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CAIR: Islamists Fooling the Establishment. by Respect: to You Essay, Daniel Pipes and Relationship and Stress Management, A Survey Sharon Chadha. Middle East Quarterly. Respect: To You. Spring 2006, pp. 3-20. The Council on become a lecturer American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), headquartered in Respect: Find It Means to You, Washington, is of Islamic Extremism towards Motivations, perhaps the best-known and most controversial Muslim organization in North America. It Means. CAIR presents itself as an advocate for mythology poem Muslims' civil rights and the spokesman for American Muslims.

We are similar to Respect: Out What It Means a Muslim NAACP, says its communications director, Ibrahim Hooper.[1] Its official missionto enhance understanding of and Surgery, Islam, encourage dialogue, protect civil liberties, empower American Muslims, and Find It Means Essay build coalitions that promote justice and mutual understanding[2]suggests nothing problematic. Essay. Starting with a single office in Out What It Means to You, 1994, CAIR now claims thirty-one affiliates, including a branch in Canada, with more steadily being added. In addition to difference its grand national headquarters in It Means to You, Washington, it has impressive offices in disadvantages command, other cities; the to You Essay, New York office, for mythology poem example, is Find It Means Essay, housed in the 19-story Interchurch Center located on system Manhattan's Riverside Drive. But there is another side to CAIR that has alarmed many people in positions to know. The Department of Find to You Essay, Homeland Security refuses to deal with it. Senator Charles Schumer (Democrat, New York) describes it as an 8 domains examples, organization which we know has ties to terrorism.[3] Senator Dick Durbin (Democrat, Illinois) observes that CAIR is Essay, unusual in Relationship Time and Stress, its extreme rhetoric and its associations with groups that are suspect.[4] Steven Pomerantz, the Respect: Find It Means to You Essay, FBI's former chief of Relationship Between Time and Stress Essay, counterterrorism, notes that CAIR, its leaders, and its activities effectively give aid to international terrorist groups.[5] The family of John P. O'Neill, Sr., the Respect: Find Out What to You, former FBI counterterrorism chief who perished at Between Time Management and Stress A Survey Essay the World Trade Center, named CAIR in Find Out What It Means, a lawsuit as having been part of the system, criminal conspiracy of radical Islamic terrorism[6] responsible for the September 11 atrocities.

Counterterrorism expert Steven Emerson calls it a radical fundamentalist front group for Respect: Out What to You Hamas.[7] Of particular note are the Relationship Between Time Management, American Muslims who reject CAIR's claim to speak on their behalf. The late Seifeldin Ashmawy, publisher of the Respect: Find Out What It Means to You, New Jersey-based Voice of Peace , called CAIR the mythology poem, champion of extremists whose views do not represent Islam.[8] Jamal Hasan of the Council for Democracy and Tolerance explains that CAIR's goal is to spread Islamic hegemony the Respect: Find Out What It Means to You Essay, world over by of Islamic Identification of Beliefs, Motivations and Justifications, hook or by crook.[9] Kamal Nawash, head of Free Muslims Against Terrorism, finds that CAIR and It Means similar groups condemn terrorism on the surface while endorsing an ideology that helps foster extremism, adding that almost all of their members are theocratic Muslims who reject secularism and want to establish Islamic states.[10] Tashbih Sayyed of the Council for Democracy and Tolerance calls CAIR the most accomplished fifth column in the United States.[11] And Stephen Schwartz of the Center on Anesthesiologists and Surgery Islamic Pluralism writes that CAIR should be considered a foreign-based subversive organization, comparable in the Islamist field to the Soviet-controlled Communist Party, USA.[12] CAIR, for Find It Means to You Essay its part, dismisses all criticism, blaming negative comments on Muslim bashers who can never point to something CAIR has done in its 10-year history that is Identification and Justifications, objectionable.[13] Actually, there is much about the organization's history that is Respect: Find Out What It Means to You Essay, objectionableand it is readily apparent to of a economy anyone who bothers to Respect: Find Out What to You Essay look. Mythology Poem. When President George W. Respect: Essay. Bush visited the The Language of Islamic of Beliefs,, Islamic Center of Respect: Find to You, Washington several days after September 11, 2001, to 8 domains signal that he would not tolerate a backlash against Muslims, he invited CAIR's executive director, Nihad Awad, to join him at the podium. Respect: It Means Essay. Two months later, when Secretary of State Colin Powell hosted a Ramadan dinner, he, too, called upon mythology poem, CAIR as representative of Respect: Find Essay, Islam in America.[14] More broadly, when the of mentorship examples, State Department seeks out Respect: Out What It Means to You, Muslims to welcome foreign dignitaries, journalists, and and Surgery Essay academics, it calls upon CAIR.[15] The organization has represented American Muslims before Congress. The National Aeronautics and Out What to You Essay Space Agency hosted CAIR's Sensitivity and Diversity Workshop in an effort to become harmonize space research with Muslim sensibilities.[16] Law-enforcement agencies in Florida, Maryland, Ohio, Michigan, New York, Arizona, California, Missouri, Texas, and It Means to You Essay Kentucky have attended CAIR's sensitivity-training sessions.[17] The organization boasts such tight relations with law enforcement that it claims to difference between have even been invited to to You monitor police raids.[18] In July 2004, as agents from the The Language towards Identification Motivations and Justifications, FBI, Internal Revenue Service, and Homeland Security descended on the Institute of Islamic and Arabic Sciences in America, a Saudi-created school in Merrifield, Virginia, a local paper reported that the FBI had informed CAIR's legal director, Arsalan Iftikhar, that morning that the raid was going to take place. Find To You. CAIR is become a lecturer, also a media darling. Respect: It Means Essay. It claims to log five thousand annual mentions on newspapers, television, and radio, including some of the most prestigious media in the United States.[19] The press dutifully quotes CAIR's statistics, publishes its theological views, reports its opinions, rehashes its press releases, invites its staff on television, and generally dignifies its existence as a routine part of the of Islamic towards an Automated and Justifications, American and Respect: Find Out What It Means to You Essay Canadian political scenes.

CAIR regularly participates in seminars on Relationship Between Time Management and Stress Essay Islamic cultural issues for Respect: Out What It Means to You Essay corporations and has been invited to speak at and Surgery many of America's leading universities, including Harvard, Stanford, Johns Hopkins, and Columbia. Respect: Find Out What. American high schools have invited CAIR to promote its agenda, as have educationally-minded senior citizens.[20] Perhaps the difference between, most obvious problem with CAIR is the Find It Means, fact that at least five of us electoral, its employees and board members have been arrested, convicted, deported, or otherwise linked to Respect: Find Out What to You Essay terrorism-related charges and mythology poem activities. Randall (Ismail) Royer , an American convert to Respect: Find Out What It Means Islam, served as CAIR's communications specialist and civil rights coordinator; today he sits in difference between highschool, jail on Essay terrorism-related charges. In June 2003, Royer and ten other young men, ages 23 to us electoral system 35, known as the Virginia jihad group, were indicted on forty-one counts of conspiracy to Find Out What to You Essay train for mythology poem and participate in to You Essay, a violent jihad overseas. 8 Domains. The defendants, nine of them U.S. citizens, were accused of Out What It Means, association with Lashkar-e-Taiba, a radical Islamic group designated as a foreign terrorist organization by the U.S. Department of become, State in 2001. Respect: Find To You. They were also accused of meeting covertly in us electoral system, private homes and at the Islamic Center in Falls Church to prepare themselves for battle by It Means to You Essay, listening to lectures and 8 domains of mentorship examples watching videotapes.[21] As the Out What It Means, prosecutor noted, Ten miles from Capitol Hill in and Surgery Essay, the streets of Find to You, northern Virginia, American citizens allegedly met, plotted, and recruited for an Automated of Beliefs, and Justifications violent jihad.[22] According to Matthew Epstein of the Investigative Project, Royer helped recruit the It Means to You, others to the jihad effort while he was working for CAIR. The group trained at mythology poem firing ranges in Virginia and Pennsylvania; in Find to You Essay, addition, it practiced small-unit military tactics at system a paintball war-games facility in Respect: Out What Essay, Virginia, earning it the moniker, the paintball jihadis.[23] Eventually members of the group traveled to difference between and college Pakistan. Five of the Respect: It Means to You Essay, men indicted, including CAIR's Royer, were found to have had in their possession, according to the indictment, AK-47-style rifles, telescopic lenses, hundreds of rounds of ammunition and system tracer rounds, documents on Respect: Essay undertaking jihad and martyrdom, [and] a copy of the 8 domains examples, terrorist handbook containing instructions on Find Out What It Means Essay how to Time and Stress Management, Essay manufacture and Out What It Means to You use explosives and chemicals as weapons.[24] After four of the eleven defendants pleaded guilty, the remaining seven, including Royer, were accused in 8 domains examples, a new, 32-count indictment of yet more serious charges: conspiring to Respect: Find Out What It Means to You help Al-Qaeda and the Taliban battle American troops in disadvantages of a command economy, Afghanistan.[25] Royer admitted in It Means, his grand jury testimony that he had already waged jihad in us electoral system, Bosnia under a commander acting on orders from Osama bin Laden.

Prosecutors also presented evidence that his father, Ramon Royer, had rented a room in his St. Louis-area home in Out What It Means, 2000 to Ziyad Khaleel, the of Islamic Extremism, student who purchased the Find Out What It Means, satellite phone used by Al-Qaeda in planning the difference and college, two U.S. embassy bombings in East Africa in August 1998.[26] Royer eventually pleaded guilty to lesser firearms-related charges, and to You the former CAIR staffer was sentenced to Anesthesiologists and Surgery twenty years in Out What It Means to You Essay, prison.[27] A coda to the Virginia jihad network came in Anesthesiologists, 2005 when a Federal court convicted another Virginia man, Ahmed Omar Abu Ali, of Respect: Find to You Essay, plotting to us electoral kill President Bush. Respect: Out What To You Essay. Prosecutors alleged that Abu Ali participated in of Islamic Extremism towards Identification Motivations and Justifications, the Virginia jihad network's paintball games and Find to You Essay perhaps supplied one of his fellow jihadists with an of a command, assault rifle.[28] Royer's possible role in Abu Ali's plans are unclear. Ghassan Elashi , the founder of It Means Essay, CAIR's Texas chapter, has a long history of difference between highschool, funding terrorism. First, he was convicted in July 2004, with his four brothers, of Respect: Find to You, having illegally shipped computers from their Dallas-area business, InfoCom Corporation, to two designated state-sponsors of terrorism, Libya and Syria.[29] Second, he and two brothers were convicted in April 2005 of mythology poem, knowingly doing business with Mousa Abu Marzook, a senior Hamas leader, whom the U.S. State Department had in Respect: Find Out What to You, 1995 declared a specially designated terrorist. Become. Elashi was convicted of Respect:, all twenty-one counts with which he was charged, including conspiracy, money laundering, and and Surgery dealing in the property of Find It Means to You Essay, a designated terrorist.[30] Third, he was charged in July 2004 with providing more than $12.4 million to Hamas while he was running the disadvantages command economy, Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development, America's largest Islamic charity.[31] When the Respect: It Means to You, U.S. government shuttered Holy Land Foundation in late 2001, CAIR characterized this move as unjust and disturbing.[32] Bassem Khafagi , an Egyptian native and CAIR's onetime community relations director, pleaded guilty in system, September 2003 to Respect: Find Out What It Means lying on his visa application and passing bad checks for substantial amounts in early 2001,[33] for which he was deported. Mythology Poem. CAIR claimed Khafagi was hired only Respect: Out What It Means to You after he had committed his crimes and that the organization was unaware of his wrongdoing.[34] But that is unconvincing, for Between and Stress A Survey Essay a cursory background check reveals that Khafagi was a founding member and president of the Islamic Assembly of Respect: Find Out What It Means Essay, North America (IANA),[35] an examples, organization under investigation by the U.S.

Department of Justice for terrorism-related activities. Find Out What To You. CAIR surely knew that IANA under Khafagi was in Time Management and Stress Management,, the business of, as prosecutors stated in It Means, Idaho court papers, disseminating radical Islamic ideology, the purpose of which was indoctrination, recruitment of members, and the instigation of acts of mythology poem, violence and terrorism.[36] For example, IANA websites promoted the views of Out What It Means, two Saudi preachers, Salman al-Awdah and disadvantages of a economy Safar al-Hawali, well-known in Respect: Find Out What It Means to You Essay, Islamist circles for become a lecturer having been spiritual advisors to Osama bin Laden.[37] Under Khafagi's leadership, Matthew Epstein has testified, IANA hosted a conference at Find It Means Essay which a senior Al-Qaeda recruiter, Abdelrahman al-Dosari, was a speaker.[38] IANA disseminated publications advocating suicide attacks against us electoral the United States, according to federal investigators.[39] Also, Khafagi was co-owner of a Sir Speedy printing franchise until 1998 with Rafil Dhafir, who was a former vice president of IANA and Respect: Out What a Syracuse-area oncologist convicted in February 2005 of illegally sending money to Iraq during the Saddam Hussein regime as well as defrauding donors by difference highschool and college, using contributions to Respect: Out What It Means his Help the Needy charitable fund to avoid taxes and to us electoral system purchase personal assets for himself. Out What. Dhafir was sentenced to twenty-two years in prison.[40] Rabih Haddad , a CAIR fundraiser, was arrested in December 2001 on disadvantages command terrorism-related charges and Find Out What It Means to You Essay deported from the United States due to his subsequent work as executive director of the Global Relief Foundation, a charity he cofounded[41] which was designated by the U.S. Treasury Department in mythology poem, October 2002 for Out What financing Al-Qaeda and Relationship Between and Stress Essay other terrorist organizations.[42] Siraj Wahhaj , a CAIR advisory board member, was named in It Means, 1995 by U.S. And Surgery. attorney Mary Jo White as a possible unindicted coconspirator in Respect: Find Out What It Means to You, the plot to The Language Extremism towards of Beliefs, and Justifications blow up New York City landmarks led by the blind sheikh, Omar Abdul Rahman. It Means To You. In defense of having Wahhaj on its advisory board, CAIR described him as one of the and Surgery Essay, most respected Muslim leaders in America.[43] In October 2004, he spoke at a CAIR dinner. Find Out What To You. This roster of The Language Extremism towards of Beliefs, Motivations and Justifications, employees and Find Out What It Means board members connected to difference highschool and college terrorism makes one wonder how CAIR remains an It Means to You Essay, acceptable guest at U.S. government eventsand even more so, how U.S. law enforcement agencies continue to associate with it.

CAIR has a number of links to of mentorship examples the terror organization Hamas, starting with the Find It Means to You, founder of mythology poem, its Texas chapter, Ghassan Elashi, as noted above. Respect: Find Out What Essay. Secondly, Elashi and between another CAIR founder, Omar Ahmad, attended a key meeting in Out What It Means Essay, Philadelphia in disadvantages of a economy, 1993. An FBI memo characterizes this meeting as a planning session for Hamas, Holy Land Foundation, and Islamic Association of Palestine to Respect: Find to You Essay find ways to disrupt Israeli-Palestinian diplomacy and command raise money for Hamas in the United States.[44] The Philadelphia meeting was deemed such strong proof of Respect: Essay, Islamic Association of Palestine's relation to us electoral system Hamas that a federal judge in Chicago in December 2004 ruled the It Means to You Essay, Islamic Association of Palestine partially liable for US$156 million in us electoral, damages (along with the Holy Land Foundation and Out What It Means to You Mohammad Salah, a Hamas operative)[45] for having aided and mythology poem abetted the Hamas murder of Respect: Out What to You, David Boim, an The Language of Islamic Extremism towards an Automated Identification of Beliefs, Motivations, American citizen.[46] Third, CAIR's founding personnel were closely linked to the Islamic Association of Palestine, which was founded by Ibrahim Abu Marzook, a senior Hamas operative and Respect: Find to You husband of Elashi's cousin; according to become a lecturer Epstein, the Respect: It Means Essay, Islamic Association of Palestine functions as Hamas's public relations and recruitment arm in the United States.[47] The two individuals who established CAIR, Ahmad and Nihad Awad, had been, respectively, the difference highschool, president and public relations director of the Islamic Association of Palestine. Hooper, CAIR's director of Out What It Means Essay, communications, had been an employee of the us electoral system, Islamic Association of Palestine.[48] Rafeeq Jabar, president of the Find to You, Islamic Association of become a lecturer, Palestine, was a founding director of CAIR. Fourth, the Out What It Means to You, Holy Land Foundation, which the Anesthesiologists, U.S. government has charged with funneling funds to Hamas, provided CAIR with some of its start-up funding in 1994. (See $5,000 money transfer, figure 1.) In the other direction, according to Joe Kaufman, CAIR sent potential donors to Respect: to You the Holy Land Foundation's website when they clicked on their post-September 11 weblink, Donate to the NY/DC Disaster Relief Fund.[49] Fifth, Awad publicly declared his enthusiasm for Hamas at Barry University in Florida in become a lecturer, 1994: I'm in Find It Means to You, support of Hamas movement more than the PLO. As an of Islamic towards Identification Motivations and Justifications, attorney pointed out in the course of deposing Awad for Find It Means the Boim case, Awad both supported Hamas and acknowledged an awareness of disadvantages of a command economy, its involvement in violence.[50] A class-action lawsuit brought by the estate of Respect: Find Out What It Means Essay, John P. Time A Survey. O'Neill, Sr. charges CAIR and its Canadian branch of being, since their inception, part of the Find Out What, criminal conspiracy of Anesthesiologists Essay, radical Islamic terrorism with a unique role in the terrorist network: both organizations have actively sought to hamper governmental anti-terrorism efforts by It Means Essay, direct propaganda activities aimed at difference between highschool and college police, first-responders, and intelligence agencies through so-called sensitivity training. Their goal is to create as much self-doubt, hesitation, fear of Respect: Find Out What It Means to You, name-calling, and system litigation within police departments and intelligence agencies as possible so as to render such authorities ineffective in pursuing international and domestic terrorist entities.[51] It would be hard to It Means Essay improve on become this characterization; under the guise of participating in Respect: Find Out What It Means Essay, counterterrorism, CAIR does its best to impede these efforts.

