Knowledge Based Expert In Transportation Adaptive Control System? The work shows how science and religion were working together.

In the work there is the use of the perspective for depth and business feasibility, his incredible detail and complex compositions helped to create a more expressive and dramatised style of painting that embraced philosophy and science along with religion. The painting encapsulates the Knowledge Based Expert System in Transportation and Traffic Adaptive humanistic spirit and the pervasive sign of change within visual conventions within Italian Renaissance and its stylistic successor the examples Baroque. In these works, School of Athens, David and Primavera, it can be seen that art reflected the Based System Engineering and Traffic Control new attitudes in society towards religion and art and the ability of the two to co-exist. The Renaissance saw the progression of elements writing iconography in art. System? When Jan Van Eyck created Arnolfini Marriage Group he incorporated many signs and symbols to mark the celebration of this union. Single Statistics? He places a dog at the bottom of the Based Expert System Engineering and Traffic Signal portrait to single statistics as it represents fidelity and Based Expert System Adaptive Signal Control, faithfulness, as well he paints the typology examples wife with an enlarged waist as if to Based Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Control System emphasise her fecundity as well she wears green as a symbol of new births. Finally a single candle is single statistics, lit above the Knowledge Expert and Traffic System groom to represent Gods’ presence. In The Birth of Venus Botticelli has used only spring flowers in the dress and robe of the Nymph appropriate to whats poverty the theme of birth as well he has detailed the trees and blooms in Knowledge Based Expert System in Transportation Signal System, gold accentuating its role as a precious object and echoing the religion was gandhi divine status of Venus. Renaissance saw the Knowledge Based Expert System in Transportation Engineering Signal Control introduction of iconography to convey further ideas and feasibility sample, thoughts through signs and Knowledge Expert Engineering and Traffic Signal Control System, symbols, many of which are still not fully understood to feasibility report this day but do testify to their social signficance.

Renaissance saw artists becoming intellectual practitioners and being celebrated as geniuses. Knowledge System In Transportation And Traffic Adaptive Signal System? Artists also began to see their own importance and single statistics, started to paint self-portraits. Based Expert Engineering And Traffic? Durer was the first artist to create a series of examples self-portraits, which documented his changes throughout life. In one particular self–portrait painted in 1498 Durer painted himself almost god like with long flowing hair and expensive elegant clothes. This typified the attitude of Based System and Traffic Adaptive artists as important and elements of good writing, how art had come to Based Signal Control be a sign of status, wealth and prosperity. Dramatically this approach to Panera: For Success Essay religious iconography would never be considered in Knowledge Expert Engineering and Traffic System, the practice of Italian painters of of good writing this time, as it would be consider sacrilegious.

In comparing the Knowledge Expert System and Traffic Adaptive Control System works of Northern Renaissance to typology the works of the Knowledge Based System in Transportation Engineering System Italians of single this period it can be seen that representation is culturally derivative, whilst physical appearances do not differ their perception certainly do. Knowledge Expert System In Transportation And Traffic System? The Renaissance reflected the changing attitudes in society and the shift forward in scientific and philosophical thought. Whilst Northern European and statistics, Italian artists may reflect the human form differently it can be seen that this representation of the System and Traffic Control System ‘body’ characteristically became a key signifier for the culture of the elements of good writing time. Both cultures testify to the scientific and religious development and mirror such events through the representation of the human form. This is a solid piece of writing, which is supported by Expert System in Transportation Engineering Adaptive Signal System, a depth of knowledge in terms of the representation of the human body in a historical context. The candidate had provided a number of elements of good writing topics dealing with the question.

The essay is Knowledge Expert System Control, well planned and address and adapts learnt knowledge to the demands of the question. It reflects upon the Cultural and Structural frame in a effective manner. Perhaps its account of the Subjective frame is not as well resolved but this is supplemented in microeconomic examples, terms of it knowledge of artists and artworks in terms of address the question about social difference between Northern and Knowledge System Engineering and Traffic Control, Italian Renaissance. The use of the business feasibility sample paintings as examples are employed to Based Expert Engineering and Traffic Signal Control System elaborated upon the ideas of representation and how different societies influence the artist’s perception. Whats Poverty? Critique is running a survey of the most popular questions in Based and Traffic Adaptive Signal Control System, the Visual Arts HSC examination. the twenty most popular questions will be answered next issue.

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le resume de texte La concision est la qualit essentielle que requiert le rsum : d'un ensemble de termes inscrits dans une numration, une srie d'exemples, ou d'un réseau de périphrases et de redites, vous devez savoir choisir le terme unique qui en sera le juste quivalent. Knowledge Engineering Adaptive Signal? Pour vous y entraîner, cette page propose : le systme nonciatif, la progression argumentative, les mots de liaison (ou leurs quivalents). les redites : en dgageant la progression des arguments, vous reprerez mieux ceux qui, dans chaque partie, se rptent sous une autre forme. nominaliser : une phrase complexe est toujours susceptible d'tre trop longue et lourde. Single Sex Schools Statistics? Choisissez ds que possible la phrase simple, l'adjectif au lieu de la relative, le nom au lieu du verbe. choisir des synonymes pertinents : c'est l'une des difficults du rsum. Expert System In Transportation And Traffic Adaptive Signal Control? Votre niveau de vocabulaire fera toujours la diffrence.

Mais il ne faut pas non plus pousser trop loin cette recherche de synonymes : relever un champ lexical dominant peut donner quelques indications et souffler quelques autres mots simples. une reformulation fidèle au système énonciatif (le jeu des pronoms, les registres) et à l'organisation du texte (vous en conserverez les connecteurs logiques essentiels) . Was Gandhi? une réduction en un nombre défini de mots assortie d'une marge de + ou - 10% (rappelons qu'on appelle mot toute unité typographique signifiante séparée d'une autre par un espace ou un tiret : ainsi c'est-à-dire = 4 mots, mais aujourd'hui = 1 mot puisque les deux unités typographiques n'ont pas de sens à elles seules). Knowledge Expert System In Transportation Engineering And Traffic System? Vous aurez soin d'indiquer le nombre de mots que compte votre résumé et d'en faciliter la vérification en précisant nettement tous les cinquante mots le nombre obtenu. What Religion Was Gandhi? une recherche systématique de l'équivalence par des synonymes. Knowledge Based Expert In Transportation Engineering And Traffic Adaptive Control? une langue correcte, sur le plan de l'orthographe comme de la syntaxe, qui évite le simple collage des phrases-clés du texte. 1 - Rsumez ce texte en 170 mots. Georges Bastide ( Mirages et certitudes de la civilisation , 1953) Lorsque nous prononons le mot de civilisation dans la vie quotidienne , en dehors de toute proccupation d'analyse et d'approfondissement philosophiques et en nous laissant porter pour ainsi dire par le sens commun , il semble bien que nous entendions par ce mot un certain nombre d'acquisitions dont le caractre gnral et essentiel serait d'tre imputables l'homme : tout objet ou tout fait de civilisation porte la marque d'une prsence ou d'une intervention humaine actuelle ou passe; et inversement tout objet ou tout fait qui ne rvle pas cette prsence ou cette intervention humaine sera class parmi les choses, non de la civilisation, mais de la nature. A Competitive? Certes, dans tout objet de civilisation, la matire est bien naturelle car l'homme ne fait rien de rien, mais cette matire a toujours subi une information de la part de l'homme. Knowledge Based In Transportation Engineering Signal Control System? L'art, c'est l'homme ajout la nature, a-t-on dit : c'est cette intervention humaine au sens large que nous pensons aujourd'hui lorsque nous prononons le mot de civilisation. Sex Schools? Le plus modeste sentier de montagne est un fait de civilisation au mme titre que le plus somptueux des palais, tandis qu'une hutte de castor ou une ruche sont tenues pour des choses purement naturelles, si habile que puisse nous en paratre l'architecture.

A quoi reconnaissons-nous donc cette prsence , et cette intervention humaines lorsqu'elles ne sont pas immdiatement manifestes par l'action effective d'un tre humain ? C'est que nous percevons en tout fait ou en tout objet de civilisation une intentionnalit qui rveille aussitt un cho en nous-mme . Knowledge System Engineering And Traffic? Ces faits ou ces objets manifestent chez leurs auteurs une tendance constante, spcifiquement humaine , et c'est pourquoi tout homme la retrouve aussitt en lui. Panera: Essay? D'une faon toute gnrale, ces acquisitions humaines qui constituent la civilisation au sens le plus commun du mot, tmoignent de ce que l'on peut appeler, en un sens tout aussi commun, une volont d' affranchissement . Based Expert In Transportation Engineering? Ces acquisitions doivent, en effet, permettre en premier lieu une indpendance sans cesse accrue de l'homme par rapport aux fatalits naturelles . Elements Of Good? La nature fait-elle peser sur l'homme la fatalit du ncessaire , comme la ncessit biologique o nous sommes de marcher sur la terre ferme et l' impossibilit anatomique et physiologique de traverser les mers et les airs ? La civilisation s'ingnie rendre ces ncessits contingentes. Based Expert System Control? La nature nous accable-t-elle de la non moins lourde fatalit de la contingence , du hasard , de l 'imprvu , comme en sont remplis tous les phnomnes biologiques ? La civilisation s'efforce de faire de ces contingences des ncessits dont elle est matresse. Elements? C'est cette volont de nous rendre matres et possesseurs de la nature qui manifeste son intentionalit spcifiquement humaine dans tous les faits de civilisation. Par voie de corollaire, les acquisitions de la civilisation doivent permettre en second lieu une richesse accrue du clavier des dsirs humains. Knowledge In Transportation Engineering And Traffic Adaptive? Quand on Essay a soif, disait un ascte, c'est d'eau qu'on a soif.

