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Oracle Apps Manufacturing Resume Sample. Functional Consultant Oracle Applications Specialist with 11+ years of business and gray, IT experience. Pak War! ERP Analyst with 7 years of experience in manufacturing and distribution modules of Oracle Applications. Dorien Gray! Five full cycle implementation at manufacturing sites (USA) using Oracle apps R12 and 11i various modules. Skilled in Identifying and Analyzing Business Requirements , Solution Design, Gap Analysis , Business Process Mapping, Application configuration, Data Conversion and Validation, Customization and Localization, System and Integration Testing, User Acceptance and Training. Expertise and writing, implementation experience in Oracle ERP Inventory (INV), Bills of Material (BOM), Work in Process (WIP), Advance supply chain planning (ASCP), Manufacturing Scheduling /MRP, Warehouse Management (WMS) , Mobile Supply Chain Applications (MSCA), Engineering (ENG), Cost management (CST), Quality (QA), E-Records and E-Signatures (ERES), Approvals Management (AME), Order Management (OM), Purchasing (PO), Depot Repair (CSD).

Functional expertise in Report, Interfaces, Conversions and Extensions (RICE) Component. Discoverer Configuration. Good working experience in dorien gray Demantra Demand Management, Oracle Configurator, I-Supplier, I-Procurement, Advanced Product Catalog (APC), Oracle Workflow, XML Publisher. Solution design for Business Flows and cry more, Functions such as Design to Release , Forecast to gray Plan , Plan to Schedule , Schedule to Build , Quality management, Product Costing to the world go round Inventory Valuation , Inventory Count to Reconciliation , Plan to dorien gray Replenish, Procure to Pay , Internal Requisition to Deliver, Requisition to Receipt, Supplier Return, Order to 1947 Shipment, Assemble to dorien gray Order to keller accomplishments Shipment , Available to Promise , Service Request to Resolution, Repair process , Period End Close and Reporting. Conversant with ‘Oracle - AIM’, ‘Oracle Accelerator’ ‘GE Healthcare - IMPRD’ Implementation Methodology. Oracle Business Accelerator-R12 certified. Project management. Dorien! Experienced in managing offshore support team.

Excellent communication documentation skill. Tools/Packages Oracle applications R12, 11i, 11 10.7, Oracle Accelerator, Oracle UPK, Discoverer, Bartender, Intermec- labelshop pro, Data Loader, Toad, SQL*Loader, SQL*Plus, Open Interface API , Quality Center, QTP, PVCS, e-Library, Workflow Builder, MS Project, OpenProj, MS office, Visio. Programming Language PL/SQL, SQL, HTML, XML. Operating Systems Windows Vista/XP/2000/NT, UNIX (SUN Solaris), DOS. Databases Oracle 10g, 9i, 8i, 8.x, 7.x and MS Access. Oracle 11i Implementation, GE Healthcare - GSC, Milwaukee, WI Feb 2009 Present. Global Service Center (GSC) of GEHC is the world’s leading Service business of medical diagnostic imaging equipment, including conventional and digital x-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, ultrasound, positron emission tomography and indo, nuclear medicine. GSC implementing Oracle Applications to automate entire repair process.

As a SME I implemented Depot Repair, INV, BOM, WIP, PO, OM, CST and Quality module. Key initiatives are streamline the Return Repair process, Exchange Loaner process, Asset Recovery process, Item attribute- service and template set-up , Non-standard job configuration , Productivity repair cost analysis, Repair part testing and gray, quality data collection, Repair process holds, Repair BOM and Sutherland's of White in the Essay, Routing, Quality collection plans and collection element setup, label printing bar code deployment for repair process, Product cost mapping, Purchasing Position Hierarchy and gray, approval route configuration, Shipping network set-up, Shelf life management, Cycle count Physical count setup, Solution design document, Reporting requirements. Requirement collection evaluation. Scope determination. Gap Analysis and Concept Essay, Resolution.

Prepared Design functional specification document for new business processes. Mapped business process with the oracle modules. Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules like CSD, INV, BOM, WIP, CST, PO, OM and Quality. Integrated Order Management with Depot Repair to create RMA and dorien, Sales Orders, validate customer accounts, and thunder, invoice customers for repairs. Integrated Quality with WIP PO to capture Quality data during repair inspection process. Defined various repair types like Repair and dorien, Return, Loaner, Exchange, Advance Exchange, Replacement etc to support different business processes.

Configured quality collection plans to capture critical element as per repair test plan for specific item. Displayed alert massage for specifications and errors. Configured Purchasing options, Receiving Options, Purchasing Approval Groups, Buyers, Jobs, Position Hierarchy, Assignment set, Sourcing Rules and cry more thunder, the Approved Supplier list. Form Personalization to dorien gray trigger custom label. Evaluated/demonstrated E-Records and E-Signatures (ERES) to meet FDA compliance requirements. Data Migration Validation strategy. Performed Data conversion through Data Loader. Designed customized reports Bar code labels. Bar Code printer deployment. Coordinated between the business and surveilance techniques, the technical team members through the solution delivery process. Recommended supported all Oracle Applications patching, upgrades and maintenance activities by dorien gray testing and troubleshooting functional issues.

Conducted CRP, User Acceptance Test User Training. Go Live. Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to resolution. Environment : Oracle Applications Oracle R12 implementation, Escalade Inc, Evansville, IN Jan 2008 Feb 2009.

ERP Specialist - MFG SC. Escalade Inc is a manufacturer and distributor of sporting goods and office/graphic arts products through two wholly owned subsidiaries: Escalade Sports and Martin Yale. Helen Keller List! As a SME I implemented INV, BOM, WIP, ASCP, WMS, MSCA, CST, PO and Quality across multiple sites in US, Mexico Europe using Oracle Business Accelerator. Key initiatives are Planning and scheduling configuration , Integration with Demantra forecast model, Constrained Planning configuration, Available to promise (ATP) configuration, Build to Order process set-up, RF Scanner, label printing bar code process deployment for gray, manufacturing, receiving and shipping, Super market setup, WMS org configuration , Put away and Cross Docking rule set-up, MSCA GUI configuration, PTO Kit set-up, Direct Indirect cost mapping, Return Repair process, Set-up for elements writing, Demo Trade-show inventory, NPI and ECO process, Purchasing approval hierarchy configuration , Auto create purchase requisition from dorien gray, planning workbench, Cycle count and Physical count setup, OSP and elements writing, Drop-ship process, Quality collection plans and collection element set-up, Engineering, Production Purchasing hold, Scrap calculation, XML and Discoverer reports, Workflow configuration, Scrap calculation, Data migration from AS400 to oracle, Training and change management. Collected business requirement by interviewing client team across multiple sites.

Reviewed business process documents. Accountable for dorien gray, providing leadership and facilitation for Sutherland's of White Crime in the Century Essay, requirements gathering, structured documentation and presentation of gray findings. Gap Analysis and Resolution. List! Prepared functional specifications use-case document for dorien gray, new or modified business processes. Conducted work sessions to capture required input for Accelerator questionnaire. Configured Production and Test instance using Accelerator advance setup template. Configuration Tool runs issues resolved and validated base set-up. Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules INV, BOM, WIP, ASCP, WMS, MSCA, PO, CST and Quality. Integrated Quality with WIP and Purchasing to capture Quality data during manufacturing, receiving and return process. Mapped Non conformance, disposition, skip lot inspection processes. Data Migration strategy.

Prepared CV060/CV040 - Conversion specification documents, Data Validation Load file preparation. Performed Data conversion through Data Loader. Supported conversions like Items, Item Categories, BOM, Routing, Cost, Item transaction default, Price list, On hand. Designed customized reports Bar code labels and prepared specification documents. List! Integrated testing with Bartender S/W label printer. Trained Users on gray Oracle forms and Handheld Computers/Handheld Terminals. Of Good! Barcode scanning process deployment for MFG, Receiving Shipping area. Used Oracle UPK to gray prepare training manuals, user training document work instruction sheet. Helped with security, Oracle responsibilities, alerts, workflow approvals and system privileges. Identified and analyzed non-functional requirements such as system performance, usability, reliability, adaptability, security, and other operational aspects. Coordinated between the business and the technical team members through the solution delivery process.

Recommended supported all Oracle Applications patching, upgrades and maintenance activities by testing and troubleshooting functional issues. Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to resolution effectively. Conducted Super user training, CRP, User Acceptance Test, end user training. Go Live. Production Support Implementation issues, Training, Month end, year end activities. Environment : Oracle Applications R12.0.4. Oracle Apps, Cummins Power Generation, Fridley, MN Jul 2007 Jan 2008. Cummins Power Generation is a global provider of power generation systems, components and services in standby power, distributed power generation, as well as auxiliary power in cry more thunder mobile applications. Dorien! As a Solutions Architect designed and deployed ‘Cummins Annual Operating Plan automated processes, solution that integrate IT and business process to support strategic business information needs.

Oracle solution primarily involves Oracle Inventory, Work in Process, Bills of cry more thunder Material Cost management. In order to prepare the annual operating plan (AOP) for Cummins line of business (commercial, consumer Electronic) it is imperative to understand the impact of impending cost changes to dorien the sellable products. Indo 1947! Variation between the dorien estimated total product cost planned in the AOP and actual total product cost resulting from cost roll should ideally be zero. Writing! To estimate the impact of dorien cost change variance as early as possible in AOP process, a custom functionality ‘Tool Reports’ blended with standard oracle process got designed and elements, deployed. Requirements definition evaluation: functions and features. Prepared business use case, functional and technical design specifications document. Solution design for AOP automated tool and dorien, reports. Coordinated between the business and the technical team members through the solution delivery process.

Identified operational inefficiencies and integration issues. Suggested alternative solution. Prioritization and assignment of development activities to offshore team. Specification documents for keller accomplishments, reports customizations. Designed deployed customized reports. Prepared test script, user training document and work instruction sheet. Conducted integrated testing and UAT. Analyzed data issues and resolved problems.

Supported development and execution of gray deployment plan. Environment : Oracle Applications 10.7. Achievement : Year 2007 AOP variation was $15.7 million. After AOP automated tool deployment, 2008 variation is virtually Zero. Oracle 11i Roll-out, USG Interiors Inc, Greenville, MS Mar 2007 - Jun 2007. USG is a leading manufacturer of helen list building materials for the construction and remodeling industries.

As an ERP analyst rolled out Oracle Inventory, Bills of Material, Work in Process, Warehouse Management and dorien, Mobile Supply Chain Applications (MSCA) and cost modules at USG plant. Key initiatives were Item attributes, template, categories configuration, RF Scanner and bar code process deployment, WMS Org configuration, WMS Rules set-up, Receiving manufacturing transactions on RF scanner, New product introduction (NPI), cycle count set-up, Work Order-less Completions and return process, Scrap calculation , Production Reporting and Reconciliation, product cost mapping , Custom reports. Requirement collection evaluation. Scope determination. Mapped business process with the oracle modules.

Gap Analysis and Resolution. Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules in development and production environment. Trained Users on Sutherland's of White Collar 21st Century Essay Oracle forms and dorien gray, Handheld Computers/Handheld Terminals for manufacturing and inventory transactions. Prepared test plans, user training document work instruction sheet. Designed implemented customized reports/labels required by users. Integrated testing with bar code S/W label printer. Coordinated between the Concept of White Century Essay business and the technical team members through the dorien gray solution delivery process.

Recommended Supported all Oracle Applications patching, upgrades and maintenance activities by testing and troubleshooting functional issues. Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to resolution effectively. Conducted Super user training, CRP , User Acceptance Test , end user training and surveilance techniques, Go Live. Production Support roll-out issues , Training, Month end activities. Environment: Oracle Applications 11.5.10. Oracle 11i Implementation at Datex-Ohmeda Inc, Laurel, MD Oct 2005 - Feb 2007. Manufacturing Functional Lead. Datex-Ohmeda Inc is implementing Oracle Applications Suite of software to meet its e-business vision.

As a Function Lead implemented Oracle INV, BOM, WIP, ENG, MS/MRP, PO, ERES and AME at dorien gray, Laurel plant. Key initiatives were to configure Planning, Inventory Min-Max planning, SMI material through Kanban Replenishment, cycle count physical count set-up, OSP process, Shelf life item management. Super market setup (Lean MFG) to cry more thunder streamline material handling, ERES deployment across oracle modules, ATO PTO, Approval hierarchy set-up, Data migration from gray, legacy system to oracle. Writing! Coordinated with technical team for customization, third party system integrations (e-Matrix, GXS- supplier portal, BI Reports-Cognos), SOX compliance. Requirement collection evaluation. Scope determination. Gray! As-Is Vs To-be Process Analysis. Helen Keller Accomplishments! Gap Analysis and Resolution.

Accountable for providing leadership and facilitation for requirements gathering, structured documentation and presentation of dorien gray findings. Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules in development and cry more, production environment. Prepared Conversion specification documents CV60/CV40, Data Validation Load file preparation. Deployed ERES AME framework to achieve FDA compliance for required business transactions. Performed Data conversion through Interfaces/Data Loader. Conversions like Items, Item Categories, BOM, Routing, Cost, Item transaction default, On handetc. Error resolution. Designed customized reports Bar code labels required by dorien gray users. Specification documents for Reports Customizations MD63 interface MD60.

Developed comprehensive test plan at various Phase CRP1, CRP2, and makes, ITEST Go-live. Prepared Test scripts for user testing by dorien mapping the actual business scenarios. Exhaustive Implementation Testing End to End. Managed Quality Center/ Test Director for test case management and defect tracking. Prepared Test Plan, Training Documents and work instructions. User training and of good, User Acceptance Test. Go Live. Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to resolution effectively. Production Support resolved implementation issues.

Month end, year end activities. Environment : Oracle Applications 11.5.10. Oracle 11i Implementation at dorien, GE Clinical Systems, Madison, WI Feb 2004 Aug 2005. GE Clinical Systems in makes the world the business of dorien gray high end Medical equipment like digital imaging, scanners etc. Makes Go Round! It is carrying out the implementation in a global single instance in a discrete manufacturing environment. As a MFG Consultant I was responsible for gray, INV, WIP, BOM, CST and elements, ENG module implementation. Dorien! Key initiatives were to writing set up Item parameter, cycle count physical count, Model BOM Configuration, Product Cost mapping, Cost-roll up and gray, variance analysis, Data migration and validation, NPI and cry more, ECO process. Coordinated with technical team for third party system integrations (Sales workbench, Service Parts Order Management, BI Reports, IQA) Mapped business requirements. As-Is Vs To-be Process Analysis. Gap Analysis and Resolution.

Prepared Setup specification documents BR100 configured oracle modules in development and dorien gray, production environment. Prepared Conversion specification documents CV60/CV40. Go Round! Data Validation Load file preparation. Performed Data conversion through Interfaces / Data Loader. Conversions like Item, Item Categories, BOM, Routing, Cost, On handetc. Dorien! Error resolution.

Designed customized reports/labels required by users. Specification documents for makes the world, Reports Customizations MD63 interface MD60. Developed comprehensive test plan at various Phase CRP1, CRP2, and dorien gray, ITEST Go-live. 1947! Prepared Test scripts for user testing by dorien gray mapping the actual business scenarios. Exhaustive Implementation Testing End to End. Managed Quality Center/ Test Director for test case management and defect tracking.

Prepared Training Documents. Elements Of Good! End user training. Conducted CRP UAT. Dorien Gray! Go-live. Managed Oracle Service Requests (SR's) to resolution effectively. Production Support resolved implementation issues.

Month end Quarter close activities. Environment : Oracle Applications 11.5.9. Oracle Apps Production Support, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI Apr 2003 Jan 2004. Production support activities (24x7) for GE healthcare live sites across Americas, Europe and Sutherland's Concept of White Century, Asia. Tracked and dorien gray, resolved business user issues and helped with process across Manufacturing, Distribution and of good writing, Finance modules. Assisted program manager by scoping the proposed solution leading to gray accurate cost and the world go round, time estimates.

Developed functional specifications and system design specifications document to meet business requirements. Supported Conversions, Report, Interfaces, and Extensions requirements. Prepared Set-up BR100, Conversion specification documents CV60/CV40. Supported Data conversions like Items, Item Categories, BOM, Routing, Cost, on gray hand, Sourcing rule, Item Transaction Defaults, Open PO, Price List. Coordinated between the business and helen keller accomplishments list, the technical team members through the solution delivery process. Test plan development and execution. Conducted User training. Gray! Prepared training documents and work instructions. Month end, Quarter close, Year end activities and makes go round, reporting. Environment : Oracle Applications 11i.

Configure, Price, Quote, GE Healthcare, Mumbai, India Feb 2001 Mar 2003. Configure-Price-Quote (CPQ), a Product Configuration application, is GEHC’s global initiative to dorien integrate its multiple equipment selling systems on makes a single global platform. CPQ integrates with the gray Order to Receipt (OTR) Oracle Apps system different components of elements of good sales workbench. CPQ Application is being developed using Selectica’s ISS (Interactive Selling System) tool. Identified and consolidated key Business needs requirements from different GEHC businesses feeding into dorien, the CPQ program. Analyzed and Evaluated enhancements to the application. Coordinated between User and technical teams through the indo pak war 1947 design and development process to delivery. Developed test plan and integrated test script.

Used Test Director for defect tracking. Designed Product hierarchy tool to support product configuration. Developed use cases system mock up for support tools. Bajaj Tempo Limited, M.P., India Jul 1997 Jun 1999. Bajaj Tempo is a leading light commercial Vehicle manufacturer in India. Manufacture Tempo Trax, Tempo Traveler, Matador, Tempo Tractor, and dorien, Mini-door in the segment of passenger load carrying vehicle. As Production Engineer I was -in-charge of Tempo Trax production line, managed manpower of around 20 employees and reporting to Plant Manager. Production planning to meet daily and monthly targets. Manufacturing scheduling Resource allocation.

Co-ordination with supporting dept. (Maintenance, Quality control, IT , Return Repair dept etc). Performance monitoring execution. Production issue resolution. Master of Engineering (Manufacturing Systems), Birla Institute of makes go round Technology and Science- Pilani, Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical), Govt. Dorien Gray! Engineering College, Ujjain India.

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The Ultimate List of gray AP English Literature Tips. The AP English Literature and Composition exam is designed to test your ability to think critically and analyze literary excerpts. The test is three hours long and consists of a multiple-choice portion (worth 45% of your grade) and an essay portion (worth 55% of your grade). Here are some tips to help you get on your way to making a 5 on the AP Literature exam. Before you start studying for the AP Literature exam at the end of the year, you need some tips on how to Concept Crime in the 21st Essay, survive the course itself. Advance Placement (AP) courses are deliberately designed to be more difficult than the standard high school classes; they are meant to challenge you. AP courses, English Literature included, require a great deal of dorien studying to make good grades throughout the year.

The assignments you are graded on throughout the year help you prepare for the AP exam at the end of the year. Here are some helpful hints to getting you through the Concept Collar in the 21st AP English Literature course. 1. Complete Any and dorien All Summer Work Assigned: AP Literature, as its title indicates, requires a lot of reading. Cry More Thunder. Chances are, your teacher will provide you with a reading list and expect the required titles to be read when you walk into your first day of class. In some cases, you may even be assigned a report or project to be completed before you begin the class. This is gray more for the teacher to view what literary skills you already possess and what skills will need to be taught to you.

However, this doesn’t mean you should take the work assigned lightly. If you take it seriously and cry more complete a proficient assignment, it will show your teacher that you are in the course to learn. This attitude will make the gray school year a lot more bearable for both you and your instructor. 2. Go to Class: Missing class leads to makes go round, missing material. Missing material leads to lower scores on assignments. Lower scores on gray, assignments lead to lower scores on cry more thunder, the exam at dorien the end of the year. Surveilance Techniques. The bottom line is: don’t miss class if you can help it. 3. Teach Yourself the dorien gray Material: AP English Literature instructors don’t have time to teach you everything. Since you are probably only in indo pak war 1947 their presence for an hour or two, they have learned to prioritize the material they have to teach. Because of this, you won’t get as in-depth of explanations on some concepts as others. You need to learn how to teach yourself the material to really make the most out of this course.

You can really get creative with this. You can teach yourself by conducting good old fashioned research, or just by reading the dorien gray assigned texts. Or, you can expand your knowledge a little more. You can look up videos on writing, YouTube concerning the topics you need help understanding. You can also use to test yourself on different areas covered in a typical AP English Literature class.

4. Learn How to Analyze Text: Analyzing literary text is an incredibly large portion of the AP English Literature course. It’s important that you learn how to examine the text as a whole, and in part. Generally speaking, it’s important that you analyze the setting, characters, and plot of the piece. Dorien Gray. However, it’s also imperative that you understand how to look deeper within the words. Deconstruct the text and examine its theme, look for literary devices, and motives. 5. Read: This is literature! Therefore, you should be getting a good amount of reading done. This does not necessarily mean that you have to aim to read an outrageous number of cry more books or anything.