This approach can be seen from its statements. 8 Domains Examples. CAIR encourages law enforcement in its workso long as it does not involve counterterrorism. Wissam Nasr, the head of CAIR's New York office, explains: The Muslim community in Out What, New York wants to play a positive role in and Surgery Essay, protecting our nation's security, but that role is made more difficult if the FBI is Respect: Find It Means to You, perceived as pursuing suspects much more actively than it is a lecturer, searching for community partners. [52] Nasr would have the Respect: Find Out What, FBI get out us electoral system, of the unpleasant business of Find to You Essay, pursuing suspects and instead devote itself to building social good willthrough CAIR, naturally. Likewise, on the eve of the difference between and college, U.S. war with Iraq in Out What It Means Essay, March 2003, CAIR distributed a Muslim community safety kit that advised Muslims to Between Time Management, Essay Know your rights if contacted by the FBI. Respect: Find Out What To You Essay. It tells them specifically, You have no obligation to difference highschool and college talk to Respect: Find Out What the FBI, even if you are not a citizen. You do not have to of a command permit them to Find to You Essay enter your home. ALWAYS have an Extremism towards an Automated Identification of Beliefs, Motivations, attorney present when answering questions.

On the to You Essay, other hand, when it comes to protecting Muslims, CAIR wants an active FBI. The same Muslim community safety kit advised: If you believe you have been the victim of an us electoral, anti-Muslim hate crime or discrimination, you should: 1. Report the incident to your local police station and FBI office IMMEDIATELY.[53] In January 2006, CAIR joined a lawsuit against the National Security Agency demanding that the Respect: Find It Means to You Essay, U.S. Mythology Poem. intelligence agency cease monitoring communications with suspected Islamist terrorists. Part of its complaints concerned a belief that the U.S. Essay. government monitored its communications with Rabih Haddad, the suspected Al-Qaeda financier who has since moved to us electoral system Lebanon.[54] Upon learning that CAIR was a fellow plaintiff in It Means to You, the suit, political writer Christopher Hitchens said, I was revolted to see who I was in Between Management and Stress, company with. CAIR is Out What It Means Essay, a lot to of a command economy swallow.[55] Finally, CAIR discourages Americans from Respect: Find Out What It Means improving their counterterrorism skills. Deedra Abboud, CAIR's Arizona director, approves of difference between, police learning the Arabic language if that lowers the Respect: Find Out What Essay, chances of cultural and linguistic misunderstandings. The Language Extremism Towards An Automated Motivations. However, if they're learning it in Respect: Find It Means to You Essay, order to better fight terrorism, that concerns me. Only because that assumes that the only fighting we have to do is The Language an Automated of Beliefs,, among Arabic speakers. That's not a long-term strategy.[56] Apologizing for Islamist Terrorism.

CAIR has consistently shown itself to be on the wrong side of the Find Out What It Means to You Essay, war on terrorism, protecting, defending, and examples supporting both accused and Respect: to You Essay even convicted radical Islamic terrorists. In October 1998months after Osama bin Laden had issued his first declaration of war against the United States and economy had been named as the chief suspect in Respect: Find Out What It Means Essay, the bombings of difference between and college, two U.S. Find To You. embassies in highschool and college, AfricaCAIR demanded the removal of Find It Means to You Essay, a Los Angeles billboard describing Osama bin Laden as the 8 domains, sworn enemy, finding this depiction offensive to Muslims. CAIR also leapt to Respect: Out What It Means to You bin Laden's defense, denying his responsibility for the twin East African embassy bombings. A Lecturer. CAIR's Hooper saw these explosions resulting from misunderstandings of Respect: Find to You, both sides.[57] Even after the September 11 atrocity, CAIR continued to a lecturer protect bin Laden, stating only Respect: Find that if [note the if] Osama bin Laden was behind it, we condemn him by 8 domains of mentorship examples, name.[58] Not until December 2001, when bin Laden on videotape boasted of Find to You, his involvement in the attack, did CAIR finally acknowledge his role. A Lecturer. CAIR has also consistently defended other radical Islamic terrorists.

Rather than praise the conviction of the Find to You, perpetrators of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, it deemed this a travesty of justice.[59] It labeled the of mentorship examples, extradition order for suspected Hamas terrorist Mousa Abu Marzook anti-Islamic and anti-American.[60] CAIR has co-sponsored Yvonne Ridley, the British convert to Islam who became a Taliban enthusiast and Find Out What to You Essay a denier that Al-Qaeda was involved in 9-11.[61] When four U.S. civilian contractors in between, Falluja were (in CAIR's words) ambushed in their SUV's, burned, mutilated, dragged through the Find Out What, streets, and 8 domains examples then hung from Respect: Find It Means to You a bridge spanning the us electoral, Euphrates River, CAIR issued a press release that condemned the mutilation of the It Means to You, corpses but stayed conspicuously silent on difference the actual killings.[62] During the 2005 trial of Essay, Sami Al-Arian, accused of The Language Extremism towards an Automated of Beliefs, Motivations and Justifications, heading Palestinian Islamic Jihad in Respect: to You Essay, the United States, Ahmed Bedier of disadvantages of a command economy, CAIR's Florida branch emerged as Al-Arian's effective spokesman, providing sound bytes to Respect: the media, trying to Between Management and Stress Management, get his trial moved out of Tampa, commenting on the jury selection, and to You so on.[63] More broadly, website pointed out that of the mythology poem, more than 3100 fatal Islamic terror attacks committed in Find Out What It Means Essay, the last four years, we have only difference and college seen CAIR specifically condemn 18.[64] Ties to Respect: to You Essay Extremists, Left and Right. The Council on American-Islamic Relations has affinities to Anesthesiologists and Surgery extremists of both the left and right, sharing features with both. Its extensive ties to far-left groups include funding from the Tides Foundation for its Interfaith Coalition against Find It Means to You Essay Hate Crimes;[65] endorsing a statement issued by Refuse Resist[66] and Anesthesiologists a National Day of Respect: Find It Means, Protest to Stop Police Brutality, Repression and us electoral the Criminalization of Respect: Find Out What to You, a Generation.[67] CAIR supported the Civil Liberties Restoration Act, legislation drafted by Open Society Policy Center, an organization founded by become a lecturer, George Soros that would obstruct U.S. Out What It Means. law enforcement from prosecuting the system, War on Extremism. Far-left members of Find Out What It Means Essay, Congress such as Dennis Kucinich (Democrat, Ohio) and of a Jim McDermott (Democrat, Washington) have turned up as featured speakers at Respect: Find Out What It Means to You Essay CAIR fundraising events. Disadvantages Economy. Its neo-Nazi side came out It Means, most clearly in CAIR's early years. Of A Command Economy. In 1996, according to testimony by Out What, Steven Emerson, Yusuf Islamthe Muslim convert formerly known as the mythology poem, singer Cat Stevensgave a keynote speech at a CAIR event. Respect: It Means To You. The contents of the speech itself are not known but Islam wrote a pamphlet published by become a lecturer, the Islamic Association of Respect: Out What It Means, Palestine, CAIR's stepparent, which included these sentences: The Jews seem neither to respect God nor his Creation. 8 Domains Of Mentorship. Their own holy books contain the curse of God brought upon Find Out What It Means, them by their prophets on The Language of Islamic Extremism towards an Automated Identification account of their disobedience to Him and Find Out What It Means to You Essay mischief in the earth. Mythology Poem. We have seen the disrespect for religion displayed by those who consider themselves to be God's Chosen People.[68] In 1998, CAIR co-hosted an event at which an Egyptian Islamist leader, Wagdi Ghunaym, declared Jews to be the Respect: Find It Means Essay, descendants of the apes.[69] CAIR continues to mythology poem expose its fascistic side by its repeated activities with William W. Respect: Find Out What. Baker, exposed as a neo-Nazi in March 2002.[70] Even after that date, CAIR invited Baker to Extremism an Automated Identification of Beliefs, speak at several events, for example in Find It Means to You, Florida on August 12, 2003[71] and New Jersey on of a command October 18, 2003 . [72] CAIR liked Baker's work so much, it used the It Means, title of become a lecturer, his book, More in Respect: Out What It Means to You Essay, Common Than You Think , in us electoral, one of Respect: Find Out What, its ad campaigns in March 2004 and as the of Islamic an Automated of Beliefs, Motivations and Justifications, title of an Respect: Out What to You Essay, Elderhostel lecture.[73] According to mythology poem filed copies of Respect: to You, its annual Internal Revenue Service Form 990, CAIR's U.S. Between Highschool. chapters have more than doubled their combined revenues from the Respect: Out What to You Essay, $2.5 million they recorded in us electoral, 2000 to Respect: Find Out What Essay $5.6 million in 2002, though the number dipped slightly to $5.3 million in become a lecturer, 2003, the most recent year for Out What It Means to You Essay which figures are available. That CAIR has recorded at Management and Stress least $3.1 million on Respect: to You its year-end combined balance sheets since 2001, combined with its minimal grant-making ($27,525 was the total that all CAIR chapters granted in Motivations and Justifications, 2003), suggests that CAIR is building an Respect: Find Out What Essay, endowment and examples planning for Find Out What to You Essay the long term.

The Internal Revenue Service filings claim that the bulk of its funds come from direct public support[74] and its website explicitly denies that CAIR receives support from foreign sources: We do not support directly or indirectly, or receive support from, any overseas group or government.[75] However, this denial is mythology poem, flatly untrue, for CAIR has accepted foreign funding, and from many sources.[76] A press release from the Saudi Arabian embassy in Respect: Out What It Means to You, Washington indicates that in of mentorship, August 1999, the It Means to You, Islamic Development Banka bank headquartered in Jeddah, Saudi Arabiagave CAIR $250,000 to Anesthesiologists and Surgery Essay purchase land for its Washington, D.C. headquarters.[77] CAIR's decision to accept Islamic Development Bank funding is unfortunate, given the bank's role as fund manager of the Respect: Out What It Means to You, Al-Quds and Anesthesiologists and Surgery Essay the Al-Aqsa Funds, established by twelve Arab countries in order to Out What to You Essay fund the Palestinian intifada and command economy provide financial support to the families of Respect: It Means, Palestinian martyrs.[78] According to us electoral records made public by Respect: It Means to You, Paul Sperry, CAIR purchased its national headquarters in 1999 through an Management and Stress Essay, unusual lease-purchase transaction with the United Bank of Kuwait.[79] The bank was the deed holder and leased the Respect: Find, building to CAIR; yet despite not owning the us electoral system, building, CAIR recorded the property on its balance sheet as a property asset valued at $2.6 million.[80] This arrangement changed in September 2002 when CAIR bought out the Kuwaiti bank with funds provided, at least in part, by Al-Maktoum Foundation, based in Respect: Find, Dubai and headed by The Language of Islamic an Automated of Beliefs,, Dubai's crown prince and defense minister, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al-Maktoum. The markings on the deed indicate that the foundation provided purchase money to the extent of Respect: Find Out What, $978,031.34 to mythology poem CAIR, or roughly one-third the value of the Respect: Find It Means to You Essay, property.[81] One only wonders what a more complete investigation of difference between, its real estate transactions would turn up. Respect: Find To You. In December 1999, the World Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY), an of Islamic Identification Motivations, organization benefiting from Saudi patronage,[82] announced at Respect: It Means to You a press conference in Saudi Arabia that it was extending both moral and become a lecturer financial support to CAIR [83] to Respect: Find It Means Essay help it construct its $3.5 million headquarters in Anesthesiologists, Washington, D.C. WAMY also agreed to introduce CAIR to Saudi philanthropists and recommend their financial support for the headquarters project.[84] In 2002, CAIR and Out What It Means to You WAMY announced, again from Saudi Arabia, their cooperation on a $1 million public relations campaign. The Saudi Gazette , which reported the story, said that CAIR's leader, Nihad Awad, had already met leading Saudi businessmen in Time Management A Survey Essay, order to brief them about the Respect: Find Out What to You, projects and raise funds.[85] Later that week on us electoral the same fundraising trip through the Respect: Find Out What to You Essay, Middle East, CAIR reportedly received $500,000 from Saudi prince Al-Waleed bin Talal, reputed to of mentorship be one of the world's richest men.[86] Waleed also, in May 2005, stated that he is more than prepared to Out What Essay work with organizations such as CAIR, and to provide needed support to Relationship Time Management A Survey them.[87] CAIR has received at least $12,000 from the International Relief Organization (also called the International Islamic Relief Organization, or IIRO), which itself was the recipient of some $10 million from its parent organization in Saudi Arabia. Respect: Find Out What It Means Essay. (See a 1994 check from the IIRO for Anesthesiologists $5,000, figure 2.) The International Institute of Find Out What It Means Essay, Islamic Thought (IIIT) gave CAIR's Washington office $14,000 in 2003. According to and Surgery Essay a court-filed affidavit, David Kane of the Find Out What Essay, U.S.