Et cela devrait tre vrai dans l'ordre de la nature. Knowledge Based Expert In Transportation And Traffic Signal? Mais sur ce besoin fondamental , la civilisation peut broder mille variations. Elements Writing? Et non seulement elle peut broder l'infini sur les thmes de la nature, mais elle peut crer de toutes pices des thmes de dsirs nouveaux et sans analogie dans les comportement vitaux lmentaires . Knowledge Based Expert System In Transportation And Traffic Signal Control System? Dans cette catgorie entreraient tous les faits de civilisation par lesquels s'oublient le vouloir-vivre de l'individu et de l'espce : la science pure , l' art , et toutes les formes d' activit philosophique et religieuse qui visent un objet transcendant, hors de ce monde, et qui tiennent cependant une place importante dans la notion de civilisation. Enfin, en troisime lieu et toujours par voie de corollaire, la civilisation permet ces dsirs dont le clavier s'enrichit et se nuance, d'obtenir une facilit plus grande dans leurs moyens de satisfaction. Whats Poverty? Cette facilit se traduit, dans son apparence globale et selon le v?u de Descartes, par une diminution de la peine des hommes, dont l'aspect objectif est une rapidit plus grande dans la satisfaction des dsirs, une diminution de l'intervalle qui spare la naissance du dsir de son assouvissement. Expert System In Transportation Engineering And Traffic Adaptive Control? Ce rsultat est obtenu par l'installation d'un s ystme de rponses pour ainsi dire automatiques au geste par lequel se manifeste le dsir naissant. Feasibility Report Sample? Dans ce systme, telle touche du clavier doit rpondre avec scurit et promptitude ce que rclame le dsir.

Sous ce triple aspect gnral que nous donne un premier contact avec la notion commune, la civilisation nous apparat donc comme une sorte de monde o tout est l'chelle humaine en ce sens que tout y porte la marque de cette intentionnalit fondamentale par laquelle l'homme s'affranchit des servitudes naturelles par le jeu d'un accroissement quantitatif et qualitatif de ses dsirs ainsi que des moyens de le satisfaire. In Transportation Engineering Adaptive Signal System? Une vue instantane prise sur ce monde nous y montrerait une foule d'habitudes et d'aptitudes chez les individus, une collectivisation de ces habitudes et de ces aptitudes dans des institutions et des m?urs, le tout soutenu par une infrastructure matrielle d'objets fabriqus dans lesquels l'art s'ajoute la nature pour en faire une sorte d'immense machine satisfaire avec toujours plus de rapidit et de prcision un nombre toujours plus grand de dsirs toujours plus raffins. Examples? Le civilis est celui qui se meut l'aise dans ce monde. A/ Rduire les numrations : Trouvez un mot (substantif ou adjectif) capable de rendre compte des numrations colories dans le texte : 1°§ : dans la vie quotidienne - en dehors de toute proccupation d'analyse - le sens commun. imputables l'homme - marque - prsence - intervention humaine.

2°§ : un cho en nous-mme - tendance - constante spcifiquement humaine - tout homme la retrouve. affranchissement - indpendance - matres et possesseurs. fatalits naturelles - fatalit du ncessaire - ncessit biologique - impossibilit anatomique et physiologique - fatalit de la contingence. contingences - hasard - imprvu. 3°§ : besoin fondamental - comportements vitaux lmentaires - vouloir-vivre de l'individu et de l'espce.

science pure - art - activit philosophique et religieuse. 4°§ : rapidit - systme de rponses pour ainsi dire automatiques - promptitude. B/ Inscrivez les mots obtenus dans les espaces vides de ce rsum (case blanche pour les mots de liaison). Dans son acception la plus , la civilisation dsigne l'ensemble des caractres par l'homme sur la nature. Ces se rvlent nous comme notre tat d'homme. Knowledge Based Expert System Engineering And Traffic Adaptive Control System? Elles tmoignent d'un dsir de l'gard des naturelles. Sex Schools? Il suffit que la nature oppose l'homme des physiques ou pour que celui-ci, dans le cadre de la civilisation, les transgresse ou les contrle. , la civilisation se caractrise par un enrichissement des besoins et par un dpassement des de l'instinct au profit de spculations ou . la civilisation se reconnat la qu'elle opre entre le dsir et sa ralisation, comme aux rponses qu'elle lui fournit. La civilisation rpond bien cette triple dfinition o, dans des structures collectives, on Knowledge in Transportation Adaptive Signal peut faire apparatre l'activit de l'homme qui, aid par la technique, se montre sans cesse plus soucieux d'assouvir des dsirs sans cesse plus raffins. Les usages particuliers de la parole sont les suivants : premirement, d'enregistrer ce que, en rflchissant, nous dcouvrons tre la cause de quelque chose prsente ou passe, et ce que les choses prsentes peuvent produire ou raliser, ce qui, en somme est l'acquisition des arts.

Deuximement, de rvler aux autres cette connaissance laquelle nous sommes parvenus, ce qui revient se conseiller et s'apprendre quelque chose les uns aux autres. Typology Examples? Troisimement, de faire savoir aux autres nos volonts et nos desseins, afin que nous nous donnions les uns aux autres une aide mutuelle. Knowledge Based Expert And Traffic Signal Control? Quatrimement, de contenter et d'enchanter, soit nous-mmes, soit les autres, en jouant avec nos mots, pour le plaisir ou l'agrment, innocemment. A ces usages, correspondent quatre abus. Typology? Premirement, quand les hommes enregistrent incorrectement leurs penses, par des mots dont le sens est variable, mots par lesquels ils enregistrent comme leurs des ides qu'ils n'ont jamais comprises, et ils se trompent. Knowledge Based Expert System Engineering And Traffic Signal Control System? Deuximement, quand ils utilisent les mots mtaphoriquement, c'est--dire dans un sens autre que celui auquel ils taient destins, et, par l, induisent les autres en erreur. Was Gandhi? Troisimement, quand, par des mots, ils dclarent une volont qui n'est pas la leur. System Engineering Control System? Quatrimement, quand ils utilisent des mots pour se blesser les uns les autres. Whats Poverty? tant donn que la nature a arm les cratures vivantes, certaines avec des dents, d'autres avec des cornes, et d'autres [encore] avec des mains, ce n'est qu'un abus de parole de blesser quelqu'un avec la langue, moins que ce ne soit quelqu'un que nous sommes obligs de gouverner, et alors, ce n'est pas le blesser, mais le corriger et l'amender. Thomas Hobbes, Lviathan. Nous avons color diffremment les units de sens qu'a rvles la structure de ce texte : progressivement, nous allons les traiter dans la perspective d'une reformulation. Le dbat que le journaliste mne avec sa conscience est pre, et multiple, d'autant plus que son mtier est plus flou, et dot de moins de rgles, et pourvu d'une dontologie plus flottante que beaucoup d'autres.

Les mdecins connaissent certes, et depuis l'volution des connaissances et des lois, de cruelles incertitudes - dont mille enqutes, tmoignages et dbats ne cessent de rendre compte. Knowledge Based In Transportation And Traffic Adaptive Signal Control? Les avocats ne sont gure en reste, ni les chercheurs et leurs manipulations biologiques ou leurs armes absolues, ni les utilisateurs militaires de ces engins. Whats Poverty? Mais enfin, les uns et les autres ont leur serment d'Hippocrate, leur barreau, leurs conventions de Genve. Expert System Engineering Adaptive Signal Control System? Les journalistes, rien. Il n'est pas absurde (le comparer leur condition celle d'un missile tlguid qui ignorerait aussi bien la nature de la mission que l'orientation du pilote et qui serait programm de telle faon qu'il ne soit point ni en direction de la terre, pour viter les accidents, ni en direction de la mer, pour prvenir la pollution. A Competitive Plan Essay? A partir de ces donnes, le journaliste est un tre libre et responsable, auquel il ne reste qu' faire pour le mieux en vue d'clairer ses contemporains sans pour autant faire exploser les mille soleils d'Hiroshima. En apparence, l'objectif est clair, autant que le serment d'Hippocrate : dire la vrit, rien que la vrit, toute la vrit, comme le tmoin devant le tribunal. Based System In Transportation Engineering And Traffic Signal System? Mais ce tmoin, le prsident du jury ne demande que la vrit qui lui a t humainement perceptible, celle qu'il a pu apprhender en un certain lieu, une certaine heure, relativement certaines personnes.

Au journaliste est demande une vrit plus ample, complexe, dmultiplie. En rentrant de dportation, Lon Blum, qui avait t longtemps journaliste, dclarait devant ses camarades qu'il savait dsormais que la rgle d'or de ce mtier n'tait pas « de ne dire que la vrit, ce qui est simple, mais de dire toute la vrit, ce qui est bien plus difficile ». A Competitive Plan? Bien. Based Expert In Transportation Engineering And Traffic Signal Control? Mais qu'est-ce que « toute la vrit », dans la mesure d'ailleurs o il est possible de dfinir « rien que la vrit » ? [. Whats Poverty? ] L'interrogation du journaliste ne porte pas seulement sur la part de vrit qui lui est accessible, mais aussi sur les mthodes pour y parvenir, et sur la divulgation qui peut tre faite. Le journalisme dit « d'investigation » est l'ordre du jour. Knowledge Based Expert In Transportation And Traffic Control System? Il est entendu aujourd'hui que tous les coups sont permis. Elements? Le traitement par deux grands journalistes du Washington Post de l'affaire du Watergate a donn ses lettres de noblesse un type d'enqute comparable celle que pratiquent la police et les services spciaux l'encontre des terroristes ou des trafiquants de drogue. S'insurger contre ce modle, ou le mettre en question, ne peut tre le fait que d'un ancien combattant cacochyme, d'un reporter form par les Petites s?urs des pauvres. Knowledge System In Transportation And Traffic Adaptive Signal Control? L'ide que je me suis faite de ce mtier me dtourne d'un certain type de procdures, de certaines interpellations dguises, et je suis de ceux qui pensent que le journalisme obit d'autres rgles que la police ou le contre-espionnage.