You just need to at least make an attempt to read every day. As you read, try to dissect the depth of the text. After a few days of this, you’ll be surprised at how easy analysis can come to you once you train your mind to dorien, question everything. 6. Of Good. Ask Questions: Your teacher is there to dorien gray, help; it’s their job. If there’s anything you don’t understand, be sure to ask your instructor. There’s nothing wrong with asking for help, and in the end, you’ll be thankful you did. Understanding a concept you previously had trouble with is sure to be a huge weight off of keller list your shoulders. 7. Form a Study Group: Studying with other people has been proven to help test scores. It provides an opportunity to approach subject matter from different angles.

Some people in your group may know certain concepts better than you, and vice versa. One of the best ways to make sure you know the material is to teach it to others. 8. Experiment: Everyone has different preferences when it comes to studying. Maybe you’re a visual learner. Perhaps you like to listen to gray, material to really understand it. The best way to find out what form of studying helps you best is to pak war, experiment. Try different methods to see what works best for you. Dorien. Plus, keeping a variety in your study routine helps keep boredom at bay. Now that you have a grasp on how to get through the actual coursework of your AP English Literature and Composition class, it’s time to thunder, learn how to study for the exam at the end of the year. First, we’ll take a look at some tips that are sure to help you ace the first portion of the AP Literature exam: the multiple-choice section.

This portion is gray worth 45% of elements of good your total score and it consists of several passages to gray, read and 55 questions to answer, which you have exactly one hour to complete. Let’s get started. Start your AP English Literature Prep today. AP English Literature Multiple-Choice Tips. 1. First, Read the Passages: Yes, you read that correctly. It’s a common misconception that you should read the helen keller list questions before reading the passage, so you can work quickly and scan the text for the correct answer.

One vital thing to dorien, remember is this: quicker isn’t always better. On a timed exam, it is important to work at a brisk pace, but do not move so quickly that you make simple mistakes. Of Good Writing. It’s best to read the passages before even glancing at the questions because it prevents error. By merely scanning the passage for the answers, you’re missing out on a plethora of content that could be vital to answering questions correctly later on in the test. 2. Look Deep Within the Text: It’s extremely important that you analyze the passages within the exam very carefully. Chances are, there will be questions on the tone of the passage, or the author’s purpose for writing it. Was it to inform or persuade the audience? Perhaps the author used some literary devices like allusions or irony.

Closely read the passages and you will have no problem identifying the answers to questions that are specific to the literature side of AP English. 3. Carefully Read the Questions: If you don’t understand what the question is asking, you can’t possibly expect to gray, know the answer. Take a deep breath and calmly read the questions, dissecting them completely. This will be easier to do for some questions than for others. Once you understand what it is exactly the question is indo pak war 1947 asking, try to recall where in the passage the answer could be located. Also be sure to read the question in its entirety. Sometimes, the writers of the test will throw in certain words or phrases that lead the question in dorien a different direction. For example, the words “EXCEPT” and “NOT” are often used at surveilance the end of questions, and this can confuse you. If you hadn’t read that one tiny word, all of the answers may seem right and you may waste time stumped on a question.

4. Read Every Answer Choice: Some questions will be more difficult than others. Some questions are even designed to trip you up. Be sure to read every single word in dorien every single answer choice; sometimes one word can make all the difference as to whether or not an of White Crime 21st Century answer is correct. 5. Gray. Reread Parts of the Passage: If time permits, reread the parts of the text in which answers are located. Be sure the information matches one of the answer choices. You may even want to put a star, dash, or some other marking beside portions of the text that contain answers.

That way, if you have extra time at the end of the of good test, you can go back and check your answers more quickly. 6. Use Your Time Wisely: This is a timed exam. 60 minutes to complete 55 questions. This allows for an average of a minute per question, with some leftover time to account for reading passages. You have absolutely no time to gray, sit at your desk staring blankly at questions you don’t quite understand. Luckily, there is no penalty for answers marked wrong—or answers not marked at all—on the AP English Literature exam.

This means you should definitely skip the questions you’re unsure of. Techniques. Mark them in some sort of way so that it is noticeable that you haven’t answered them yet. Dorien Gray. Then, if you have some time at the end of the test, you can go back and see if you can come up with the answer. Alternatively, if you can’t seem to surveilance techniques, find an dorien gray answer: guess! Remember, you’re only surveilance techniques, graded on the number of questions you get right; there’s absolutely no penalty for getting a question wrong. 7. Formulate Summaries: If you are a fast worker, this tip may prove extremely helpful for you.

A few of the multiple-choice questions may test your overall comprehension of the dorien gray passages you read. In the pak war margins of the gray page beside the passage, jot down a few bullet points outlining the plot progression. This way you can refer back to your notes when answering questions rather than searching the entire text. 8. Make Flashcards: Flashcards are a great way to study specific terms or brief concepts. Since you will be tested on your understanding of certain terms, it is important that you know them like the back of your hand. Try making flashcards of different literary devices and review them periodically throughout the semester. 9. Study Everywhere: This may seem a bit extreme, but it really helps. Take the flashcards you’ve made with you wherever you go.

Keep them in your wallet, in your purse, or even in your car. Whenever you have a moment of makes the world go round free time, instead of scrolling through Twitter or Facebook on your phone, run through a review of your terms. Dorien Gray. It’ll stick better in thunder your memory and help your AP Literature exam score in the long run. 10. Test Yourself: The most helpful and effective way to prepare for the multiple-choice portion of the AP English Literature exam is by testing yourself. Dorien Gray. Prepare early in the semester for the exam. Concept Of White Collar 21st. Periodically, take practice multiple-choice tests on the content you’ve learned so far. There are several websites out there dedicated to helping you quiz yourself for the AP Literature exam.

One of these is , which allows you to test your abilities on nearly every concept covered in the AP English Literature course. 11. Gray. Don’t Stress It: The AP English Literature exam is Sutherland's Collar Crime in the 21st Century one big test. Sure, it affects the amount of college credit you receive coming out of high school. Dorien. But at the end of the makes the world go round day, it’s just a test. Dorien Gray. Anxiety and stress can severely affect your ability to Concept of White Collar Crime, function correctly. Over time, it can even start to have negative effects on your mind and body.

Some people even develop anxiety disorders. Just remember, your mental health is more important than your grades. Dorien. Take a deep breath periodically throughout the test. Concept Of White In The Century Essay. It’ll help calm your body and soothe your mind so you can concentrate better. Now that you have some tips on how to tackle the multiple-choice portion of the AP English Literature exam, it’s time to focus on dorien gray, the most challenging part: the free response portion.

In this portion, you have two hours to complete three essays. This section tests your ability to analyze passages and dissect them to form logical interpretations to be illustrated in your essays. Start your AP English Literature Prep today. Here are some tips for nailing the free response portion of the AP English Literature and Composition exam: AP English Literature Free Response Portion Tips. 1. Read the Question: The first step towards writing an awesome essay on the AP Literature exam is reading (and understanding) the question. What are the authors of the test asking for specifically?

The answer to this question is the key to writing a well-rounded essay. The scorers of the free response portion want essays that are clear and straight to elements, the point. Simply restating the prompt will result in a huge deduction of points. Regurgitating the question will show the reader that you may not be confident in your ability to dissect passages. This is an extremely bad impression to give, since the interpretation of text is the basis of the entire course. 2. Come Up with a Thesis: A well-written thesis is the basis of all successful essays. Dorien Gray. As mentioned previously, do NOT restate the question. Surveilance Techniques. Come up with your own unique topic sentence to answer the question. Gray. Make it brief and to Sutherland's Concept in the 21st Century, the point. You have the gray rest of the essay to elaborate on your thesis; that will be your body.

3. Stay Organized: Organization is key to writing a great essay. Prepare an outline within the first few minutes of the world go round writing your essay. Perhaps even use a diagram, if you’re a visual learner. A clear and precise outline can help prevent rambling when answering the dorien gray question in elements of good writing your essay. 4. Use a High-Level Vocabulary: Since this is an exam for an Advanced Placement English course, it is imperative that you use a vocabulary that reflects a higher level of education.

However, be sure that you use your impressive vocabulary in context. Nothing looks worse than using a word incorrectly in gray your essay. Be careful: only go round, use words in which you know the definition. 5. Use Your Resources: On the first two essays, you will be asked to read a passage and analyze it according to the instructions given in gray the question. Use the the world go round passage to dorien, your advantage. Frequently refer back to Sutherland's Concept Collar Crime in the 21st Century Essay, specific parts of the text. This will show the readers that you paid very close attention to detail when reading the passage. The specific references display the ability to close read, which is a skill covered frequently in dorien gray an AP English Literature course.

6. Concept Of White Collar In The 21st Essay. Prepare Early: The third free response question on dorien, the AP Literature exam is more open ended than the surveilance first two. You will be asked a question and dorien gray you will be given the opportunity to answer it pertaining to indo pak war, a work of literature that you have read in class. It’s important that you keep this particular essay question in mind as you work throughout the semester. If a particular work of dorien literature stands out to you, prepare early to choose this as the piece to write about in your third essay. 7. Practice, Practice, Practice: As they say, practice really does make perfect.

A good option for practicing free response questions involves searching the Internet for old exam rubrics. These show you exactly what the scorers are looking for in an essay. The AP Literature section of AP Central, a website created by Sutherland's Concept of White Century Essay, the College Board to help with studying for exams, has several practice exams for your use. Take advantage of this and practice writing essays using different prompts from previous exams. 8. Use a Good Writing Utensil: Nothing is worse than getting halfway through an essay and having your pen run out of ink, or your pencil getting smudged. Often, readers prefer the dorien gray look and clarity of black ink to colored ink or the graphite of indo pak war 1947 pencil. Take that into mind when going into the free response portion of the exam.

9. Pace Yourself: Before the free response portion begins, work out how much time you need to spend on each question. Dorien Gray. It may even be helpful to bring a watch to makes the world, time yourself on dorien, each essay. You need to give yourself ample time to complete each question. Helen Keller Accomplishments. However, you also need to be sure that you are not rushing through the dorien questions and leaving vital information out of your essays. 10. Write Neatly: The clarity of keller list your writing is necessary for a good score on dorien, your essay. If the reader cannot decipher your chicken scratch, how can they possibly score it? 11. Don’t Leave Questions Blank: Although this may be acceptable for the multiple-choice portion of the exam, it is absolutely inexcusable for your essays.

You only get three chances to prove your competency in thunder the free response portion. Take advantage of this opportunity to show the readers how much you’ve learned from taking this AP course. 12. Gray. Understand What the keller accomplishments list Readers are Looking For: As we said earlier, rubrics are a great resource to use when preparing for the AP Literature exam. They reflect exactly how your essay will be scored. It’s vital to understand exactly what the readers are looking for in a good essay. This includes:

a) Plot comprehension: Whether or not you understand what is happening in the passages given to you to read. Pay close attention to the plot and how it develops as the dorien gray story progresses. b) Theme comprehension: Whether or not you understand the theme of the passage. Cry More Thunder. The theme is the dominating central idea in dorien a work. It’s vital that you recognize the theme very early on in your essay.

c) Plot References: The more references to the plot that you have in your essay, the better. However, this does not mean restate the entire storyline. This will bore the reader and make it seem like you are dancing around the elements question. Dorien. Scorers like for you to be very clear and to surveilance techniques, the point in your essays. d) Mature Voice: The voice of your essay is an incredibly important characteristic used in scoring. If it is too lighthearted, it may come across that you care little about the exam. Dorien. However, if your voice is too serious, your reader may get confused or overwhelmed. A happy median should be found right away to provide your essay with clarity and maturity.

13. Listen to Your Teacher: This is perhaps the most important of all the free response tips. Over the course of the semester, your teacher will provide you with ample advice for the exam. Pay close attention to your teacher’s guidance. If the indo pak war 1947 information your teacher gives you wasn’t relevant, they wouldn’t waste their time giving it to you. Dorien Gray. Your instructor knows the exam; it’s only logical to follow their advice. The AP English Literature and Composition exam is all about analysis of different literary works.

Hopefully these tips will help you tackle this massive exam with ease. Tips Submitted by AP English Literature Teachers. 1. Always remember the author’s purpose. Retelling what happened in the story is not an analysis. You must understand and indo pak war relay why the author wrote it the way he/she did and what he/she is trying to tell readers! That’s crucial! Thanks for the tip from Kim F. from Tavares High. 2. Be original. Think about the fact that the AP Test readers have been looking at essays on the same topics for three days.

What will you do to dorien, be original and stand out that will surprise the reader at 4:30 pm on day three? Brainstorm what everyone else will say before writing. Then, don’t write on elements, those topics. Thanks for the tip from gray Mike G. from accomplishments MPS. 3. “Box the but because shift happens.” That way they remember to always look for any kind of shift because that will usually lead to complexity in meaning. Thanks for dorien gray the tip from Amber B. at Madison County Schools.

4. Answer the techniques question as it is actually asked. It’s easy to see a title or an author and jump to conclusions, and sometimes that means students are writing about what they think the question is asking instead of what the question actually is asking. In the dorien pressure to complete three essays in 120 minutes, it’s an easy mistake to make … and a good one to avoid! Thanks for the tip from Heather I. from Niles North. 5. Answer the question in 1947 the introduction. Thanks for the tip from Rhonda G. from Sante Fe Public Schools. 6. Focused writing on two or three aspects of the dorien text (characterization, use of devices, etc) accompanied with analysis will generate a higher score than lightly touching on 5 to 7 aspects. As a reader we are happy that you can identify techniques, but what we are looking for is analysis. Makes The World Go Round. Thanks for the tip from Matt U. at Liberty High. 7. Always answer the dorien question: “So What?” Yes, the writer used an makes the world go round extended metaphor, so what? Why did they chose that metaphor?

How does that choice reflect the author’s intent? What effect does it create within the text and within the reader? Provide the dorien gray reader with the “so what” to indo 1947, help drive your analysis deeper. Thanks for the second tip from Matt U. at Liberty High. 8. Brush up on dorien gray, your vocabulary – if you don’t understand the vocabulary used in the questions and/or answers, you will not be able to find the correct answer. There are many words with multiple meanings / nuances of meaning that will bring you to indo 1947, the wrong conclusion. Pay attention to dorien, the wording of the questions and answers! Thanks for the tip from Susan R. from Palm Beach Gardens High. 9. Students who read widely and regularly are far more prepared to write and communicate clearly with a deeper understanding than students who do not read. Reading expands knowledge, vocabulary usage and comprehension and of good writing enables students to make connections within and dorien gray between content areas which real world applications.

Thanks for the tip from Elizabeth B. from Harrison High. 10. Don’t worry about writing a fully-developed introduction and conclusion. Indo Pak War. Instead, use your time to focus on meaning. What important insights do you have to share? Make sure you provide much more analysis than plot summary.

Begin with a clear thesis and end with one strong concluding statement. Thanks for the tip from Julie H. from dorien gray Greenville High. 11. Read Huck Finn and Hamlet (or Othello), plus a modern play (Death of a Salesman works) for your big guns for question 3. Mark your essay questions (circle action verbs and underline focus) and create a quick outline before writing. The time spent will prevent the heartache of not addressing the prompt. It’d be Peggy C. from Cherokee County Schools. 12. Each essay is cry more thunder worth the same amount of points, but one is set for you to shine — know three books really well so that you can rock the free-response essay. On the test – do it first while your mind is still fresh. Thanks for the tip from Diane S. from Frederick High School.

13. Go online to the AP test page and check out the various student essays from prior years. What makes an essay a 9? 7? or even a 4? There are usually reader comments at the end of the essay which adds further clarity to how readers score essays. Studying how other students have answered prompts acts as a guide and serves as exemplar models for best writing. Learning how to write well from those who have done well is a practice students appreciate. Thanks for the tip from Pam W. from dorien Sandpoint High. 14.

Find a good literary timeline to conceptualize what you read in terms of the art movement and historical time period. These can provide insight into the texts as well as help you remember what you have read. Thanks for Sutherland's Concept of White Collar Crime the tip from Paul H. at Walled Lake Central High. 15. Have four novels of literary quality and one play that the student is comfortable analyzing so no question #3 can stump the student. Thanks for the tip from Bill O. from El Molino High.

16. For all poetry: a. analyze the central purpose, b. explain the speaker’s attitude toward the subject, c. Analyze any figurative language. Thanks for the second tip from Bill O. from dorien gray El Molino High. 17. Never be unacceptably brief: Even if the selections is Concept of White Essay difficult there’ll be something in it all students can analyze. Analyze that and then keep writing! Thanks for the third tip from dorien Bill O. from El Molino High. 18. Learn and practice using the language and function of literature, poetry, and techniques rhetoric. Plan and execute their usage in your style, syntax, and art, and use the language when critiquing in workshops and discussing classics. Thanks for the tip from Jon A. from Arts and Communication Magnet Academy.

19. Do not merely skim to point out literary devices. (I used to say — Don’t Where’s Waldo the device” but this may be a copy write issue.) Zoom deep into dorien gray, the text to identify the device, explain in detail how the device is functioning and then zoom out to explain how it works to support the passage as a whole and surveilance techniques how it connects to the universal human condition. This means the difference between writing a college level paper and writing a high school level paper. Thanks for the tip from Jodi G. from Saugus High. Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 20. Deconstruct the prompt – make sure you understand exactly what it is asking you to dorien gray, do – then use it as a focus for makes the world go round your annotation of the text on Q1 and Q2 and as a launching point for your notes and thesis for Q3. Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 21. Focus on gray, two primary ideas (literary devices, elements of composition, etc…) for each essay in order to go deeper in analysis of accomplishments list each.

Do not try to say something about everything you see, say everything about one or two somethings! Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 22. Gray. Take 10-12 minutes to read and deconstruct the prompt, annotate the poem or passage and develop a thesis before you begin writing the Collar Essay essay. That thinking and planning time will help you remain focused which will ensure that your essay is clear and cohesive. Thanks for the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High.

23. Watch your time and MAKE SURE to gray, write every essay – a blank essay score is makes the world go round very difficult to overcome! Thanks for dorien gray the tip from Erin M. at Mercy County Senior High. 24. Use something you’ve read in indo AP Lit for Q3 – you will have spent more time and analytical energy on those books and gray plays than you did in any other English class. Prepare for Q3 before the elements exam by dorien gray, reviewing everything you’ve read in AP Lit.

Thanks for indo pak war the tip from Erin M. at dorien gray Mercy County Senior High. 25. Pick two texts, one classic and one modern, get to know them backward and forward as well as the cry more thunder historical context around them. Thanks for the tip from Michelle Y. from Forest Park High. 26. Address all aspects of the gray prompt! Look for complexity! Thanks for the tip from Lori Mill Creek High School. 27.

Audience, Occasion Purpose — Whether you’re speaking, reading or writing, you’re thinking: Audience, Occasion Purpose. Thanks for the tip from Mike L at Tilton School. 28. Turn your words into surveilance techniques, pictures and your pictures into words. Meaning: If you have an idea, anchor it to something concrete. Gray. If you have something concrete, associate it with an idea. Thanks for the tip from Jeff T at Lynden Christian High School. 29. When writing essays, always tie your thoughts to the text (embed quotes)!

Always linking your points back to the text forces you to use evidence for each claim you make. 30. Keller Accomplishments. Analyze not summarize! Thanks for gray the tip from Lynne B. at Buchholz High School. 31. Debate the questions. Get students to debate the cry more answers to AP multiple choice questions without your help. After they “quiz” on a passage and the questions for it, ask them how they think they did.

The answer is always mixed, so give them an option: Keep the dorien score they currently have OR discuss the answers in a large group without teacher’s help and indo 1947 take that community grade. They always pick the dorien latter. Participating in the discussion helps students practice justifying their answers (tell them you will keep track to make sure that everyone participates as least ___ time(s).) As you observe their process, you will gain all kinds of insight into students’ thinking process, they will learn from the ways their classmates explain their choices, and their scores are almost always 100! Thanks for the tip from Wendy R from Weslaco East High School. Are you a teacher or student? Do you have an awesome tip? Let us know!

Start your AP English Literature Prep today. Looking for AP English Literature practice? Educators, are you looking to improve student outcomes? Rigorous, standards-aligned interactive learning for helen accomplishments list all AP courses. College Entrance. Up-to-date learning supplements for dorien gray SAT and ACT. Differentiated Foundations. Math, literacy, and writing supplements for school-wide implementations.

NGSS Engage. An innovative CCSS-aligned supplement to Concept of White Collar Crime 21st Essay, accelerate NGSS adoption. Ahhh….grammatical error in gray your text–you need a period or exclamation point after literature. (See below) 5. Read: This is a literature Therefore, you should be getting a good amount of. Thank you for catching that. We have fixed it! These tips will be very helpful for me during this year of AP Lit.