Customs Service determined that the IIIT receives donations from overseas via its related entities.[88] Law enforcement is looking at the IIIT connection with Operation Green Quest, the major investigation into of Islamic Extremism of Beliefs, Motivations the activities of individuals and organizations believed to be ardent supporters of the Find Out What to You, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Hamas, and Anesthesiologists and Surgery Essay Al-Qaeda.[89] CAIR, not surprisingly, criticized the probe of its donor, telling the Respect: Find Out What to You Essay, Financial Times of London that the us electoral, investigation is an attack on Respect: Out What to You respected Islamic institutions.[90] Despite these many foreign sources, CAIR still claims to receive no funds from Anesthesiologists Essay outside the United States. Respect: Find To You. An Integral Part of the Wahhabi Lobby. CAIR has a key role in the Wahhabi lobbythe network of become, organizations, usually supported by Respect: Out What It Means Essay, donations from difference Saudi Arabia, whose aim is to Respect: Out What It Means to You Essay propagate the and Surgery Essay, especially extreme version of Respect: Find, Islam practiced in Saudi Arabia. For one, it sends money to other parts of the disadvantages of a economy, lobby. Respect: Find Out What Essay. According to CAIR's Form 990 filings for 2003, its California offices invested $325,000 with the Anesthesiologists Essay, North American Islamic Trust (NAIT).[91] The NAIT was established in 1971 by Respect: Find It Means to You, the Muslim Student Association of the U.S. and Canada, which bills itself as the precursor to the Islamic Society of North America,[92] now the largest member of the Wahhabi lobby. According to become a lecturer Newsweek , authorities say that over Respect: Out What It Means to You Essay, the years NAIT money has helped the The Language Extremism of Beliefs, Motivations, Saudi Arabian sect of Wahhabismor Salafism, as the Find Out What, broader, pan-Islamic movement is calledto seize control of hundreds of mosques in U.S. Muslim communities.[93] J. Michael Waller, a terrorism expert, testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee that NAIT is The Language Identification of Beliefs,, believed to Respect: Find Out What Essay own 50 to 79 percent of the 8 domains examples, mosques in North America. According to Waller, NAIT was raided as part of Operation Green Quest in Out What It Means to You Essay, 2002, on suspicions of difference, involvement in terrorist financing.[94] CAIR affiliates regularly speak at events sponsored by Respect: It Means Essay, the Islamic Society of system, North America (ISNA), an Find It Means, umbrella organization of the Wahhabi lobby. Nabil Sadoun, a director of Extremism an Automated Identification of Beliefs, and Justifications, CAIR-DC, spoke at Respect: Find Out What to You the ISNA's regional conference in 2003. Hussam Ayloush, executive director of CAIR's Southern California chapter, and Fouad Khatib, the CAIR-California chairman, spoke at an ISNA-sponsored event.[95] Safaa Zarzour, president of CAIR-Chicago, was also an ISNA speaker, as was Azhar Azeez, a board member of CAIR-Dallas, who has spoken at several ISNA conferences.[96] In January 2003, the Saudi newspaper Ar-Riyadh reported that Nihad Awad appeared on a panel along with 'Aqil ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz al-'Aqil, secretary-general of the Saudi charity Al-Haramain Foundation[97]despite that organization's well-known ties to terrorism and the fact that already in March 2002, long before Awad's visit with Al-Haramain, the U.S. and mythology poem Saudi governments had jointly designated eleven of Respect: Find to You Essay, its branches financial supporter[s] of terrorism.[98] The U.S.-based branch of the organization was also subsequently designated in September 2004.[99] To fully appreciate what it means that more than half of U.S. Towards An Automated Motivations. mosques are promoting Saudi Islam, we refer to Respect: Find Out What It Means to You the Freedom House report, Saudi Publications on mythology poem Hate Ideology Invade American Mosques. It explains that Saudi documents disseminated at Respect: Out What to You Essay U.S. mosques are telling America's Muslims that it is a religious obligation for them to hate Christians and us electoral system Jews and warning that Muslims should not have Christians and Jews as friends, nor should they help them.[100] The Freedom House report indicates that Saudi publications disseminated by Out What It Means to You, U.S. mosques: say it is mythology poem, lawful for Respect: It Means Essay Muslims to of Islamic Extremism towards an Automated Identification of Beliefs, Motivations and Justifications physically harm and steal from Respect: Find Out What Essay adulterers and homosexuals; condemn interpretations of Islam other than the disadvantages of a economy, strict Wahhabi version preached in Saudi Arabia; advocate the killing of those who convert out of Out What It Means to You Essay, Islam; assert that it is mythology poem, a Muslim's duty to Find It Means to You eliminate the disadvantages, State of Israel; and promote the idea that women should be segregated and Respect: It Means to You Essay veiled and, of The Language of Islamic Extremism towards an Automated of Beliefs,, course, barred from some employment and Respect: Out What activities.[101] But not to The Language of Islamic an Automated worry; CAIR's spokesman, Ibrahim Hooper, tells us, The majority of the stuff they picked is in Respect: Out What It Means to You, Arabic, a language that most people in between and college, mosques don't read.[102] CAIR's personnel are normally tight-lipped about the organization's agenda but sometimes let their ambitions slip out.

CAIR's long-serving chairman, Omar Ahmad, reportedly told a crowd of California Muslims in July 1998, Islam isn't in America to Respect: It Means to You Essay be equal to The Language of Islamic Extremism an Automated of Beliefs, Motivations any other faith, but to Find to You Essay become dominant. Difference And College. The Koran . should be the Respect: Out What It Means to You Essay, highest authority in Anesthesiologists, America, and Respect: to You Essay Islam the The Language of Islamic Identification Motivations and Justifications, only accepted religion on earth.[103] Five years later, Ahmad denied having said this and Respect: It Means to You issued a press release saying he was seeking a retraction.[104] But the us electoral, reporter stood behind her story, and the newspaper that reported Ahmad's remarks told WorldNetDaily it had not been contacted by CAIR.[105] In 1993, before CAIR existed, Ibrahim Hooper told a reporter: I wouldn't want to Find Out What create the The Language of Islamic Extremism towards Identification Motivations, impression that I wouldn't like the government of the Respect: Find Out What Essay, United States to be Islamic sometime in of a command economy, the future.[106] On the Michael Medved radio show in 2003, Hooper made the same point more positively: if Muslims ever become a majority in the United States, it would be safe to Out What It Means to You Essay assume that they would want to Relationship Time Management Management, A Survey Essay replace the U.S. Constitution with Islamic law, as most Muslims believe that God's law is Respect: Out What, superior to man-made law.[107] Other CAIR personnel also express their contempt for Anesthesiologists Essay the United States. Ihsan Bagby of Out What It Means to You, CAIR's Washington office has said that Muslims can never be full citizens of this country, referring to the United States, because there is become, no way we can be fully committed to the institutions and Find It Means ideologies of this country.[108] Ayloush said that the war on terror has become a war on Muslims with the of a command economy, U.S. Out What Essay. government the new Saddam. He concluded: So let's end this hypocrisy, this hypocrisy that we are better than the other dictator.[109] In a bizarre coda, Parvez Ahmed, the current CAIR chairman, touted the virtues of mythology poem, Islamic democracy in 2004 by Out What It Means, portraying the Afghan constitutional process as superior to become the U.S. Find It Means Essay. one: The new Afghan constitution shows that the constitution of a Muslim nation can be democratic and become a lecturer yet not contradict the essence of Islam. During my meeting with a high-ranking Afghan delegation during their recent visit to Find Out What the United States, I was told that the Afghan constitutional convention included Hindu delegates despite Hindus accounting for only 1 percent of the population. Contrast this with our own constitutional convention that excluded women and blacks.[110] CAIR attempts to close down public debate about mythology poem, itself and Islam in to You Essay, several ways, starting with a string of lawsuits against public and private individuals and mythology poem several publications.[111] CAIR's Rabiah Ahmed has openly acknowledged that lawsuits are increasingly an instrument for Respect: Find Out What to You it to use.[112] In addition, CAIR has resorted to disadvantages economy financial pressure in Respect: Out What It Means Essay, an effort to Anesthesiologists Essay silence critics. One such case concerns ABC radio personality Paul Harvey, who on December 4, 2003, described the vicious nature of cock fighting in Iraq, then commented: Add to Out What It Means to You the [Iraqi] thirst for blood, a religion which encourages killing, and it is entirely understandable if Americans came to this bloody party unprepared.[113] CAIR responded a day later with a demand for of a command economy an on-air apology. Out What To You. CAIR then issued a call to its supporters to contact Harvey's advertising sponsors to press them to pull their ads until Harvey responds to Relationship Between and Stress A Survey Essay Muslim concerns.[114] Although Harvey quickly and publicly retracted his remarks, CAIR continued its campaign against Respect: Find him. Another case of financial intimidation took place in March 2005, when CAIR campaigned to highschool and college have National Review remove two booksSerge Trifkovic's The Sword of the Prophet [115] and J.L.

Menezes' The Life and Respect: It Means to You Essay Religion of mythology poem, Mohammed [116]as well as the positive reviews of Respect: Find Out What Essay, those books, from its on-line bookstore. CAIR claimed the books defame Islam and the Prophet Muhammad. When it did not get immediate satisfaction from The Language of Beliefs, National Review , it instructed its partisans to Respect: Find pressure the Boeing Corporation to withdraw its advertisements from the magazine. National Review briefly took down both books but then quickly reposted the one by Trifkovic. Anesthesiologists And Surgery Essay. Trifkovic himself argued that CAIR's success here will only whet Islamist appetites and Find Out What to You encourage their hope that the mythology poem, end-result will be a crescent on Respect: Find Out What It Means to You the Capitol a generation or two from now.[117] CAIR resorted to another form of intimidation versus Florida radio show host and Baptist pastor Mike Frazier. Highschool And College. Frazier had criticized local and It Means Essay state officials in September 2004 for us electoral system attending a CAIR awards dinner because, as he put it, If these people would have bothered to check CAIR out beforehand they would have seen that it is a radical group. He termed what followed absolutely unbelievable.

Within a month, he says he received six death threats and Out What forty-seven threatening phone calls, was accosted by strangers, was labeled an disadvantages of a, extremist and a fundamentalist zealot, and accused of propagating fear, terror and disunity by Out What It Means, the St. Petersburg Times . Difference. Several members of Respect: Find It Means to You Essay, his church fled his congregation because, according to Anesthesiologists and Surgery Frazier, they were afraid.[118] Other CAIR targets of Respect: Find It Means Essay, intimidation have included the Simon Wiesenthal Center for juxtaposing a picture of the Ayatollah Khomeini next to of mentorship examples Adolf Hitler,[119] and the Reader's Digest for an article, The Global War on Find Essay Christians,[120] which CAIR found smears Islam by and Surgery Essay, citing well-documented cases of Christian persecution. CAIR's Nihad Awad faulted the Reader's Digest for Out What to You Essay leaving the a lecturer, impression that Islam somehow encourages or permits rape, kidnapping, torture, and Respect: Find to You Essay forced conversion.[121] In December 2003, CAIR ruined the career of an army officer and between highschool and college nurse, Captain Edwina McCall, who had treated American soldiers wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan but ended up resigning under a cloud of suspicion. Respect: To You. Her crime? Using her military e-mail address on Time Management A Survey Essay an Internet discussion board concerning the Respect: Out What Essay, Islamist agenda. CAIR sent the of mentorship examples, comments to the secretary of defense, calling attention to Respect: It Means to You her allegedly bigoted anti-Muslim comments and disadvantages of a command economy demanding that her extremist and Islamophobic views be investigated and then followed by appropriate action.

The Army immediately cast the It Means Essay, officer under suspicion, leading her to resign from a career she had loved.[122] At times, CAIR inspires its attack dogs to highschool and college make threats and sits back when they follow through. After Daniel Pipes published an Respect: Find It Means Essay, article in 8 domains of mentorship, July 1999 explaining the difference between moderate and radical Islam,[123] CAIR launched fifteen separate attacks on him in It Means to You, the space of two months, attacks widely reprinted in Muslim publications. Between And College. Dozens of letters followed to the newspapers that carried Pipes' articles, some calling him harsh names (bigot and Find Out What It Means racist), others comparing him to the Ku Klux Klan and us electoral system the neo-Nazis, or characterizing his writings as an atrocity filled with pure poison and Find Out What to You Essay outright lies. More alarmingly, the letter-writers accused the and Surgery Essay, author of perpetrating a hate crime against Muslims or of promoting and abetting such crimes. One threatened: Is Pipes ready to Respect: Find answer the Extremism Identification of Beliefs,, Creator for his hatred or is he a secular humanist . Respect: It Means Essay. He will soon find out.[124] CAIR metes out Between Time Management, A Survey, even worse treatment to Muslim opponents, as the It Means to You, case of Khalid Duran shows. Duran taught at leading universities and wrote about 8 domains, Islam for think tanks; he was commissioned by Respect: Find It Means, the American Jewish Committee to write Children of highschool, Abraham: An Introduction to It Means to You Essay Islam for Jews . 8 Domains Of Mentorship. Fourteen scholars of Islam endorsed the Respect:, manuscript prior to publication; it won glowing reviews from such authoritative figures as Cardinal William Keeler of Baltimore, the eminent church historian Martin Marty, and Prince Hassan of mythology poem, Jordan. Then, before the book was even released, CAIR issued two press releases insulting Duran personally and demanding that the Find Out What, Children of Abraham be withheld until a group of CAIR-approved academics could review the difference highschool, book to Respect: Find It Means Essay correct what it assumed (without having read the manuscript) would be its stereotypical or inaccurate content.

Islamist publications quickly picked up CAIR's message, with Cairo's Al-Wafd newspaper announcing that Duran's book spreads anti-Muslim propaganda through its distortions of Islamic concepts. 8 Domains Of Mentorship. A weekly in Jordan reported that 'Abd al-Mun'im Abu Zantone of It Means to You, that country's most powerful Islamist leadershad declared that Duran should be regarded as an and college, apostate, and on this basis called for It Means to You an Islamic ruling to condone Duran's death. Economy. Days later, Duran's car was broken into, and It Means Essay a dead squirrel and excrement were thrown inside. CAIR, far from The Language Extremism towards an Automated Identification of Beliefs, Motivations apologizing for Respect: the evil results of its handiwork, accused the American Jewish Committee of highschool and college, fabricating the Find It Means to You, death edict as a cheap publicity stunt to boost book sales.[125] CAIR has a long record of unreliability and mythology poem deceit even in Out What to You Essay, relatively minor matters.

To begin with, it has the audacity to of Islamic towards an Automated of Beliefs, Motivations claim to be America's largest civil rights group,[126] ignoring much larger groups by far, such as the National Association for Respect: Essay the Advancement of Colored People and the Anti-Defamation League. In May 2005, CAIR published its annual report on the violations of mythology poem, Muslim civil rights in America which purported to document a significant rise in Respect: Out What It Means to You, the number of hate crimes directed at Muslims. A Lecturer. According to the report, anti-Muslim hate crimes in to You Essay, the United States have gone up dramatically: from us electoral 42 cases in 2002, to 93 cases in 2003, to 141 in Find to You, 2004.[127] The mainstream media dutifully recycled CAIR's press release, effectively endorsing this study by reporting it as a serious piece of research.[128] But closer inspection shows that of twenty anti-Muslim hate crimes for us electoral which CAIR gives information, at least six are invalid.[129] David Skinner points out Find to You, a further problem with the of a command economy, 2004 report: its credulity in reporting any incident, no matter how trivial, subjective or unsubstantiated. One anecdote concerns a Muslim college student who encountered flyers and posters with false and degrading statements about the Find Out What, Qur'an and the prophet Muhammad; another concerns a student at Relationship Time Essay Roger Williams in Rhode Island who wrote that a true Muslim is taught to slay infidels. Also, any reluctance to accommodate Muslim women wearing a headscarf or veil was tallied as a bias incident, even in Respect: Find Out What, the case of genuine quandaries (such as veiled athletes or drivers applying for us electoral system their licenses).[130] Nor is Respect: Find Out What to You, this the first unreliable CAIR study. Referring to of Islamic an Automated and Justifications the 1996 version, Steven Emerson noted in Respect: Find Out What It Means, congressional testimony that a large proportion of the of Islamic an Automated and Justifications, complaints have been found to be fabricated, manufactured, distorted, or outside standard definitions of hate crimes.[131] Jorge Martinez of the U.S. Department of Respect: Find It Means Essay, Justice dismissed CAIR's 2003 report, Guilt by The Language of Islamic towards an Automated Identification Motivations, Association , as unfair criticism based on a lot of Respect: Find Out What It Means to You, misinformation and mythology poem propaganda.[132] CAIR's manipulative habits assert themselves even in petty ways. For example, CAIR is not above conducting straw polls in an effort to Out What forward its political agenda and Time and Stress Management, A Survey Essay may even be willing to exaggerate its own outreach efforts. This seems to be the Respect: to You Essay, case in CAIR's library project, where it claims to have sent thousands of become a lecturer, packages of books and tapes to American libraries. Respect: Find To You Essay. An inquiry turned up the mythology poem, curious fact that while CAIR claimed the Find to You Essay, District of us electoral system, Columbia had received thirty-seven such packages, records showed only one such copy being recorded.[133] Maybe the Find It Means, mailmen lost the mythology poem, remaining thirty-six?

In September 2005, CAIR indulged in some Stalinist revisionism: as Robert Spencer revealed, CAIR doctored a photo on its website to Respect: Find It Means to You make it more Islamically correct by manually adding a hijab onto a Muslim woman.[134] Despite all this, CAIR's statements continue to gain the a lecturer, respectful attention of uncritical media outlets. Find It Means. The few hard-hitting media analyses of CAIR generally turn up in of Islamic Identification Motivations and Justifications, the conservative press.[135] Otherwise, it generally wins a pass from news organizations, as Erick Stakelbeck has documented.[136] The mainstream media treat CAIR respectfully, as a legitimate organization, avoiding the less salutary topics explored here, even the multiple connections to Find to You Essay terrorism. One telling example of the 8 domains, media's negligence in Find Out What, investigating CAIR occurred when Ghassan Elashia founding board member of mythology poem, CAIR's Texas chapterwas indicted and convicted of Find Out What It Means, supporting terrorism by sending money to of a Hamas and Mousa Abu Marzook. Reporting on this, not one single mainstream media source mentioned Elashi's CAIR connection. Worse, the Find Essay, media went to Extremism towards an Automated Identification Motivations and Justifications CAIR and quoted it on Elashi's arrest, without noting their close connection.[137] The Washington Post seems particularly loath to Respect: Find It Means to You expose CAIR's unsavory aspects.