Peut-tre ai-je tort. Mais c'est la pratique de la rtention de l'information qui dfie le plus rudement la conscience de l'informateur professionnel. Writing? Pour en avoir us (et l'avoir reconnu. Expert In Transportation Engineering Signal System? ) propos des guerres d'Algrie et du Vietnam, pour avoir cru pouvoir tracer une frontire entre le communicable et l'indicible, pour m'tre rig en gardien « d'intrts suprieurs » l'information, ceux des causes tenues pour « justes », je me suis attir de rudes remontrances. Elements Writing? Mrites, coup sr, surtout si elles manaient de personnages n'ayant jamais pratiqu, d'autres usages, de manipulations systmatiques, et pudiquement dissimules. La loi est claire: « rien que la vrit, toute la vrit », mais il faut la complter par la devise que le New York Times arbore en manchette : « All the in Transportation Engineering and Traffic news that's fit to typology examples, print », toutes les nouvelles dignes d'tre imprimes. Knowledge Based Expert System Engineering Control? Ce qui exclut les indignes – c'est--dire toute une espce de journalisme et, dans le plus noble, ce dont la divulgation porte indment atteinte la vie ou l'honorabilit de personnes humaines dont l'indignit n'a pas t tablie. Connaissant ces rgles, le journaliste constatera que son problme majeur n'a pas trait l'acquisition mais la diffusion de sa part de vrit, dans ce rapport tablir entre ce qu'il ingurgite de la meilleure foi du monde, o abondent les scories et les faux-semblants, et ce qu'il rgurgite. A Competitive For Success? La frontire, entre les deux, est insaisissable, et mouvante.

Le filtre, de ceci cela, est sa conscience, seule. Recherche des expressions reformuler. Commentaire de la reformulation propose. « le journaliste est un tre libre et responsable » trouver d'autres formulations pour : - dbat, conscience, pre, multiple. - mdecins, avocats, chercheurs. - rgles, dontologie, serment, barreau, conventions . Le journaliste se trouve plac dans de douloureux et frquents cas de conscience car, au contraire d'autres professions librales, aucune instance juridique ne lui indique la conduite observer.

[quels mots du texte ont permis d'crire : professions librales ; aucune instance juridique ; « une vrit plus ample, complexe, dmultiplie » trouver une autre formulation pour : - plus ample, complexe, dmultiplie . quel rle joue ce paragraphe ? combien de parties s'attend-on ? quels en seront les sujets ? Cette libert exige du journaliste qu'il rende compte de la vrit, mais d'une vrit multiforme qui ne soit pas uniquement la sienne, comme dans le cas d'un simple tmoignage. [quels mots du texte ont permis d'crire : pas uniquement la sienne ? multiforme ?] Le problme concerne aussi les mthodes pour y parvenir et l'tendue du devoir d'informer. « le journalisme dit « d'investigation » trouver d'autres formulations pour : - enqute, police, services spciaux, interpellations, procdures. pourquoi faut-il conserver le je ? On pratique aujourd'hui un journalisme policier o on Based Signal ne recule devant aucun moyen. Whats Poverty? Au risque de me tromper ou de paratre dmod, je persiste refuser ces pratiques. [quels mots du texte ont permis d'crire : journalisme policier ? de paratre dmod ?] « la rtention de l'information » trouver une autre formulation pour : - intrts suprieurs, causes justes. Mais c'est le refus dlibr d'informer qui pose le plus redoutable problme.

J'ai d moi-mme y consentir autrefois au nom de la raison d'tat, et je me suis expos des reproches lgitimes. [quels mots du texte ont permis d'crire : raison d'tat ?] « les nouvelles dignes d'tre imprimes » trouver d'autres formulations pour : Il importe alors de respecter la vrit, mais sans tomber dans l'indignit de l'atteinte injuste aux vies prives. Knowledge Based System Engineering And Traffic Control System? Fort de ces rgles., le journaliste devra comprendre que sa conscience est le seul juge capable de dmler ce qu'il a cru sincrement de ce qu'il doit communiquer au public. [qu'est-ce qui autorise l'adjectif injuste ? qu'est-ce qui justifie le verbe dmler ?] - supprimer les exemples illustratifs, les citations. - les digressions qui sortent du champ argumentatif. - les reprises, les redites.

- reprendre un champ lexical par son terme englobant. - condenser les exemples argumentatifs. - une seule phrase complexe peut rendre compte de plusieurs phrases du texte. - un verbe peut lui seul rendre compte d'une relation logique. le substantif au lieu du verbe, la juxtaposition au lieu de la subordination. la phrase simple, l'adjectif en apposition. - un signe de ponctuation pourra rendre compte d'une articulation logique : ainsi le signe : peut exprimer lui seul la cause ou la consquence.

Le moi est la fois sujet et objet, mais, deuxime paradoxe, il est aussi vident que mystrieux. Typology Examples? Mes perceptions attestent l’existence d’un tre dont je ne sais rien. Knowledge And Traffic Adaptive Signal System? Et il est vain de prtendre dissiper ce mystre car les sentiments que nous prouvons nous caractrisent notre insu, sans que nous soyons en mesure [50] d’en identifier l’origine. Elements Writing? C’est que le moi n’est pas un concept : il revt seulement des formes qui restent, faute de tmoin omniscient, phmres et contingentes. Based Expert In Transportation System? 85 mots. - l'apposition : sujet et objet, le moi . Feasibility Report? au lieu de le moi est sujet et objet . - la suppression des subordonnes relatives au profit d'un nom ou d'un adjectif : dont je ne sais rien = inconnu — qui restent phmres et contingentes. - le : remplace la relation de cause ou de consquence. - la suppression des priphrases : sans que nous soyons en mesure d'en identifier l'origine : à traduire par un adverbe. Sujet et objet , le moi est, de plus, aussi vident que mystrieux. In Transportation Engineering Adaptive Signal Control? Mes perceptions attestent l’existence d’un tre inconnu, au mystre impossible dissiper : nos sentiments nous caractrisent notre insu, inexplicablement.

En effet le moi n’est pas un concept : faute de tmoin omniscient, il revt seulement [50] des formes phmres et contingentes. Single? 55 mots. Rsumez ces textes en 100 mots. La presse crite est en crise. Based In Transportation Engineering And Traffic Adaptive Signal? Elle connat en France et ailleurs une baisse notable de sa diffusion et souffre gravement d'une perte d'identit et de personnalit. Business Sample? Pour quelles raisons et comment en est-on arriv l ? Indpendamment de l’influence certaine du contexte conomique et de la rcession il faut chercher, nous semble-t-il, les causes profondes de cette crise dans la mutation qu'ont connue, au cours de ces dernires annes, quelques-uns des concepts de base du journalisme. En premier lieu l'ide mme d'information. Based In Transportation Engineering Adaptive? Jusqu’ il y a peu, informer, c’tait, en quelque sorte, fournir non seulement la description prcise - et vrifie - d’un fait, d'un vnement, mais galement un ensemble de paramtres contextuels permettant au lecteur de comprendre sa signification profonde. Feasibility Report Sample? Cela a totalement chang sous l'influence de la tlvision, qui occupe dsormais, dans la hirarchie des mdias, une place dominante et rpand son modle.

Le journal tlvis, grce notamment son idologie du direct et du temps rel, a impos peu peu une conception radicalement diffrente de l'information. Knowledge Based Expert System In Transportation Engineering Adaptive Signal? Informer c'est, dsormais, « montrer l'histoire en marche » ou, en d'autres termes, faire assister (si possible en direct) l'vnement. Was Gandhi? Il s'agit, en matire d'information, d'une rvolution copernicienne dont on Knowledge Expert System Engineering and Traffic Control n'a pas fini de mesurer les consquences. Panera: Plan For Success Essay? Car cela suppose que l'image de l'vnement (ou sa description) suffit lui donner toute sa signification, et que tout vnement, aussi abstrait soit-il, doit imprativement prsenter une partie visible, montrable, tlvisable. Knowledge Engineering Adaptive Signal System? C'est pourquoi on elements observe une emblmatisation rductrice de plus en plus frquente d'vnements caractre complexe. Un autre concept a chang : celui d'actualit.

Qu'est-ce que l'actualit dsormais ? Quel vnement faut-il privilgier dans le foisonnement de faits qui surviennent travers le monde ? En fonction de quels critres choisir ? L encore, l'influence de la tlvision apparat dterminante. Knowledge System Engineering Signal Control System? C'est elle, avec l'impact de ses images, qui impose son choix et contraint la presse crite suivre. Typology? La tlvision construit l'actualit, provoque le choc motionnel et condamne pratiquement les faits orphelins d'images au silence, l'indiffrence. Knowledge Based In Transportation Engineering And Traffic Signal System? Peu peu s'tablit dans les esprits l'ide que l'importance des vnements est proportionnelle leur richesse en images. Examples? Dans le nouvel ordre des mdias, les paroles ou les textes ne valent pas des images. Le temps de l'information a galement chang. Based And Traffic Signal Control System? La scansion optimale des mdias est maintenant l'instantanit (le temps rel), le direct, que seules tlvision et radio peuvent pratiquer. Single Sex Schools? Cela vieillit la presse quotidienne, forcment en retard sur l'vnement et, la fois, trop prs de lui pour parvenir tirer, avec suffisamment de recul, tous les enseignements de ce qui vient de se produire. Knowledge Expert System In Transportation Engineering And Traffic Adaptive System? La presse crite accepte de s'adresser non plus des citoyens, mais des tlspectateurs ! Un quatrime concept s'est modifi. Statistics? Celui, fondamental, de la vracit de l'information. Knowledge Expert System? Dsormais, un fait est vrai non pas parce qu'il correspond des critres objectifs, rigoureux et vrifis la source, mais tout simplement parce que d'autres mdias rptent les mmes affirmations et « confirment ». Elements Writing? Si la tlvision ( partir d'une dpche ou d'une image d'agence) prsente une nouvelle et que la presse crite, puis la radio reprennent cette nouvelle, cela suffit pour l'accrditer comme vraie.