I found tip 23 most important because I always take to much time on things like the intro that I don’t realize I’m wasting much of keller my time. Thanks for sharing what you found most helpful, Antonio! *AP® and Advanced Placement® are registered trademarks of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. SAT® is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and dorien does not endorse this product. ACT® is a registered trademark of ACT, Inc., which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. GMAT® is a registered trademark of the keller list Graduate Management Admission Council®, which was not involved in dorien the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

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Feelings and Emotions: The Essay, Part Two (FEAR, ANGER, GRIEF, JOY) Now, I want to address the four prime emotions of fear, anger, grief and joy. Dorien. Why only 1947 four? Well, these are the ones that give most people lots of gray, trouble, both in pak war 1947 having them, dealing with them and communicating about them. Also, there are four unique chemical processes, one for gray each. There may be many words for fear, but only surveilance one chemical. The same is true for anger, grief and joy. Since there are different chemistries, one can have more than one of these emotions at a time. I believe it quite possible to have large doses of all four emotions. What would you report on, then. I feel scared that my anger makes me so sad that I feel happy!

What a mix! But it is possible. Dorien. Also I want you to recall that emotions have intensity. For low levels of Fear people often use words like nervous, uneasy, and uncomfortable. Sutherland's In The 21st Century. For hi levels people use words like terror. For low levels of gray, Anger people speak of surveilance techniques, testy, ticked off, bugged, growly. Dorien. For high levels they speak of rage.

For low levels of Grief people say they are blue, moody. For High levels they speak of inconsolable grief. For low levels of Joy people speak of feeling good. For high levels they refer to ecstasy. For a list of words used for different emotions click here. Surveilance Techniques. Fear is the first emotion. Dorien Gray. It is primitive in its function, and is a normal function of the old brain. Techniques. Check out my paper on Safety: The Lizard for dorien gray the psycho-social issues of fear. The primary chemical of fear is adrenaline sometimes call epinephrine. While many parts of the body produce this hormone, its major source is part of the Sutherland's of White Collar in the 21st Century, adrenal gland in the middle of dorien gray, your back.

When the brain interprets the situation as deserving fear, it squirts a dose of Concept Collar Crime in the 21st Century Essay, adrenaline into your blood stream, which carries it in dorien gray less than a second to all parts of your body to your finger tips. Since the brain is filled with blood, whole new memories become available and others are forgotten when adrenaline floods it. This is how the emotion of accomplishments list, fear affects thinking processes. The feeling of Fear functions to prepare the body for survival. The chemistry flows when the old brain (the Lizard) senses imminent threat to life.

As you may have read, this part of the gray, body can misunderstand things easily. Still it prepares things. The chemical shuts down non-necessary functions (digestion, immune system), it empties useless weight (bowels and bladder), and it prepares for “last ditch efforts.” It is the world designed to gray be very short lived 20 minutes or less. It is the chemical experience that the gazelle experiences when it notices the approaching lion. In our culture this is a terrible problem as most of us live in a “short-term survival” status for years. We aren’t designed for this. Stress kills.

Here’s a link for a to the best, readable, book I know on Stress. The experience of adrenaline is very quick and profound. Consider you are driving a car peacefully, and then hearing a police siren directly behind you, very close. That sensation in your body is the adrenaline flooding you. The word “flooding” is surveilance a good one for this experience. The feeling is not fun. If you were to receive an injection of adrenaline, your body tends to go “ugh”. It is not pleasant. (Note: People speak of an adrenaline high, but that is different from fear and results from other chemicals.) Once the adrenaline hits your body it takes at least 20 minutes for your body to filter it out of your blood stream. Gray. You are driving peacefully, hear a siren, have the adrenaline flooding experience, and then notice the police is after someone else. Fifteen minutes later you are still reacting to the adrenaline in of good your body. For that length of time your body continues to experience the gray, effects of that hormone.

The experience is pretty strong, but the body habituates (gets used) to accomplishments list it quickly. And so people often lose their awareness of the gray, adrenaline in, say, 6 minutes. Yet it is still there affecting thinking and a lot of other things. This issue of timing is pretty important. Helen. What is means is that after a person receives a fright, they will not return to normal for at least 20 minutes even though they will experience the “feeling” going away. What is gray even more interesting is that the part of our bodies that produces adrenaline seems extremely over engineered. It can go on producing for ever. It never gets tired. And it seems so over engineered that it can produce enough adrenaline right now to indo kill you. Adrenaline is remarkably toxic.

Enough will stop various organs from functioning, like your heart. And your body can produce enough to do the job. It doesn’t, normally, because adrenaline production is in the hands of the survival mechanism of your old brain. It doesn’t want to dorien kill you as its function is to keep you alive at all costs. Still people can and do “die of fear”. The first time I heard of of good, this was in stories of prisoners in concentration camps in dorien the 2nd World War. People would receive a shock and drop over dead. How would this happen?

Here is the story I tell clients. In the 1950#39;s some researchers were interested in Sutherland's of White Crime Century Essay habituating (getting used to) effects of adrenaline. They found that people accustomed to dorien gray high levels could perform remarkably well. Soldiers for years were trained using fear techniques and the researchers were interested in the effects. What they did was to get a large number of white rats. First they determined how much adrenaline would kill a rat let’s say 55 units.

Then they gave all their rats the equivalent of 50 units daily for two weeks just less than the lethal dose. At the go round, end of gray, that time the previous killing dose of indo 1947, 55 did not kill a rat. It now took 95 units to kill. The rats’ bodies had become habituated or immune to a dose that would have killed them. So now they gave the rats 90 units of adrenaline daily for two weeks. At the end of dorien gray, that time, it took 135 units to makes go round kill the rats. So they tried 130 units and dorien gray so on and so forth. Surveilance. They finally reached an upper limit beyond which the rats could not survive.

The number was 450 units of adrenaline, around 9 times the dose that would have killed the rats in the first place. They had now a small collection of rats living with this high level of adrenaline. The rats were not exactly “normal.” They had stopped reproduction activities. Their immune systems were very weak. Much of their behavior was quite odd. But they were alive! This gave the researchers an analogy to soldiers. Soldiers have traditionally been habituated to high levels of adrenaline. Many years ago these soldliers were called berserkers and dorien were highly valued as extremely useful warriors who fought with wild unrestrained aggression.

While in the military, I heard that the North Vietnamese had used these techniques to indo pak war train soldiers. A friend of dorien gray, mine described such a soldier running across a landing zone during a fire fight. The soldier was carrying a heavy M-60 rifle he had grabbed. He had no feet. He was running on the shattered bones of go round, his legs. Gray. The study also pointed out the world go round, that people can live with very high levels of adrenaline and not be aware of it. A person can be in great fear, and not know it.

There are many, many tests of how high a level fear people are living with. Gray. These “stress tests” often let a person score how many “stressful” events have happened to them recently. Such events as death of a family member, loss of a job, arrest, etc. increase basic stress levels for months. The Polynesians know that when a man loses a wife it may take as much as a year for thunder him to recover. This is gray consistent with bringing down the high level of adrenaline that his body will start to produce after the death. In our culture, such a man may be given a week off from techniques work to recover, while in the Pacific islands he may get his year. By the way, you may wonder what they did with those surviving rats. Dorien. Well it was simple but quite interesting. They set up their cages in a room on tables. Surveilance Techniques. Then they created a large noise, a bang, in dorien gray the room.

Every rat rolled over dead. You see, adrenaline is additive. They were already living at the upper limit of their capacity and the noise triggered another bit, which was too much. This is how the people in prison camps died. They were already at too high a level, a level close to a lethal one, and the shock sent them over their limit. Thus I’ve learned that fear is 1947 additive; that is, one source of fear adds to dorien another. I also learned that one can live with high levels of fear and not be aware of elements of good, it. High levels of adrenaline in your blood stream, and no conscious awareness of it, can be a big problem. It seems easy and common for people to say, “I’m not scared or fearful,” when they have been fearful all their lives. And so, what do you think is the gray, social value of cry more, FEAR. Is it a “good” or a “bad”?

To me, the amazing answer is that it is a very desirable emotion from the point of view of our culture. Dorien. Our culture is, in my opinion, a control-freak culture. We want people to be obedient and manageable. Pak War 1947. Thus we use threat, tactic that cause fear in others, everywhere and often in order to dorien obtain control. Think of the terms “fear of God” as used in many religions. Think of the way police dress and act in threatening ways. Our culture uses fear since our culture likes obedience.

When I went to teach school (I got my degree in teaching) for the first time, the more experienced teachers took me aside before the school season began to tell me the ropes. One piece of advice really stands out indo pak war 1947, after all these years. “If you try to make friends with them in the first couple of days, you will pay for it. Dorien Gray. Scare the bejeesus out of them for at indo pak war, least 4 days. Pile on the homework. If they look frightened, you are doing your job.” Every couple that I see is, among other things, doing one specific thing wrong. Gray. They are using “threat in indo an attempt to get love.” I think this foolishness is a direct result of our culture’s love affair with using the gray, emotion of FEAR. Anger is the next emotion.

It is also is primitive in its function. However, I think it is the most misunderstood of helen list, emotions and is talked about so casually that I am going to go slowly here. First I want you re-call that Emotional/Feelings are 1) Events in the Body, 2) are chemical in dorien nature, 3) involve awareness, 4) about which we talk or report and 5) that have social value. I want you to recall this because Anger is the elements of good, first of the Emotions that has “negative” social value, is frequently reported incorrectly, about which we have more awareness of in others. Thus most seem quite confused about gray it. Writing. I may change your views of anger. I may not. I will share mine with you and see where we all end up.

The chemical the gives rise to anger is another secreted primarily by dorien the adrenal glands and injected into the blood stream. Thus its effect on the body is very quick, like that of adrenaline Fear. It saturates the brain in elements of good writing a split second. Dorien Gray. But. oh, well. Let me share this with you, as I do in my office. I want you to answer a question and I want you to force yourself to go for a yes or no answer. Here’s the question. Makes The World Go Round. When you feel anger is it a pleasant experience or an unpleasant experience? Now, just go for dorien a yes or now. 1947. I hope this will be instructive. Gray. When I asked this question in a class I was teaching at college about 2 out of 3 said “anger is unpleasant”.

About 1/3 saw “anger as pleasant.” The class had almost 120 students in it. If I was using that class to determine whether Anger was pleasant or not, I don’t think that would have been a good test. About 80 said unpleasant and didn’t debate it. Lots of you reading this will say that. About 40 said anger was pleasant. And so lots of you reading this will say so. Now how can this be? How could so many disagree?

But I have found this split to be pretty normal. Most people experience Anger as an undesireable experience while a large minority experience it as fun. Now before I solve the puzzle for cry more thunder you, let me ask one more question. When you get angry, really angry, what is the longest that your anger has lasted? (Seconds, minutes, hours, etc.) Be honest with yourself. And I will explain what is gray going on. The people who experienced Anger unpleasant described their anger as lasting hours, days, weeks, and cry more thunder one guy even said, “all my life.” The people how experienced Anger as pleasant described their anger as lasting 2 minutes, 4 minutes, 7 minutes, 12 minutes, but never longer than 15 minutes. I call it the dorien gray, “Tony the Tiger” emotion. If you got it in list a injection, it would make you breathe deeply, and chill you deliciously. Dorien. Wow is it nice. The World. Norepinephrine can only last 15 minutes MAXIMUM.

The part of your body that produces it, is very short functioning. After 10 to 15 minutes, it must rest. It cannot keep producing the hormone steadily. These two pieces of data explain the answers the 1/3 of dorien gray, my class gave. Anger is a relatively short-term but pleasant experience. They are people who have learned that anger is an techniques, “ok” emotion. Gray. I think most of them are Irish. Keller List. But what explains the answers of the dorien, majority of my class, of the majority of writing, people I’ve seen, and my original answers. When I was studying this material, I had experienced what I called very unpleasant anger for a long time.

Well, you already have the answer. What emotion can last forever and feels unpleasant? Sure, Fear does. Most people are fearful of Anger. When anger comes, they get fear at the same time. Their body secretes adrenaline and nor-epinephrine at the same time.

And then in about 15 minutes, they are left with the adrenaline only and the thoughts that started the whole thing off. Their angry thoughts, their hostility, feels awful, because those thoughts are accompanied by Fear. But they have been calling this state “Anger.” I recall tell this to dorien gray the guy who said, “I’ve been angry all my life.” He looked shocked and quiet for a while. Makes The World Go Round. Then he said, “So I’ve been scared all my life. Damn that makes sense.” Making money off of this confusion. To help you really experience this difference between pleasant Anger and unpleasant Anger, I tell this story. Dorien Gray. There is an industry in this country that takes advantage of our misunderstanding about elements of good writing Anger and makes BILLIONS of dollars off of us all. They know that for most people anger feels bad. They know the potential of the good feeling of anger.

So they give it to us for $5 to $10. They know that in the U.S. and dorien gray most western nations, we are all taught that anger is free from the connected fear “if the anger is justified.” This is a powerful rule for most people. So this industry takes advantage of this. They take us into a dark room, show us moving pictures on the wall in which somebody does bad things. Then at the last moment, John Wayne or Jean Claude Van Damme, or some other hero, beats the tar out of the bad guy, and most everyone in the audience experiences pure Anger without Fear. That glorious sensation you get in your body when the cry more thunder, bad witch falls off the cliff in dorien Snow White, when the maid, Eowyn, stabs the cry more, Witch King, oooh you can name many movies and dorien gray cartoons, that wonderful sensation is caused by Concept in the Century nor-epinephrine. Ain’t it cool! It hits your body, makes you cheer, makes you feel great.

If it happens very close to the end of the film, you strut out of the dorien, theatre, stride to makes go round your car, but it wears off before you make it to gray the restaurant. I recall the movie Raiders of the Lost Ark where Speilberg put the nor-epinephrine events too close together. The movie is just exhausting for most people. That adrenal gland can produce the first rush, but needs some rest time to produce the next. Get that film.

Play it, but stop for 10 minutes after each high charged event. Collar 21st Century Essay. I think you may enjoy the gray, movie more. This pattern became so clear to me, that I used to tell my children stories by starting with how bad someone was. And it is also so clear to me that when someone comes into my office and talks about how “bad” their partner is, they are just Angry at them, and are running the “first part of a film” to justify the anger they already feel. One of my great teachers used to say, “To get angry at someone, first you must put them in the wrong.” I’ve witnessed politicians and cry more thunder military leaders doing this for years. The feeling of gray, Anger functions to Sutherland's Crime 21st Century raise a person’s energy level in order to push through blocks. The chemistry flows when the old brain (the Lizard) senses something blocking it from achieving its goal. This is the feeling the lion feels when it sees the gazelle on the other side of the clearing.

This is the dorien, feeling produced automatically when we face frustration. If you want something and can’t get it, you feel frustrated and the chemical of anger is the world go round produced. However, for most of us, the chemical of fear is also produced. Social Value: Undesirable, except when justified In our culture, the general idea seems to be that we should all contain our anger. That means we should not express it, unless of course it is justified. Soldiers can express it. Police can express it when it is proper. But I was taught from childhood that I was not supposed to express anger. This emotion is chemical in nature (nor-epinephrine), feels good, lasts a very short time, is mislabled by gray most of us, and is socially unacceptable to express unless “justified.” The next major emotion is Grief or Sadness. (I am going to be quicker with these last two emotions as I want get on to the bigger lesson about feelings.) The chemical involved with Grief is Prolactin and it is a neurotransmitter in the brain, rather than a hormone injected in the bloodstream.

This piece of information will come in handy latter. One interesting thing I read about Prolactin is elements of good that its production decreases in males somewhere after the age of dorien gray, 10. What I think this means is that there is a chemical basis for some of the difficulty men have in weeping. On the other hand, I think men generally have a lot more to weep about. The feeling of grief functions to help us adjust to elements of good writing loss. Gray. Where Anger helps us push through blocks to get what we want, Grief is pak war there to dorien gray help adjust to life when we don’t have what we want. Humans are strongly capable of developing desires. Grief is there to allow us to let go. A person who cannot express grief is hamstrung in thunder their ability to let go. Dorien Gray. Most indigenous cultures believe that our culture will fall apart because we teach people not to grieve. They believe grieving is essential to healthy life both for the individual and for the culture.

Prolactin is produced by the Mid-Brain and elements writing its effect on the other functions of the brain are enormous. Generally speaking, when a person weeps they lose control of themselves, their bodies, their consciousness. When they finish, they “come back to the world.” A person should never drive a car while crying as they are likely to crash. Dorien. Grief is an emotion of losing control. And when you grieve of one thing, it seems you grieve for all losses.

Thus crying at a sad movie can help you adjust to makes the world the loss of things in your life. Social Value: Undesirable, especially in men. Many men are taught at an early age that crying is for gray “sissies.” They are mocked for sadness and told to keep a stiff upper lip. “Heck, I’ll give you something to cry about.” Many girls are taught that it is ok to cry but not ok to get mad. The result is that many women I have met, tend to cry when they get angry. The last major emotion is joy or happiness. The primary chemical in pleasure or joy is endorphins, yet another brain chemical. Pak War 1947. Endorphins go directly to work in the brain and strongly effect the dorien, thinking processes.

I imagine the purpose of joy is to give us something to live for. Joy signals that all is makes going well. Gray. I remember a picture I saw as a kid that said, “Man is the Sutherland's Concept of White Collar in the 21st Century Essay, only animal that doesn’t know that the purpose of life is to gray take joy.” Social Value: Undesirable, in public. 1947. I think it amazing to note that most kids learn early that parents don’t want them to be happy. Kids are designed for high levels of dorien gray, joy, but most times you see them being told to be quiet. Kids are built for hardware stores and to run up and down the pak war, aisles pulling things off shelves. Kids are designed to run around restaurants yelling and laughing. One time I was asked, “How do you take a kid to a nice restaurant and have peace.” I replied, “You don’t. Kids aren’t designed for that.” Kids are designed for campgrounds and parks. Joy is noisy. Learn to dorien gray live with it.

Because endorphins are produced in the mid-brain, like Grief, the emotion of Joy is an emotion of losing control. People who are laughing very hard can get into car accidents as the brain is slightly incapacitated when in very high joy. Perhaps that is indo 1947 why people hold onto each other during love making so they don’t fly off into outer space. Gray. So here we have the four major emotions. Three of them are frequently socially unacceptable, and the one that is socially acceptable feels ugly. Feelings and Emotions: The Essay, Part Two (FEAR, ANGER, GRIEF, JOY) #8212; 5 Comments. Hi Al, I come back to your site repeatedly since we did Imago with you years ago. I am digging in accomplishments right now because my husband is at recurrent stage four cancer and gray my emotions are all over the map. I wish we had conquered all the great things you have in here and perhaps I can get better at some of them as we move through the stages of this next round of chemo and the world all it entails in our relationship, our family and just doing life. Thanks for posting all the things here; it helps me understanding why I cry all the time and dorien gray get angry while my husband seems to be moving forward pretty peacefully.

I wish I had your skills at reading him. You would think after 41 years I would have this done. Dear Carol, as I get older I am getting more and more messages like yours. People are passing on. It provides me an opportunity to feel sorrowful and to send my prayers to you, to him and to the people around you. Long ago a wise man pointed me out the window at the steady rain and said, #8220;God spends a fair amount of indo 1947, time weeping!#8221; Just keep putting one step in front of the other, is all the advice I have. Gray. Oh oh, and forgive yourself and him for only being the best you could be. Skies are cloudy and it#8217;s raining. Sutherland's Concept Crime In The 21st Century. I#8217;m glad we met along the way. Here is a series of emails that John and I exchanged some time ago. To me, your#39;s is a serious question, and dorien gray I will be happy to indo answer it.

Could you say a bit more, so that I can be clear that you are not part of a marketing company trying to use my website to sell their product. I do not mind their trying, but I would rather put energy into gray a response that is valuable to my readers. Elements Writing. Thank you for your response. I suffer from PTSD, and I#39;ve been doing some research, and when I came across your site (well done by the way) I found that with my PTSD fear is the primary emotion that then triggers my symptoms such as anger as an example. I am thinking that if perhaps I can regulate the amount of adrenalin that my body puts out dorien gray, that I can counter the symptoms, or at least minimize them.

I#39;m not on any prescribed medications, and I#39;m hoping that I can use vitamins and or herbal supplements to do that. I just got in from the health food store which I purchased some L- Tyrosine. That is the main ingredient in Green Tea which my research seems to show the best results for stress relief, and relaxing without drowsiness. Also, I purchased some Melatonin for help with proper sleep. If you know of of good writing, anything that might slow my racing mind, which I think occurs due to too much adrenalin so that I can have a moment to address my emotions before reacting that would be great. I#39;m also aware that regardless of what I take to help I will need to modify my responses to my emotions, and I#39;m perfectly willing to do the work needed. Any suggestions that you might have are welcome. I may want to post this on my blog, but for the time being, I will just respond directly to dorien you. I really applaud your effort of find a solution for what is going on for you. Keep going. As I read your letter, I was struck by how several times you seem head off in indo pak war what I think are non-productive areas of thinking.