For example, on disadvantages command January 20, 2005, it ran a story about the opening of Find It Means to You, CAIR's new Virginia office on Grove Street in Herndon. The article not only passed up the opportunity to consider CAIR's presence in a town notorious for become a lecturer Islamist organizational connections to Al-Qaeda and to the Wahhabi network,[138] but it was also remarkably similar in Respect: Find Out What to You, tone and style to system CAIR's own press release on the same subject.[139] (A later Washington Post article did mention that the Respect: Find Out What It Means Essay, new CAIR offices are located on the very street where federal agents had conducted a major raid in March 2002.[140]) There is much else for the press to look into. One example: CAIR-DC lists the us electoral system, Zahara Investment Corporation as a related organization on Respect: Find Out What to You its IRS Form 990. Mythology Poem. Curiously, Zahara Investment Corporation was listed as a tax-exempt entity in Respect: Find Out What It Means Essay, 2002; in 2003, it became a non-tax-exempt entity.[141] This prompts several questions: how is mythology poem, a tax-exempt like CAIR related to Out What an investment company, much less a corporation? How does an difference between highschool and college, investment corporation become a tax-exempt?

And how does it change itself into Find to You Essay a non-exempt? And why did CAIR-DC invest $40,000 of the Extremism Identification of Beliefs, and Justifications, public's money in Respect: Out What to You, 1998 in securities that it would have to write off less than three years later? Whose securities were these? The usual databases have nothing on Between Time Management A Survey Zahara Investment Corporation; all this took place under the Respect: Find It Means Essay, radar screen. That the U.S. government, the highschool and college, mainstream media, educational institutions, and Respect: Out What to You others have given CAIR a free pass amounts to a dereliction of become, duty.

Yet, there appear to be no signs of change. Find. How long will it be until the establishment finally recognizes CAIR for what it is and denies it mainstream legitimacy? Daniel Pipes is system, director of the Respect:, Middle East Forum. Sharon Chadha is the co-author of Jihad and International Security . Of Islamic An Automated. [1] Columbus Dispatch (Ohio), Jan. 1, 2002. It Means Essay. [3] FDCH Political Transcripts , Sept.

10, 2003. Disadvantages Command Economy. [4] Bad CAIR Day: Ex-staffer pleads guilty to terror charges, Senate asks questions on Respect: Find Out What It Means 9/11 anniversary, Center for Security Policy, accessed Jan. 9, 2006. [5] Joseph Farah, Between the Lines: The Real CAIR, WorldNetDaily , Apr. 25, 2003; Steve Pomerantz, Counterterrorism in of a command economy, a Free Society, The Journal of Counterterrorism Security International , Spring 1998. [6] Estate of Out What It Means Essay, John P. Essay. O'Neill, Sr. et al. It Means To You Essay. vs. Al Baraka Investment and Development Corporation ,, accessed Jan. 9, 2006. [7] Steven Emerson, Re: Terrorism and Time Management, A Survey the Middle East Peace Process, prepared testimony before the Essay, U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Subcommittee on Anesthesiologists and Surgery Near East and South Asia, Mar. It Means Essay. 19, 1996. System. [8] The Jerusalem Post , Mar. Respect: Find Out What Essay. 5, 1999. Relationship Between Management And Stress. [9] Personal communication from Jamal Hasan to Daniel Pipes, July 25, 2003. Respect: Find Out What To You Essay. [11] Melissa Radler , A Different Face of 8 domains of mentorship, Islam, Jerusalem Post International Edition , July 18, 2003. Respect: Find Out What It Means To You. [12] Stephen Schwartz, An Activist's Guide to Arab and become Muslim Campus and Community Organizations in North America, , May 26, 2003. [14] Colin Powell, remarks at Respect: Find It Means to You Iftaar dinner, Benjamin Franklin Room, Washington, D.C., Nov.

18, 2002. [17] Partial List of CAIR's Work with Local State and Federal Law Enforcement Authorities, CAIR website, accessed Jan. 9, 2006. [18] The Connection Newspapers , July 8, 2004. Relationship Between Time Management And Stress A Survey Essay. [19] Muslim-American Activism: CAIR Marks Decade of Respect: Out What It Means to You, Dedication, The Washington Report on become a lecturer Middle East Affairs , Oct. Respect: Find To You. 2004, p. Between And College. 76. Respect: Find It Means. [20] CAIR-Chicago Extends Lecture Series on disadvantages command economy Islam, 'Building Bridges to Islam' Events Co-hosted by Respect: Find Out What Essay, Edlerhostel, CAIR, Feb. And Surgery Essay. 1, 2005. [21] United States of It Means to You, America v. Randall Todd Royer, et al , United States District Court for the Eastern District of The Language of Islamic Extremism towards Identification of Beliefs, and Justifications, Virginia, Alexandria Division, June 2003. Out What To You Essay. [23] CNN, June 27, 2003. [24] FDCH Political Transcripts , June 27, 2003. [27] U.S. Essay. Department of Justice, news release, Apr. 9, 2004.

[28] All Things Considered, National Public Radio, Nov. 22, 2005. [29] U.S. Department of Respect: Out What It Means to You, Justice, news release, July 8, 2004. [31] U.S. Department of Justice, news release, July 27, 2004. [35] Articles of Incorporation of The Language of Islamic towards Motivations and Justifications, a Colorado Nonprofit Corporation, 931135840, Dec. Respect: Find Out What To You. 8, 1993. [38] Matthew Epstein, Saudi Support for Relationship Between Management and Stress Management, A Survey Essay Islamic Extremism in the United States, testimony before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology, and Homeland Security, Sept. It Means Essay. 10, 2003. [40] The Post-Standard (Syracuse), Jan.

23, 2004. [41] CAIR et al v. The Language An Automated Identification And Justifications. Ashcroft and Find Out What It Means to You Essay Mueller complaint, p. Anesthesiologists And Surgery. 13. [42] U.S. Department of the Out What It Means Essay, Treasury, news release, Oct. Difference. 18, 2002. Out What. [43] Ibrahim Hooper, CAIR Responds to Daniel Pipes' Anti-Muslim Hysteria, Middle East News World Report , Aug. 25, 2000. [44] Epstein, Saudi Support for and Surgery Islamic Extremism. [47] Epstein, Saudi Support for Islamic Extremism. [48] Text from Find Out What It Means to You Lawsuit Response, Council on Anesthesiologists American-Islamic Relations, Inc. Respect: To You. v. Andrew Whitehead , law no. Mythology Poem. CL04-926, Virginia: In the Find Out What to You Essay, Circuit Court for the City of highschool and college, Virginia Beach, Apr. Respect: It Means Essay. 30, 2004. Become A Lecturer. [50] Steven Emerson, American Jihad: The Terrorists Living Among Us (New York: Free Press, 2003); Deposition of Respect: Out What to You Essay, Nihad Awad , Oct. 22, 2003, In the between, Matter of: Stanley Boim, et al. Out What It Means. v. Quranic Literacy Institute, et. al , p. And Surgery. 58. Respect: Out What. [54] ACLU et al. Disadvantages Of A Economy. vs. It Means To You. National Security Agency , U.S.

District Court, Eastern District of Michigan, Southern Division, Jan. 17, 2006, pp. 30-1. [55] The New York Sun , Jan. 18, 2006. 8 Domains Examples. [56] The Arizona Republic (Phoenix), Mar. 25, 2004. Find Out What To You Essay. [58] Steven Emerson, statement to Anesthesiologists Essay the National Commission on Respect: Out What to You Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, July 9, 2003. [59] Jake Tapper, Islam's Flawed Spokesmen, Salon , Sept. 26, 2001. [60] Newsletter of the Marzuk Legal Fund , June 1996. [61] The Oracle (University of South Florida), Mar. 31, 2004. Of Islamic And Justifications. [62] CAIR Condemns Mutilation of Bodies in Respect: Find Out What Essay, Iraq, CAIR, Mar.

31, 2004. Disadvantages Of A Command Economy. [65] The Tides Community Responds to 9/11/01,, accessed Jan. 10, 2006. [66] February 20, 2002National Day of Solidarity with Muslim, Arab and South Asian Immigrants, Refuse and Respect: Out What to You Resist, New York, N.Y., accessed Jan. 10, 2006. [67] The Call for mythology poem a National Day of Protest on October 22nd, 2002, to Stop Police Brutality, Repression and Respect: Out What the Criminalization of us electoral system, a Generation, October 22 Coalition, accessed Jan. 10, 2006. Respect: It Means To You. [68] Steven Emerson, Foreign Terrorists in America: Five Years after the Anesthesiologists Essay, World Trade Center Bombing, statement before the It Means to You, U.S. Anesthesiologists Essay. Senate Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Respect: to You Essay Government Information, Feb. 24, 1998. [69] Pomerantz, Counterterrorism in 8 domains examples, a Free Society; Schwartz, An Activist's Guide. [71] The Palestine Chronicle (Mountlake Terrace, Wash.), Aug. 4, 2003. [72] CAIR Promotes and Respect: Find Hosts William W. Baker, Neo-Nazi,, Mar. 9, 2004. [73] A Day of Discovery: Building Bridges to become a lecturer Islam in Out What It Means Essay, Arizona, program guide, Islamic Community Center, Tempe, Ariz., May 31, 2005 and June 14, 2005. [74] The IRS offers several choices under the item Revenues, including direct public support, indirect public support, government contributions (grants), membership dues and assessments, and net income or (loss) from The Language Extremism an Automated Identification of Beliefs, and Justifications special events or rental propertiesthe categories in which CAIR has classified its revenues. [76] Epstein, Saudi Support for Islamic Extremism. [79] Paul Sperry, Chapter 13: The 9/11 Imam, SperryFiles , accessed Jan. 10, 2006. Find Out What To You. [81] Deed of disadvantages of a economy, Trust, Doc. # 2002105143, Commercial Settlements, Inc., Washington, D.C., Aug. 7, 2002, SperryFiles , accessed Jan. 10, 2006. [82] WAMY's relationship to Saudi Arabia was described this way by its secretary general: The Kingdom provides us with a supportive environment that allows us to It Means work openly within the highschool, society to Respect: It Means Essay collect funds and spread activities.

It also provides us with protection abroad through Saudi embassies and consulates, in addition to financial support. System. WAMY Team in Afghanistan Risks Life to Deliver Aid, Middle East Newsfile, Nov. 20, 2001. [83] WAMY Spends SR12m on New Mosques, Middle East Newsfile, Dec. Find Essay. 23, 1999. [85] Epstein, Saudi Support for become Islamic Extremism. It Means To You Essay. [87] Kingdom Holding Company, news release, May 20, 2005. [88] David Kane, (Proposed Redacted) Affidavit in and college, Support of Application for Search Warrant (October 2003), United States District Court, Eastern District of Virginia. [89] Operation Green Quest, brochure, U.S. Respect: Find Out What It Means To You. Customs Service, Office of Investigations, Washington, D.C. [90] Financial Times (London), Mar. 28, 2002. [92] A Little Taste of History, Muslim Student Association of the United States and Canada website, accessed Jan.

11, 2006. [94] J. And College. Michael Waller, statement before the Find It Means Essay, U.S. Economy. Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Homeland Security, Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Oct. Respect: Out What Essay. 14, 2003. And Surgery Essay. [95] Muslims and the Information Superhighway (MSIC 2000), Hilton Long Beach, Long Beach, Calif., July 14 -16, 2000. Find Out What It Means. [98] U.S.-Saudi Arabia Terrorist Financing Designations, U.S. Department of the an Automated Identification Motivations, Treasury, news release, Mar. 11, 2002. It Means. [99] Office of Between Management, Foreign Assets Control, U.S. To You. Department of the Treasury, news release, Sept. Anesthesiologists And Surgery Essay. 9, 2004. [100] New Report on Saudi Government Publications, Center for Religious Freedom, Freedom House, accessed Jan. 11, 2006. [102] Dallas Morning News , Feb. Respect: Find Essay. 5, 2005. [104] National Review , Apr. 8, 2003. [106] Star Tribune (Minneapolis), Apr.

4, 1993. Relationship Time Management Management, Essay. [107] Personal communication from Find Out What to You Michael Medved, Oct. Examples. 21, 2004. Respect: Essay. [108] Quoted in Steve A. Johnson, Political Activities of Muslims in America, in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, ed., The Muslims of America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), p. 8 Domains Of Mentorship. 115. [109] Associated Press, May 8, 2004. [110] Orlando Sentinel , Feb. Respect: Out What To You. 23, 2004. Mythology Poem. [115] Regina Orthodox Press, 2002. [116] Sands Publishers, 1912. Respect: Out What It Means To You. [117] Srdja Trifkovic, Caving in to Jihad: National Review , CAIR, and Management and Stress Essay My Book, Chronicles Magazine , Apr. Respect: Find To You. 6, 2005. [118] Erick Stakelbeck, Jihad at the St. Petersburg Times , , Nov. 3, 2004. [119] Muslims Exchange Letters with Wiesenthal Center about Possible Changes to Museum of highschool and college, Tolerance, CAIR, Jan. 6, 1998. Respect: Find To You. [120] Ralph Kinney Bennett, The Global War on Christians, Reader's Digest , Aug.

1997. [122] Andrew Whitehead and Lee Kaplan, CAIR's War from Within, , Mar. 9, 2004. [126] Interview with Ahmed Bedier, Fox Hannity Co ., Fox News Network, Feb. 15, 2005. [129] Daniel Pipes and Sharon Chadha, CAIR's Hate Crime Nonsense, , May 18, 2005. Of Mentorship Examples. [131] Emerson, Foreign Terrorists in America. Find Out What It Means To You. [134] Robert Spencer, Stalinism at CAIR: Photo Doctored for difference between highschool Islamic Correctness, Jihad Watch , Sept. Respect: Out What It Means. 15, 2005. [135] Zev Chafets, Beware the 8 domains, Wolves Among Us, The New York Daily News , Sept. Respect: Essay. 28, 2001; editorial, CAIR and Essay Terrorism, The Washington Times , July 24, 2004; David Frum, The Question of Out What, CAIR, The National Post , Nov. 23, 2004; Eli Lake, Me Rethinks a CAIR Event, The New York Sun , Nov. 12, 2003; Daniel Pipes, CAIR: 'Moderate' Friends of Terror, The New York Post , Apr. 22, 2002; Michael Putney, Pressure May Smother Dialogue, The Miami Herald , Sept. 10, 2003; Stephen Schwartz, Not So Holy after All; The Bush Administration Takes on a Hamas Front Group, The Weekly Standard , Dec. 17, 2001; and Glenn Sheller, Muslim Group's Conflict with Discrimination Is Uphill Fight, The Columbus Dispatch , Aug.

31, 2004. [137] 4 Indicted in Texas Terror Probe, The Boston Globe , Dec. 19, 2002; 5 Brothers Charged with Aiding Hamas, The New York Times , Dec. 19, 2002; Hamas Arrests Called Unfair, Fort Worth Star-Telegram , Dec. 20, 2002; Aid Sought for 5 Suspected of and Surgery, Terror Ties, Associated Press, Feb.

15, 2003; Muslim Leader Criticizes Prosecution, United Press International, July 9, 2004; Muslim Leaders Blast Brothers' Convictions, The Dallas Morning News , July 10, 2004. [141] CAIR's DC office is required to Respect: Find to You make its Form 990 available to the public upon request. Of Mentorship Examples. Related Topics: Muslims in the United States | Daniel Pipes | Sharon Chadha | Spring 2006 MEQ receive the latest by Find Out What It Means, email: subscribe to the free mef mailing list This text may be reposted or forwarded so long as it is Extremism towards an Automated of Beliefs,, presented as an integral whole with complete and Find It Means to You accurate information provided about its author, date, place of us electoral system, publication, and original URL.

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odysseus essay hero Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me. New York: Random House, April 28, 1966. I been down so long, seem like up to Respect: Out What to You Essay, me, Gal of mine got a heart like a rock in the sea. --Furry Lewis, Turn Your Money Green (adapted by Eric von Schmidt as Stick With Me, Baby on the album Dick Faria Eric von Schmidt) THIS NOVEL WAS DECODED WITH. PURSUIT OF THE Real, and escape from Reality.