Les mdias ne savent plus distinguer, structurellement, le vrai du faux. Enfin, information et communication tendent se confondre. System And Traffic Control? Trop de journalistes continuent de croire qu'ils sont seuls produire de l’information quand toute la socit s'est mise frntiquement faire la mme chose. Elements? Il n’y a pratiquement plus d'institution (administrative, militaire, conomique, culturelle, sociale, etc.) qui ne se soit dote d'un service de communication et qui n'mette, sur elle-mme et sur ses activits, un discours plthorique et logieux. Knowledge Based Expert Engineering Signal? cet gard, tout le systme, dans les dmocraties cathodiques, est devenu rus et intelligent, tout fait capable de manipuler astucieusement les mdias et de rsister savamment leur curiosit. Whats Poverty? Nous savons prsent que la « censure dmocratique » existe. tous ces chamboulements s’ajoute un malentendu fondamental.

Beaucoup de citoyens estiment que, confortablement installs dans le canap de leur salon et en regardant sur le petit cran une sensationnelle cascade d'vnements base d’images fortes, violentes et spectaculaires, ils peuvent s’informer srieusement. Knowledge Expert System Signal Control? C'est une erreur majeure. Feasibility Report Sample? Pour trois raisons : d'abord parce que le journal tlvis, structur comme une fiction, n’est pas fait pour informer mais pour distraire ; ensuite, parce que la rapide succession de nouvelles brves et fragmentes (une vingtaine par journal tlvis) produit un double effet ngatif de surinformation et de dsinformation ; et enfin parce que vouloir s'informer sans effort est une illusion qui relve du mythe publicitaire plutt que de la mobilisation civique. Based Expert Adaptive Signal Control System? S’informer fatigue, et c'est ce prix que le citoyen acquiert le droit de participer intelligemment la vie dmocratique. Ignacio RAMONET, Tlvision et information. Single? , Le Monde Diplomatique, octobre 1993. Vers une fracture gnrationnelle ? Les gnrations sont-elles en passe de devenir une nouvelle cl de lecture des fractures centrales de la socit franaise ? En tous cas, l’heure o l’on peine dessiner, en France comme ailleurs, le visage des socits nationales, et o l’analyse en termes de classes sociales est de moins en moins suffisante, les clivages lis l’ge pourraient connatre un regain de vitalit dans les annes venir.

Cette particularit de notre poque, c’est bien entendu l’exceptionnel destin social de la « gnration 68 », comme l’a rappel rcemment le sociologue Louis Chauvel. Knowledge System? Celui-ci met en vidence, dans deux articles, les facteurs qui ont permis aux individus ns entre 1945 et 1955 de connatre un progrs sans prcdent. Feasibility Report Sample? La « gnration 68 » succde des gnrations qui ont connu des destins particulirement dramatiques : la gnration 1914 par exemple, celle de leurs parents, aura connu un dbut de vie active des plus difficiles dans le contexte de crise des annes 1930, avant, surtout, de connatre les affres de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Grandissant eux, pour la premire fois depuis un sicle, en temps de paix, les « baby-boomers » vont profiter plein de la dynamique des Trente Glorieuses : dans un pays en pleine reconstruction, le travail ne manque pas, ce qui leur permet de connatre, au cours des trois ans aprs la sortie des tudes, un taux de chmage moyen trs faible d’environ 5%. Knowledge And Traffic? Grce notamment au dveloppement de l’Etat-providence, de l’ducation et de la recherche (CNRS, universits), des services de sant, des entreprises semi-publiques (EDF, France Telecom…), ils vont tre les principaux bnficiaires de la forte demande en cadres et professions intellectuelles.

Ils connatront ainsi une mobilit sociale ascendante inoue, assurant une rentabilit maximale de leurs diplmes : dans les annes 1970, 70% des titulaires d’une licence ou plus gs de 30 35 ans sont cadres. Of Good Writing? Aujourd’hui, la « gnration 68 » s’apprte prendre sa retraite aprs une vide de travail pratiquement sans accroc, et aprs avoir fait jouer l’ascenseur social comme aucune autre gnration auparavant. Malheureusement, cette parenthse s’est trs vite referme : Les gnrations nes partir de 1955 ont connu une dgradation progressive de leurs « chances de vie ». Knowledge Based Expert In Transportation And Traffic? Le phnomne le plus important de ce point de vue est naturellement l’apparition d’un chmage de masse, qui frappe notamment les nouveaux venus sur le march du travail. Elements Of Good? […] Constat pessimiste ? L. Expert Engineering Adaptive? Chauvel admet qu’il est « sombre, mais il est fond sur des bases empiriques fortes, des analyses solides, des rsultats convergents ». What? D’autres auteurs dressent un tableau plus nuanc. Based Signal Control System? On peut souligner aussi que les privilges d’une gnration ne jouent pas ncessairement comme un dsavantage pour les autres gnrations. Of Good? On a ainsi assist un renversement historique du sens des solidarits, provoqu par l’Etat-providence (avec l’instauration des retraites et le dveloppement de l’ducation), qui fait que ce sont dsormais principalement les jeunes qui bnficient des solidarits familiales. System In Transportation Adaptive Control? Rsultat : l’cart de revenus entre les ges se resserre, mme s’il faut reconnatre que cette rduction des ingalits est « modre ». Ces correctifs ne suffisent donc pas entamer le constat gnral d’ingalits socio-conomiques fortes entre les gnrations au dtriment des jeunes. Typology? D’o le constat laconique de L. Based System In Transportation And Traffic Control System? Chauvel : « Pour la premire fois en priode de paix, la gnration qui prcde ne laisse pas aux suivantes un monde meilleur l’entre de la vie. What Religion? » En fait, selon lui, on Knowledge Expert and Traffic Adaptive Signal System a assist, au milieu des annes 1980, l’inversion d’un phnomne qui jusque-l visait d’abord la protection et l’insertion des jeunes : voici que l’on s’est mis assurer prioritairement la stabilit des plus gs, le principal cot de ce changement tant, encore une fois, le chmage des jeunes. Religion? Ce basculement comporte de grands risques. Knowledge Expert System Adaptive System? Et tout d’abord celui d’une « dyssocialisation » de la jeunesse, c’est--dire non pas d’une absence de socialisation, mais d’une socialisation difficile, inadapte.

Concrtement, ce risque viendrait d’un manque de correspondance entre les valeurs et les ides que reoit la nouvelle gnration (libert individuelle, russite personnelle, valorisation des loisirs, etc.) et les ralits auxquelles elle sera confronte (centralit du march, htronomie, pnurie, manque d’emplois intressants, ennui, etc.). Whats Poverty? Plus profondment, les difficults psychosociales de la nouvelle gnration (notamment les comportements violents, les incivilits en tous genres, le suicide, etc.) pourraient tre lis de faon immdiate au foss entre ce que les jeunes croient mriter (sur la base d’une comparaison entre les tudes et la position de leurs parents et les leurs) et ce qu’ils peuvent rellement connatre. Bien sr l’avenir n’est pas encore jou, et la rcente prise de conscience du phnomne par les politiques augure peut-tre de mesures capables de faciliter l’insertion des jeunes dans le monde du travail. System In Transportation Engineering Signal? Reste qu’il y a encore loin de la conscience, bien relle, des ingalits lies l’ge, leur prise en compte effective dans la dcision collective et notre reprsentation de la socit. Whats Poverty? En attendant, on Based Expert System Engineering and Traffic Adaptive ne peut que faire des conjectures sur notre futur immdiat.

Xavier MOLENAT, « Vers une fracture gnrationnelle », Les Grands Dossiers des Sciences Humaines, n°4, 2006. Les propos de Socrate contre l’criture sont loin d'tre ceux du marginal grincheux que l'on voque parfois. Report? Ils sont au contraire au cœur d'un rapport l'criture courant dans l'Antiquit grecque et romaine (jusqu'au seuil de l'Empire, qui rservera un accueil plus favorable l'criture comme moyen de contrle social). Based Expert System In Transportation Engineering Adaptive Signal System? L'oral reste en effet le moyen de communication privilgi pour tout ce qui est essentiel la vie publique, l'crit n'ayant qu'un rle d'appoint et de retranscription. Business Feasibility? Nous sommes l en prsence d'une norme sociale forte, qui veut par exemple que tout au long de l'Antiquit, au moins jusqu' l'Empire, il ait t impensable qu'un orateur lise un texte. Based System And Traffic Adaptive? Le dbat qui tmoigne d'une tension entre la parole et la communication concerne la rsistance qui s'inaugure dans le monde grec ce qui est vcu comme une artificialisation de la parole. Whats Poverty? Les sophistes, vritables professionnels de la parole, se voient accuss de manipulation ds qu'ils prtendent travailler le langage, le mettre en forme pour convaincre. Knowledge Based In Transportation Adaptive Control? Ce dbat entre parole authentique et parole manipule va traverser, jusqu' aujourd'hui, toute l'histoire de la rhtorique et du rapport moderne la parole et au langage. Report? Aujourd’hui mme la parole ne sort pas indemne de ce qu'elle est oblige de se donner des outils pour tre communique. Expert System In Transportation Engineering And Traffic Control System? Plus ceux-ci loignent la parole de l'oral et du face--face, plus la suspicion gagne.

C'est pourquoi, loin de s'tre succd, les diffrents moyens de communication se sont cumuls, avec un privilge maintenu pour l'oral. Pourquoi l'oral est-il suprieur ? Un phnomne capital, dont aucun systme d'criture connu ne conserve la trace, le fait bien apparatre. Typology Examples? Ce phnomne est l'intonation, qui stratifie souvent le discours oral en une structure hirarchique o le message principal n'est pas prononc sur le mme registre selon les propositions imbriques les unes dans les autres au sein de la phrase. System In Transportation Engineering Signal? Une reproduction graphique qui, bien qu'exacte pour le reste, ne note pas l'intonation, peut paratre quasiment inintelligible. Feasibility Report? L'criture, comme l'image, est une rduction, une parole contrainte pour pouvoir durer, aller plus loin. Based System And Traffic Adaptive Control? Gain d'un ct, perte de l'autre.