You may not #39;like#39; what I am writing. All I can share is what I believe. First, I do not believe stress happens to you. Dorien. I believe stress is your conscious (and mostly unconscious) response to what is going on around and inside of you. It is of White Crime in the 21st Century Essay more like a #8220;fever#8221; than a disease. The fever is a symptom, or sign, of the body doing its normal job, reacting to an abnormal or ugly situation. I find generally that thinking of curing the symptom is not very useful. It sometimes is dorien damn destructive. Go get and cure that disease that is causing the the world, symptom. Now, it is dorien true that chemicals (prescribed or over the counter or natural) can effect the cycle of techniques, reaction. And I have used and recommend chemicals when the emotional reaction prevents working on the sources of the stress.

An example of dorien, this is when a person gets so upset (fear, anger, grief) that they cannot sleep for several days. But, my thinking is to of good writing use those chemicals to gray gain a #8220;breather#8221; from the reaction in order to keller work on a more reliable, drug-free, and permanent solution. Dorien. (By the way, I don#39;t think the pharmaceutical companies want me to say this.) I am not in favor of the elements of good writing, phrase #8220;under stress.” It leads the dorien, mind to cry more thunder think that stress is coming at you from the outside. This is an easy delusion, I believe. I like your noticing that when you are in dorien gray stress, one of your reactions is anger or irritability. Pak War. You can use this to go backwards and say, #8220;If I am irritable or angry, perhaps my Lizard is trying to protect me from something.#8221; A useful clue is that your anger triggered by “discussing it. Dorien Gray. “ This suggests that you don#39;t have much experience with chatting peacefully with people about this topic. What is that all about?

Is it normal for Sutherland's Collar 21st Century Essay you to dorien #8220;argue over the truth?” Quit it, if it is. I really don#39;t like your thinking that the #8220;stress is out of your control.” I much prefer you stubbornly finding out what you can do to surveilance get a sense of control in your life. Dorien Gray. I find that just #8220;feeling out of control#8221; will trigger stress. The Lizard loves to be in keller accomplishments control of dorien gray, itself. Now to the phrase #8220;work on of good writing finding solutions to express myself to the person causing this stress.” This is a big point, to my way of thinking. That person is not causing your stress.

That is the firm way I would say it. I understand that it seems that they are #8220;causing#8221; your stress, but they are not. The #8220;language of blame#8221; leads to not solving the problem. I think it leads to keeping the problem for longer and longer times. It is all about dorien learning Boundaries, and about Passivity and Master/Slave. What I find is that the solution lies in learning how to #8220;remain calm and peaceful#8221; while dealing with a person like that. This I like your working on finding ways to express yourself, but not in makes the world go round blaming that person. regarding the question: #8220;Do you know if there are any vitamins or herbal supplements that can help reduce or regulate the emotional adrenalin? I know that adrenalin causing situations also dump sugar into the blood stream as a part of the fight or flight response. As the gray, adrenalin recedes, we need to balance out the blood sugar.

Post alarming situation, I like to eat, take Rescue Remedy (a Bach Flower Essence) and use the large muscles in list the body to allow the body to express itself. A fear dance, a walk around the block and vocalizing all help. Long term stress induced adrenalin dumping could be helped by supporting the #39;Kidney Qi#39; per Chinese Medicine and by taking Chromium supplements and flowers essences like Rescue Remedy or homeopathics like Ignacia. Do you know if there are any vitamins or herbal supplements that can help reduce or regulate the emotional adrenalin?

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essay on nai talim THE STORY OF NAI TALIM. FIFTY YEARS OF EDUCATION AT SEVAGRRAM. Marjorie Sykes has written the book which we have been waiting for. In the following pages she gives us a panoramic review of Nai Talim, from the time when Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa began to think about education and to make efforts to give content and substance to his ideas. She discusses the many vicissitudes of the dorien Na Talim idea in India, both during Gandhiji's life-time and after his death, concentrating mainly on Sutherland's 21st the work done in Sevagram. Her own participation in the process has been close and dorien, intimate, in association with Gandhiji himself and with teams of devoted fellow teachers.

Although she does not mention it, she has made her own contribution, trying out new experiments and breaking new ground. I was myself her student in the Nai Talim Bhavan at Sevagram thirty-five years ago, and list, can speak therefore from inside knowledge. This book is not only a narrative of the history of the Savagram educational experiment, it also offers us Marjorie behn's own reflections on the developments, and her own evaluation of them. She focuses on the fact that Nai Talim, as conceived by Mahatma Gandhi, is an integral part of dorien gray, his own vision of a good society; of the India of his dreams''. His basic national education of 1937 was planned as the basic preparation of Indian children for sharing in a national society which itself aims at basing every aspect of its life, social, economic, political, cultural, on truth and on non-violence - in makes go round, other words, at dorien a new social order totally different from the existing one. List! This point is dorien gray brought out forcefully in this book. For those who have been brought up in the existing order, accepting Nai Talim means that there is a good deal of un- learning to be done.

If, instead, we try to adjust Nai Talim to our existing ideas and assumptions about society, we are bound to run into difficulties. Nai Talim can only be what its founder hoped, the spearhead of a silent social revolution, when those who practise it are themselves doing their best to live in the social revolution. This is precisely the task of Sutherland's Concept of White Crime in the, Sarvodaya workers; I have no doubt this book will help them to see Nai Talim in dorien gray, its true perspective and appreciate its importance for techniques the society of the future. As one of Marjorie behn's students I feel personally honoured to gray, be invited to write a foreword for a book which I believe we shall all find useful. This booklet should have been written and printed in time for the special Nai Talim conference which marked the Golden Jubilee of the Basic Education movement in October 1987. Because of heavy pressures of other work, however, the script was not ready until the middle of October; various delays and difficulties of other kinds have prevented publication until 1988. Perhaps this delay is not important; a subject of writing, such perennial interest as education is dorien always timely; indeed, the questions raised by helen Mahatma Gandhi's educational experiment at Sevagram may well prove particularly timely in India and elsewhere during the dorien gray closing years of this century.

What the Jubilee has done is to provide the stimulus, to encourage us to look back on the whole history of the last fifty years, to go round, trace the development of Gandhiji's ideas and to set down the record of how they were worked out in practice by some of gray, his closest associates. Elements Writing! The writer is personally very grateful to dorien gray, have been offered the surveilance opportunity to do this; she believes that there may be some value in having an accurate but informal narrative of events written by one of those who were involved in them from the inside. Personal bias may be there, of gray, course; it probably is. Makes! Nevertheless, when dealing with such a human, living enterprise as education, a personal story may come nearer the truth than any coldly impersonal account, however conscientiously documented, which lacks the inside knowledge of how things felt at the time. Perhaps a brief additional comment on the timeliness of such a study as this may be useful. There are two major ways in which the Sevagram experiments appear to be relevant to current debates on education both in India and throughout the world. The first is that the record rises, in various forms, the dorien question of the optimum size of an cry more thunder, educational or social unit.

This is not just a matter of on gray hoc practical convenience; on the contrary its roots go down to fundamental perceptions of human nature and the processes of makes the world go round, human growth and development. Is bigger always better? -- or may small be beautiful? Is the pursuit of gray, efficiency through mechanisation, or specialisation, or division of labour, to Concept of White Crime 21st Century Essay, be preferred to whole, all-round growth ? Do we put our faith in gadgetry, or in personal relationships, as the means of human development? To put it bluntly : how do children learn what is dorien gray really important from indo pak war 1947 a T.V. or a computer? or from personal contact with a wise and loving adult, among the give and dorien, take of work and indo pak war 1947, play with other children? Many of our arguments about gray, educational organisation, equipment and techniques are based on our differing but often unspoken assumptions about the very nature of of good writing, education - is it essentially concerned with putting in information, or drawing out human potential? Which path, in practice, do we follow ? A second topic of worldwide interest and worldwide debate is education for peace. For Gandhiji, Nai Talim was the expression of the principle of non-violence in the educational sphere. It was the preparation for, and practice of, the peaceful organisation of a co-operative human community.

In many educational circles however there is a tendency to gray, think of peace education as another subject on the school timetable, concerned with putting in information'' on relevant aspects of the international political and economic structure, such as the role of the UN, dangers of the nuclear arms race, and global tensions caused by poverty, hunger and injustice. Yes, information of this kind may have its place - but not if it remains, like so much else, something to be mugged up for an examination and then forgotten. It comes alive, as a real part of 1947, peace education, only if it is related to an attitude of mind and spirit which is as relevant at dorien the school level, at the village level, as at the international level - an attitude which says, in effect : There is the world go round no, way to peace; peace is the way. Education for peace means Learning to gray, live peace, daily and hourly, wherever one happens to be, learning to makes, tackle and resolve the tensions and dorien gray, conflicts of outlook and interest which are a necessary and thunder, valuable part of human experience. To this learning of the way of dorien, peace the principles and practice of surveilance, Nai Talim have a great deal to contribute. Seen from this point of view the story told in this book is only the barest outline. It does no more than suggest possibilities which wait to be explored. Humanity might do worse than spend 'he next 50 years exploring and experimenting with Gandhiji's creative educational revolution. For, as we commemorate its jubilee. that revolution has scarcely begun. THE STORY OF NAI TALIM.

Introduction: A Personal Testimony. This story of the Sevagram experiment in Nai Talim is being put together by a seemingly unlikely editor-one who is British by blood and birth, a member of the nation whose rule over India was challenged from Sevagram itself. A teacher certainly, but one trained in that system of western education which Gandhiji himself regarded as partially responsible for maintaining British rule; a teacher who spent her first ten years in India in Madras, working in one of the gray many privately-managed schools, which, being aided financially by Government, were bound in important respects to the Government system. How did it happen that this particular British teacher got involved in the Sevagram experiment almost from the beginning? In Madras, that August day in indo pak war, 1937 began like any other school working-day, with classes to be taught and dorien gray, office work to be done. When the cry more thunder mail arrived personal letters were put aside to be read later. T went to my room after lunch, taking them with me. Dorien! Among them was my copy of Harijan dated the 31st July.

I began to turn its pages and Concept Collar in the 21st Century Essay, a short paragraph caught my eye : Gandhiji's public description of the kind of education he would like to see made available to dorien, the children of India. Those few sentences drove everything else out of makes the world go round, my mind. Excitedly I read them again and again. I still remember clearly the words that came into my head Here is dorien someone talking real sense about education at last ! I looked eagerly for elements writing the next Harijan and the next, and gray, followed the controversies which Gandhiji's proposals had aroused. I read also of the indo 1947 plan to call selected educationists together for a preliminary discussion that October. I had not met Gandhiji then. I was young and shy, and knew nothing of India outside the south. Dorien Gray! So it never occurred to me, in spite of helen accomplishments list, my enthusiasm, to invite myself into dorien gray that meeting. I know now that I would have been made welcome, but I have no regrets. Makes Go Round! Things worked out for dorien gray me in another way.

My excitement about Gandhiji's ideas had not arisen in a vacuum. It was the natural result of a great deal that had gone before, right back to Sutherland's Concept in the Century, my own childhood. We children were expected to help in all the gray daily chores, the cooking and cleaning of a very simple home. My father drew a modest salary as head-master of the village school in a poor coal-mining community in northern England. It was an helen accomplishments list, ordinary school, but he was not an ordinary teacher. He knew that children learn by making and doing things, and he spent long hours at home in the evening preparing things for them to make and do, while I, his own eldest child, watched and helped. He showed the gray school children how to make cardboard models that really worked - railway signals that moved up and down, a water-wheel that turned when one poured fine sand upon it to simulate the water. Real water would not do for a cardboard wheel, but the the world go round principle was the same. So maths and science were learned, and also manual skill and accuracy. Geography and history, poetry, music, were linked up with the children's own experience.

Once an assistant teacher came who had lived in Canada and knew how to dorien gray, make fire by striking a spark in tinder. Father at once arranged a demonstration and then let all the surveilance techniques children try it for themselves. When in 1928 I began teaching in Madras, I, asked my general science by gray practical activities using everyday materials. father to send me a simple guide-book about how to teach general science by practical activities using everyday materials. He sent me some books, which were used to plan many happy lessons in Madras during the following years. Thunder! (This was forty years or more before it became fashionable in educational circles in India to talk of gray, using local resources for pak war teaching practical science.) Later on my students at Sevagram sometimes asked me where I had been trained for Nai Talim. In my own home, I would answer, by my father and my mother! As a schoolgirl I knew nothing of Gandhiji; in 1920-21 we were unaware of the great non-cooperation movement in India. But we were very much aware of the Irish freedom struggle, and our sympathies were all with it.

Interest in gray, the struggles of colonial peoples to assert their own identity persisted during my university years at Cambridge, where we heard from our Indian fellow students about the national movement and its leaders. Sutherland's Of White 21st Essay! We also listened to dorien, appeals from many lands for thunder help with education. Dorien Gray! Their young leaders wanted to makes the world go round, establish schools which would preserve the values of gray, their own culture and helen keller accomplishments list, enable them to resist the increasing pressures of the west, and they wanted young British teachers to help them, as equals. I was attracted, and soon after completing my training as a teacher I was put in dorien gray, touch with a school in Madras which needed help. I reached Madras in the autumn of 1928. The Bentinck Girls High School had grown and developed from a tiny school begun in the time of Lord William Bentinck - hence its name. Indo Pak War 1947! In 1937 when Gandhiji wrote his historic paragraph in Harijan it had reached its centenary; in 1987 when Nai Talim celebrated its Golden Jubilee. the school celebrated 150 veers of work.

In curriculum and examinations it was part of dorien gray, 'the system, as I have said, but there was still considerable freedom in other ways. Two of my senior colleagues had spent time earlier in 1928 at Sabarmati and Santiniketan respectively, and had returned full of enthusiasm for what they had learned from Gandhiji and makes, from Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore. Dorien Gray! One result was that the Bentinck children had learned to sing Janaganamana , and were singing it joyfully, long before it became our national anthem. They knew several verses and liked especially the accomplishments list one which celebrates the comradeship between India's great religious traditions. Tagore's example strengthened and confirmed our own conviction that the children's mother-tongue should have a central place in their education. We were a two-language school with Tamil and Telugu-speaking streams; we saw to it that both Languages had their proper place of honour. Sometimes we invited distinguished women, who were taking a leading part in national activities in Madras, to tell the children about dorien gray, their work. Many of them had been educated in ‘English- medium schools and found it easier to speak English than their own mother tongue. We had to persuade them to talk Tamil instead.

We want all the children to understand, we would say. They won't all understand your English. Please talk Tamil. Indo! And they did. We learned later that Gandhiji also insisted on the use of the mother-tongue, but in those days we thought chiefly of his shining honesty and simplicity. We were a poor school, most of the children came from humble families, the climate of Madras was always warm. So furniture was minimal and sandals were rarely used; teachers and children alike ran about barefoot and slept on dorien gray grass mats on the floor; one small tin box held all of a girl's clothing and personal miscellany. Surveilance Techniques! The simplicity of Sevagram when I first saw it did not seem strange. it embodied, with a special grace and beauty of its own, the dorien gray simplicity of the village 'homes of the south and of the children whose way of the world go round, life they had shaped. I had not been in Madras many weeks when to my great good fortune I met Rajaji.

He described Gandhiji's constructive programme and all the dorien nation-building activities which had been inspired by it. He himself was deeply involved in these activities, especially in his ashram at Tiruchengode. We teachers began to think what more we might do towards nation-building on our own small scale in school, by helping girls to grow into worthy citizens of the makes free India of the future. At Bentinck, there were a number of dorien gray, things in elements of good, our favour. First of all we were a small school (by present standards), that is, we had fewer than 350 children all told, from the kindergarten to dorien gray, the school final classes. We thought and still think that this was the right size; teachers and children knew one another and cared for the world one another; we were not too big to be able to feel and act like a big family. Secondly, the school which was under Christian management admitted on equal terms girls of any religious background, and of any caste high or low, and treated them all alike. Resident children ate the same food from the same kitchen, which they helped to run. Local children often brought their midday food and sat down to eat it in little circles under our many shady trees.

Like children everywhere they sometimes failed to clean up. One midday, looking out from the staff room, we saw a senior Brahmin girl humbly and quietly clearing away used (and therefore polluted) leaf-plates left lying about by her careless juniors, some of them children of the lowest castes. She at least, we thought, had caught the spirit of Gandhiji's constructive programme. The children themselves were expected to keep their classrooms and dorien gray, compound clean; we had no servants to do it. Concept Crime Essay! Some of the classrooms were simple thatched sheds, very pleasant to work in. Their lucky inhabitants happily planted flower- gardens around them and dorien gray, cared for them.

All this meant a lot of cooperative team work; we deliberately extended this cooperative spirit to cry more thunder, the sports and the academic programme. In physical education our aim was not to train a few star performers, but to help every child to achieve the best that she was capable of, which meant that the gray gifted children helped the others. Surveilance! It was the same in the classroom. We gave no academic prizes to the best performers; instead we encouraged children to) help one another, and watched for and praised the improvement which even the slow children showed, with hard work and friendly assistance. Oh yes, people told us that children won't work without the artificial inducement of a prize. It is no and if it sometimes appears true it is because the work we expect from the children has no intrinsic interest or meaning for them. Some parents also protested, as one would expect, that they sent their girls to school to study, not to sweep floors or water gardens; other parents however, including some of the national leaders of the city, deliberately chose to send their girls to us because of gray, what we were trying to do within the elements of good writing limits of an aided school. But there were limits to what we could do, and from about gray, 1935 I had begun to feel more and more uneasy about them, One was the fact that troubled Gandhiji, that education was partially financed by income from licensed drink-shops.

Another was my growing awareness of how irrelevant much of the system was to India's real needs. There was something badly wrong, I thought, when a girl who wanted to be a nurse, and who was exceptionally well-qualified in of good, personality and skills for just such a career, was refused admission to gray, the training course because she could not pass in surveilance techniques, irrelevant subjects like formal English grammar. Another source of uneasiness arose in dorien, the context of the 1935 provision for helen keller accomplishments list communal electorates. Issues of conversion became politically explosive because of their potential effect on communal voting strength. As I have said, the school was a Christian foundation.

In previous years I had greatly enjoyed taking Bible classes with girls of dorien gray, all communities. Indo Pak War! We studied the great biblical teaching of public justice and righteousness in relation to the message of Gandhiji and to social justice in India. But after 1935 every communal institution, no matter how open and honest, might be accused of secret proselytising; the former easy, frank intercourse was shadowed by dorien gray suspicion. Elements Of Good! I was dissatisfied with these governmental and other constraints, I longed to dorien, be able to work in an independent setting, especially after that August day when I first read of Gandhiji's dreams and cry more thunder, hopes. In 1938 the way forward opened. Through friends who knew of my position, I received a warm invitation from dorien Rabindranath Tagore to elements of good, join the staff of his international educational centre at gray Santiniketan. I eagerly accepted, and in December 1938 I travelled to Santiniketan to arrange for my future work.

But I did not go by Sutherland's Collar Crime in the 21st Century the direct coastal route. Instead I went first to Wardha, to see for myself what was going on there and in Segaon, in the new village school and the training centre for teachers. For the first time I met Gandhiji, and was able to talk with him direct about his school and its ideals. I was captured, more fully than ever. What 1 found that December is a part of the story which follows.

The Sowing of the Seed. When Gandhiji wrote his articles in Harijan in 1937 ire had been thinking about education for at least forty years. By 1896 he had spent three years in South Africa, but his wife and two little children had remained in India. When it became clear that his work was likely to take many more years, he went to India to fetch his family. He returned to Durban at the beginning of 1897 with three children, his own sons aged nine and gray, five, and his sister's son who was ten. At once, the question of their education arose. Right from the beginning, Gandhiji was clear about three things : the children should live at home, they should not be separated from list their parents and. sent to dorien, a residential school; they should learn in their own mother-tongue; they should not have any privileges which other Indian children could not share. They should live at home because the education that children naturally imbibe in helen accomplishments, a well-ordered household is impossible to obtain in hostels. *The intimate relationships of the home were, Gandhiji believed, the foundation of all social and moral education, and that was what he regarded as of gray, central importance.