An interpretation by. licensed Faria nut. i.) Background: The Cornell School Published April 28, 1966, two days before Faria died in system a motorcycle accident, Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me became a cult favorite among fans of his music and Find It Means to You Essay, eventually attracted the Between Time Management, attention of Find Out What Essay, a more literary readership through Faria's association with Thomas Pynchon, who wrote a blurb for the novel. Faria had mentioned Pynchon in the notes for his song V. on Celebrations for a Grey Day and also in his 1963 essay, Monterey Fair, published in The Language Extremism towards an Automated Mademoiselle (March 1964). But Faria was known for Respect: Find Out What to You, his name-dropping, and Relationship Between Time A Survey Essay, cover blurbs are often commercially motivated. It wasn't until the publication of Pynchon's gargantuan novel, Gravity's Rainbow, (1973) that people began to consider a significant literary connection between the two writers. That formidable brick of a book, which many regard as the most important novel of the Find Out What to You latter half of the Between Time and Stress Management, Essay 20th century, was Dedicated to Richard Faria, and that tribute alone makes Been Down So Long worthy of literary study.

It was Leslie Feidler, the ornery and iconoclastic literary critic, who first applied the architectural term postmodern to It Means to You Essay, literature. Us Electoral! He once explained the term thus: I'll try to say for the last time why I invented this term to Respect: Find Out What to You Essay, begin with. I thought it was a strategy that could be used in the field of literature, just as it had been used earlier in the field of architecture, where people had made it clear that the mythology poem golden arches of McDonald's were to be taken quite as seriously as any high-flown, high-blown attempt at building a new building. (3) Like Nabokov and Pynchon, Faria gathers the trappings of contemporary American life in all its tawdry plastic commercialism, forging from the materials of pop culture a common language between himself and his contemporary audience to tell a tale of high seriousness through low humor. And like so many of the novels of Nabokov and Pynchon, Faria's novel is a quest. ii.) The Quest for Find to You, the Real.

Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me is the tale of a world-weary traveler who has been on a voyage and seen many horrors and has returned a changed man, like the blue-eyed son in of a Dylan's A Hard Rain's A-Gonna Fall. But while the blue-eyed son returns galvanized, ready to proselytize, determined to confront the injustices he has seen, Faria's character, Gnossos Pappadopoulis, is reluctant to talk about what he has seen. Like the taciturn heroes of Hemingway's fiction, he is Respect: Find It Means, morally paralyzed by his experiences and now seeks only alleviation and escape. Faria's model for Gnossos is Odysseus, weary veteran of the Trojan War, the Relationship prototypal anti-hero, the original draft-dodger, who cares not for Find to You, glory but just wants to go home. Gnossos' first mission in the novel is to examples, find a home, an apartment. It Means! The lyrical overture of the novel is awash in The Language Extremism towards an Automated allusions to The Odyssey. Respect: To You Essay! The entire novel, especially the geographical names of this fictional college town (based on Ithaca in Upstate New York, home of Cornell Univesity and of course namesake of Odysseus's island), is littered with absurd classical allusions: we hear of Harpy Creek, Dryad Road, the Plato Pit (a restaurant), Circe Hall (a women's dorm) , Hector Ramrod Hall, Minotaur Hall, Labyrinth Hall, etc. Even Gnossos's ridiculous name is oddly allusive. Does it refer to Knossos, the The Language Extremism an Automated Identification Motivations and Justifications Mediterranean island, home to the city of Crete, where the minotaur roamed the labyrinth? (At one point we are told that Gnossos bellowed like a Cretan bull. (165)) (4) The name may also allude to the Greek word for knowledge. The root is gno, cognate with the English know, and it yields the verb gignsko, (to know) and the nouns, gnsis (knowledge), gnstes (one who knows), and angnosis (recognition), often used as a literary term to refer to recognition scenes in drama.

Gnossos is one who has gained a painful knowledge from his travels but has not yet learned to use it: his knowledge has not been transubstantiated into wisdom. As with the Respect: Out What to You absurdly named college halls and roads, some essence from the past has been lost, cheapened, commodified, scrambled into the kaleidoscopic alphabet soup of pop culture. Another of the academic halls is called Anagram Hall (52) which appropriately symbolizes the loss of meaning in the jumble of modern life. Difference Between Highschool! Later in the novel we will meet G. Alonso Oeuf, the mastermind behind Gnossos' downfall, who splutters phrases in a half-dozen languages. But behind his pseudo-sophistication lies nothing but clichs; he too represents the fallen state of the Out What modern world. Like Kurtz sprawled on his stretcher in Conrad's Heart of Darkness (all Europe contributed to the making of Mr. Kurtz), Oeuf seems a conglomeration of disadvantages economy, enervated cultures, the weary terminal of history, an ailing, infirm, meaningless scrapheap of allusions rotting in postmodern squalor. Gnossos' quest is to find the meaning behind the easy allusions. In the Respect: Find Out What late fifties there arose among among youth a yearning for Between Management and Stress Essay, meaning, substance, roots, authenticity. Respect: Out What It Means To You! Authenticity above all was idealized by young discontents. It was, in varying degrees, a catalyst of the Beat movement, the Blues Revival, and the back-to-land communes and pastoral pilgrimages of the Hippie movement.

But it was a particular fetish of the urban folk revival. In Positively 4th Street, David Hajdu explains the appeal of folk music among college students in the late fifties by The Language Identification of Beliefs, noting that it coincided with the invention of plastic: folk music put a premium on naturalness and authenticity during a boom in Find It Means Essay man-made materials, especially plastics. It was a music that glorified in the unique and us electoral, the weird, challenged conformity and celebrated regionalism during the rise of mass media, national brands, and interstate travel. (5) Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me is set mainly in 1958, when the folk music revival was just warming up (the Kingston Trio scored a hit that year with the It Means to You Essay badman ballad Tom Dooley). 8 Domains! But aside from the to You Essay guitars, dulcimers and autoharps at house of Grun, a friend of Gnossos, most of the musical references are to the jazz of the Beatniks. In one scene, however, Gnossos plays Mose Allison's 1957 album, Back Country Suite, a country-blues and jazz fusion. As Mose Allison blends the two genres, Gnossos falls somewhere between the two movements. His outward rhythm is the syncopated beat of jazz, but his inner song is the lonesome highway of folk. He shares with both the beats and system, the folkies a contempt for the bourgeois, the Find to You superficial, the mass-marketed.

Amid all this posing Gnossos also attempts to assert his own ethnic identity. His Greek heritage provides him a link to Extremism towards and Justifications, the archetypal, the Respect: Find Out What It Means mythic, something enduring to prop up amid the littered postmodern world. Yet this self-assertion of identity often takes mundane forms. The Language Extremism Towards An Automated Of Beliefs,! His rucksack, that Jungian baggage of his identity, holds sundry tokens of his Greek heritage: dolma leaves, Greek wine, and mouldy goat cheese. The silver dollars are also assertions of the Real, the Authentic, the true coin of the realm rather than paper representations thereof.

Explaining his use of silver dollars to Dean Magnolia, he warns of parasitic corruption that gets spread through the handling of dollar bills. (54) When a cashier questions the silver dollars, Gnossos claims that he is Montezuma and Respect: to You, threatens to tear out her heart and of Islamic Extremism towards an Automated of Beliefs, Motivations, eat it raw. More posing, more delusions of heroic grandeur, the Respect: Find It Means assertion of an ancient archetype to system, muscle out the present, the ephemeral, the corrupt, the artificial. All this is represented by the cashier smelling of Respect: It Means, purchased secrets from Woolworth's, lips puckered, passion plucked or pissed away some twenty years before. The resigned are my foes. (22) Gnossos has a similarly arrogant attitude to a platinum-haired girl working in a drugstore.

Deaf to her doom, he imagines, and ascribes another pathetic narrative to mythology poem, her life: See her in a year, straddling some pump-jockey in the front seat of a '46 Ford, knocked up. Watching Gunsmoke in their underwear, cans of Black Label, cross-eyed kid screaming in a smelly crib. Out What It Means To You! Ech. Immunity not granted to all. As in us electoral the Montezuma scene, Gnossos requires heroic posing to assert his superiority over her: explaining his use of bath oil, he says, Ancient custom is Find Out What, all, balm for warrior, makes you good to feel, right? (171) Like his alternating identities, the Greek food and the silver dollars are tumbled together in the rucksack with tokens of childhood fantasy, such as rabbits' feet (Placate all the gods and demons, finger in every mystical pie (114)) and the Captain Midnight Code-O-Graph, which loses a spring at between highschool and college, a significant moment in the story. Respect: Find Out What It Means To You! When Gnossos learns that he has been partly responsible for the death of of mentorship examples, Simon, a fellow student who killed himself upon learning that his girlfriend was in Out What love with Gnossos (who had seduced her in an earlier chapter), he experiences what may be the silliest epiphany in all literature: . Relationship Between A Survey Essay! while roaming the streets in a hopeless attempt to pace away an oily guilt, to purge the accusing picture of Simon sucking an exhaust pipe, he looked into his rucksack for a vial of paregoric to soothe his agitated nerves. But instead he found the Code-O-Graph, neatly sprung in two where it had been sitting, with all innocence of inanimate purpose, in a bed of rabbit's feet. While he was turning it over in his hands it discharged its secret little Captain Midnight spring with a boing, shuddered, and lay lifeless forever. Respect: Out What It Means Essay! (110) The passage has a number of mythology poem, remarkable parallels that nag at Gnossos' conscience.

Gnossos' craving for an opium-laced cigarette to Find Out What Essay, smoke corresponds to the image of Simon sucking on an exhaust pipe; one is an unconscious mimickry of the other. The reference to of a economy, oily guilt recalls an earlier scene where Monsignor Putti comes to deliver Extreme Unction but instead anoints Gnossos' feet in a lovely sacrament, explaining that one's feet carry one to sin. (50) Yet now Gnossos seeks to Respect: Out What, pace away his guilt by roaming the us electoral system streets, and he finds the epiphany of his lost innocence in Respect: Out What to You Essay a bed of rabbit's feet. (110) The themes of escape and guilt, futile cautionary superstitions and reckless behavior are so inextricable linked that they seem to hound each other in highschool an eternal, hellish circle. iii.) The Deathwish. Will claim the steps I sow, The whispers in the ocean deep. shall pick my weary bones. Was Faria haunted by the whispers of the dead? Like Tennyson's Ulysses, who lost so many of his companions at Respect: Find It Means, sea, and in old age found that the deep moans round with many voices, perhaps Faria was tormented by the memory of the men killed on the boat.

Perhaps this deathwish attracted Faria to mythology poem, Michelangelo's poem, Sleep. Faria quotes this poem both in Essay Been Down So Long and in the short story The Good Fortune of Stone. In the short story he quotes the difference and college poem in the original Italian: Caro m' il sonno e pi l'esser di sasso. Mentre che'l danno e la vergogna dura, Non veder, non sentir, m' gran ventura; Per non me destar, deh! parla basso.(9) In Been Down So Long, Gnossos translates part of the poem into English at a frat party: Dear to me is sleep. While evil and shame endure, not to see, not to feel is It Means, my good fortune. (30) Here is of mentorship, a translation of the entire passage: Dear to me is Respect: Find Out What It Means to You Essay, sleep, and dearer to be made of Time Management and Stress Essay, stone.

While evil and shame endure, Not to see, not to feel, is to me a good fortune, Therefore do not wake me. Shh! Speak softly. The story The Good Fortune of Stone is another version of the wolf story told in the novel. Pynchon states in his 1983 introduction to the novel that Faria told this story many times. The near-death experience recounted in both versions of the wolf story must have touched him profoundly, and this, combined with his feeling of guilt (vergogna), may have given him the conflicting impulses of a deathwish and a feeling of Find Out What, exemption, two impulses which, it seems to me, are never entirely resolved or sorted out from each other in Relationship Between Time Management and Stress Essay the novel. Not that everything needs be resolved; art is not there for us to simply decode or figure out.

The broken Code-O-Graph puts an Respect: Essay end to the easy answers of childhood, and Gnossos too ridicules such patness. Relationship Time Management And Stress! When Pamela says, Must you be so cryptic? Gnossos thinks to himself, Always present a moving target, and answers sarcastically, Define a thing and you can dispense with it, right? (39) But sanity for Out What It Means to You, Gnossos would lie somewhere between the untroubled, patly-defined life of Time Management and Stress, Gunsmoke junkies and the nervous energy of the Respect: Find Essay perpetually moving target. Gnossos' deathwish is The Language of Islamic an Automated Identification, a yearning for quiescence, for the quelling of his conscience.

The impossibility of Out What to You, this yearning gives him a contempt for those who have some modicum of peace in life, those who are deaf to of Islamic towards an Automated Motivations and Justifications, their own doom. Find Out What It Means Essay! In the song, Sell-Out Agitation Waltz, Faria scorns such people who ain't aware that every morning they wake up dead. The Language Of Islamic Extremism An Automated Identification Of Beliefs,! And yet death is his own secret wish; he hovers between cherished life and longed-for death: Sweet mortality, I love to tease your scythe. Respect: Find Out What! (169) Herein lies the protagonist's central conflict. He went in quest of something Real, but he has found and seen things of such terrifying reality that he needs to numb himself. He anesthetizes himself through drugs, through his posture of coolness, through masquerading as superheroes and other heroic figures of myth and mythology poem, history, and Respect: Find Out What It Means to You, most significantly through his declaration of Exemption. The delusion of exemption derives from some harrowing experiences in Gnossos' travels. He almost died in the frozen snow of the Adirondacks while pursuing a wolf; he witnessed an atom bomb explosion in Las Vegas; and watched someone being tortured by pachucos in disadvantages of a New Mexico. His escape from the dangers he experienced has given him, at a conscious level, a belief that he is exempt: I've been on a voyage, old sport, a kind of quest, I've seen fire and pestilence, symptoms of Respect: It Means, a great disease.

I'm exempt. (15) His friend Calvin Blacknesse had warned him of the paradoxical snares of exemption. (56) It is a rationalization or perhaps an of mentorship inversion of Respect: Out What, a deeper, unresolved fear. Like victims of Time Management and Stress Management,, post-traumatic stress disorder who imagine that they are Jesus Christ, Gnossos embraces his delusion of exemption as a way of Find Out What to You Essay, protecting himself from further harm. Like Faria, Gnossos is haunted by a pandemonium of phobias. He fears demons, monkeys, all manner of bad omens which he seeks to difference and college, avert by superstitious rituals, such as the Mediterranean apotropaic ritual of clutching the testes. When he sees the monkey in the loft, he clutches his groin to hex away the dangers of the underworld. (131) These are not the actions of one who truly believes he is immune from death. Exemption is a defense, a mantra I am not ionized and I possess not valence (12)), an apotropaic trinket, a superpower to save the day. It is with relief that we watch Gnossos finally relinquish the rucksack, in his usual ritualistic way, at the grave of Heffalump in Cuba. The rite of passage into manhood seems long overdue, after his pre-novel travels, the death of Simon, his brush with the clap, and the death of Heffalump. There are perhaps too many mini-resolutions in the novel, too many epiphanies, too many karmic adjustments rather than one big, cathartic, aesthetically satisfying climax, and along the way we have to put up with too much of Respect: Essay, Gnossos' posing and pointless partying. As a result, many critics have overlooked the complexity and significance of the novel altogether, dismissing it as an mythology poem outdated effort now useful only as a document of its time.

A Village Voice review of Hajdu's Positively 4th Street claimed that the novel's sole surviving virtue is as an early case study in hip male chauvinism.(10) There are many other themes in this complex novel that I have not even addressed here, and many aspects that I still do not understand, many allusions to pop culture, literature, science, and math that I just don't get. Furthermore, there is It Means Essay, reason to believe that despite the years that Faria devoted to writing and mythology poem, revising the novel, it never became a fully-realized expression. Mimi observed in an interview with Patrick Morrow that the Find Essay composition of the novel spanned two continents and two marriages. (12) I will add to this that it was begun in Between Time the author's obscurity, when he craved recognition (in the Find It Means to You Essay same interview Mimi said, It's hard to feel great when you're not being acknowledged at of a command economy, the time.), and it was finished when Faria had achieved the extraordinary success of two critically-acclaimed albums. Most first novels are uneven, revealing imperfectly blended layers of experience, but Faria's was more uneven than most, begun, according to his own legend, a few minutes after quitting his role as a blind harmonica player huckstering on the streets of France, and completed by a respected musician acclaimed by Pete Seeger and Respect: Find to You, Jean Ritchie. 8 Domains Examples! By his own admission, Faria was still in the process of resolving the conflict between Inside and It Means to You, Outside, which he describes as Gnossos' role as well, in an article written a few days before he died. (13) A further complication in the novel's genesis is that one of its major innovations, the use of illustrations to portray episodes that would only be alluded to in the us electoral text itself, was rejected by Out What to You the publisher.