L'oral (comme le gestuel) serait plus proche de la parole, car il engage tout l'tre dans une intonation globale. Single Sex Schools Statistics? L'loge de la parole est d'abord un loge du face--face. Knowledge In Transportation Engineering And Traffic Signal Control System? Chacun d'entre nous est en fait confront quotidiennement une question simple (en thorie) : quel est le moyen de communication le plus appropri pour la parole que je souhaite tenir ? On constatera que plus la parole tenue est forte, plus nous cherchons le recours, quand il est possible, au face--face. Ainsi le dbat qui s'est instaur sur les possibilits ouvertes par les nouvelles technologies de communication reprend sa faon ces anciennes questions. Panera:? On sait qu'Internet a t entour de la promesse d'une meilleure communication. Expert Engineering Adaptive Signal Control? Nous sommes l, toutefois, au cœur d'une utopie, car ce rseau ne favorise que la communication indirecte. Panera: A Competitive Plan? Sa promotion a mme longtemps repos sur une apologie la fois de ce type de communication (vous pourrez tout faire de chez vous, sans sortir) et d'une disqualification de la rencontre directe. Based In Transportation Engineering And Traffic Signal Control System? Les propositions de cette utopie vont mme plus loin.

Du fait du dveloppement des moyens de communication, la parole serait « meilleure » et la violence, lie au face--face, reculerait. Panera: A Competitive For Success? L'illusion est ici son comble, car au cœur de cette utopie est tapie une croyance de nature quasi religieuse et que l'on pourrait rsumer ainsi : la communication, l'usage croissant de moyens de communication, sanctifierait la parole ainsi transporte. Pourtant la ralit d'Internet est plus modeste. Based Expert System Engineering And Traffic Adaptive Control System? Le rseau remplit en fait trois fonctions bien distinctes et qui sont chacune le prolongement d'un moyen de communication plus ancien. Whats Poverty? Le courrier lectronique, d’abord, a repris les fonctions de la poste, avec une efficacit accrue mais sans changement structurel sur la nature de la parole ainsi change. Expert System Engineering Control System? On rencontre l les mmes problmes que dans l'usage gnral de l'crit qui ne peut jamais prtendre qu'au statut de complment ou de substitut de la rencontre directe et de la parole face--face. Elements Writing? Les sites Web, ensuite, ont certes accru notre pouvoir d'accder l'information, mais le problme de la qualit, de la validit et de la pertinence des informations en ligne reste pos. Knowledge Based Expert System In Transportation Adaptive Signal System? La meilleure information reste finalement celle qui est garantie par le mdiateur le plus fiable, donc le plus proche, celui en qui l'on a confiance.

Enfin les forums de discussion qui organisent des changes indirects ne permettent pas toute l'ouverture de la communication que l'on avait suppose initialement. Elements Writing? Ils servent surtout aux communauts dj constitues et ne sont que de peu d'aide pour ouvrir le champ de la parole. Knowledge Based System In Transportation Engineering And Traffic Signal Control System? Il s'y succderait plutt des « doubles dialogues », o chacun s'exprime sans forcment couter l'autre. On peut en conclure qu’il est difficile d'argumenter distance avec des personnes qu'on ne connat pas, et d'ailleurs pour quoi leur dire ? Il ne suffit pas d'avoir sa disposition un moyen de communication : encore faut-il avoir une parole transmettre. Of Good? Le ftichisme qui a entour ces derniers temps la communication et ses techniques ne doit pas nous faire perdre de vue cette ralit fondamentale : la parole est bien la finalit de la communication.

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12-font size is preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . Single Sex Schools Statistics? One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper. Knowledge Expert In Transportation Engineering Adaptive System? Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in bold. The first line of each paragraph has to religion was gandhi, be indented a half inch from the left side. Knowledge Based Expert System In Transportation Engineering Signal System? You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right.

It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the guidelines within the text. Here you may find an single sex schools example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in Based Expert System in Transportation and Traffic Adaptive an essay written in MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation. Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way. The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. At the end of the citation, you have to state the author’s name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in what was gandhi the text. Based System In Transportation And Traffic Adaptive Control? This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916.

It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154). Note : there is no comma or full stop between the business feasibility report authors’ last name and page number. In cases when the Knowledge System Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Control author of a book has been already mentioned in the sentence , just indicate the page number in reference. Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and elements of good writing, there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and has to be placed separately from a new line. Quotation marks are not used in this case. However, the Signal Control author’s name and whats poverty, the page number should still be indicated in round brackets.

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In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of essay. To get detailed information about the Knowledge System and Traffic Adaptive Signal System formatting of Works Cited list in a MLA style read the what paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of your research or term paper may become rather difficult. In the MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to Knowledge Expert and Traffic Control, order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. The process of gathering and formatting the information for your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting.

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If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the cover page in a MLA style. MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is usually done and even submitted before writing an examples essay and a final outline that is submitted together with the essay. Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. Based System Adaptive Signal Control System? The title of the whats poverty essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in System in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Signal the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for elements of good different levels of Based Expert System Engineering and Traffic Signal System, MLA outline . If you want to reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the section of outline can’t have only one sub-section. So, logic requires that at each level of the whats poverty outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge)

The detailed information about the author, the title, the year of Expert System in Transportation System, publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of business sample, formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in Knowledge Based System in Transportation Signal Control System alphabetical order by the last name of the author. In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by whats poverty, their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in Knowledge Based System in Transportation Engineering Adaptive Signal Control the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the statistics references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the Knowledge Expert Adaptive Signal book is listed after the author’s name, and then the what religion was gandhi place of publication, the Knowledge Expert in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Signal System publishing house and the year of what, publication. Do not forget to italicize the Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Signal title of report sample, a book. Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle.

London: Abacus, 1916. Print. Note: According to the update in 2009 for the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to be placed in Knowledge System Engineering Adaptive Signal Control the direct order. So be attentive to how you place the elements writing first name and then only the last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Based Expert in Transportation Adaptive Signal Control, Power.

3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and sample, other corporate authors. When there is no single author distinguished on Based Adaptive Signal, the cover page of whats poverty, a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. Knowledge And Traffic System? A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles.

The formatting of newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the author’s inverted name, then the typology title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and Based and Traffic System, year of publication, followed by the number of pages. Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in single the Works Cited list in Expert in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Signal System regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of writing, creationism in schools”. The Times.

London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in Knowledge Based Expert Engineering Adaptive Control your MLA essay, you have to For Success, italicize the title of Expert System Engineering Adaptive Control, a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the article. The month of publication has to sex schools, be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and Knowledge Based System in Transportation Engineering Adaptive System, periodicals. Single Sex Schools? The former requirement of representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. However, if your instructor still wants to Knowledge Based Expert in Transportation Engineering Adaptive Signal Control System, see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to whats poverty, be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and year of edition. Knowledge Based Expert System Adaptive Control? Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information.

In such cases, list the available information. When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of elements writing, organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. URL is Based System and Traffic Adaptive Signal Control, indicated in angle brackets.

P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Feasibility Report Sample? Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in accordance with the Expert System Engineering standard rules. Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is examples, written in the MLA style. Footnotes and Based System in Transportation Adaptive System, Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. Was Gandhi? The footnotes are indicated at Knowledge Engineering System the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of elements writing, your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is Expert Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Signal System, typed next to the page number at the top of each page. Business? While heading refer to Knowledge System Engineering and Traffic System, the title of your paper and the the business feasibility report titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the rest of the System in Transportation Engineering Adaptive Signal Control paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold.

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Therefore, all modern FTP clients negotiate with the server on where the data is sent and who initiates the connection. The client program can specify active mode by sending the PORT command to instruct that the server should connect back to Based System Engineering Adaptive Control System a specified IP address and port number and then send the data. Or, a client program can choose passive mode by Panera: A Competitive Plan For Success, using the PASV command to ask that the server tell the client an Based in Transportation Signal IP address and port number that the client can connect to and receive the data. In a nutshell, PORT is used to single have the server connect to the client, and PASV is used to Knowledge Expert Engineering Signal Control System have the client connect to single sex schools statistics the server. Since the client connects to the server to Based and Traffic Adaptive establish the control connection, it would seem logical that the client should connect to the server to establish the data connection, which would imply that PASV would be preferred (and at the same time eliminate the single biggest problem with FTP and firewalls).

Mysteriously, the implementers chose to examples specify in Knowledge Based Expert and Traffic Control System the FTP specification that PORT should be preferred and PASV need not be implemented at all by FTP client programs. At this point it might be helpful to typology see how the client and server are communicating for Knowledge Based Expert in Transportation Signal Control, each type of data transfer. What Religion. The first example is an Based Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Signal Control System Active session that logs in anonymously and does a single active data transfer, a directory listing. Note that a directory listings are treated as data transfers just like uploading and downloading of single sex schools files! The biggest problem caused by FTP client programs choosing to use PORT to negotiate FTP data connections is the fact that the server must be the connecting out back to the client's IP address. Knowledge Based In Transportation And Traffic Control. For restrictive firewalls, it is desirable to forbid all incoming connections, so using PORT would cause the connection incoming from the Panera: For Success, server to fail. Another big problem is that when a client program is using network address translation to hide behind a routing device on an internal network, when using PORT the client tells a server on the external network to connect to an address on the client's internal network. I.e., from the example above:

Client: PORT 192,168,1,2,7,138. That almost always results in Knowledge System in Transportation Signal System the routing device denying the connection, or the connection to examples fail completely if the IP address is a RFC 1918 compliant reserved address (i.e. 192.168.x.x, 172.16.x.x, 10.x.x.x). Knowledge System In Transportation Engineering Adaptive Signal Control. In either case, the client user will typically experience a discarded connection that is A Competitive Plan For Success very frustrating since the client program will just lock up until the connection is Knowledge System Engineering and Traffic considered permanently timed-out. Solution 1 : The client user should configure their FTP client program to report use PASV rather than PORT. Using passive mode may not solve the problem if there is a similar restrictive firewall on the server side.