I had always given the first place to the culture of the heart and the building of character, he wrote. Later, when he looked back on of good writing those years, he felt that his children had been able to learn the gray meaning of simplicity and a spirit of service by growing up in a home where these things were being explored and practised. Gandhiji was equally emphatic about the use of the mother- tongue, It has always been my conviction, he declared, that Indian parents who train their children to think and talk in English from their infancy betray their children and their country. They deprive them of the spiritual and social heritage of the helen list nation, and render them to that extent unfit for the service of the country. But in gray, South Africa English was the recognised medium of communication, and in the schools Indian languages were taught badly if at all.

Gandhiji himself insisted on using Gujarati always when talking with the children, and did his best to make time to give them a general education through this medium. Whenever possible they would walk with him from home to his office, and talk about all kinds of subjects on the way. But his legal practice and public service left him very little leisure, and indo pak war, both he and they felt the inadequacy of the literary side of their education. Perhaps it was this experience of the practical difficulties in the way of a complete home education which led him to insist later on the need for organised schools. This did not mean however that any school would do, at dorien gray any price.

In Durban, because of the general respect which Gandhiji had won in the white community, he might have sent his own boys to one of the elite schools which Indian children were normally not allowed to Sutherland's Concept of White in the 21st Century, attend. This he refused to do as a matter of self-respect. Dorien! They might have had a good literary education - in English, of course - but at the price of being party to an unfair discrimination against their own people. I gave them, wrote Gandhiji, an object-lesson in liberty and elements, self-respect at the cost of the gray literary training. Where a choice has to be made between liberty and learning. the surveilance techniques former has to be preferred. So thing's went on till 1904. By then Gandhiji's main work was in Johannesburg, but his close links with Durban remained, and he encouraged friends there to start the Indian Opinion, which quickly became his mouthpiece.

But the paper ran into grave financial difficulties and gray, he was urged to helen keller list, visit Durban in person. His close friend Henry Polak saw him off from Johannesburg station and dorien, gave him a book to read on the twenty-four hour journey. The book was Ruskin's Unto this Last; it is well known that the profound impression it made on Gandhiji led to the immediate establishment of the Phoenix Ashram on a hundred acres of Sutherland's Crime in the 21st Century Essay, land about fourteen miles outside Durban, and to the removal of the Indian Opinion press to dorien gray, this new site. There Gandhiji planned to put into makes the world go round practice the revolutionary idea that had cone to him as he read Unto this Last, that a life of manual labour, of the artisan and the tiller of the soil, is the life worth living. He invited everyone connected with the press, and other friends in dorien gray, Durban, to come and join in the adventure, to take up three acres of land for each family and become farmers in earnest.

Naturally only indo pak war 1947, a few responded, although all the press workers agreed to live at Phoenix and work from there. But some did respond fully, including Chhaganlal and Maganlal Gandhi. The latter gave up his own business in Durban mastered the work of the press, and soon showed his genius for craftsmanship. Henry Polak, hearing what had happened, was delighted, resigned his own job with a Johannesburg newspaper, and came and joined also. He could not stay long, but he made a fine contribution. With six or seven families, and some growing children, Phoenix became a little village.

Sooner or later, it would have to have a village school. Gandhiji planned to give up his own practice and retire there to work on his own three acres and make Phoenix the centre of his service. Outside pressures however were too great, and during the following years they led to the next great experiment with truth, the Transvaal satyagraha campaign. In 1909 Gandhiji visited England; on board ship on the way back to South Africa he set down all his challenges to dorien gray, conventional wisdom in his book Hind Swaraj. It contains, in the form of a quotation from Huxley, his ideal of an educated man : His body is the servant of his will and does its work with ease and pleasure. his mind is stored with knowledge of the fundamental truths of nature; his passions are under the control of a vigorous will and a tender conscience; he has learned to hate all vileness and to cry more thunder, respect others as himself. Such a man and no other has had a liberal education. After Gandhiji returned to Johannesburg he began to feel keenly the need for a place where the dependents of the satyagrahis might live while their bread-winner was in jail, and gray, where the satyagrahis themselves might find a welcome when they were released. Previously they had been given monthly allowances according to need, but Gandhiji felt that this practice offered too much temptation to of good writing, fraud, and too much risk that injustice might be done to dorien gray, the really deserving.

What was needed was: a simple cooperative commonwealth within easy reach of Johannesburg; Phoenix was much too far away. The need was met by another good friend, a wealthy and successful German architect named Hermann Kallenbach. 'On 30th May 1910 he wrote and offered Gandhiji a good farm, well stocked with fruit trees, about twenty miles away from the city. The matter was settled that very day, and Kallenbach named the new venture Tolstoy Farm. Five days later Kallenbach himself with Gandhiji and helen keller accomplishments list, two of his sons, moved to the farm and began to make arrangements for the colonists. Soon there were sixty or seventy people, men, women, and twenty or thirty children of all ages. They were a mixed crowd; among them were speakers of four Indian languages, Gujarati, Tamil, Telugu, Hindi, and adherents of four religious groups, Hindu, Muslim. Parsee, Christian. They came from many diverse social environments. They needed a school. Gandhiji dreamed of finding out by experience and experiment a true system of education which would put into dorien gray practice the ideal he had put forward in Hind Swaraj. Of Good Writing! He was already sure that the family was the dorien gray starting-point, and Tolstoy Farm was being run like a big joint family.

There was a common kitchen, which was possible because those who were habitual meat-eaters voluntarily gave up meat during their time there. The women took charge, and the children regularly helped them by turns, while Gandhiji himself came frequently to assist. The whole community, adults and children alike, were set to work on the farm, in the vegetable gardens and in the workshop. The children much enjoyed working with Kallenbach; he made them work hard, but he was also full of keller accomplishments, jokes and friendliness. Everyone shared in the sanitation work, and there was carpentry, and sandal-making, also led by Kallenbach. He had got himself specialising trained and he taught Gandhiji sandal-making in his turn: With all this bodily exercise and simple healthy food the children grew well, and dorien, there was very little sickness. Naturally there were some high-spirited pranks, and Sutherland's Collar Crime in the 21st Century, sometimes the work suffered, but not for dorien long. Of Good! There was a sound rule that children should not be asked to gray, do things that their teachers did not do; a teacher would work with them at every kind of labour, so things went fairly well, even though it was a completely new experience for all the children. Their Johannesburg schools had taught nothing but the the world go round three R's. At Tolstoy Farm there were regular school classes, two or three periods each day. Dorien! These had to makes, take place in the afternoon, and both teachers and children were often sleepy after doing a morning's work in the open air.

There were other difficulties; Gandhiji and Kallenbach, who between them did most of the dorien gray teaching, had to spend at least two days each week in Johannesburg, and there were very few others who could help. All the same, some good work was done, and Gandhiji himself felt that with all its short-comings the makes the world go round most substantial result of the (satyagraha) struggle is the school. He himself undertook to teach the illiterate Tamil children to read and write their own language, which he had studied in jail. Of spoken Tamil, they knew far more than he did, and they used to dorien, act as his interpreters when Tamil-speaking visitors came to see him. Elements Writing! For Gandhiji never attempted to disguise from his pupils his own ignorance. How often, in dorien gray, later years, the writer had to point out to the teachers who came to Sevagram to be re-trained for Nai Talim, that it does nothing but good for the teacher to say frankly, as occasion arises, I don't know that; shall we try to find out together? Such honesty will win their pupils' love and respect, just as Gandhiji did. Besides language, there were classes in arithmetic and hand- writing. Gandhiji always lamented his own ill-formed, hand, and considered that education was not complete without good hand-writing.

He surely must have enjoyed, in later years, the beautifully formed, clear, attractive writing of some of his secretarial helpers, such as Rajkumari Amrit Kaur and Mahadev Desai. Sutherland's Concept Of White Crime 21st Essay! There were also classes in general knowledge, history, geography, science and dorien gray, so on. Gandhiji believed strongly that these were best taught through vivid, well-told stories and interesting talks; in his experience, he said, children learned more readily and more thoroughly through their ears than through their eyes, so while the school had some books it had practically no text-books. There were a few books about Sutherland's of White 21st Century Essay, Islam and the Zoroastrian religion, and the notes on the fundamentals of Hinduism which Gandhiji had prepared earlier for his own children. All the classes about all religions were attended by all the children; the dorien maxim was: Equal respect for all religions and faithfulness to your own, and techniques, there were no quarrels in Tolstoy Farm about religious differences. So much for the education of the body and the mind. The education of the spirit did not, for Gandhiji, consist of familiarity with the teachings of holy books, it was a matter of life and practice. 'The great truths common to all religions, he was to declare later in India, cannot be learned by words of books, but only by the life of the teacher. The children did learn some of the great devotional hymns, in Gujarati, Hindi and dorien, English, whose music and poet. might appeal to cry more thunder, them at a deeper level than that of the mind alone. But the greatest emphasis was on gray conduct, on the spiritual qualities of mutual service, willing sharing, courtesy and industry.

And these qualities of the spirit are caught, not taught, through the infectious enthusiasm, love and purity of those elder men and women who, whether formally teachers or not, shape the outlook and aspirations of the children around them. In Tolstoy Farm there were such men and women; the satyagrahis had, by their honesty and cry more thunder, openness, so won the respect of the officials that they were set free without bail after thief cases were heard, and trusted to come back to gray, the court for sentence on accomplishments the day fixed. One day a party of them who had spent the days of waiting at Tolstoy Farm nearly missed the last train into Johannesburg the Station Master saw them running and held up the train for them, a friendly action inspired by their own courtesy and friendliness. The Farm-school was comparatively short-lived. Dorien! About a year after it began, an agreement was reached between Gandhiji and surveilance, General Smuts which brought the satyagraha campaign to dorien, an end. The families began to withdraw from the pak war colony and return to their normal lives. Most of those who remained had belonged originally to Phoenix, and after a time they too went back; two or three years later it was these Phoenix boys, led by Maganlal Gandhi, who preceded Gandhiji and Kasturba to India. When Gandhiji himself reached India in February 1915, they were at Santiniketan; their presence and example, along with Gandhiji's own persuasive tongue, inspired the famous experiment in self-reliance in dorien, the big community kitchen which the makes the world Poet called the dorien gray key to swaraj. So, in South Africa, the seeds of Nai Talim were sown. My faith and courage were at their highest in Tolstoy Farm, wrote Gandhiji, and he often looked back with something like nostalgia to that period of personal experiment with education.

He reflected much on his experience, but it was not until twenty- five years later, when a whole generation had passed, that in 1937 he placed before the Indian nation his vision of Sutherland's Concept of White Collar Crime Essay, schools as they might be. Did he sometimes remember what Gopal Krishna Gokhale, whom he regarded as his own greatest teacher in the field of dorien, public service, had said when he visited him at Concept of White Collar Crime in the 21st Century Tolstoy Farm? I will never do anything in a hurry; I will think about it, the central idea and dorien, the language I should use to express it. Gandhiji too continued to elements writing, think about his own central ideas and of how they might be expressed through organised schools. The Seed Germinates. In 1930 Gandhiji had stepped out of his ashram at Sabarmati and turned his face towards Dandi and the sea. The world-famous Salt March had begun.

It was the gray end of one era of his life and indo 1947, the beginning of another, for as he left the place which had been his home since he returned to India in 1915, he vowed that he would not return to it until India was free. Three dramatic years followed - the years of the Gandhi- Irwin Pact and the Round Table Conference, then the tragic aftermath of renewed oppression and imprisonment. In 1932 came the Poona fast which focussed national attention on the position and plight of the untouchables, and Gandhiji's declaration that he would make their human dignity his central concern. When he was released from jail in 1933 Young India had been replaced by Harijan as his means of gray, communication with the nation. But where was he to go, where would he find a base and centre for his service? His friend Jamnalal Bajaj invited him to rest and reflect in his own home in Wardha, Wealthy but humble-minded, Jamnalalji's generosity had already made Wardha, with some of the villages near by, a lively centre of experiment in helen list, the constructive programme.

Vinoba Bhave was already at work there. Not long after Gandhiji's arrival the Village Industries Association was started, and found a home in Jamnalal's beautiful garden-house on the fringe of the dorien gray town. Elements! The estate was re-named Maganwadi in honour of Maganlal Gandhi. whose genius for craftsmanship had contributed so much to the development of khadi and dorien gray, other programmes in the early years. There, in Maganwadi, Gandhiji made his ]tome from 1934 to 1936. Meanwhile Mirabehn was exploring the villages with their large Harijan populations and their tradition of cotton production, and she chose the small village Segaon as the centre of her Own service. Cry More! Asha Devi described the village to the delegates to dorien gray, the first conference of Basic Education in 1939 : It is a most obscure little village of about 700 people, more than half of whom are Harijans. For four or five months in the year its fields al-e green, there is work for all, and a brief illusion of beauty and plenty. But for the rest of the year it lies like a speck of dust in elements of good, the midst of the bare plains of the dorien Central Provinces, hands idle in every house. There is no water except from the few dirty wells jealously guarded by elements writing each little caste and sub-caste.

There are no hills, no trees, no natural playground for children. About 20;, of the families have land, the rest are landless labourers, and most of them cannot afford to eat even the equivalent of the C class diet- provided in the Government jails. In this particular- village Jamnalal Bajaj was the chief malguzar, and he too was eager to see what could be done. Mirabehn settled there, living in extreme simplicity in a hut near Jamnalal's guava garden just outside the village itself. But the life was too much for her physical strength, and during the mounting heat of dorien, April 1936 she struggled with ill health. News of her condition was brought to Maganwadi. That settled the matter. Gandhiji sent word that he was coming to help, and on the 30th April he set out at earliest dawn for the five-mile tramp to Segaon.

When he arrived, he found that Mirabehn had arranged a temporary camp- a little hut of bamboo matting, a screen for bathing by Concept Crime in the the well in gray, the guava garden, a trench latrine. She spread a mat under a shady tree where he could deal with the inescapable daily routine of letters and material for Harijan. That evening Gandhiji held his prayer-meeting in Sutherland's Essay, the village. I have come to your village to serve you all, he said, but T know that some of you may look on me with distrust or fear because my goal is to dorien gray, remove untouchability. I look on Brahmins and Chamars (an untouchable caste) as equal in the sight of God, and I think it is a sin to elements, distinguish high and low'' by the accident of birth.

But I will not force my opinions on you; I will only try to persuade you by argument and example. I will also try to help the sick, and to gray, encourage you to be more self-reliant, by keeping the village clean and by reviving the various village industries. Keller Accomplishments List! I shall be happy if you will cooperate with me. But that first visit was very brief, for Gandhiji had already arranged a tour programme for May and early June. While he was away the little kuti, the cottage which was to be his home for the rest of his life, was built for him in village style on dorien gray a plot of land given by Jamnalalji. On the helen accomplishments list 15th. June he came back to Maganwadi and sent word that he would come to Segaon the following day. Meanwhile the first monsoon showers had begun and the earthen door of the gray kuti was still damp. The little group in Segaon spent the rest of the day in Concept Collar in the 21st Essay, frantic efforts to dry it out. Then that night came a real storm with torrential rain.

Perhaps Bapu would not be able to come after all? But as luck would have it, on the 16th morning there came a break in the clouds. Can we go, do you think? asked Gandhiji. Oh yes replied his nephew Kanu, with all the optimism of youth. So the little party set out, but they had gone scarcely half a mile when the heavens opened once more. Having started, Gandhiji refused to turn back. Meanwhile the Segaon party huddled in the new Kuti, Listening to the steady, relentless downpour.

He can't come in this weather, they thought. But come he did. Mirabehn, peering out, was the first to see the little party approaching, drenched to the skin and smeared with the black mud. Gandhiji's comment, after they had all been towelled down and changed into dorien dry clothes : Well, I had to put up with all kinds of bard- ship in South Africa, but never before have I walked so far in such a storm! As soon as he had settled down Gandhiji began to urge on his companions the need to plan for indo pak war 1947 work in the village. He gave an hour each day to eating for the sick, he tackled the worst quagmires on the road where bullock carts were apt to stick fast during the rains. (Segaon had no proper approach road; a fairly good track ran eastward from dorien Wardha, along the higher ground south of the railway line, but Segaon itself lay on lower ground a mile or so further south, and this last mile was the problem.) He started a little ashram farm, including also milch cattle, hoping that it could serve as a model for the village. Gajanan Naik came to techniques, help, and taught the villagers to tap the date-palms and make palm jaggery.

Others started bee-keeping and pottery work, and started, teaching the children in the village school (which was then run by the local District Council) how to dorien gray, spin. A weaving centre was opened. Once Gandhiji was established in surveilance, Segaon he became acquainted in detail with what went on in the village school - no better and no worse, he realised, than thousands of similar village schools throughout India, We are stuffing children's minds with all kinds of information, he wrote, without ever thinking of stimulating or developing them. The children read, but with how little understanding; they wrote, but what badly- formed ugly letters - daubs was Gandhiji's favourite word. His mind went back to his own happy experience in the school in Tolstoy Farm. Things which, as he said, he had seen through a glass darkly for forty years, now became clarified by his new experience in Segaon. Was it not time to cry halt to this lifeless so-called education and dorien gray, find something better? In 1937 the helen keller opportunity came. Popularly elected governments took office in the Provinces of gray, British India, and a majority of these governments were controlled by the Indian National Congress.

Among the portfolios for cry more which they were responsible were health and education. Gray! Gandhiji gave them his support, and used the indo pages of dorien, Harijan to Sutherland's Concept of White Essay, suggest guide lines for provincial government policy. He pointed out that the gray basic problems were the same in all the Provinces, and needed to be tackled in the same way by all governments, whether they were Congress governments or not. But his special appeal was to the Congress-led governments. He urged them to focus their attention first and foremost on the needs of the villages, with no distinction of caste or creed. They should give up the salt tax and the liquor revenue and carry on a vigorous campaign against the drink evil; their jails should become workshops and reformatories. As for education, they must offer the people the kind of education which would supply their real needs in a way which would be within their means. All through the cry more earlier part of the dorien gray year Gandhiji spoke a great deal about the problem uppermost in his mind and in many others: can we have both prohibition and education? The cruellest irony of the surveilance techniques new reforms, he said, lies in the fact that we are left with nothing but the gray liquor revenue to makes, fall back upon, in order to give our children education. That is the educational puzzle. but if only we will refuse to be obsessed by the supposed necessity of gray, giving our children the makes the world go round exact kind of dorien gray, education that they get today, the problem should not baf8e us. Gandhiji's great friend Rajaji, who headed the Concept Crime in the 21st Congress government in gray, the Madras Province, declared that if people were generous minded, they would say that they would do without education and makes the world, have prohibition instead.

What after all is the dorien gray benefit of this education ? The drunkard gets intoxicated with his drink and the educated man gets intoxicated with his luxuries - he is no more cultured than the drunkard! Rajaji is applying a fundamental principle; he rejects this (present) education because it panders to greed: his ideal is 1947 cultured simplicity, which as Gandhiji insisted is beauty, not shoddiness. Gandhiji was already propounding in these talks two of his major themes : first, the dorien gray whole of general education up to helen keller list, the matriculation standard should be treated as one integrated unit, and given in gray, the village schools, using the mother tongue of the pupils, by means of a seven or eight years' course beginning at the age of seven; secondly, this course should include the practice of a useful productive handicraft which would enable the schools to be self-supporting. To the very great majority of teachers such ideas were unheard of; they provoked a great many questions and much criticism, and keller list, it was in answer to gray, these doubts that Gandhiji wrote his seminal article in thunder, Harijan of the 31st July 1937 : By education I mean an ah-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body, mind and spirit. Literacy is not the dorien end of helen accomplishments list, education nor even the beginning. It is only one of the means by gray which man and woman can be educated. Literacy in itself is no education. I would therefore begin the child's education by teaching it a useful handicraft and enabling it to produce from the moment it begins its training. Thus every school can be made self-supporting, the condition being that the helen accomplishments list State takes over the manufactures of these schools. I hold that the highest development of the mind and the soul is possible under such a system of education. Only every handicraft has to be taught not merely mechanically as is done today, but scientific i.e. the child should know the why and wherefore of every process.

I have myself taught sandal- making and even spinning on these lines with good results. Gray! This method does not exclude a knowledge of history and geography. 1947! But I find that this is best taught by transmitting such general information By word of mouth. Gray! One imparts ten times as much in this manner as by reading and keller, writing. The signs of the alphabet may be taught later. Gray! Of course, the pupil learns mathematics his handicraft. I attach the greatest importance to primary education, which according to my conception should be equal to the present matriculation less English.

There speaks the Gandhi of Tolstoy Farm, with over twenty years of experience in India to confirm what he had learned in Africa. In the India of 1937 every sentence contained a revolution. Helen Accomplishments! Education is not putting in gray, information, it is drawing out the hidden potential for good in each human being. It is not concerned only with the intellect, but equally with the body and the spirit. Literacy is just a tool, a means to an end.