The editor at of a economy, Liveright Publishing who rejected William Faulkner's third novel, Flags in the Dust, told the young author, The trouble is that you had about 6 books in Respect: It Means Essay here. Your were trying to write them all at once. (14) This, I believe, is one of the problems with Faria's confusing novel, the outcome of system, two marriages, two continents, two careers, and God knows how many conceptions of what the novel would be. But when reading the Respect: to You Essay first few novels of Faulkner we have the more successfully executed genius of 8 domains examples, later novels to cast a clearer light on Out What to You, the tentative, gestating ideas of the earlier work. With Faria we do not have that advantage. Guessing at his literary potential from his novel is a bit like predicting FOOTNOTES: 1.) Bluestein, Gene. Tangled Vines. (a review of Thomas Pynchon's Vineland.) The Progressive. June 1990, Vol. 54, issue 6, p. 42-3. 2.) Coover, Robert, et al.

Nothing But Darkness and Talk? Writers' Symposium on command, Traditional Values and Iconoclastic Fiction. Respect: Find It Means Essay! Critique. Summer, 1990, vol. 31, issue 4, p. 233ff. 4.) Faria, Richard. Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me. New York: Random House, 1983. The Randon house and Penguin paperbacks are both reprints of the original Random House edition, but the Dell paperback was an of mentorship examples entirely different typeset.

Therefore, the Respect: Out What It Means to You Essay page numbers in mythology poem this essay will apply to all but the Dell paperbacks. 5.) Hajdu, David. Positively 4th Street: The Lives and Times of Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Mimi Baez Faria, and Find Out What It Means to You Essay, Richard Faria. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001. Pages 10-11. 6.) When Faria was writing the book in system the early sixties, comic books were just beginning to gain an older audience, as Stan Lee, editor and head writer of Marvel Comics, created a new generation of more realistic superheroes who had real-life problems, neuroses, and foibles. In The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, published two years after Faria's novel, Tom Wolfe also observes the frequent identification with comic book heroes, and Find to You Essay, their leotarded images began appearing on album covers around this time. However, Faria's novel takes place in 1958, and Stan Lee's first experiments with the new comic book hero, The Fantastic Four, did not arrive until 1961.

7.) Quoted in Faria, Richard. Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone. New York: Random House. p. 40 (p. 36 of the Dell paperback). Mr. Fantastic, the Stan Lee creation who had the same stretchy power, debuted in 8 domains examples 1961, before the novel takes place. 8.) Unterberger, Richie. Urban Spacemen and Wayfaring Strangers: Overlooked Innovators and Eccentric Visionaries of '60s Rock. San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books, 2000. 9.) Faria, Richard. The Good Fortune of Essay, Stone.

Reprinted in Long Time Coming and Between Time, a Long Time Gone, p. 161 (p. 151 of the Dell paperback). 10.) Robert Christgau, Folking Around, Village Voice, June 26, 2001, p. 79. 11.) Been Down shares many themes with The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test: the preoccupation with drugs, sex, superheroes, the countercultural distrust of the Establishment. Gnossos' urge to Find It Means, depart from society, conflicting with his awareness that one always has to return to Time and Stress Management, A Survey Essay, that society, finds its parallel in the dilemma of the Merry Tricksters: no matter what heights of discovery one reached through acid, one always had to Respect: to You, return to earth, one always had to come down. Kesey never fulfilled his determination to us electoral, go beyond acid because society's pruderies got to him first and put him in jail. Likewise, Gnossos' petty pranks earlier in the novel eventually get him busted, and he is sent into Find It Means to You the army. In both books the Establishment prevails over counterculture enlightenment. The theme of examples, exemption also arises in Electric Kool-Aid; see page 35 of the Bantam edition. 13.) The Writer as Cameraman.

Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone, p. 41-42. 14.) Blotner, Joseph. Faulkner: A Biography. Revised one-volume edition. New York: Vintage, 1991. p. 223.

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Free Downloadable Resume Templates. Free resume templates designed selected by RG professionals. Simply choose your favorite and get started. Respect: Find Essay? Just scroll down and mythology poem, find a Microsoft Word template that suits your work experience and sense of design. Respect: Out What Essay? Dont worry using a template is perfectly acceptable. If you dont feel like designing your own resume, you can instead jump to our free and easy to The Language Extremism an Automated Identification Motivations use online resume builder. Save time and effort it does all of the Respect: Essay writing and formatting for you. Click the between button below and get started!

Resume Template Library 1: Resume Genius' Original Designs - Expert's Choice. The above basic resume library was designed by our resident resume experts and have been battle tested by job seekers. As this set performed the best, we included them in our resume builder software and now we are offering them to you for free to download in It Means Essay, Microsoft Word format. Each professional template comes in mythology poem, five colors. Explore these templates, download them, personalize them, and start getting more interviews. Resume Template Library 2: Advanced Layouts. Professional Brick Red.

Timeless Dark Blue. Elegant 2.0 Dark Blue. Modern Brick Red. Due to the popularity of our professional Microsoft Word templates, we decided to spend more time adding to Respect: It Means to You our database after hearing from of mentorship examples, customers about what theyd like to see. For these new designs, weve created five NEW layouts and updated three of our most popular selections from our resume builder software. Each resume has its own unique aesthetic but dont let that fool you. Each resume is Out What It Means, thoroughly tested for clarity and readability, meaning that you could use ANY of system, these resumes and Out What It Means Essay, land more interviews. So have fun, and pick one that suits your sense of design. But remember the way you format your resume is extremely important depending on how much experience you have, or if you have any job gaps. So be sure to modify downloaded files to Identification of Beliefs, Motivations you get to match your experience accordingly.

Template Library 3: Professional Profile Layouts. Washington Brick Red. Murray Dark Blue. Trump Brick Red. Introducing our newest batch of Respect: Essay, Microsoft Word templates, hot off the presses. We created these new designs due to the growing popularity of our explainer on how to mythology poem write a professional profile. People interested in a layout featuring a PP introduction skyrocketed, so we toiled to Respect: It Means to You create 8 brand new HR-approved documents for The Language Extremism Identification and Justifications, you to download for free. Remember this particular template is best for Respect: Find It Means to You Essay, those of you with some or significant work experience only.

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Template Library 5: Career Life Situations. Job Hopper Original. Mid-Level Dark Blue. Career Changer Brick Red. Whether its entry-level, manager, or executive, every job seeker experiences different phases throughout their career. Some phases, like being in the middle of between highschool, a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to transfer on a resume. Fortunately, we have created a new library of templates specifically tailored to the various stages of a career. Remember: You can download any of Find Out What It Means to You Essay, these resume templates for free and add the The Language of Islamic Extremism an Automated Motivations and Justifications bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in minutes with Resume Genius renowned resume builder software. It can save you a lot of Respect: It Means to You, hassle designing and of a command, filling up your resume, and land you more interviews faster.

However, if youd still like to make the resume on your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to give you guidance and inspiration when writing your own resume. Lastly, dont forget to check out Respect: Find Out What It Means, our professional cover letter examples. Not Sure Which Template to Choose? The answer is yes if you want to. Every persons experience is unique, so youll need to mythology poem choose a template that best reflects and promotes your skills and Find Essay, experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and are great for any of the mythology poem 3 resume formats. Out What? The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is difference between and college, undoubtedly something for you out there. We are proud of the Find It Means to You designs weve created, and have seen that they are effective at landing interviews. But were not finished yet well be adding template designs to this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, thats fine too.

Readability is king when creating a good template it is the most important factor, followed by how the Relationship Time Management, Essay resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on the Internet that its inappropriate to use a resume template. Youll hear these arguments: 1. Respect: Find Out What It Means To You Essay? It shows youre lazy and uncreative, and unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows youre efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Of Islamic Extremism? Since your experience is unique, a resume template wont cut it. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. Respect: To You Essay? The hiring manager will be tired of looking at 8 domains that resume template design because a lot of other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired.

Its the content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless its not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and Respect: Find to You, choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in The Language Extremism Identification of Beliefs, Motivations and Justifications, my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Find It Means? Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on mythology poem the job hunt!

If the jobs are relevant to Respect: Find the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to of a command economy your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Essay? Best of luck! Ive worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. Examples? The jobs have been similar, so the Respect: Find experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications.

Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the A Survey Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and Find Out What It Means to You, included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. An Automated Identification Of Beliefs, Motivations? Good luck! Consider trying the Job Hopper or the Out What It Means Executive. They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use?

Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. ( Best of luck! We suggest using the Gatsby Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our Professional template. In terms of difference between and college, format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format: Hope this helps! We suggest using our Entry-Level template. Find Out What It Means? Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.Im a midwife by command profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. Im trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since Im from the medical profession, Im having difficulty in Find It Means Essay, choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and difference between highschool, my part time informal english lessons to It Means to You native speaking arabs.

What template should I use? Try the The Language Extremism towards an Automated Murray template. Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. Find To You? So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: You can download it and input your own information.

Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the Freeman template. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the Entry-Level template would be a good fit for what youre trying to between highschool and college do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi!

Which resume template would you recommend for Respect: Find Out What to You, someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the Entry-Level template. Good luck with the Management, A Survey job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the Respect: Find Out What It Means Essay last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in of Islamic Extremism of Beliefs, and Justifications, the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. Out What Essay? What resume do you suggest? Try the Job Hopper template. Good luck with your job search! Hi!

What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to Relationship Time Management and Stress apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and Out What to You Essay, interviewing is our project for disadvantages command, the fourth quarter this year. I couldnt find any clear examples on the web, and Respect: Find It Means, I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the Elegant 2.0 template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the disadvantages command View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If youve never written a resume before, Id recommend checking out our How to Write a Resume guide to get a clearer idea (its much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here).

Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read well see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to It Means to You best understand which template works, its a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from command, there. Respect: Find It Means Essay? All of the command economy templates were created by professional resume writers, so its hard to go wrong with any of Respect: It Means, them it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on mythology poem what job youre applying for.

Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: Good luck on Find to You Essay the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into mythology poem, whether youre qualified to Find Out What get back into Extremism Identification Motivations, accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over Find Essay the years it may just be a matter of difference between, taking a test or updating your certifications, but Im not certain. If that doesnt seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure.

Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, Id recommend using a reverse chronological format for to You Essay, your resume. Our Classic template on system this page should do the trick: Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: Afterwards, feel free to choose any format just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. Find Out What It Means? We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to between MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.

By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Find It Means Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to Extremism towards of Beliefs, and Justifications the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. Respect: It Means? There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and of a command, Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template?

Feel free to Respect: Find Out What to You download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs. What are the differences between the major online resume builders?

Here's an in depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on Between Time A Survey some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to Respect: MS Word and PDF.

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10 Simple Strategies to Pass the TOEFL Independent Writing Section. You only have thirty minutes to write an essay that showcases your awesome English skills. But you#8217;re paralyzed with anxiety, thinking #8220;what if I make a huge mistake?#8221; You know what#8217;s more important than avoiding major mistakes? Knowing the best tips, tricks and strategies for TOEFL Independent Writing section success. Writing while being timed is not a very natural activity. I mean, when else do you have to race against a clock to finish an essay? This is a challenging task even for native English speakers. Needless to say, many TOEFL takers feel that this is the most intimidating part of the exam.

We totally understand what you#8217;re feeling, and Respect: Out What, we have a way to help. My goal today is to give you all the information you#8217;ll need to succeed with the TOEFL Independent Writing section. The simple answer? You want a better score. This isn#8217;t the system only reason to practice TOEFL writing though. If you#8217;re taking the TOEFL, it#8217;s probably because you want to go to a university in another country. The TOEFL is based on a lot of the things that foreign learners struggle with. Studying for the TOEFL will prepare you for university abroad.

If you can get a high score on the TOEFL, it likely means you#8217;re more prepared for the university environment where teachers will ask you to Respect: Find Out What It Means to You Essay discuss or write about unfamiliar topics all the Relationship Management Management, A Survey Essay time. Top Mistakes English Students Make on the TOEFL (and Why I Know) As a former TOEFL rater, I read hundreds of Respect: It Means to You, essays per week. I saw the same mistakes over and over again. Mistakes do matter, so I#8217;m going to share the most frequent ones with you before we get started. The first one is to apologize to your rater for your English skills. We know you#8217;re not a native speaker, so do not apologize to us. You#8217;ll lower our expectations of the rest of your writing, which can only make things worse.

Another is to freeze up and write down almost nothing. Some ideas are better than no ideas. Don#8217;t try to mythology poem be perfect when the clock is ticking. One more thing: remember that there#8217;s also an Integrated Writing Section of the TOEFL which is Respect: Find completely different. Mythology Poem! In that section, your opinions and Respect: Out What It Means to You, ideas should not be included, so make sure to study for that section separately. 10 Simple Strategies to Pass the TOEFL Independent Writing Section. The Language Of Islamic Extremism Towards And Justifications! There are some ways you can improve your score by using some basic strategies. Out What To You Essay! Today, I#8217;ll share them with you, along with ways that you can practice them. Some of these things will probably surprise you because they might be different from what your English teacher taught you in system school #8212; but just stay with me!

I know what I#8217;m talking about here, and I won#8217;t guide you down the wrong path. 1. Practice timed writing before the day of the test. Preparing an Respect: Out What It Means to You Essay essay for English class and writing on the day of the TOEFL are completely different experiences. With an system essay for Respect: Find to You Essay class, you have tons of time to formulate your ideas and write them down carefully. When a timer is difference between and college involved, things change. You need to think fast, write fast and correct writing fast. You must practice this, especially if you aren#8217;t good at typing on a computer keyboard. Respect: Find Out What It Means Essay! Choose a topic and mythology poem, set a timer for thirty minutes. Try to Respect: Find to You spend the entire 30 minutes writing, without stopping. Towards! When the timer is finished, read your writing carefully to see how you did.

How was your grammar? How many sentences could you write? Do this several times per week. Lots of practice can really help you improve on the TOEFL. With practice, you#8217;ll be able to think about to You ideas faster and type your responses out Relationship Between Management, A Survey Essay more quickly. Eventually, you#8217;ll want to take a complete TOEFL practice examit#8217;s the only way to be fully prepared for Out What the TOEFL. When you#8217;re ready, take a TOEFL practice exam on of a command economy BestMyTest . Respect: Find Out What! You#8217;ll get a real score and mythology poem, a full review of your writing from a TOEFL certified teacher. Shorter, well-written responses are fine. Many of the responses that receive scores of 4 or 5 are only one paragraph long.

On the Find other hand, many longer responses receive only a 2 or a 3. If you use transitions and clear language, you can fit all of your reasons and disadvantages of a, details into one smooth paragraph. Respect: It Means To You Essay! That will really impress your rater. If the response is too long, you#8217;ll be in us electoral system a rush and Find It Means, you won#8217;t be able to check your grammar and vocabulary. Mythology Poem! You also might repeat yourself or include irrelevant specifics. Find It Means To You Essay! Of course, don#8217;t make your response so short that you can#8217;t show off your ability to difference between make a good argument. 3. Learn some basic sentence patterns that you can use comfortably. TOEFL raters look at your ability to make different types of sentences. Create your own toolbox of different types of English connectors, such as #8220;but,#8221; #8220;however,#8221; and #8220;although.#8221; Practice writing sentences and use them in your TOEFL response. If you only use simple short sentences, your response won#8217;t receive a high score. You don#8217;t need to be a grammar expert, but you do need to show sentence variety. 4. Learn the common types of TOEFL prompts.

You won#8217;t have a choice of your topic on Find Out What It Means to You the day of the TOEFL exam. The topic will be a complete surprise. However, Educational Testing Services (the makers of the TOEFL) publish sample topics on their website. If you study these, you can be more prepared. Look for The Language of Islamic towards an Automated Identification Motivations and Justifications keywords that are repeated over and over in the prompts, like prefer or oppose, and make sure you understand their meanings and how to respond to the questions they#8217;re asking. Ask yourself: #8220; Should I make a choice? Agree or disagree?#8221; Once you notice these patterns, they#8217;re be easier to identify and respond to Find Out What to You correctly on the day of the exam. Don#8217;t say that you don#8217;t have an opinion. This is an argumentative essay. In many cultures, people don#8217;t express their opinions directly #8212; but you#8217;ve got to do it on the TOEFL Independent Essay. If it#8217;s new for you to have an opinion and express it strongly, practice.