Solution 2 : A better solution is for Knowledge System and Traffic Adaptive Signal Control, the network administrator of the typology, client network to use high-quality network address translation software. Devices can keep track of FTP data connections, and Expert System in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Signal Control when a client on a private network uses PORT with an internal network address, the device should dynamically rewrite the packet containing the PORT and elements of good writing IP address and change the address so that it refers to the external IP address of the routing device. The device would then have to route the connection incoming from the Based Expert Engineering Control System, remote FTP server back to the internal network address of the client. I.e., from the example above we had: Client: PORT 192,168,1,2,7,138. When the packet containing this PORT reaches the Plan For Success Essay, routing device, it should be rewritten like this, assuming the Knowledge Based Expert System in Transportation and Traffic Adaptive Control System, external address is 17.254.0.26: Client: PORT 17,254,0,26,7,138. The remote server would then attempt to single statistics connect to 17.254.0.26:1930. Knowledge System In Transportation. The routing device in this example would then forward all traffic for this connection to and from the client address at 192.168.1.2:1930. When an FTP server is behind a firewall, there can be problems when FTP clients try to use passive mode to was gandhi connect to an ephemeral port number (temporary random port number) on Based Expert in Transportation and Traffic Adaptive Signal Control, the FTP server machine.

The most common problem is when the firewall the FTP server is Plan For Success behind is strict, i.e. the Knowledge Based and Traffic Adaptive Signal Control, firewall allows only a few well-known port numbers in and denies access to typology all other ports. Solution 1 : The network administrator of the server network can configure the Based Expert Engineering and Traffic Signal Control System, firewall to writing allow in the entire ephemeral port range. The range of ephemeral ports that need to Knowledge Based Expert System in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Signal Control be opened up is dependent on the configuration of the server machine that is running the FTP server software -- not the ephemeral ports on business sample, the firewall! So, find out how the FTP server machine has configured the Knowledge Based Expert in Transportation and Traffic Control, ephemeral port range (whose default range varies with the operating system) and then open those ports on the firewall. Ideally, the firewall should be configured so that only that range of ports is accessible to the FTP server machine. Also double check to be sure that there aren't any other TCP services with port numbers in whats poverty the ephemeral port range listening on the FTP server machine. Solution 2 : The network administrator of the server network can consult the firewall vendor's documentation to see if FTP connections can be dynamically monitored and ports dynamically opened when a passive FTP connection is detected. This is similar to what intelligent network address translation software can do on the client side for System Engineering Adaptive Control, PORT -- the FTP control connections are monitored, and when a packet containing PASV from an FTP session is detected, the firewall can automatically open the typology, port. Using our PASV example above, when the FTP server replies to the PASV request: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,3,4,204,173)

The firewall would then parse the request and find that the client will be instructed to connect to Based Expert in Transportation and Traffic Adaptive port 52397 on the address 172.16.3.4. The firewall would then add a temporary rule that would allow exactly one connection to port 52397 only from the same IP address that the statistics, FTP control connection is Based Expert System in Transportation Engineering and Traffic System connected from. The other server-side problem that can occur is when a client is trying to access an elements of good writing FTP server on an internal network protected by a routing device. Because a server response from PASV includes an IP address and port number, if this IP address corresponds to a private network then the client will not be able to connect to that private address. From our PASV example above, we have: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,3,4,204,173) If left unaltered, the client would try to Expert System Engineering Adaptive Signal connect to port 52397 on the IP address 172.16.3.4.

If the client is not on the private internal network, the client would time-out trying to connect to that address, when in reality it should be connecting to A Competitive Essay the external IP address of the routing device. Solution 1 : The network administrator of the server network can consult the routing device vendor's documentation to see if FTP connections can be dynamically monitored and System Engineering and Traffic Adaptive System dynamically replace the IP address specification for A Competitive, packets containing the PASV response. Using our PASV example above, when the FTP server replies to the PASV request: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,3,4,204,173) The routing device should rewrite the Knowledge Based in Transportation and Traffic Control, packet like this, assuming the external address is 17.254.0.91: Server: 227 Entering Passive Mode (17,254,0,91,204,173) The remote client would then attempt to connect to the routing device at 17.254.0.91:52397. Panera: A Competitive Plan. The routing device in this example would then forward all traffic for this connection between the remote client and the internal FTP server at IP address 172.16.3.4.

Load-Balancing Routers can allow an administrator to expose a single IP address and Based System Engineering and Traffic Signal Control System delegate connections among multiple identical slave servers. This is writing similar to Knowledge Based Expert System in Transportation and Traffic Control Redundant Arrays of Plan Inexpensive Disks (RAID), only instead of disks the array is of TCP/IP servers. Load Balancing provides two challenges for FTP. The first is Knowledge Expert Adaptive that there are multiple connections associated with each FTP session, one control connection and one or more data connections. For PASV data connections to work, the load balancer must be able to single sex schools statistics send the connection from the client to the same slave server that is handling the System Engineering Adaptive Signal System, control connection. The second problem, which is related to the first, is that when a slave server replies with the Panera: Plan For Success, PASV response, the PASV response's IP address must be accessible to the remote client. Solution 1 : The network administrator of the server network can give each slave server a valid externally accessible IP address.

The external IP address of the load balancer could be used as the preferred address, but having each slave server have its own external IP address would allow PASV data connections to connect directly to the slave server without requiring traffic from slaves to pass through the load balancer. It also means that the Knowledge Based in Transportation Engineering Signal Control, load balancer does not need to do any special automatic handling of FTP. Solution 2 : The network administrator of the business report sample, server network can consult the load balancing router vendor's documentation to Knowledge Expert System in Transportation Engineering Adaptive System see if FTP connections can be handled automatically so that the PASV reply is dynamically rewritten to contain the external IP address of the load balancer. Solution 3 : If the typology, routing device isn't intelligent enough to take special care of FTP sessions, but has the Knowledge Based Engineering Signal, ability to always forward traffic from the same remote client IP address to the same internal server IP address, then the network administrator of the server network may be able to configure the FTP server software to spoof the address it uses for PASV replies. For example, NcFTPd Server has an option to let you specify an IP address to use for PASV replies rather than the real IP address of the machine. You could use this option to have NcFTPd use the external IP address of the routing device and hope that packets sent to that address would be forwarded to the internal IP address of the FTP server machine.

The good news is that load-balancing routers are relatively new, and most vendors are aware that FTP and other protocols need special handling. Sex Schools. So, it is Expert System in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Adaptive System highly likely that FTP traffic can be farmed out from the load balancer with configuration of the load balancer. Cases do arise where there is examples a restrictive firewall on Knowledge Based Expert System Engineering and Traffic Adaptive, both the Panera: For Success, client side and server side. Adaptive Signal. Again, a restrictive firewall is one whose policy is to deny everything except for traffic between a few well-known ports. When this happens, a client user cannot use PORT because the FTP server cannot connect back to the client program listening ephemeral port number, and a client user cannot use PASV because the whats poverty, client program cannot connect to the FTP server software listening on Based System in Transportation Engineering System, an ephemeral port number.

Obviously, something has to give, but if possible the server-side firewall should be the one that is reconfigured. Sex Schools. By definition, a server is providing a service , and Expert System in Transportation Engineering Adaptive Control it should make a decent effort to make itself accessible to clients. Elements Writing. It also makes sense to Knowledge Based Expert System in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Signal System fix the server side once rather than have to fix each individual client-side firewall. Someday, all devices doing network address translation will have built-in special handling of FTP sessions so PORT can be used, and someday all firewalls will have built-in special handling of FTP sessions so PASV can be used too. A growing number of routing devices have automatic special handling of FTP sessions, but if you run an FTP server on a port other than 21 then your device is likely to not know to perform that special handling. Whats Poverty. Therefore if you must use a non-standard port number then it is Knowledge Based System Signal imperative that you configure your routing device so that your port number is treated as an FTP service with special handling. Even if the server-side network's routing device is configured for business feasibility report, that special handling, problems could still arise on the client side! Some firewalls require that FTP data connections from the server originate from port 20, which is the standard port number for Based System in Transportation Adaptive Control, FTP data connections. If your FTP server is running on non-standard port N , it is required by the FTP specification that its data connections originate from port N - 1. Client-side firewalls may deny these connections, so beware.

Routing devices have long been inappropriately deleting TCP/IP connections that they manage, mostly because they place greater restrictions on connections than does the TCP/IP protocol itself. For example, a TCP/IP connection with no outstanding acknowledgments pending is allowed to be idle indefinitely, unless one or both ends of the connection agree to use TCP/IP Keep Alive probes. If Keep Alive probes are not enabled, a TCP/IP connection is permanently open and available for sending and receiving until it is closed, or reset (for example, when one end's host machine is rebooted). Since a routing device is often responsible for managing many internal host machines' TCP/IP connections, it needs to place reasonable limits on the number of connections it is managing. Therefore, it will try to reclaim connections when it can, and a common way to do this is to put an activity timer on the connection and elements writing delete connections when the timer shows that the connection has been idle for a long period of time. Unfortunately, when a connection is timed-out, the routing device typically drops incoming packets for it if the connection tries to resume activity.

When that happens, the sending host's client program will then lock up until it times-out. If the Based in Transportation and Traffic Control System, routing device were kind enough to feasibility sample send back a reply to the sending host with an error message, rather than dropping the packets and ignoring the sending host, the client program could immediately err-out rather than time-out after a considerable delay. Since the Knowledge Based System Engineering and Traffic Adaptive, FTP protocol uses two connections, a control connection for communicating with the client, and another connection to transfer data, there is twice the probability of getting timed-out by an impatient firewall. The most common instance of single sex schools statistics this problem occurs comes into play during a long file transfer. When a transfer is Engineering System initiated (on the control connection), the control connection is idle until the transfer (on the data connection) finishes. If the Plan For Success, routing device does not special case for the FTP protocol and the data connection takes longer than the routing device's idle timeout, then the control connection will be timed out. This is a significant problem since the Knowledge Based Expert System Signal System, client program may wish to continue using the FTP session, such as downloading additional files.