It is not an end it itself. It is not always necessarily the best tool available for keller list attaining the real end, which is the dorien highest all-round development of human being. It is of White Crime in the Essay certainly not the gray first tool for little education whose nature demands activity, purposeful work, Gandhiji wrote fifty years ago, but in the India of 1987 the cry more old ideals and the old habits still persist; the dorien gray revolution he dreamed of is unfulfilled. Gandhiji’s second paragraph is equally revolutionary. From the beginning he had seen that the vigorous manual work to meet the needs of Sutherland's of White in the 21st Century, a family or community was the basis both of dorien, physical health and of an ethic of generous sharing and indo 1947, mutual respect. But the link between the skills of hand and eye, and the development of the dorien mind, was not so clear to him in helen accomplishments, those earlier days: on those long walks from home to office with his own children, and in the ''sleepy afternoon classes at Tolstoy Farm he does not seem to dorien gray, have used the children's work experiences to stimulate their interest in their literary studies; he relied upon helen, the intrinsic interest of the subject and on dorien gray his own powers of vivid story-telling. 1 must confess, he wrote in 1937, that up to now all I have said is that manual training must be given side by side with intellectual training. But now 1 say that manual training should be the cry more thunder principal means of stimulating the intellect.

This meant that the manual training must be scientific. There must be full appreciation of the chosen handicraft in all its points of contact with natural science and human history, its standards of accuracy and dorien, beauty, the part it plays in the well-being of the people who practise it and in the enrichment of human life as a whole. Handicrafts taught in this way, far from being a mindless drudgery, could stimulate endless intellectual curiosity on a great variety of topics. They opened the door wide for research and discovery. Then comes the third revolution, No more separate town-based High Schools, where children learn to look down on manual labour and village traditions.

Instead, a complete all-round education in the village itself, free from the 1947 stifling burden of compulsory English. The demand for dorien education in cry more, the mother- tongue was not new; Rabindranath Tagore had voiced forcefully and dorien, demonstrated it practically for at Sutherland's Concept of White 21st Essay least forty years. But it was now put forward in the context of a complete village-centred plan for national education. At a higher level, said Gandhiji, those who require the services of specially trained workers must pay for dorien the training of the engineers, chemists, financiers etc. whom they may require. Standards of teaching etc, in such colleges may be checked by the affiliating universities. Medical and agricultural colleges are in a different category. The training of doctors may be supported by the charity of the surveilance techniques wealthy, but agricultural colleges which cannot support themselves on their own produce are not worthy of the name. The State should not provide college education except for those workers whom it needs to carry out its own responsibilities.

There is an echo here of Gandhiji's first all India non-cooperation movement. Dorien Gray! When, after 1857, the British government took over the administration of the Indian territories of the elements writing East India Company it established the three C's. Councils, Courts and Colleges each of which in its own way was a means of bolstering its authority. As Pattabhi Sitaramayya pointed out, speaking at a Nai Talim conference years later, it was no accident that in gray, 1920 Gandhiji should have called for a boycott of these same three C’s. Some of the national Vidyapeeths founded as alternatives to the Government colleges did excellent work, but the vision of a nation-wide integrated pattern of Sutherland's Collar 21st Essay, education came only in 1937. Revolutions are disturbing and most people do not want to be disturbed. There were a few people of imagination and dorien gray, insight who welcomed Gandhiji's educational revolution from the pak war 1947 beginning, but most educationists voiced doubts. These doubts were mainly of two kinds that Gandhiji neglected literacy and literary education and that his work-schools would prove to be sweat-shops of child labour, like the semi-slave plantations Of Ceylon. Many of the critics completely misinterpreted What Gandhiji had said, because as he himself pointed out, their own pre-conceived ideas blurred their vision; but he answered them patiently, and the pages of dorien, Harijan during the later months of 1937 were filled with reports of the discussions. Discussions were to continue for many years. In 1938 J.B.

Kripalani wrote a booklet which. in Gandhiji's words, was an attempt to answer the many doubts about what has been called my latest fad. rind to show that this fad has a sound bottom to it. The Latest Fad is still worth reading, especially for its insistence that Gandhiji's educational principles were part and parcel of his whole philosophy, and derived like all his other programmes from his vision of a human society based on non-violence and Concept in the, truth. Meanwhile, the time i-tad come to move on from argument to action. Basic National Education 1937-1944. Gandhiji's friend Jamnalal Bajaj was President of the Marwari Educational Society of Wardha. which in 1937 was preparing to celebrate its Silver Jubilee.

It was maintaining a High School, the Nava Bharat Vidyalaya, which had as its Principal a Tamil educationist from Sri Lanka, E.W. Aryanayakam. Aryanayakam had worked previously with Rabindranath Tagore at Santiniketan and had married a brilliant scholar, Asha Devi, whose family also had close links with Santiniketan. The Secretary of the Society, Shrimannarayan, with Aryanayakam's strong support, suggested that its Jubilee should be marked by a National Education Conference to dorien, discuss Gandhiji's educational ideas. List! Srimannarayan put the proposal before Gandhiji and asked him to preside, and Gandhiji readily agreed. The conference was held in Wardha on October 22-23, 1937. Numbers were restricted; invitations were sent to men and women who were known to be concerned for dorien a truly Indian education, and to nationalist educational institutions like Jamia Milia Islamia, the helen keller Gujarat Vidyapeeth, the Tilak Maharashtra Vidayapeeth, and the Andhra Jatiya Kalasala at Masulipatnam; some ministers and dorien, officials of the newly-established Provincial Governments were also included. Because of the limited numbers and of White Crime in the Century, the quality of the participants the conference proved remark- ably effective and led direct to action. Gandhiji placed before the conference the proposals which he had summarised in gray, Harijan , earlier in the same month, as follows.

Primary education, extending over seven years or longer, and covering all subjects up to the matriculation standard except English, plus a vocation used as a vehicle for drawing out the minds of the boys and girls in till departments of knowledge, should take the place of what passes today under the name of primary, middle and high school education. Such education, taken as a whole, can and must be self-supporting. Self support is the acid test of its reality. He had no wish to impose his ideas on anyone, he said, and he invited free and frank criticism, for he was anxious that the misunderstandings that had arisen should be cleared up. It was being said, for example, that he was opposed to literary education, that the children would be exploited, that he had included no religious instruction in his plan. His speech touched on many points that are still as relevant as ever, fifty years later :The present system of education is not only wasteful but positively harmful. Boys are lost to their parents, to their village, to the traditional skills. They become helplessly dependent on pak war 1947 minor clerical jobs; moreover they pick up evil habits and urban snobbery, and dorien, learn to despise the honest manual labour of the village on which we all depend. Far from being opposed to literary education, I want to show the way to give it. t. make our children true representatives of our culture, of the true genius of makes the world go round, our nation.

As for exploiting, do we burden the child when we save him from disaster? The children will become self-confident and brave as they help to pay for their education by their own labour. Why do I not lay stress on religious instruction? Because this system is to be common to all, Hindu, Muslim, Parsee, Christian, and T am teaching them all practical religion, the religion of self-help. The whole plan springs out of non-violence, it is an integral part of the discipline of non-violence and truth.

The discussion which followed was rich in ideas. Vinoba Bhave, then heading the Nalwadi Ashram, strongly supported Gandhiji's contention that for little beginners takli-spinning was extremely rich in educational potential. (The writer herself remembers being puzzled, in dorien gray, social history studies at Cambridge, by Concept Collar Crime 21st Century Essay the many references to spinning whorls among the finds at ancient archaeological sites; many years later she realised to her delight that these little stone or clay discs were in fact the discs of ancient taklis whose bamboo or wooden rods had long ago rotted away.) Kaka Saheb Kalelkar quoted tags which were to become even more meaningful in the years that followed. Dorien! Let us, he said, rescue education from the four walls of the class- room. Never allow your schooling to interfere with your education! (How many people today, both inside and outside the Government, think that education and schooling are the same thing!) Asha Devi pointed out that Gandhiji's ideas, like Tagore's, derived in part from the ancient Indian gurukula, and that if we were to work them out creatively we should have to unlearn much of what we had learned, and start afresh. The conference passed the following resolutions. 1. That free and surveilance techniques, compulsory education should be provided for gray seven years on a nation-wide scale; 2. that the medium of instruction should be the mother-tongue;

3. Go Round! that the process of education throughout this period should centre around some form of manual and productive work, and all other activities to be developed and training to be given should as far as possible be integrally related to gray, the central handicraft, chosen with due regard to the environment of the child, that the cry more thunder products of tile handicraft should gradually be able to cover the remuneration of the teachers. These resolutions were adopted as a national education policy by the next annual meeting of the dorien Indian National Congress in February - March 1938. All national progress, it declared, ultimately depends on the method, content and objectives of the education provided for the people. Go Round! An independent national education council, the Hindustani Talimi Sangh, was set up to gray, guide and direct the development of a practical programme. Looking back on this picture of pak war 1947, national education after fifty years, one is gray impelled to ask certain questions about every one of the writing four points described above.

The first point fails to specify which seven years of childhood should be covered. Gandhiji was clear that the seventh year was the right starting place; by this age the children's powers of muscular coordination have developed sufficiently for gray them to take pleasure in the skills of craftsmanship. But over Sutherland's of White in the Century Essay, large areas of India it had been the practice to dorien, send children to school in the sixth or even the fifth year, and when this practice was followed in basic schools it could lead to disappointment and disillusionment, because the-children had not yet reached the necessary level of makes the world go round, maturity. Gray! (Our modern English medium nursery schools afford even more glaring examples of the indo 1947 harm that can be done by gray forcing children to surveilance, learn things for which they are still too immature - Little children of only three years are expected to master an alphabet!) A seven year period that begins too soon also ends too soon. Gandhiji himself had not only specified the fourteenth year as the earliest acceptable time for completing the course, but had declared many times that he would gladly extend schooling to the fifteenth or the dorien sixteenth year. The Talimi Sangh itself recommended that the age-range seven to sixteen be accepted. This links up with the ancient saying of Manu, used by Vinoba Bhave as he carried forward Gandhiji's educational thinking, concerning the the world go round significance of the sixteenth year as the gateway into responsible adult life. is it not time for gray educationists to reflect more seriously about this question? There is another and very different query arising out of this first resolution of the conference : should education be compulsory?' Is not compulsion out of step with Gandhiji's whole approach:' All compulsion is surveilance techniques hateful to me, he had written in dorien gray, Young India (14-8-1924). I would no more have the accomplishments nation become educated by compulsion than I would have it become sober by such questionable means. nothing is more detrimental to the true growth of society than the belief that no reform can be achieved by voluntary effort. A people so trained becomes wholly unfit for swaraj. Compulsion implies control by a State that has power to gray, compel.

Gandhiji had often declared that he regarded any increase in State power with the greatest fear, because of its tendency to undermine personal initiative. Does not Vinoba's insistence that education should be free from State control reflect more of Gandhiji's spirit than the formal resolution of the conference? Yet again and again, in Gandhiji's own writings in techniques, 1937-38, we find him referring to State control in terms of apparent approval : The State takes charge of the child at seven and returns it to the family as an earning unit. Gray! The schools, he says, can support themselves financially provided that the State takes over Sutherland's Concept Crime, their products for disposal, and so on. Gray! Yet in other passages he insists that experiments in Basic Education, to be useful, must be carried out independently and with no outside interference. Whatever be the explanation of these seeming inconsistencies, it is clear that the right relationship between education and the State is a live issue to which we need to Concept Collar Crime 21st Century Essay, give much more cartful thought. Other matters need not detain us long. J.B. Kripalani was quick to point out, in reference to the second resolution, that the real medium of gray, instruction in Basic Education is Concept Collar in the Essay work, not language; the dorien mother tongue is a medium of communication, not of instruction. It was recognized equally quickly, by those who drew up the detailed plans for the school programme, that there are rich resources for education not only in the scientific practice of elements of good, a craft, but in dorien, the child's natural environment and in the social relationships of writing, which he is a part.

The first urgent need was for the training of dorien, teachers for these revolutionary schools, and in April 1938 the Hindustani Talimi Sangh opened a training school at surveilance Wardha which was directed by the Aryanayakams, and decided to start a school in Segaon village under its own control. The Congress government of the Central Provinces, of gray, which the Wardha District was then a part, was in active sympathy, and the old village school, in which Gandhiji had seen so much to helen keller, deplore, was closed down in order to give the gray new experiment the surveilance fullest scope. It was these two schools, the dorien gray Wardha training school and the Segaon village school, which the of good writing writer found so stimulating and inspiring when she paid her first visit in December 1938. The atmosphere was full of dorien, pioneering enthusiasm and the excitement of new discovery and achievement. The training school had a practising school in cry more thunder, Wardha itself, and a very careful record had been kept of the craft work done by the first two grades, children of seven and eight years old, during the three- month period of July to September, 1938. The craft chosen was cloth-making, beginning with spinning on the takli, but planned to cover, during the subsequent years, every aspect of the work from growing, ginning and carding the cotton to the dyeing of yam and the designing of the finished cloth. Dorien Gray! During the of good first three months the takli was the centre. Contrary to the gloomy predictions that the children would be burdened and bored they had found it a fascinating toy, and the improvement in productiveness between the gray first and the third months was remarkable, rising from 74 hanks of yarn in July to 25 1 in September. By the Concept Collar Crime in the Century Essay end of September some children were spinning fine yarn of 39 count while the average was a good useful 13; the lowest speed was about 100 feet of yarn in the hour, while the highest was over 500 and the average over 250.

These results, obtained by a completely unselected group of children in an ordinary small-town school, were used to gray, check the standards of helen keller accomplishments list, production suggested in a syllabus drawn up by the Zakir Hussain committee. The Segaon school also had made remarkable progress in other fields. When the dorien gray work began, almost every child in the village gambled, caste attitudes were narrow and exclusive, there was apathy about cleanliness whether of person or of surroundings. A few months later the thunder visitor found friendly, alert children in a simple but spotlessly clean school, who readily worked with the gray teacher and with one another to helen accomplishments, keep it so, and dorien gray, who were full of intelligent questions about the outside world from elements of good which the visitor had come. Meanwhile a great deal was being done for the expansion of the work on dorien an all-India scale. The organisational plan was to establish training schools in rural areas rather than in towns, and to build up a circle of village schools round about them as teachers became available, so that no teacher need feel lonely or isolated; each one might have the stimulus and support of a readily accessible group. A number of Provincial governments followed this plan on a larger or smaller scale : Bihar, Bombay, C.P. Madras, Orissa, U.P., and the native state of elements of good, Kashmir.

The Central Advisory Board' of Education approved it as a valid education experiment. The Talimi Sangh endorsed Gandhiji's own suggestion that the optimum number of pupils in a class would be-- about 25, and insisted that it should not exceed 30. Dorien! (This is pak war 1947 a much-needed restriction for any school, but it is dorien gray alas very rarely enforced). The teachers must be adequately paid, and there should be no direct link between the surveilance techniques craft earnings of gray, a particular school and the salary of its teachers. With regard to the content of education, a lot of thought was given to the principles guiding the choice of a basic craft. It must be rich in educational possibilities and in scope for cooperative activity; a proper place must be given to elements, the planning; and evaluation of every undertaking; there must be room for gray initiative; children must learn to take personal responsibility for their own progress. As time went on there was growing consensus that the crafts which best met these requirements were those most closely concerned with the basic needs of human life the production and preparation of food and of clothing, the use of the world go round, clay and dorien gray, wood to provide both shelter and Sutherland's Concept Collar Crime in the Essay, the tools and utensils of daily living. Apart from the dorien gray basic craft and its use as a medium for general knowledge of all kinds, the committee insisted that every school should include music and drawing as part of of good writing, its regular syllabus. The Aryanayakams drew on their knowledge of the Santiniketan tradition and gray, enlisted the of good writing help of their friends there, including the great artist Nandalal Bose, in preparing the syllabuses. Gray! By the autumn of 1939 the need was felt for an all-India meeting to review progress and pak war, plan the next steps. By that time there were 247 basic schools and 14 training schools scattered over nine Provinces and States. The Government of Bombay, which was actively involved, invited the workers to meet at Pune.

When they did so in October 1939, the second world war had begun and the political situation was full of dorien gray, uncertainty. Accomplishments List! Nevertheless the conference decided that no matter what the future held, Basic Education was too important to be discontinued. A new ideology of education, they wrote, based on dorien justice, cooperative endeavour, productive work and respect for human individuality, is a most powerful guarantee of peace, justice and humanity. Pak War 1947! It should be continued whatever the political changes. The reports of the children's growth in body, mind and character, even after little more than a year of gray, experience, were very encouraging. The decision to continue was fully justified; the resignation of the Congress governments made little immediate difference except in Madras, where the basic training school at Coimbatore was closed in April 1940. A year and a half later, in helen keller, April 1941, a second national Basic Education conference met at Jamia Nagar (Delhi) at dorien gray the invitation of Dr. Zakir Hussain. This was the writer's first experience of a basic education conference, and a very remarkable one it was. (In 1939 it had not seemed right to surveilance techniques, leave her comparatively new duties at gray Santiniketan for the long, time-consuming journey to Sutherland's Collar in the 21st, Pune.)

One of the outstanding features of this 1941 meeting was the space and time devoted to the place of the dorien arts in education, the surveilance quality of the exhibits and dorien, the breadth and depth of the discussions. Indo! Speakers insisted that art must not be treated as a mere extra or luxury; artistic achievement is an integral part of all that is done well with the hand for use and for beauty. The artistic impulse expresses itself in the colours and patterns of gray, textile design, in the shaping of pots and the building of houses, in the celebration of festivals with alpana, lights, music and dancing, in cry more thunder, the making, printing and illustrating of lovely books and the fashioning of children's toys. Craftsmanship and artistry are thus two aspects of the same process. An equally outstanding contribution to dorien gray, the conference was Dr. Zakir Hussain's thoughtful address on the place of work in education. Work has its own ideals, he said. It is not an amusement or a sport, it is activity quickend by a purpose. There must be in it a desire to do full justice to that purpose, and cry more, therefore a willingness to submit to the natural discipline of materials, methods and tools.

It demands self-criticism that is unsparing, but it holds out the promise of a joy that none other can excel. To be educative for dorien gray mind and body, work must be planned and the world go round, the materials and tools prepared; it must be executed and evaluated. Skill will result, but personal skill is not the dorien end. Even self-discipline may be selfish in Sutherland's of White Collar Essay, intention. Gray! Work must serve values higher than mere personal ends, values which we acknowledge and respect. A work-school is a society working for a common end. In its cooperative pattern of labour the mistake of one may mar the work of the rest.

The quick will not be able to leave the slow behind. It teaches its members how to cooperate in of White Collar Crime in the 21st, spite of their differences of ability and temperament, it teaches them to accept responsibility for dorien their social duties. But the school, like the helen keller accomplishments list individual, must work for something more than itself, or it will merely substitute corporate greed for individual greed. Dorien! The small society of the school must serve the larger society around it. Such words are as relevant today as when they were first spoken. So are the thoughts with which Zakir Hussain followed up Gandhiji's own special message to the conference. Gandhiji had written : The success of the effort is dependent more upon self-help than upon thunder, Government. our experiment to be thorough has to gray, be at least somewhere made without alloy and without outside interference. Zakir Hussain took this up, and developed in his own words Gandhiji’s conviction that non- violence should be the foundation of education, as of indo, all other national activities, and should enable us to build a Good State which can realise justice and equal opportunity for all. In moving words he depicted our society as it was (and is) where brother is turned against brother, which knows no song that all may sing together, no joys that all may share. He called on his hearers to work instead for gray a state in which one community will trust another; where the weak will not live in terror of the strong, nor the poor suffer insult and thunder, injury from the rich; a state in which different cultures may flourish side by side and each bring into relief the dorien virtues of the techniques other; where every citizen may be able to devote to the service of society the full resources of his personality, the finest qualities latent in his own nature. This Good State, he went on, may seem a distant dream, but it is the duty of national basic education to set a pattern and dorien, work towards it, beginning today.

For if we do not make a start, we shall wreck by the world go round ignorance and inexperience the tasks of the Good State when the gray time comes. It is for the work-school to pioneer, for even in the world, the best ordered state there will always be room for experiment and discovery. In addition to the presentation of these fundamental principles, there was vigorous exchange of gray, experience between the various institutions and groups. Many had encountered suspicion and hostility the rich feared revolution, the cry more poor wanted their children to herd cattle. Many refused to accept Gandhiji's disregard of untouchability. Some, in the atmosphere of communal suspicion, led opposition by gray a section of the Muslim public to a scheme put forward by helen keller list a Hindu. Much of dorien, this suspicion at the local level was slowly overcome; parents began to recognise the value of what appears in every report - the growth of the children in physical health and makes, social self- continence, in alertness and interesting their surroundings, in readiness to help both at home and in the village.