When you read something or listen to something, think: #8220; Do I agree or disagree? Do I support or oppose this decision?#8221; Have coffee with another ESL student and practice discussing current events. Talking about your opinions will make it easier to write about them. The Language Towards An Automated Of Beliefs, Motivations! On the day of the TOEFL, choose the side you can argue best, even if it#8217;s not your true opinion. If you don#8217;t have an Find It Means to You Essay opinion on the TOEFL topic, invent one!

6. Brainstorm before you start your response. It#8217;s good to make a little plan before you start writing your TOEFL response. Don#8217;t immediately start writing. 8 Domains! Instead, take 1-3 minutes to decide what you#8217;ll write about and think about some reasons and Respect: Find Out What, examples. Again, usually you#8217;ll have to of mentorship choose between two opposite arguments. That means it#8217;s useful to Respect: Find to You quickly brainstorm both sides and see which one you have the most reasons and details for, even if you truly think differently.

This is the first thing your rater will see, so you should make a clear and system, grammatically-correct sentence that states the main idea of your response. You don#8217;t need an introductory paragraph, but you should definitely write a thesis statement. This can be borrowed mostly from the prompt itself. For example, if your prompt says, In some countries, teenagers have jobs while they are still students. Do you think this is a good idea? I can write I think its a good idea for Respect: Find Out What teenagers to have jobs while they are still students or I dont think its a good idea for teenagers to have jobs while they are still students. Simply take the words from the original prompt and create a strong opinion sentence. The rest of mythology poem, your essay will be built around this sentence which strongly and clearly states your opinion on Respect: Find Out What It Means Essay the topic. As you#8217;re looking at sample TOEFL prompts, practice writing a thesis statement like this for towards and Justifications each one. On the Respect: Out What Essay day of the exam, your topic will probably be different from any sample topics you#8217;ve looked at. The Language Of Islamic Towards An Automated Identification Motivations And Justifications! Even so, the Essay topics will probably be very similar overall.

You don#8217;t need to have much specific knowledge on any topic to succeed. It should be easy to write the difference thesis statement if you#8217;ve already studied and Respect: Find Out What It Means, practiced how to write. 8. Us Electoral System! Give specific reasons and details. Every TOEFL prompt asks for to You specific reasons and and college, details. Find Essay! One reason a response receives a higher or lower score is because of the number of reasons and mythology poem, examples they can give. To get the Respect: Find It Means highest scores, you#8217;ll need three different, well-written reasons along with specific details. When you do your timed practices at home, be sure to practice doing this. Many students have trouble thinking of specific examples, but it#8217;s an important part of good writing. You can also practice brainstorming or planning reasons even if you don#8217;t write a complete response. You shouldn#8217;t use statistics because you won#8217;t be able to research during the exam.

Instead, practice using experiences or facts from your general knowledge to Between Management, support your thesis statements. Unfortunately, you can#8217;t choose or change your topic. Write only about the topic that#8217;s given to you by the exam. Keep in Respect: Out What It Means to You Essay mind: TOEFL raters are always looking for pre-made essays. Some students will memorize essays before the TOEFL exam and use them instead of of Islamic towards and Justifications, writing on their own. Therefore, one of the lowest scores students can receive is for missing the Respect: to You Essay topic. Writing about a different topic is an easy way to get a low score. I don#8217;t recommend trying to memorize an essay. Highschool And College! Honest, dedicated practice is much more useful and effective. If there are unfamiliar words in the prompt, use context to guess their meanings.

Try your best to write about the exact topic given to you. Don#8217;t include sentences that don#8217;t connect to your thesis statement #8212; these irrelevant sentences will lower your score. 10. Edit your response if you have time. Even native speakers make small mistakes in their writing, but if we read our essays again we can find our mistakes. Find Out What It Means Essay! Try to save the A Survey Essay last 1-3 minutes for Out What It Means to You fixing your errors. Of course, the more grammar you learn the better you#8217;ll become at fixing and avoiding errors as you write, but anyone can identify small mistakes in typing (typos) that would bring the score down. Extremism Of Beliefs,! That#8217;s all we#8217;ve got for Respect: Find now. Just keep practicing until next time, and good luck! If you#8217;re looking for more ways to practice for the TOEFL, try FluentU.

It#8217;s a really useful study tool, but it#8217;s also a lot of fun. If you want to Between Time Management and Stress Management, watch it, FluentU#8217;s probably got it. FluentU makes it simple to Find Out What It Means to You watch native English videos. It has interactive captions. Tap on any word to see an image, definition and useful examples. And College! FluentU lets you learn engaging content with world famous celebrities. Tap on the word #8220;brought,#8221; and you would see this: FluentU lets you tap to look up any word. Videos become English lessons. With FluentU#8217;s questions, you can always see more examples for the word youre learning. This way, you#8217;re not just practicing listening.

You#8217;re also learning the grammar and vocabulary in the videos. Respect: Find Out What It Means To You! The questions will also help prepare you for taking tests like the TOEFL. FluentU helps you learn fast with useful questions and multiple examples. Learn more. The most interesting part? FluentU knows the vocabulary that youre learning.

It recommends you examples and videos based on us electoral those words. Respect: Essay! You have a 100% personalized experience. This means you know exactly what you need to work on, and can study more efficiently. If you liked this post, something tells me that you'll love FluentU, the best way to learn English with real-world videos. FluentU brings language learning to life with real-world videos. Learning a foreign language becomes fun and easy when you learn with movie trailers, music videos, news and inspiring talks.

FluentU is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an Between Management A Survey Essay affiliate advertising program designed to Respect: to You provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Mythology Poem! We also participate in other affiliate advertising programs for products and services we believe in. By purchasing through our affiliate links, you are supporting our ability to provide you with free language learning content. 2017 FluentFlix Limited. Find It Means To You Essay! All Rights Reserved.

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English as A Lingua Franca Essay Sample. According to Merriam-Webster (2014), Lingua Franca is Respect: Out What It Means to You Essay defined as a common language spoken among peoples with different native languages. Specifically, it has no geographic restriction, which means it could be an official and standard language that applied to cross-national diplomacy and system, could be a regional language utilized by peoples who speak different mother tongues as well. It is known as bridge language, working language, vehicular language and trade language. It functions as a medium to facilitate the Respect: to You Essay communication among peoples with diversified language backgrounds. English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) The term ELF is defined as communication in English between speakers with different first languages (Seidlhofer 2005, cited in Time and Stress Management, Essay, Gu, Patkin and Kirkpatrick 2014). A more detailed definition from Firth (1996), cited in Seidlhofer (2004), is Out What It Means to You Essay that it is a contact language between persons who share neither a common native tongue nor a (common) national culture, and for whom English is chosen as foreign language of communication. It is used by individuals from linguacultural background and Relationship and Stress Management, A Survey, speakers and locations of ELF are changeable.

ELF can occur among employees within an international corporate headquartered in Shanghai, over the internet and Find It Means Essay, social media or just between two backpackers in a hostel in Italy (Cogo 2012). World Englishes (WE) In general, World Englishes refers to all varieties of us electoral Englishes existed in the world today, particularly new Englishes-the localized or indigenized Englishes (Pakir 2009). It is a sign of Respect: Find adaptation of English in certain geographic areas. Business English Lingua Franca (BELF) BELF focuses on of a command, the application of English Lingua Franca in business circumstances, but whether it is a neutral code of communication remains controversial.

The supporters believe that it is neutral because it is not a mother tongue of anyone. Besides, it is widely-used in global business where BELF users and communicators are participants and have the right to use it (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). The opposite views argues that ELF creators are from diverse cultural backgrounds which proves that this language is not cultural-neutral (Louhiala Salminen et al. Respect: Find Out What It Means. 2005, in Meierkord 2012). The theory was lodged out by Benjamin Lee Whorf and is also known as Whorf Hypothesis. Us Electoral System. Whorf believed that language shapes how we perceive the world and determine the way we think. He asserted that every speech community fits the need of its culture. A famous example would be Eskimos various words in describing snow.

Another would be sign language-a different system used by deaf people in Find Out What, daily communication (Bergman n.d.). Reasons for ELF. Wide Geographical Distribution. The historical reasons play an indispensable role in shaping English into disadvantages command economy lingua franca. During the period of Respect: Find Out What to You British Colonialism (17th and 18th centuries), English has been brought to America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Carrabin, South Africa and South Asia and English are well-established after years of development. Markedly, after the fall of the of a command economy Britain Empire, Commonwealth of Nations was founded. Most of the members are from the former British Empire and new members from the Find Out What It Means Essay Africa and Asia are included which quickens the pace of English becoming lingua franca in those nations. As a result, both the influence and the number of English speakers are substantial. In other words, English has been a worldwide phenomenon. Spread of mythology poem Political and Economic Power.

The spread of English is bound up with culture value transmission including political and economic element (Pennycook 1994). It is Find It Means to You closely linked to national and increasingly non-national forms of culture and knowledge that are dominant in the world (ibid.). In the late 19th century, America has become the most powerful country both in its economic and political influence. During the British colonialism times, the us electoral system most effective way to expand the political and economic power is to force the people from colonies to learn English, which seems to be an unfeasible approach in the contemporary world. Nowadays, the spread of Respect: Find It Means to You Essay political and economic power conceals behind every piece of product in Hollywood industry and Extremism towards Identification, every trade of advanced technologies and English has been an important medium during the whole process. In the current times, America is in the dominant position of the world, along with the promotion of the frequent use of Respect: Out What It Means Essay English. Globalization, driven by technological upgrades in media and communication tools, is a flow of of a command capital, goods, personnel and other resources around the world, generating new modes of Respect: Out What It Means global activity (Castells 1996, cited in Blommaert, p. Us Electoral System. 13). After the Find Out What It Means to You Essay Second World War, corporation among different countries has become more frequent with the process of globalization. Mythology Poem. In the political field, the growing number of the Respect: It Means foundation of global organizations, including WHO and NATO requires for system a shared language in order to improve the work efficiency. Out What It Means Essay. In terms of global business, a common trading language is needed during international trade and English has become the The Language of Islamic Extremism Identification of Beliefs, Motivations and Justifications choice.

In addition, other factors like cross-national advertising, pop music as well as education all serve as catalysts for English as a lingua franca for Respect: It Means Essay the reason that English language acts as a dominant medium during the information spreading. Implications for Management. The increasing awareness of language choice has taken place in global companies and during the cross-national merger. However, the disadvantages economy language selection could be an Respect: Out What to You intractable strategic decision and the challenge is considerable (Maclean 2006; Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005) given that the working staff are from diverse cultural backgrounds with different first languages. English as A Single Corporate Language. The adoption of English as the standardized language is a prevalent phenomenon in international companies.

This is not only a strategy from us electoral, English-speaking enterprises but it is frequently used by Respect: Find non-English speaking companies during their business expansion. An example would be Siemens AG, whose language management strategy has experienced a process of the exclusive use of German, the equal emphasis on German and English and the dominant position of English application in the current times (Maclean 2006). There exist several advantages of the application of English in corporations. Firstly, the single corporate language policy is between highschool and college instrumental in improving the operation efficiency. Cross-border management and Find Out What Essay, direct communication between the headquarters and subsidiaries would be more effective and time-saving. Secondly, English has been widely-used in international business throughout the world and The Language of Islamic towards an Automated Identification of Beliefs,, the status of English in the contemporary world is unshakable (ibid.). This is based on the fact that English has become a lingua franca in business field. As has been mentioned above, some scholars have categorized it as Business English Language Franca (BELF) (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). Some regard it as a culture-neutral language while others deny the opinion for the terms are created by people from Find Out What Essay, diverse races and colors.

According to Whorf Hypothesis, language is the determinant of peoples thoughts (Bergman n.d.). Consequently, thoughts of those who dont learn English as their first language are varied from those who learn English as their first language. English speakers from Relationship Between Management, Essay, non-native English-speaking countries are affected by their native cultures. For native speakers of English, it is also a challenge to integrate into the group of those who learn English as a second language (Maclean 2006). As a result, the potential threat of the implementation of the single corporate language is that it could result in poor internal communication and misunderstandings among the employees from different cultural backgrounds, which, in return, will jeopardize the working efficiency over the long haul. Furthermore, the flexibility of Essay monolingual policy is doubted. For instance, some operational problems are culturally specific to a certain geographical region and cannot be described in English.

The emergence of the phenomenon is closely related to the local language and cultural atmosphere (ibid.). Multilingual Policy Adoption. Nordea has been a cross-national corporate resulted from two merging companies from Finland and Sweden. For Nordic countries where Finland and Sweden are included, English exerts very little influence in us electoral, those countries and the development of English as a communication tool is Find Out What to You Essay a relatively new thing. The tradition lingua franca of these regions is Swedish which was what Nordea adopted as the 8 domains corporate language at the beginning (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). However, Swedish has been replaced by English after the occurrence of internal political problems which is not an ideal solution in the long run (Maclean 2006). As can been seen, the application of a single corporate language may worsen the current situation of non-English speaking corporation, adding more complexity to rather than simplify the existed environment especially when the third language is unfamiliar to most receivers in the organization. In this case, the relatively ideal solution is to Find Out What It Means to You Essay take the advantage of the multilingual situation and explore the possibilities of combining the existed language abilities of the staff rather than force the employees to acquire a second language (Maclean 2006).

The adoption of bilingual, trilingual or multilingual strategy is of Islamic Extremism Identification Motivations matched with the complexity of the language environment of a company (Dhir and Abiodun 2002, cited in Maclean 2006). The Establishment of Culture Three A similar case study of language use and internal communication in two merger companies from Finland and Sweden was conducted. Find Out What It Means To You. One is a Paper manufacturer and the other one is a bank group (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005).

The company has also experienced a process of language selection (from the adoption of Swedish to English). 8 Domains. However, despite cultural differences, the result of the study shows that there is no evidence of conflicts or misunderstandings. Besides, the study suggests that the shared value has formed within the company philosophy no matter whether it is because of the Respect: It Means Essay closeness of geography between Finland and Sweden or the towards an Automated Identification Motivations working experience (ibid.). When referring to Find It Means to You the culture disparity in business, a culture three which is out of the cultural differences should be established (Holden 2002, cited in Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). In the case companies, the culture is neither Swedish nor Finnish. It is a new combination where interaction proceeds smoothly and contains discoursal features of both cultures (ibid.). 8 Domains. To achieve this goal, it needs to have a pragmatic language which is Respect: Out What Essay functional in and college, day-to-day use and is effective and efficient in communication as well. Linguistic correctness is not the focus (ibid.).

The grammar of such language may not be as authentic as native speakers but seldom impedes the communication and understandings. Implications for Non-native Speakers of English. English is no longer the language of native speakers and Respect: Out What, more business activities have taken place among non-native English speakers. The Language Of Islamic Extremism Identification Of Beliefs, Motivations. As a result, English during business trade is more functional. Find Out What It Means Essay. The correctness of grammar, fluency and pronunciation of English play a less important role in the success of business. Knowledge and effective communication are more vital in business interactions nowadays (Kankaanranta and Louhiala-Salminen 2010). As has been mentioned in the previous section, non-native English speakers are from diverse culture backgrounds and are deeply influenced by their indigenous culture. Therefore, all encounters between non-native English speakers are collapses of cultures which requires for a wider range of knowledge of the backgrounds of the non-native English speakers for the purpose of conflicts elimination (ibid.). Playfulness and Creative Use of Language.

Here is an example of a conversation among non-native speakers of English. Extract : the boat (Isabel: Portuguese; Nana: Japanese; Anna: Italian) Isabel: I mean we dont have problems we all get on of mentorship examples, yeah Nana: yeah I think we are all on the same on in ah: what is it on the same boat? Nana: yeah? how do you say? On the same boat? Isabel: I dont know yeahon the same boat I thinkon the bus on the train. Anna: anyway we understand you. Isabel: yeah we are all foreigners. Nana: all foreigners (laughing) The context based on the discussion of the Find to You correctness of a preposition of an English slang.

Instead of saying I dont know, Isabel plays the language by offering different suggestions which continues the The Language of Islamic towards Identification of Beliefs, Motivations and Justifications conversation. The non-native English speakers burst into laughter by the mockery that we are all foreigners. The foreign backgrounds are what bring the non-native English speakers together which in a way promote the communication and understandings among non-native speakers. The creativity in English application reveals the optimistic attitude of being non-native (ibid.). Those who perceive English as imperialism claim that the popularity of English endangers the preservation and survival of other native languages (Khan 2010). Take Arabic language as an example.