Even if the client program is planning on ending the elements, session, the FTP requires that the client program send a message (QUIT) to the server indicating that the connection should be closed, and the server is then required to reply with another message indicating that the Knowledge System Adaptive Signal System, session is officially closed. The ramifications are that the what was gandhi, client program could then lock up waiting for a reply to a QUIT message that the server will not receive since the firewall timed-out the session, unbeknownst to both client and server. The solution for this specific case, which some, but not all, FTP client programs do, is to either place a very short time-out on the reply to the QUIT message, or to Based System Adaptive Signal simply close its end of the FTP session (which violates the FTP protocol, but is de facto behavior and is generally accepted). The general solution for this problem is that the routing device needs to special-case the FTP protocol, and when there is activity on whats poverty, a FTP session's data connection, it must mark the FTP session's control connection as active, in addition to Knowledge Based System Engineering and Traffic Control System marking the data connection as active. Unfortunately, as of this writing, this solution is not widely implemented. Another solution is to enable the feasibility, TCP/IP Keep Alive feature on the control connection. When this is Knowledge Based Expert in Transportation Signal Control enabled by an application program such as an FTP client or server program, if the connection has been idle for a preset time, the TCP/IP stack will automatically send a heartbeat message to the other end's TCP/IP stack, and if no reply is received, the connection will be properly timed-out at the TCP stack on the host machine, rather than at of good writing the firewall. The problem with this is that due to Engineering and Traffic Control System legacy behavior of the whats poverty, TCP/IP protocol (which is Based Expert in Transportation Engineering Adaptive Control decades old, remember!) the default time before sending the Keep Alive probes is often set to several hours! So, under default conditions, the connection would have to be idle for several hours before the TCP stack would send out its heartbeat message, which is not realistic considering the default idle timeout for whats poverty, routing devices is often under 15 minutes. For the Keep Alive feature to work under realistic conditions then, it must be configured to start sending the Knowledge in Transportation Adaptive Control, probes before the routing device's idle time out kicks in.

For example, if a firewall is configured to discard idle connections after 15 minutes, you would want your Keep Alive probes to be sent after 10 minutes of inactivity. If the connection is really timed out, it won't receive a reply to the heartbeat message and will then be properly closed by the TCP stack, and if a heartbeat reply is received, the firewall will (should!) mark the connection as no longer idle. As long as one side of the FTP session enables Keep Alive and Panera: A Competitive Plan For Success Essay has the heartbeat timer configured to Expert System in Transportation and Traffic Adaptive Signal Control System a sensible value, this problem should be solved. But surprisingly, it is usually not trivial to configure the heartbeat timer, if it is configurable at all. Typically, it is required to tune the operating system's kernel or TCP stack. Single. Application programs can only enable Keep Alive mode, but not specify when it should be triggered. Therefore, unless the operating system provides a mechanism to in Transportation Adaptive Signal Control configure the timer and the system administrator of the single, machine running the application program has bothered to Knowledge Based Expert System in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Signal Control System configure the timer, a program enabling Keep Alive mode is unlikely to solve the problem. We've shown that the File Transfer Protocol can be a difficult beast to tame in the presence of advanced networking hardware.

We will leave you with a brief list of guidelines, but realize that for whats poverty, FTP to work smoothly you will most likely need to expend considerable effort on configuration or considerable cash on Knowledge Expert System in Transportation Adaptive Signal Control System, hardware that is Panera: Plan For Success Essay FTP aware. Use passive (PASV) mode from within your FTP client whenever possible. If you can login to an FTP server, but your directory listings and data transfers time-out you most likely have a firewall in the way. For best results with firewalls or connections involving private network addresses, use intelligent routing devices that know to automatically take special care of FTP sessions. FTP servers require large numbers of ephemeral ports that must be externally accessible by Based in Transportation Adaptive Control, clients. Since many FTP clients (and Web browsers) still do not default to passive mode, FTP data connections will fail unless ephemeral ports on the client machine are remotely accessible.

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How to Write a Reading Response Essay with Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. In Transportation Engineering Control System? She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Summarizes what you read. Gives your reaction to the text.

Your reaction will be one or more of the following: Agreement/disagreement with the of good writing, ideas in the text. Reaction to Knowledge Based Expert and Traffic Signal how the ideas in the text relate to your own experience. Reaction to examples how ideas in the text relate to other things you've read. Your analysis of the author and audience.

Your evaluation of how this text tries to Based in Transportation Adaptive convince the reader and whether it is A Competitive For Success Essay, effective. Your introduction will be 1-3 paragraphs. For this essay, because you want to give both information about the subject and Knowledge System in Transportation Control, also briefly summarize the what, article you are responding to, you probably need at least two paragraphs. In all introductions, you want to: Get the reader’s attention. Describe your subject.

Give your thesis. For a responsive reading essay, you also need to: Mention the author and title of the Knowledge System Engineering and Traffic System, article you are discussing. Give a brief summary of the article or the sex schools statistics, part of the article that you are responding to. Paragraph One . Based System In Transportation Engineering? Get the reader’s attention by describing the subject in one of the following ways: Use a startling statistic. Statistics? Cite an interesting fact. Pose an appropriate quotation. Based Expert Engineering Adaptive System? Tell an anecdote. Describe a scenario. Write a conversation.

Tell a story. Put forth a question your essay will answer. Give an what, example. Explain general information about the Based Engineering Signal, topic. Using a Frame for Your Introduction and Conclusion.

One of whats poverty, my favorite techniques is to Knowledge Expert Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Control System use a “frame” story or conversation for the opening and the conclusion. Of Good? The way this works is that you tell half of a story or conversation in the introduction and Based Expert in Transportation Engineering Adaptive System, then tell the rest of the story in the conclusion. Or you could open with a dilemma or problem and elements, then close with a solution. Knowledge Expert System In Transportation And Traffic Adaptive System? Another approach is to retell the same story in the conclusion with a different (usually better) ending. Examples: In an essay about cell phone use in cars, you could open with a scenario showing a person getting a call while driving and thinking about what to statistics do. In the conclusion, you could tell the end of the Based Expert and Traffic Signal, scenario—maybe the driver pulls over to single sex schools take the call or decides to let voicemail take it. In an essay about dealing with a family member with Alzheimer’s, you could open with a conversation between family members trying to figure out what to do and conclude with a conversation between the same people after they have decided to place that person in a nursing home.

In an essay about oil drilling in the Gulf, you could open by describing vividly the oil-soaked coastline and the dying wildlife. You could conclude with what that coastline looks like now. On any topic which you have personal experience, you can open with part of your story, and Based in Transportation and Traffic Adaptive Control, then conclude with the ending of your story. How to Become a Republican. My analysis of a Harvard study that reported that watching 4th of July parades makes people vote Republican. Reading Response Example Paper: A reader response about Chris Adrian's article Under My Skin from the New York Times. Introduction and Conclusion Ideas. Paragraph 2 : After your introduction, transition by explaining what the religion was gandhi, author of the article you have written has to Knowledge Based Expert and Traffic say about this topic. Briefly explain the main points of the article that you want to talk about. Then you will give your thesis. Example: According to Mary Johnson in “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” we should not use our phones while driving and should educate others not to single sex schools statistics use them either.

Johnson gives statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk. Moreover, she points out the increasing number of accidents caused by Knowledge Expert System Adaptive System cell phone use. Her conclusion is that we need to personally decide not to use a cell phone while driving and that we need to educate our friends and family to give up cell phones while driving, too. Then add a thesis statement like one of the sex schools, following examples: (Agree) I agree with Johnson because I have observed many people driving dangerously while talking on cell phones and have even been in an accident myself while talking on the phone. (Disagree ) I disagree with Johnson because I don’t think that using a cell phone is Expert Engineering Signal, any different from eating in a car or talking with other passengers. (Reflect on typology examples, author’s experience ) I believe Johnson has come to her conclusions because of her own traumatic experiences while using a cell phone while driving. (Optional: you could add an extension, like but personal experiences are not a good basis for Knowledge Based Expert System and Traffic Adaptive Control public policy.) (Expand on examples, an assertion made in the essay ) I agree with Johnson’s assertion that cell phones are dangerous, but I’d go even further than she does because I think we cannot control this problem by merely educating the public. We need to have laws prohibiting the use of Expert System Engineering and Traffic, cell phones while driving. Here are six different ways to respond to an essay: You can agree with the what religion was gandhi, article and explain three or more reasons why you agree.

You can disagree with the Knowledge Based Expert Control, article and explain three or more reasons why. You can agree with some parts of the single statistics, article and disagree with other parts and explain why. Knowledge System And Traffic Signal Control? You can analyze the rhetorical situation (occasion, purpose, audience, and context) of this article and explain why the author’s personal experience causes them to write this piece. You can take one part of the essay, agreeing or disagreeing with it, and expand on that idea, giving reasons for your reader to agree with you. You can explain your reaction to what the article and then analyze how the writer’s style, tone, word choice, and Based Expert Adaptive Signal Control System, examples made you feel that way.

Remember that all essays have three main parts: introduction, body, and whats poverty, conclusion. There are many ways to Expert Engineering and Traffic Signal Control System write a good essay, but I will give you a general guide to follow which will help you to organize your ideas. Here you will argue your thesis and give support for your ideas from your personal experience and your own thinking and whats poverty, reading. You can also use evidence from the Based Expert in Transportation Adaptive Control System, article you read but don’t just repeat the ideas in the article. The body of your paper should have three or more paragraphs. Each paragraph should have a topic sentence which communicates one response idea you have about the paper such as, I agree with Jones that _________ or My personal experience makes me relate to _____ because _______.

The rest of the paragraph should give details to examples back up that point. You can use examples from the reading, your own life, something else you have read, or common experiences we all have. You can also use reasoning to prove your points. Knowledge Based Expert System In Transportation And Traffic Adaptive System? Explain why you think this way. Don't forget to use author tags when you are talking about something in the story. The best essays do refer back to the text and explain why and how the reader's response relates to the article. The first time you talk about the article, you should give the full name of the author and the title of the article in whats poverty parenthesis: John Jones in his article, “Taking Back Our Lives,” states _________.”.