There are reports of play-centres for younger children run by the Basic School children themselves, of school gardens started on their own initiative, of school shops and gray, savings banks, and in some cases of how crafts learned at school had been practised at home to 1947, increase the family income. There were also questions raised which were destined to confront workers for years to come, both in Segaon (now called Sevagram) and elsewhere. One was the disposal of the yam spun by the children. Dorien! The government should take responsibility, said the Basic Education workers, quoting Gandhiji. Helen Accomplishments! But the yarn was not in itself a marketable commodity and dorien gray, governments, faced with what to officialdom was an unheard-of demand, were very unwilling to cope with it. The teachers, themselves beginners, usually lacked the skills which came later and elements, did not think of dorien, turning the beginners' yarn into knitted garments, or asans . or skipping ropes, or blackboard dusters. Indo! Many of them also, familiar with the part played by spinning in the movement for national independence, saw it as a satisfying symbolic activity in itself They were blind to its limitations, if it is isolated from the textile craft of which it is a part, and without which its meaning and purpose is lost. Closely related to this was the question of tile qualifications and gray, training of teachers. 1947! At the 1941 conference there were voices raised to ask whether the practice of dorien gray, appointing separate craft and subject teachers in the training schools was really in the spirit of Basic Education.

The answer was clearly No. What then? Should the schools cease to indo 1947, demand matric as a qualification for admission to training and require instead that a candidate should have earned his or her own living, for at least two or three years, by dorien gray the practice of a craft? The craftsman might of course have little conception of the scientific basis or cultural links of his own craft, but at ]east he would have reached a good standard of the world, skill and craftsmanship. He would need to be helped to develop a broader general knowledge. The assumption behind the requirement that candidates should be matriculates was that they would possess this general knowledge - an assumption which was very seldom justified. The dichotomy went on; in Sevagram as elsewhere there were specialist craft teachers and other teachers who had some knowledge of a craft, but not enough to dorien, be able to support themselves by its practice. Yet their pupils were expected, by the end of their course, to be able to do just that! It is keller not surprising that in 1941 there was much discussion of the need for books.

The teachers needed books to enable them to understand how to use the crafts to awaken their pupils' interest in various aspects of human knowledge and experience. The pupils needed books which would enable them to follow Up their awakened interest and satisfy their curiosity. Both needed reference books, technical and general. Dorien! Both needed to overcome the techniques narrow outlook of the traditional schools where the only books were text-books limited to a syllabus. Gray! Books are there, said the leaders of the Talimi Sangh, not as a substitute for life and action, but as an helen list, aid to fuller life and more effective action. Dorien Gray! A good basic school should be teaching children to approach books in a spirit of discovery and a spirit of Concept Collar Crime in the 21st Century Essay, enjoyment, both of which are poles removed from the and text-book mentality.

This was a held in which the Sevagram community could claim some real success. As it grew, it developed a library of considerable value, a library which was open to, and gray, used by, teachers and children of keller accomplishments list, all ages on equal terms. The writer, who at a somewhat later date had the pleasant task of taking charge of it, cherishes the memory of the three and four year olds who solemnly came in to demand readers' cards and gray, then sat down on the floor to enjoy the picture books which we kept for their convenience on a certain low shelf. She also remembers the adolescent boys and girls who were just beginning, at their own desire, to pick up a smattering of English. We had some well-illustrated, practical books in Sutherland's Concept Crime in the Century, English on various aspects of gardening. They would sit and wrestle with these books, and dorien gray, it was amazing and delightful to see how much the students got from cry more thunder them, gaining not only in gray, ideas, but in the self-confidence which comes from overcoming obstacles. The adult students in the teachers training class, accustomed as most of them were to school libraries where books were separated from their would- be readers in locked book cases, were astonished to makes go round, find; that here they might browse unhindered from open shelves. For them, the library was a living example of freedom within the framework of well-understood and dorien, willingly-accepted rules made by the world go round common consent for the common good.

And both the spirit of discovery and, the spirit of enjoyment were much in evidence. The 1941 conference was full of life and promise. Gray! Psychologically it set the stage for what might have been solid and sustained progress during the following years. But it was over- taken by events, overwhelmed by political upheaval. A government at war, as the British government of India then was, tends to be suspicious of any kind of non-conformity, of anyone who does not give active support of the conventional kind. The leaders of the Basic Education movement were too closely associated with Gandhiji and Congress to escape this suspicion. Already, before the conference met, the Government of Orissa had closed down its own department of Basic Education, stating that it is not in the interest of the Concept in the Century State to carry it on further. It was clear that this was a political decision, not an educational judgement; it was not the dorien gray end of Basic Education in Orissa, for an independent people's committee, inspired by Gopabandhu Choudhary and go round, his wife Rama Devi, was formed to carry it on.

The crisis came with the gray Quit India movement of 1942. At the beginning of August the teacher training class, formerly organised in Wardha, had opened in Sevagram; at the same time a new venture, the Anandaniketan Basic residential school, had also been opened there, providing a haven for the children of national workers when their parents faced the uncertainties of possible imprisonment. 1947! A few days later, fifteen of the twenty- one members of the Hindustani Talimi Sangh were in jail, including its secretary E.W. Aryanrryakan. The Sevagram village school was not closed, but it carried on under very great difficulties. One of the school boys of those days, Atma Ram, remembers how he and other children used to carry cotton, spinning equipment and books to their teachers who were lodged in Wardha jail. There was much isolation; the gray struggling centres of Basic Education scattered over India found it almost impossible to keep in touch with one another; the forward-looking confidence of 1941 gave place to a grim, lonely fight for survival. The next two years were dark, but the darkness preceded a new dawn. The Uncharted Ocean : 1944- 45.

During 1942-441 while Gandhiji was in jail, he had spent a good deal of time thinking about the two aspects of elements of good, village regeneration which were nearest to his heart :health and education. Dorien! Both health and helen keller accomplishments list, education, in his view, involved the whole man and the whole of society. He saw them as the key to swaraj at the grass roots. The two programmes were worked out together, and it is gray nor surprising that they constantly overlap. In Gandhiji's view, community health cannot be achieved merely by providing a clinic; neither can community education, the kind of education which can nourish and maintain the spirit of cry more thunder, swaraj, be achieved, merely by providing a school.

Gandhiji's expanded vision was marked by the use of a new vocabulary. From then on he spoke not only dorien, of Basic National Education, regarded as the minimum necessary equipment for the children of the nation, but also of Nai Talim, new education. On his seventy-fifth birthday, October 2, 1944, he made this the theme of a major speech. Education he said, must not be thought of as confined to schools. It must continue throughout life, from conception to accomplishments, cremation; it must touch every aspect of daily living and help every man and woman to be a better citizen of gray, their village, and therefore a better citizen of India and the world. It must aim at expanding their mental horizons; it must inculcate a spirit of neighbourliness which would rise above narrower loyalties and do away with untouchability and with communal jealousies and cry more, suspicions. As a genuine human community begins to gray, grow, Gandhiji went on, it can undertake many kinds of cooperative endeavour for the common good. Landowners and Sutherland's Concept Crime in the Century Essay, landless, craftsmen and labourers, men and: women, may begin to learn by practical experience what it means to work together. The work must be cent-per-cent swadeshi; it must include both agriculture and the other village crafts and industries, so that it leads on naturally to poorna swaraj, complete freedom. To sum up, it must provide every opportunity for non-violent discipline and non-violent organisation in the practice of daily living. Gandhiji was in fact calling for dorien gray an all-round training in non-violent democracy, and developing the thought he had expressed earlier : The real remedy (for exploitation and injustice) is non-violent democracy, otherwise spelled true education for oil.

During the surveilance techniques weeks that followed October 1944 Gandhiji developed this theme of Nai Talim in a number of different ways, The alpha and omega of education is the dorien gray quest for go round truth,'' he said. When asked where the quest should begin, he pointed to the parable in the Taittiriya Upanishad , which tells how a seeker goes out in quest of dorien, Truth (Reality, God) and finds it first in food, then in knowledge, then in joy - in other words, in the satisfaction of human needs in their entirety, needs of the body, of the mind, of the Concept Collar Century spirit. On other occasions Gandhiji would say -. and here the link with health was clear - that Nai Talim begins with cleanliness. This includes of dorien, course cleanliness of body and, of the physical environment, not forgetting Gandhiji's acid test, the bathrooms and latrines. It also includes the inward purity of heart which issues in clean speech, clean thought, clean aspiration . In January 1945 the Hindustani Talimi Sangh brought together teachers from all over the country to confer with Gandhiji about these still more revolutionary educational ideas which he was now putting forward. The writer was one of those present, and the spell-bound silence in which she and others listened to makes, Gandhiji's opening speech is still a vivid memory. So far, he told us, you have been in sheltered waters. i am asking you now to push out into dorien the open sea. It is an uncharted ocean, and the pole-star of village handicrafts will be your only guide. Writing! He urged us to treat the productive crafts with full seriousness. The experience of sharing in intelligent, planned cooperative work, in which every member is benefited by the labour of all, is itself the dorien gray real education.

He challenged us to spin and weave not for a money market but for the world our own use, to grow and process in dorien, our own village all that is needed for a healthful diet, to build well-planned airy homes and make our tools and equipment from materials available in our own locality. We should plan for the maintenance of the animals we need, for the world go round the provision of their fodder and our own domestic fuel, for clean drinking water and ail other daily needs. Dorien Gray! This kind of cooperative independence is the basis of swaraj. Gandhiji had said twenty years earlier that the capacity to resist authority when it is abused is the key to real freedom; but the capacity to surveilance, resist depends on the independence of spirit which such corporate self-reliance would generate. The principle that production would be primarily for gray personal and local use and not for a money market is contrary to the common assumptions which govern a. The World Go Round! great deal of village production. Yet it is becoming increasingly clear that diversified production of all the food and other crops needed in the daily life of the village means better nutrition and dorien, better basic security than the go round widespread practice of monoculture for a money market.

Gandhiji spoke in the context of the national freedom struggle; his principles are as relevant as ever to the true freedom of the Indian village today. Alas, we teachers in general did not fully grasp, let alone live up to, the new vision which Gandhiji was placing before us. We worked out programmes, it is true, for the various stages of life outside the range of the gray Basic School itself, we talked of Pre-basic and Post-basic education. Elements Writing! But most of us thought of these programmes in terms of the sheltered waters of institutions. We did not launch out into the open sea of dorien gray, village life and learn to live among its currents.

We did not take village handicrafts as our pole-star or make any serious attempt to feed and writing, clothe ourselves, as the villager must, by our own bread- labour, And so we failed to make Nai Talim the spear-head of a silent social revolution, as Gandhiji believed that it could be. Because we did not take village handicrafts seriously we have been unable to do anything to stem the tide of commercialism which has all but swept away India's rich heritage of traditional craftsmanship. The people, with nothing but commercial pressures to dorien gray, guide them, have preferred the showy and often shoddy products of large-scale industry to the simple, functionally beautiful articles made by their own village craftsmen. And so the craftsmen starve, and our country, which prides itself on progress, is in truth being progressively impoverished. This impoverishment is not only material; even worse is the impoverishment of mind and spirit, the loss of self-confidence and self-respect, which sap the foundations of freedom. There was, to my mind, another failure. We were so fascinated by Gandhiji's new ideas, even though we did not fully understand them, that we did not recognize what a lot of unfinished business still remained to be done in the Basic Schools themselves. Elements Of Good Writing! For two years they had struggled for survival, and they had, survived. They needed, and deserved, our special and loving attention.

But by dorien and large they did not receive it. The practical tasks, and the unresolved problems, which had been identified by the 1941 conference at Jamia Nagar were never taken up as they should have been. The plan for an integrated village school for all the children up to the age of sixteen, which had been recommended to us by cry more the Hindustani Talimi Sangh five years earlier, was never fully worked out. It might have been at the core of our whole expanded programme, but it was no longer at the centre of our interest. Through Life For Life; Adult Education 1945-1947.

If Nai Talim is to embrace the whole development of man and the whole period of gray, human life, nothing of human concern can be left outside the range of its interest. It must include the education of the mother and the baby in the home and Sutherland's of White 21st Century Essay, of all the adult members of society in their economic, social, cultural and political activities. The question of Nai Talim in Sevagram village at once arose. Soon after the conference in January 1945 Shanta Narulkar, who had been working in the village school, volunteered to experiment with adult education under Gandhiji's guidance. Gandhiji readily agreed, and gave her a very clear picture of the principles on dorien which he believed the work should be based. The worker, he said, should live in the village itself, not merely visit it from outside.

She must remember that Nai Talim is education, not charity; therefore she should not do things for the villagers, but help them to see the need for themselves and show them how to supply it by their own efforts. She must also be clear that this new education does not depend upon money; it should be planned from the indo beginning-on the basis of self- support, and there must be no money gifts from outside. The only dorien, gift Shanta might give was herself. Give them whatever service they may need, Gandhiji had, said, in sick nursing or any similar work; but never give money. Adult education does not need money. The original impact of Gandhiji's Ashram, which was situated on the outskirts of the keller accomplishments list village, had been weakened during the preceding years of dorien, political upheaval. The World Go Round! The Gram panchayat which had been formed on his initiative had been dissolved in 1942 as a measure of gray, protest against the then government, and there was no provision for law and elements, order. The landlords merely collected their rent but felt no responsibility for dorien this or other respects of village welfare. Disputes were sometimes brought to keller list, the Ashram for settlement, otherwise they dragged on, poisoning personal relationships. The lack of community spirit or civic sense meant that attempts by some of the institutions of constructive work to help the village were not integrated into the common life but merely benefited some individuals. The Ashram maintained the small dispensary which Gandhiji had started; it also employed a bhangi to clean the village roads.

The Charkha Sangh employed a few villagers as paid labourers, but did no khadi work in the village itself; the palm-gur industry which Gajanan Naik had organised was now being run not by the village but by the Village industries Association in Wardha. A village school may be, and dorien gray, should be, a power-house for adult education, and with all its short-comings the Basic School where Shanta Narulkar had been working was the closest and most regular form of contact between the cry more constructive workers and the village. By 1945 it had opened its fifth grade; the children were being given midday meals to gray, supplement what, as we saw earlier, was a very inadequate home diet. Children attended the school from almost every home in accomplishments, the village, and Shanta was therefore already in touch with their parents and the problems they faced. Another regular means of contact was established in February, when the Ashram opened a Child Welfare Centre in the village as a kind of development and extension of its dispensary work. An English Quaker nurse, Barbara Hartland, known affectionately among Gandhiji's fellow-workers as Vasanthi Behn, took charge of gray, this centre; the elements of good wife of the Headmaster of the village school, who had studied: up to the fifth standard, acted as her assistant and was trained in the course of her daily work in the skills that she needed. The cost of dorien gray, this was initially borne by the Ashram - a matter which may seem to go against Gandhiji's principle that adult education does not need money. The centre however was originally conceived not as education but as service; later on it was to be integrated into thunder Shanta's own plans for the education of the village women, and played a valuable part in the programme of wise parenthood. By March Shanta herself had found and settled into a house in the Harijan quarter of the village, and began by making a thorough survey of the condition of every home, the building, the food, the gray details of daily life. The wells were dirty and not properly protected, yet they were being used for drinking water.

The houses were inconvenient and makes the world, over-crowded. Grain rationing was then in force, but the distribution system was very fault. and caused the people much inconvenience and dorien, loss of time. Improvement was urgently needed in the provision of all these elementary needs of foes, water and shelter, and improvement could be had, but only if the people felt some sense of helen accomplishments list, responsibility for the common welfare and had some faith in their power to help themselves. These qualities, when Shanta began her work, were lacking. The most urgent need was for clean water. Sevagram is well situated for dorien gray water and many houses had their own wells; some years earlier the Ashram had built a well for public use in the Harijan quarter. Indo Pak War 1947! But all the dorien wells, public and private alike, were badly kept; they spread infection and bred mosquitoes. Shanta began by talking over the water problem first with individuals, then with groups and finally with the whole village. In the accomplishments list end it was agreed that the public well should be cleaned and repaired at their own cost.

Some gave labour, others money, and dorien, the Ashram, as a local landlord, contributed also. At the cry more beginning of the summer the well was cleaned; people saw, and smelled for themselves, the filthy stinking mud that was taken out. No further teaching was needed; before the end of that summer most of the dorien gray wells in the village had been cleaned by mutual help, and the people, their interest aroused, went on to provide protecting walls and proper drainage for dirty water. Surveilance Techniques! The following summer the process was repeated; once more the wells were cleaned and a tradition of mutual help began to grow up. When people work together in this way the question of money does not arise; caste barriers begin to break down, and the natural leaders emerge. As time went by Shanta was able to get these natural leaders together and to encourage them to take responsibility and initiate action over dorien, many other matters of common concern. The fist steps towards better housing were taken when individual families began to rebuild or repair their houses.

Shanta soon found that after they had spent their money and given their labour the new house was little better than the indo old from the point of view of health or convenience. She would talk with them during the actual building work, and try to persuade them to put in dorien, a window or arrange separate housing for their cattle. The World Go Round! She would also appeal to their sense of dignity and self- respect. Why don't you make the doorway a little higher? she would ask. Why should you have to stoop to enter your own house? Or, why should the women of the house have to go out into the fields in gray, all weathers? Why not build a private toilet for them in a corner of your land; there is plenty of room in that open space where you are planning to grow vegetables - you can have both. Slowly, little improvements were made, and in the end a Cooperative Housing Society was formed, acquired a small piece of village land and cry more, began to build houses for dorien the families of labourers. Century Essay! Every detail of the plan and the: budget was discussed with the owner beforehand, and he and the members of his family helped with the actual building, while the neighbours lent their bullock-carts freely to help with the work.

In this way the owner learned not only how to build a house, but how to dorien gray, build it at a minimum cost. The families who had houses in the Cooperative Society's settlement had to follow the Society's rules, and they learned to live in a better, cleaner way than before. The question of toilets in houses has already been mentioned, but a great deal more work was needed in this field. The people of the village were in the habit of indo pak war, using the approach roads as public latrines, so the dorien entrances to the village were fouled and sticking. This was the reason why the surveilance techniques Ashram had appointed, a bhangi. Shanta found that: he was very discontented, and complained that he was over-worked. She suggested that he might lighten his work by building trench latrines at each entrance to the village, and getting the dorien gray people to use them.

Very unwillingly he agreed, and he and she got the trenches dug and provided with palm-leaf screens for privacy, five compartments to each trench. The total cost of four such latrines including the split palm trunks used for makes go round squatting plates, was only twelve rupees. Little by little the people began to use them, and under Shanta's direction they learned how to collect weed and under- growth from the roadsides to cover the excreta and gray, eliminate bad odour. The roads became much cleaner, but the bhangi left in disgust. Shanta rejoiced in his departure; it was degrading that the community should become dependent on a bhangi; it was a part of self-respect that everyone should share in the needful scavenging. The campaign for cry more public cleanliness also had to include the problems of drainage and the disposal of dirty water from the houses. Dorien! The area is elements of good writing black cotton soil, which makes drainage difficult in the rainy season, and malaria and fly-borne diseases were very common. The solution was that each house should have a soak-pit, so Shanta called together her group of dorien gray, leaders, explained the idea, and cry more thunder, showed them how easily and gray, cheaply a soak-pit could be made. The leaders talked with the other village people, and on the next day of national celebration about fifty families made soak-pits in their own houses - a practical lesson in hygienic living. Of Good Writing! Like the wells, they were checked every year, and re-dug as necessary. The group of natural leaders and influential villagers gradually developed into a kind of village executive committee.

Shanta spent time with them, encouraging discussion of their common needs. If you want something, she would say, you must take the responsibility for getting things done. I will help you, I will teach you how to do things so far as I can, but you must take the initiative. I won't do anything unless you invite me, and unless you work too. The first big practical job undertaken by this executive committee arose out dorien of the difficulties of the grain rationing arrangements.

Twelve villages had to cry more thunder, draw their supplies from one shop in one village, and during the rainy season the paths from gray one village to another were often almost impassable. People had to forego a whole day's labour wages in order to visit the shop, and when there was some mistake or confusion about the ration cards they sometimes had to return empty-handed. Then cholera broke out in the village where the shop was situated. Writing! In this crisis Sevagram held a village meeting and decided to set up a consumers' cooperative store; Capital was collected and the people contributed what they could, but the total was very small, and a loan had to be taken to purchase the first stock. The shop was opened on the Charkha Jayanti day in 1945, and the executive committee took turns to manage it, two men working together for two months at a time. They kept the accounts (and returned the initial loan immediately), wrote out the cards, and procured and dorien, distributed the grain - all as voluntary, unpaid public service. At the end of the first six months the books showed a deficit of sixty rupees which the ten members of the executive committee paid from their own pockets.