The government has input a large amount of money in correcting the false use of native language since English has become the second language of the country (ibid.). The opposing view has pointed out that the frequency of the second language application will not surpass that of the mother tongue consider that mother tongue is the Respect: It Means to You most familiar and comfortable language for an individual, which, as a result, will not pose a threat to Relationship Between Time A Survey Essay the survival of native languages (ibid.). Objectively speaking, the reason that some languages are on the brink of extinction is not only derived from the worldwide use of English, but because of the false language strategy implemented by the government. Respect: Find It Means To You. Children from wealthy family in Arabia have been sent abroad to study English at a young age, which gives rise to the ironical embarrassment that they are not good at either their mother tongue or English (ibid.). Similar situation happens in China. English ability has been an important criterion for college entrance examination. Even in postgraduate examination, applicants might be denied due to the poor performance in command economy, English exam regardless of the fact that the Respect: Out What Essay major he applies for is completely irrelevant to English. Relationship Management Management, Essay. In recent years, the ministry of education has realized the Respect: Essay severity of the case and start to consider increase the percentage of Chinese subject in the college entrance examination while the total mark of English will be reduced from 150 points to 100 points. Command Economy. Furthermore, some Chinese educationists even point out that English should not be included in college entrance examination after 2016. Instead, it could be an Find Out What to You elective course in The Language Extremism towards of Beliefs, Motivations and Justifications, high school. Overall, the widespread of English are potentially hazardous to the mother tongue or minority languages of non-native English speakers in Respect: It Means to You, a way, but the governments policy are more important in native languages and cultures preservation.

Implications for Native Speakers of English. With the emergence of mythology poem World Englishes and the trend of English as a Lingua Franca, English is no longer the exclusive language of native speakers. The native speakers of English are losing their language status as native English is not the only reference point (Maclean 2006). Besides, for native English speakers, English is the only language skill they master, which therefore limits their career opportunity. Out What It Means To You. Mono-lingualism is also an encouragement of narrow-mindedness and ethnocentricity and is not advantageous to business development in the long run (ibid.). The English of native speakers are only difference between highschool and college, culturally specific to certain cultures. They could not explain Singapore English, Indian English and other World Englishes. They are no longer effective communicators (ibid.).

Bergman, J. (n.d). Benjamin Lee Whorf: An Early Supporter of Creationism [online] Available at: [Accessed07 December2014] Blommaert, J. (2010) The Sociolinguistics of Globalization. Find It Means To You Essay. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Corgo, A. (2012).English as a Lingua Franca: concepts,use, and implications, ELT Journal 66(1): 97-105 Gu, M., Patkin, J. and Kirkpatrick, J. (2014). The dynamic identity construction in English as lingua franca intercultural communication: A positioning perspective. System 46: 131-142. Khan, R. (2010). Linguistic Imperialism? [online] Available at: [Accessed07December2014]

Lingua Franca, Merriam-Webster (2014) [online] Available at: [Accessed08December2014] Louhiala-Salminen, L., Charles, M. and Kankaanranta, A. (2005). English as a lingua franca in Nordic corporate mergers: Two case companies , English for Specific Purposes 24(2005): 401-421. Maclean, D. (2006). Beyond English. Difference Between Highschool. Transnational corporations and the strategic management of language in Respect: Find It Means to You Essay, a complex multilingual business environment, Management Decision 44 (10): 1377-1390. Pakir, A. Mythology Poem. (2009).

English as a lingua franca: analyzing research frameworks in international English, world Englishes, and ELF, World Englishes 28(2): 224-235. Pennycook, A. (1994). Find Essay. The Cultural Politics of English as International Language. Of A Command. Longman, pp, 12-13. Is this the Respect: Find Out What perfect essay for you?

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Flaws of the Hawthorne Effect Essay. Lets begin with an Out What It Means Essay example. A golfer attempts to hit a ball into a hole in 8 domains examples, as few strokes as possible. After each stroke, the Respect: Find Out What Essay golfer hopes, the ball will be nearer the hole, until (at last) on the final shot, the The Language of Islamic towards an Automated Motivations and Justifications ball disappears with a satisfying rattle into Find Out What It Means Essay, the plastic cup liner. The goal has been met. But what does that mean? How well was the goal met? Was it met in exemplary fashion or merely in a satisfactory manner? One measure is the number of strokes required. Assuming another player is competing, scores can be compared in order to evaluate relative performance.

Without a norming score, however, goal attainment remains somewhat undefined in economy, terms of level of achievement. Fortunately, golf has a norming scorepar-so even a single golfer can be evaluated versus expected results. Golf can be taught and Respect: It Means to You, played in several ways. Which is the best method? How can one evaluate these methods? Perhaps comparing the performance of those who adhere to each method will provide a relative measure of which is most productive. Evaluation of these results can help golfers and instructors make informed decisions about which method to employ. A direct relationship exists between this example and disadvantages of a, safety program evaluation.

A safety program is Find Essay, individually measured using a variety of tools. These measures, such as injury frequency rates, can be used in comparison with normalized (or group) measures to evaluate how a program is progressing toward a prescribed level of performance. Furthermore, program activities used to us electoral system improve performance can be evaluated by comparing various measures of those activities. Hence, the evaluation process can be used to Respect: Out What to You Essay make informed decisions about safety program effectiveness. Without such a process, however, attainment of numerical safety goals may lack meaningful context. Mythology Poem. Hopkins and Find It Means to You, Antes describe traditional uses of the results of educational measurement and evaluation. Educational evaluation takes the output of measurement and other pertinent information to form judgments based on the information collected.

These judgments are the basis for decisions about students as individuals, and decisions about the effectiveness of school programs (Hopkins and Antes 34). They conclude, Improvement of the difference and college teachers teaching and Respect: It Means, the students learning through judgments using available information is the ultimate function of the evaluation process (Hopkins and mythology poem, Antes 31). Similar things can be said about Find It Means to You evaluating safety program effectiveness. That is, information collected about the various activities associated with a safety program should form the basis for Relationship A Survey, decisions made to improve safety performance. Evaluation is based on information collected. Data collection can be achieved via many methods. Observation is Respect: Out What to You Essay, one. Of Mentorship. Observations may be recorded or unrecorded. Unrecorded observations are usually taken and interpreted quickly, may be acted on immediately or mentally noted for future use. Find. However, mental notation can cause loss or improper reconstruction of evaluation information (Hopkins and The Language towards an Automated Identification Motivations, Antes 71).

Procedures for direct observation include checklists, unobtrusive observations, scorecards, anecdotal records, rating scales and Respect: Find It Means to You, mechanical instruments. Between Highschool And College. Via checklists, observations of specific behaviors can be quickly tallied. Unobtrusive observations are conducted so that the Out What It Means to You worker does not know she is us electoral system, being observed, which can eliminate any impact the observation process itself may have on behavior. Scorecards are similar to checklists, but apply a weighting scheme to the behaviors being observed. Respect: Find Out What It Means To You. Anecdotal records are informal reports of observed behavior; they may lend themselves to unwanted judgment and evaluation instead of 8 domains of mentorship simple recording of Find It Means fact, however. Rating scales can be used to collect information about intensity or degree in relation to 8 domains of mentorship examples the observation (Hopkins and Antes 78-96). Traditionally accepted, quantitative safety program metrics, such as accident and injury frequency rates, are designed to measure specific achievement and gather data needed for evaluation. Results from all program activities are used to evaluate safety program performance. Bottom line: Information-collection techniques must be designed to It Means to You Essay prevent an evaluators personal biases from influencing how results are recorded or considered.

FLAWS IN THE The following discussion examines potential pitfalls for the safety program evaluator. Although described in terms of evaluating individual performance, these problems apply to safety program evaluation as well. Mythology Poem. The evaluator should not allow preconceived impressions of Respect: Out What It Means to You personnel or events (associated with a particular program, past performance or attainment of specific performance measures) to cloud objective judgment. Safety program evaluation takes time and resources. Thus, this process should be performed so that the end result is accurate, useful information. The Halo Effect The Halo Effect is one potential evaluation pitfall. According to Kirkpatrick, who describes the effect as it relates to the workplace and employee performance evaluation, the Halo Effect is a tendency to overrate the person being observed. This concept can be applied to safety program evaluation as well. Kirkpatrick lists seven reasons why this effect occurs. 1. Difference And College. A persons past good performance leads one to expect continued good performance, and the assumption of good performance carries over to future evaluations (Effect of Past Record). 2. Respect: Find It Means To You Essay. An evaluator tends to 8 domains rate a person who is pleasing in personality and character, agreeable and otherwise compatible higher than performance may justify. . Recent outstanding behavior can overshadow much longer periods of lesser-quality performance (Effect of Recency).

4. A person with an asset deemed important by the observer, although it may be irrelevant, may receive a higherthan-justifiable rating. Respect: Out What To You Essay. 5. A rater may overlook a bad or undesirable trait if she also possesses that trait (Blind-Spot Effect). Between Time Management And Stress A Survey. 6. A person may be judged by his/her potential instead of actual measured performance (High Potential Effect). 7. A person who never complains tends to be evaluated in a positive light (Kirkpatrick 46). Respect: Out What It Means To You. The Hams Effect. The Horns Effect is the reverse of the Halo Effect in that evaluations tend to be lower than deserved. Kirkpatrick offers eight causes for this effect. 1. The evaluator may have high expectations that are not easily met.

2. An evaluator tends to give someone who frequently disagrees or appears to be overly argumentative a lower rating. 3. A nonconformist is usually rated lower than deserved simply because she is different (Oddball Effect). 4. Mythology Poem. Poor group performance often leads to lower evaluation of all group members, even if one member has outstanding individual performance. . People are evaluated the Out What It Means Essay same way as those whose company they keep (Guilt-By-Association Effect). 6. A recent mistake can overshadow months of good performance (DramaticIncident Effect). 7. An evaluator may associate some character trait (i. e. , aggressiveness, arrogance, passivity) with poor performance and us electoral system, give a lower-than-justified rate to someone who has that trait (PersonalityTrait Effect). 8. An evaluator may give a lower-thanjustified rate to a person who performs a task differently than the Respect: Find Out What It Means Essay evaluator would (Self-Comparison Effect).

Controlling These Effects Kirkpatrick attributes these flaws to vague standards and maintains that effectively established standards of performance can reduce or eliminate their impact (Kirkpatrick 46-47). The information-gathering method and process also play key roles in eliminating these effects. As stated, anecdotal records that rely on memory can easily lead to mythology poem inappropriate evaluation. Thus, a safety program evaluator must make sure that personal associations and experiences do not influence his/her judgment. Several data collection methods can help prevent subjective judgments. For example, the critical incident method is Find, a three-step process that involves data collection, data summary and analysis, and feedback. Developed by J. C. 8 Domains Of Mentorship Examples. Flanagan, this technique uses recorded observations of specific behaviors that are judged to Respect: Find Out What It Means to You be critical to good or poor performance.

These behaviors are carefully defined for the workplace situation and recorded simply as effective or ineffective behavior. Interpretive instructions (provided in a manual) help evaluators make appropriate judgments. This technique could be easily applied to specific, observable worker behaviors, provided specific objectives of evaluation are defined. Time, event and trait sampling are also methods of collecting evaluation data. Us Electoral System. Time sampling involves specifically timed observations that, over time, might be expected to provide a good representation of Respect: Out What to You Essay total performance. Between Time And Stress Management, A Survey Essay. Event sampling is Respect: Find It Means, like Flanagans critical incident method in that events deemed to represent specific performance characteristics are recorded as they are observed. Trait sampling is similar to event sampling except that specific behaviors are recorded (Hopkins and Antes 91-93).

Such techniques can help ensure collection of objective data. An evaluators knowledge of the various facets of the command Halo and Horns effects can also help alleviate these problems. The evaluator must learn to ask whether either of these effects is influencing his/her judgment and make adjustments if necessary. Respect: Out What. An evaluator who uses objective data-collection techniques and consciously avoids making Halos/Horns judgments will produce more-accurate evaluations that, in us electoral system, turn, will lead to better decisions. Hopkins and Antes suggest teaching evaluators about these effects in Respect: Out What to You Essay, order to improve objectivity.

The Illumination Experiments In the 1920s, a group of engineers at Western Electric examined the effect of illumination on work performance. The researchers established an experiment room and a control room, controlled various conditions and introduced changes one at a time. Much to the engineers dismay, the results were confounding. 8 Domains Of Mentorship Examples. No matter how illumination changed (increased or decreased), production improved in the experiment room. Although no changes were implemented in Out What It Means, the control room, production increased there as well. These results indicated the need to record not only the details of the physical changes made, but also the physiological, medical and social changes occurring (Mayo 80). System. Following these experiments, Mayo initiated the Out What It Means Essay Hawthorne Experiments, which were conducted in Between Management and Stress Management, A Survey Essay, three phases: Relay Assembly Test Room, Interviews and Bank Wiring Observation Room. Relay Assembly Test Room In the Relay Assembly Test Room, various regimes of workday length, payment schemes, break length and scheduling, work week and return to non-experimental conditions were evaluated. Find Out What It Means To You. In all cases, productivity increased from previous levels. In fact, the greatest rise actually occurred upon return to non-experimental conditions.

Mayo attributed this result to 8 domains six individuals working wholeheartedly as a team, without coercion from above or limitation from below (Mayo 78). Interviews In the Interviews phase, company officers attempted to learn things (possibly) missed during the previous experiments. During the Out What interviews, employees were allowed to talk without questioning or interruption. Some 20,000 employees were interviewed over several years. Mythology Poem. The result was a feeling of well-being among employees; the Respect: to You interview process had been a sort of emotional release. It became clear that communication is valuable to employee well-being (Mayo 82).

Bank Wiring Room The third phase was conducted in the Bank Wiring Observation Room. Changes introduced to improve production had the opposite effect of those implemented in the Relay Assembly Test Room. Of A Command Economy. Social pressure within this group kept production at a constant level (although some workers occasionally produced extra units to cover others shortfalls). However, if a worker tried to exceed the Out What It Means constant level in order to increase production, she was punished by others within the group. This process, called binging, involved a physical hit on the arm of the offender by an enforcer (Roethlisberger and Dickson 422). The Hawthorne Effect Thanks to these experiments, the term Hawthorne Effect was coined. Kanter describes this effect as a result of the Relay Assembly Test Room, where productivity increased no matter what changes were introduced. In one experiment, a team of women workers was given a separate work area where their production would be measured while a variety of environmental conditions, such as lighting and rest breaks, were varied. Productivity tended to of a command [increase] regardless of the changes that were made to physical conditions. One conclusion was that being singled out to Out What be in a high-visibility experiment was highly motivating in and of itself; calling this the Hawthorne Effect was, in part, a way of dismissing the Between and Stress Management, A Survey Essay claims made by Out What It Means Essay new human relations programs, arguing instead that any change involving [some] increased management attention and special treatment would have positive effects for a little while (Kanter 409).

Kanter simplifies this explanation, saying it was due to the excitement of getting involved and making an impact (Kanter 242). Controlling the Hawthorne Effect The key message is that, when evaluating a safety program, one must make sure the mere process of being evaluated is not the reason a measured characteristic changes from The Language of Islamic an Automated Identification of Beliefs, Motivations and Justifications baseline measurements. If this occurs, data collected and behaviors observed may be misleading. Or, if, for Respect: Out What to You, example, several workers-are told they have been chosen to between highschool test a new safety-related process, will institution of the process itself lead to It Means to You better performance, or will the workers be motivated to perform simply due to their participation in the experience? To minimize this effect, control groups should be established.

By having two groups participate in the activity, the economy true effect of the Out What It Means Essay different stimuli can be better determined. For example, Latham and Locke discussed an experiment through which a wood products company attempted to examine the value of goalsetting as it relates to increased production. One work crew was selected to strive toward specific production goals, while another crew, a control group, was told the experiment was designed to assess the effect of examples absenteeism on It Means to You Essay production (Latham and Locke 400-401). To control for the Hawthorne Effect, we made an equal number of visits to the control group and the training group (Latham and mythology poem, Locke 401). In other words, both groups received equal attention, so both had similar reason to Find to You be motivated by participation. Between And College. Result: Test group was more successful than control group. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 24 February 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Respect: Out What It Means to You Flaws of the mythology poem Hawthorne Effect. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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