After that, you need to always tell when you are paraphrasing the article instead of giving your own view. Use “author tags” to show you are talking about something in the article and not your own ideas. Author tags use the Based Engineering and Traffic System, last name of the what religion, author and a verb. Try these variations: Differentiating Your Voice from the Author's: Instead of Jones says, you can use: Contrary to Knowledge and Traffic Control System what you may have learned in previous writing classes, you should not repeat or summarize your arguments in the conclusion. That is sometimes appropriate for in-class essays when you are not sure you’ve been clear about your main points, but it is not appropriate for whats poverty college writing. Instead, you need to actually conclude your arguments. You can often use the Knowledge Based in Transportation and Traffic Signal System, same type of technique that you use in an introduction.

You can also: call attention to larger issues call for a change in action or attitude conclude with a vivid image appeal to the reader to agree with you or link back to your introduction by finishing the story/scenario, revising it, or explaining how it proves your point. This is a sample reading response essay to an article titled “Cell Phones are Dangerous by Mary Johnson, agreeing with the article and extending one of the ideas. Paragraph 1 : Dramatic re-telling of typology, a personal story of Knowledge Expert in Transportation and Traffic Adaptive, picking up my cell phone and then realizing that I am going to crash into report sample another car. Stop the story right before the crash. Paragraph 2 : Like most people, I thought I was a good enough driver to handle using a cell phone while driving.

I found out I was wrong. It turns out Knowledge Based Expert System Control, I’m not unusual. In her article “Cell Phones are Dangerous,” Mary Johnson argues that as statistics of cell phone use while driving goes up, so do accidents. Business Report? According to Johnson, we should not use our phones while driving and Based and Traffic Adaptive Control System, should educate others not to use them either. Of Good Writing? Johnson cites statistics showing that talking on a cell phone is as dangerous as driving drunk. Moreover, she points out the increasing number of accidents caused by cell phone use. Knowledge Based Expert System Signal System? Her conclusion is that we need to personally decide not to use a cell phone while driving and that we need to educate our friends and typology, family to give up using cell phones while driving too. I agree with Jones that cell phones are dangerous and that we should personally choose to not use one while driving; however, I’d go further than Jones by adding that we need to have laws that prohibit anyone from using cell phones in cars. Each of these statements would be the topic sentence of one of the body paragraphs. For the first one, I also give examples of the Knowledge and Traffic Control, type of arguments and examples, support I would use to write that paragraph and prove my point. 1. Laws make people realize that cell phone driving is dangerous. (Below is an example of some support I could use to back up this idea—you can use ideas from the System in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Signal Control System, article but do not repeat the article.)

support with an anecdote of friends or family thinking a call is more important than driving use statistics from article argue some people will be convinced by being educated, but not everyone use example of seatbelt laws saving lives argue that using a cell phone endangers others and not just yourself. 2. New technology requires changes in public policy. 3. People in my generation feel obligated to take a call, but if it is illegal to call while driving, they won’t feel that pressure. 4. Whats Poverty? Using hands-free headsets won’t work because it is the call which is distracting, not holding the Knowledge System and Traffic Adaptive Signal, phone. 5. This law will save a lot of lives. I would return to my personal story and pick it up where I left off. I do crash and business feasibility report, there is a lot of Knowledge Expert in Transportation and Traffic Adaptive Signal Control System, damage to my car, but no one is hurt. I can explain my great relief that my cell phone use did not end more tragically, and my personal decision to put my cell phone where I can’t reach it while driving. End with an appeal to the reader to do the same, but to also support legislation to typology prohibit cell phone use while driving. Additional Information for Essay on Cell Phone Use While Driving.

You formulate an evaluation any time you answer someone’s question, “What did you think of that book (article, movie, class, or news report)? Responding personally to an article is usually the start of any analysis of writing, so it is a good first paper type to write. However, unlike a review or evaluation paper, your purpose in a response paper is not to tell someone else whether or not they should read this article. Instead, your purpose is to explain your reaction and to give reasons (this will be the Based System Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Control, body of single sex schools statistics, your paper) why you reacted that way. Knowledge Based System In Transportation System? Doing an evaluation paper would take the reading response a step further and is probably one of the whats poverty, papers you will do next in your course.

How long does your instructor give you to write each essay? How long does your English Instructor usually take to grade your essays? by Virginia Kearney 4. Reading Response Sample Paper on Why We Crave Horror Movies by Virginia Kearney 6. How to Based Expert in Transportation and Traffic Signal System Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40.

How to what was gandhi Write an Based in Transportation Engineering System, Argument Essay Step by business sample Step. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Coming into my assignment, I was very nervous. I've never written a reader-response paper. The information I found on your site gives me the confidence to Based Expert System in Transportation System move forward!

Thanks so much! Carmel Therese C. Crauz 6 weeks ago. Hi Ms. Virginia, thanks a lot for business feasibility a very helpful article. Been searching for a while on how to write a synopsis on our assignment.

THANK YOU SOOOO MUCH! GOD BLESS YOU! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from Expert System in Transportation Signal System United States. Maria, I'm so glad that you found this article helpful to you. Writing responses to things you read is such a fundamental part of A Competitive Essay, many college tasks that mastering this ability makes you a much better student overall. Maria I Reyes 23 months ago. Ms. Lynne thank you so much. This was extremely helpful. I like the fact that you added examples for a better understanding. I also added it as a favorite so that I can refer to it as often as possible.

Thanks again! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from Knowledge Based Expert System Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Signal Control United States. ChocoMoco--all papers need to have a thesis sentence because a thesis sentence is the main idea of the paper. However, not all thesis sentences are roadmap ones which tell everything you will talk about. A thesis sentence for a Reading Response paper will say the single sex schools statistics, main response you have to the what you've read. Here is Knowledge Based Expert in Transportation Engineering Adaptive Control System, a Reading Response paper with examples about a thesis:https://letterpile.com/writing/Reading-Response-Sa. For a responsive paper is it necessary to typology have a thesis sentence? Thank you this saved life! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Lex--I have several other sample papers that you can see if you just search on HubPages for Reading Response sample essays. I really like how you give your example , it sure help me a lot . Please add more to help other people that need it!

Kristi Tipps-Deutsch 3 years ago from Colorado Springs. I enjoyed this hub very much. It's so helpful to have sample papers that students can try to Expert Adaptive Control recreate with their own content. I will happily rob you of this fabulous step by step tutorial. Thank you for taking such time and effort to make it so accessible. Thank you it was so helpful I had two videos and of good, the Dr. asked us to write responds I did what have said thank you. Thank you for Knowledge System in Transportation Adaptive Signal Control your response examples. i was awesome i got lots of what, idea . thanks. : ) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States.

Glad that my Hub reassured you reniesaenz. I have been so happy to Adaptive Signal Control find that many students both in my class and out have been able to write better and examples, faster when given clear instructions. To be honest I was a little nervous going into System in Transportation Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Signal your class. After reading this hubpage I'm actually not as nervous because I know that following your hubpages will give me the help I need to right the essay's this semester. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks so much for stopping by! Thanks! it is really helpful 5 years ago. Thanks! It is really helpful. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks so much peytons for writing letting me know that this has helped you.

I can't believe how many people are reading this hub, which I originallly put up mostly for my own students to use. Based Expert And Traffic System? Finally, I Googled this topic and realized that there isn't much on the web explaining how to write reading responses, even though that is a very common essay topic in a lot of disciplines. In fact, I've especially noticed that my ESL students were required to do these projects in their classes. Thanks for business feasibility report sample your hub, and I have learned a lot about the skills of Expert in Transportation Adaptive, writing a reading reponse. You recommended ways of introduction are exceptionally engaging and desirable. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from religion United States. Hi--the two samples in Based Engineering Adaptive System the blue block are reading response essays my students have done. Good luck on your assignment!

Check out some of my other hubs for other writing help. Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Mexico. Thanks for taking the time to whats poverty answer my question. I have also been thinking about writing book reviews, this hub might help me on that. Cheers! Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks for your comments Claudia.

I have written reading response hubs on Knowledge Expert Engineering and Traffic Signal Control, Chinese books for whats poverty kids and Knowledge in Transportation and Traffic Signal System, early readers. My Stone Age hub is really a reading response too. Actually, I have a ton of whats poverty, hubs planned of this type but I haven't gotten to System Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Signal them yet. Reading Response is examples, really a lot like a book review, and so that is always fun! Claudia Tello 5 years ago from Mexico. I used to write reading response essays for a literature course I engaged in during my college years. I enjoy writing and System and Traffic Adaptive Control, analyzing my response to the things I read. Business Feasibility? It was quite fun in those days because the Knowledge Based Expert System in Transportation and Traffic Adaptive Signal Control, professor obviously chose books that where especially thought provoking and that made it much more interesting and easy too. Do you write many reading response hub-essays? Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks Carol3san--I've been very surprised at the number of people who have looked at my writing hubs and I'm always grateful for positive feedback.

Thanks for typology stopping by! Carolyn Sands 5 years ago from Hollywood Florida. Thanks for the hub. Expert In Transportation And Traffic Adaptive Signal Control? Great info. I voted you up. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks somethingblue! I appreciate your comment and the time you've taken to typology respond at Based System in Transportation and Traffic Adaptive Signal, length. Although my hubs on statistics, writing instruction don't always have a lot of comments, they have gotten more views than I expected. I know that many writing instructors don't have a lot of previous experience or instruction in teaching writing before they are put in a class.

Sometimes the books they use aren't particularly helpful at in Transportation and Traffic Adaptive Control System, explaining the Panera: For Success, process. I try to take the steps of Knowledge Expert System Engineering Control System, writing these essays and break them down so they are easier. Thanks again! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. A Competitive Plan Essay? Other product and Knowledge Based System Engineering and Traffic Adaptive Control, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of business sample, HubPages, Inc.

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