From then on the shop began to surveilance techniques, show a profit, which according to the rules was used for village welfare; no interest was paid to the share-holders. The success of gray, this first cooperative enterprise set the standard for makes other cooperative developments later. One of these was a cooperative Grain Bank, whose profits were pooled for gray the benefit of the farmers themselves. This had great psychological value because it made the villager feel rich and, independent instead of poor and helpless, and increased his self-reliance and self-respect. Food and water, housing and sanitation - all these primary needs of the people became in this way media for adult education. There remained the need of clothing, and very early in Shanta's work she began to help the techniques people to put this also on to a more regular footing Spinning had already been introduced to the village through the work of the basic school; now, with the help of the Charkha Sangh, three looms were set up and village boys began work as apprentices.

In the first year 1750 square yards of cloth was made and sold; later the number of looms and weavers increased, and other village industries (oil-pressing and palm-gur) were also developed as centres of adult education. Education for life said Gandhiji to the new Adult Education Committee in September 1945, does not mean education for the duration of life, but education for the sake of life. Adult education is a matter of teaching the art of living. A ma3 who masters the art of gray, living has become a complete human being. Keep this vision before you, let this ideal of elements writing, Nai Talim inspire your work.

A Little Child shall Lead Them Pre-Basic Education. Gandhiji delighted in little children; one of the visits he had paid when he was in London ;n 1931 was to dorien, a Montessori School for poor children in Islington. Sutherland's In The Century! In India there was considerable interest in dorien gray, Madame Montessori's methods, but the Montessori schools which were started were mainly in the cities, and tended to insist that exactly the same equipment should be used as in European schools. They had become in effect exclusive schools catering to the rich. Nursery schools, which had originally started in U.K. to cater to the needs of the poor, also tended to be elitist, although a successful attempt was made in Madras, from 1935 onwards, to train nursery school teachers in Indian conditions and with Indian equipment. Shanta Narulkar, herself a highly qualified teacher, was familiar with these experiments; she spent the major part of her own time concentrating on list the education of the women and of the gray little children. Her pre-basic school took the creative ideas of the educational pioneers, Froebel, Montessori, Rachel Macmillan and the rest, and keller accomplishments, worked them out in the context of an Indian village. It was recognised from the beginning that wise parenthood was a central and, important part of that mastery of the art of living which was the dorien goal of adult education for men and women alike. All parents are educators whether they realise the fact or not.

It is they who should provide their children with all that they need for their all-round development; watch over their daily needs; look after their health of body, and guide their intellectual and moral development. If the parents fail to understand their responsibility towards their children, the effort put into children's schools may be completely wasted; no teacher, however devoted, can take the place of the parents in caring for the welfare of the child, particularly during the all-important years of early childhood. Most parents love their children and genuinely desire to do their best for them. This natural affection is absolutely essential; no outward conditions however good, can compensate a child for helen accomplishments the lack of the knowledge that it is loved. But by itself natural affection is not enough; many parents, both rich and dorien, poor, have very little understanding of what the child's real needs are, even its physical needs.

As for its emotional and Sutherland's of White Collar Crime in the 21st Century Essay, intellectual needs, it is dorien gray often not even realised that such needs exist; the parents feel no responsibility for providing an all-round education which would do justice to the child's needs as a whole. The education of the parents, both father and mother, is makes go round therefore the first step towards the education of the child. Gray! The baby's first impressions and thunder, experiences of the world into dorien which it has been born are shaped by the attitudes of surveilance techniques, both parents. The baby depends on gray the mother for its first experiences of pleasure and pain; her health determines whether or not it is adequately fed; her knowledge or ignorance of mother-craft decides whether it is kept clean and in physical comfort. Both father and mother are responsible for the environment of the home where the child grows up, and for its first social contacts. The little children of Segaon village knew nothing of personal hygiene and sanitation because no one had ever thought of teaching them. No one thought of teaching them good habits because the adults did not themselves know what good habits and good conduct are. They never asked themselves how the children would grow up; neither the surveilance techniques individual parent nor the village community as a whole was ready to accept the responsibility of helping them to become good men and women, and good citizens. Gray! Yet all the adults in a village ought to be concerned for the present and future welfare of oil its children; it is a natural social responsibility which everyone should accept. This responsibility cannot be discharged if either the father or the mother are ignorant of the elementary conditions of health and cleanliness. Elements Of Good! It is the responsibility of every father, as the principal support: of the family economically, to gray, see that the first priority is given to meeting· the primary needs of the household for clean water, nutritious food and cry more thunder, clean surroundings.

Children who are clean and comfortable, who get regular food and sleep, are healthy and contented. Teaching the how of these things is part of adult education. Another aspect of education for dorien gray wise parenthood is to help parents to realise how much their own character, habits and behaviour influence their children. Almost all the young child's first impressions of life are received from his parents and makes, other adults in the home. Constant petty disputes and quarrels destroy the child's sense of security and do a great deal of harm. A child who feels happy and secure is eager to explore and experiment with his surroundings. He needs freedom and activity; his natural healthy development can be hindered by needless restraints, just as much as by unwise indulgence. Gray! Later, the circle of happy home relationships should: expand and include the family's dealings with its neighbours and, with the school. In such an atmosphere of friendliness the child's need for affection and the world go round, security is satisfied, and the business of living and learning becomes a happy experience.

The task of the pre-basic school is to set standards of excellence in all these aspects of the life of little children, and to keep these standards before the eyes of the whole village. In the Segaon school parents and children found clean drinking water, and simple nutritious food to dorien gray, supplement an often inadequate home diet. The teacher would show the mothers and keller accomplishments, grannies who brought the gray children to school how easily and cheaply they too might make improvements in the home diet. Children who came to school with vermin in their hair and clothes were made clean and comfortable: the teacher would then show the mothers how to get rid of the vermin, and it did not take long for keller list them to realise that they could de-louse their own hair and clothes also. Children who learned at gray school to use a simple latrine were soon refusing to squat indiscriminately on the roads, and demanding a latrine at home also. In school there were songs and games and stories; in school there were toys made out of Sutherland's Concept Crime, all kinds of scraps, oddments that could be picked up around the village at any time; many of tile toys could be taken to dorien, pieces and. Thunder! put together again by the children themselves, and so help to stimulate their intelligence and, improve their muscular control and manual skill. At school too there were opportunities for little children to get the extra sleep which many of them needed. All these things and many more became part of the Segaon pro-basic school and part of the dorien gray life of the village.

In this atmosphere of friendly cooperation good ideas and, practices passed easily and naturally from one to the other. Child and thunder, adult education went on side by dorien gray side. This is as it should be. If for any reason this mutual understanding and friendliness are absent the result for helen list the children will be bad. It will mean that two opposing influences are contending for dorien their loyalty, the home on the one hand and, the thunder school on the other. The children will be forced to dorien gray, live in a state of emotional tension which may have a bad effect on their future development as members of society.

Good citizens are not created by a state of civil war. School and home must agree upon what they want for the upbringing of their children. In this regard the helen keller accomplishments list pioneer pre-basic school at Sevagram has never been surpassed. It became the model for hundreds of dorien gray, other balwadis (pre-basic schools) throughout India. Post-Basic Education; The Beginnings 1947-1950. Discussions about the nature and content of Post-basic education were initiated during the 1945 conference with Gandhiji at cry more the same time as those on the Adult and Pre-basic stages.

At that time the Basic schools themselves had not yet built up a complete seven or eight year course, but it was realised that some pre-planning for the next stage was desirable, and a sub- committee of the Hindustani Talimi Sangh was appointed for the purpose. Even in the 1945 conference the old question of the place of English in higher education raised its head once more. If students were to do advanced work beyond the matriculation level, it was asked, should they not begin to study English during the dorien gray later part of their Basic course? Gandhiji had expressed his own convictions about this very strongly seven years earlier, during the controversies which followed the Wardha conference of 1937. He had declared then that it was gross superstition to think that no one could do first-rate scientific or other research work without English. Makes The World Go Round! English education had done the country a great wrong, he said; it had, made even his own valued colleagues strangers in their own homes.

We and dorien gray, our children must build on our own heritage, he wrote. We must be able to enjoy the treasures of thunder, every culture and language through our own vernaculars. only then can the world's riches of gray, science and. Makes! literature become the gray common property of the people. For a deep-seated evil such as this we need a heroic remedy - i.e. the demonstration in practice of indo, a higher education achieved in the mother-tongue with no dependence upon English whatsoever. So far as the dorien gray writer remembers her only contribution to the 1945 discussions was to urge, from of White Collar Crime in the her own small experience, that when a good foundation of general education has been laid in the mother-tongue those who really needed English (or any other language) at a later date could and gray, did learn it with far greater speed and efficiency than under the present wasteful system. The effective use made of English books in the Sevagram library by 1947 the post-basic students a few years later has already been described. It is clear from the memorandum which the Talimi Sangh's sub-committee on dorien post-basic education prepared during the following months that they were thinking of post-basic education as post-matriculate education at the University level. The memorandum lists possible faculties, including some which could, not be directly productive in themselves, such as medicine, teaching, or the fine arts. What, they asked, did Gandhiji think? The fine arts. Gandhiji replied, should be part and parcel of thunder, everyone's Life in the way that had been agreed on in the 1941 conference; they should not be regarded as a. Dorien! separate profession. He insisted. that self-support should be the acid test.

In 1938, he said, he had agreed to the qualifying phrase as far as possible being use with regard to basic education. Sutherland's Collar! Now however, he had come to feel even more strongly about the importance of the principle. Self-support is the symbol of freedom, he said. It was not until 1947 that any post-basic school was actually begun. The first one to dorien gray, be organised was not in Sevagram but in Bihar. There the provincial government had recognized the basic schools as an educational experiment, and. had carried them on even when the elected Congress government resigned and the permanent administrative officials took charge. The teachers were government employees and the work of the schools had not been disrupted by the Quit India movement of 1942.

By the end of makes the world go round, 1946 therefore a full eight-year basic course had been completed in the twenty-seven basic schools of the gray Champaran District, and in January 1947 a post-basic school was opened in Kamarbagh. This developed a four-year course. Two years after it had begun, twelve more post-basic schools were organised, by the Bihar government, and, in 1949-50 others were opened in Gujarat and elsewhere. When the seventh All- India Nai Talim conference was held in elements of good, 1951 the first of these schools had four years experience; and the conference devoted a good deal of dorien, its time to the consideration of this programme. In Sevagram itself preliminary work began in March 1947 with nine boys, eight of whom had been in the Anandaniketan residential school, and in July they were joined by six more basic school boys and four new probationers. To begin with the group was organised as a separate community with its own kitchen; in this small unit the necessary daily chores were easily managed and cry more, the boys were able to devote the dorien maximum amount of time to work and study. They had no land;, so they earned their living by weaving for the Charkha Sangh. During the Concept of White Collar Crime in the Essay first month they gave six hours a day to this work, and kept a record of their earnings.

This showed that they did not need to spend so long on dorien the craft in order to support themselves. Elements Of Good! During the dorien gray second month, therefore, they reduced the number of craft hours, and devoted the time thus saved to their academic studies. The studies were shaped largely by indo 1947 the boys' experience in six villages in the immediate neighbourhood. In October 1947, after the rains came to an end, there was a serious malaria problem. Dorien Gray! The post-basic boys cooperated with the Department of Public Health in its programme of malaria control, carrying out intensive spraying of DDT in the six villages. (DDT was then the latest fad in public health, and it was not until three years later that warnings of its dangers began to makes the world, be heard.) At that time, looking at the boys' interest in gray, health and scientific safai, plans were made to develop this as a major craft in cooperation with the Kasturba Hospital, which was by then expanding the work of the old Ashram dispensary. The boys, especially those whose homes were in Segaon, also cooperated closely in other aspects of the adult education which was being carried on in the village. They helped to run the cooperative grain bank and shared in helen keller list, the work of the night school for adults: sometimes they also helped in the village basic school when a teacher had to be absent on leave. Gray! They helped in writing, the khadi programme, by dorien gray making a house-to-house survey of the elements of good six villages with which they were specially in touch, to find out how many families had spinning wheels in good order and in active use. This year, 1947, was the dorien gray year in which political freedom from British rule was finally achieved, at the price of the thunder partition of the country and at an incalculable cost in human suffering.

Gandhiji was never able to return to Sevagram to guide and dorien, inspire the work which he had started. The next two years of post-basic education were a time of quiet experiment, seeking the the world go round way forward. Staff were found of outstanding quality and youthful enthusiasm Radhakrishna, scientist and teacher; Banwarilal Choudhury, agriculturist; Dwarka Prasad Persai, expert in animal husbandry, and other young people to help them. Their wives and young families made their own special contribution to the community. The original intention that post-basic education should give a central place to the production and processing of food, had not been forgotten. During that first year the Hindustani Talimi Sangh acquired farm land and began to organise self- sufficiency programmes in dorien, agriculture, dairy farming and helen accomplishments list, oil- pressing. The experience of the following years resulted in the picture of a post-basic school which emerged from the conference of 1951. It should be a school-village where students, teachers and their families lived together, and maintained themselves as a community by dorien gray their own planned labour.

All the crafts needed for simple daily living should find a place in it, and its sufficiency should not he dependent on a money economy. The World Go Round! In such a village the welfare of each individual member would be an gray, integral part of the welfare of the 1947 community as a whole; any profits which might be made from any part of the enterprise' any surplus in dorien, production, should go into a common emergency fund which could be drawn upon in a crisis such as a serious crop failure following untimely drought or flood. Concept Crime Century Essay! Self-support is the symbol of freedom. Meanwhile 1949 had brought a new challenge. The Government of India had begun to build up two new townships to rehabilitate refugees from Pakistan, one at Faridabad. a few miles south of Delhi, the other at Rajpura in the Union territory of Patiala. Dorien Gray! The Hindustani Talimi Sangh, at the government's request, undertook to make arrangements for the education of the children in thunder, these camps, and the fourteen senior post-basic boys, with their teacher Radhakrishna and his wife Kamla, and two teacher-trainees from Bihar who were studying in Sevagram, went to dorien, Rajpura at the beginning of October to start the work. There they had the support of Bibi Amtus Salam, who had made Rajpura the base for her own constructive work. The people allocated, to the Rajpura township had come from Bahawalpur in of White Collar Crime 21st Century, Pakistan. Dorien! This was a remote and backward area, and their standard of literacy was very low. Since their arrival in India about two years earlier nothing had been done about the children's education, but before ally work of this kind could begin it was necessary to win their confidence.

This was not easy, for the people were understandably suspicious about the indo pak war swarms of social workers who descended upon them. and. at first they were unwilling to accept tile team of post-basic students who had been sent to help them. The students and their teachers therefore set to work to study and understand the situation. Housing was very unsatisfactory; the people were crowded together in big tents, and there was much frustration and quarrelling over petty irritations. The post-basic boys decided that the first thing was to try to dorien, improve the housing and make camp life more convenient for the whole community; meanwhile they themselves camped in a big mango grove close by, in conditions of discomfort very similar to elements of good, those the refugees had to endure; they took no steps to better their own conditions until they had done what they could for the township. Dorien! Watching them, the people gradually became more friendly and cry more thunder, cooperative, and soon it was possible to plan something for the children. The people from Bahawalpur were largely illiterate and there were very few teachers among them. The Sevagram team collected some raw young matriculates, collected the children together in the mango grove, and began to organise schools. There were nearly three thousand children of school-going age, and by January 1950 most of them had. begun to attend school. Four schools were organised, two for girls and two for boys; one of dorien, them was able to cater for children up to the ninth grade.

Similar schools were set up at Faridabad, a larger township and one where more teachers were available, but with even larger numbers of needy children. These schools could not be basic schools ill the full sense of the word, but from the beginning they included two aspects of community living, a daily period, of common prayer, and safai. Surveilance! Some of the older children were unwilling at first to join in the safai programme, but the younger ones enjoyed it, and the post-basic boys themselves took the lead with vigour and cheerfulness, so that attitudes soon began to change. A medical examination of all the children was arranged; about 1600 children under twelve years of age were given regular milk as a gift from UNICEF, and their general health began to improve. As soon as equipment could be obtained the younger children began to dorien, learn spinning. There were plenty of difficulties. The children had endured the terrors and seen the violence which accompanied partition; since then they had spent two years running wild in the camp; they had imbibed the beggar mentality of greed and petty jealousy which the distribution of free emergency rations inevitably encouraged. They were the elements of good innocent victims of tragic circum- stances. The post-basic boys taught them how to manage their own school affairs through a general assembly ( am sabha ) in which all took part. They got them singing together, folk-dancing. playing team games and so gradually breaking down the narrow communal attitudes which were so common among their parents.

Side by side with the work in the school went the training of teachers. For the first three months there was a regular daily class for all the apprentice teachers, held outside school hours, where they learned takli spinning and something of the gray general principles of Nai Talim. Twenty five of these teachers were then selected for an intensive six-months course in elements writing, which the basic craft was spinning, with carpentry and sewing as subsidiary crafts. These trained teachers then took charge of schools up to the fifth grade which were organised as more fully basic schools. In the end four schools with 1600 children were continued at Rajpura, while the larger township of Faridabad had eight. Adult education was not forgotten. With the dorien help of the Punjab branch of the All-India Spinners Association spinning was organised and weaving begun. The post-basic boys tried. to indo pak war 1947, help the local people to gray, manage this work on the same kind of cooperative basis as had been successful in Sevagram, where some of them had already had some experience.

The results were encouraging not merely for their economic value, but for their therapeutic value in surveilance, the mental rehabilitation of the people, and for the way in dorien gray, which the children's schools and the adult activities mutually reinforced one another. More progress might have been made in Rajpura but for the uncertainty about the future; in February- March 1950 the makes the world government came near to abandoning the whole project, and it was not possible to dorien, plan ahead until this major question had been settled. It was finally decided that the construction of the new township should go ahead, but by then the year of service promised by the post-basic school was coming to an end. Concept Of White Crime 21st Essay! The people who had treated the boys so coldly on their first arrival now wept to see them go. Nai Talim Bhavan : The Training of Teachers.

As we have seen, the training of the teachers was of crucial importance to dorien gray, the development of Basic Education. The vision and enthusiasm of the training school at Wardha in the early years made possible the work of the children's schools. Cry More Thunder! As the work of the school in Segaon village developed it was decided that the teachers' training should be moved to these rural surroundings, and the new institution was inaugurated on 1st, August 1942. The emphasis at the opening ceremony was on the twin ideals of love and truth. Dr. Zakir Hussain told the assembled students that in the book of education the first leaf is inscribed with the one word LOVE. The students themselves recited as their own ideal the great affirmation of the Upanishad : 'I will speak only the truth. That truth will protect me; That truth will protect my teacher.’ Gandhiji took up this theme in his a May this prayer protect you, he said. in dorien gray, his address to the students. The time of testing came sooner than was expected.

Within a fortnight the government had arrested not only Gandhiji's political fellow-workers but many of the cry more thunder constructive workers also, and the adult students of the new Nai Talim Bhavan were not exempt. The work was completely disrupted, and dorien, it was only helen keller accomplishments list, after 1945 that it was gradually re-organised and stabilised. It is not surprising that in the years that followed, after political independence, there was much give and take between tie Nai Talim Bhavan and the Uttara Buniyadi Bhavan or post- basic school. One of the aims of the post-basic course in its early Gays was to prepare teachers for basic schools; tile year's work at Rajpura and Faridabad which we have described was one way of putting this into gray practice. The boys had eight or ten years of basic and post-basic education behind them; they could practise and teach their craft with confidence. Nevertheless they warmly welcomed the help of the two Nai Talim Bhavan students who joined them in Rajpura. These men were comparatively raw recruits, and keller list, they knew far less of the craft than the dorien gray boys did, but they had a fresh enthusiasm and an adult maturity of outlook which were of the greatest value.

The same sort of thing happened in Sevagram itself. The new but mature and able Nai Talim Bhavan students learned a great deal by helping to organise special programmes under the leadership of the Uttara Buniyadi, boys. There was for example an Akhand Khadi Yagna, an exhibition to prepare for the Jaipur session of the Congress, a saranjam sammelan at Sevagram itself, and cry more, the Sarvodaya Sammelan which met soon after Gandhiji's death, in February- March 1948. In 1949 came the gray historic World Pacifist Meeting. Thunder! This brought together men and women from all over the world, who were committed to the abolition of gray, warfare as an instrument of national policy, to meet with those who had learned from Gandhiji to indo, regard peace as first of all a discipline of non-violent daily living. It was a creative interchange, and a valuable education for the students and gray, teachers who were present, in one significant aspect of accomplishments list, Nai Talim. At this period of the late forties and early fifties the Nai Talim Bhavan was a large and lively part of the dorien gray Nai Talim community, alongside the Anandaniketan school, the Uttara Buniyadi Bhavan, and the teachers of indo 1947, all departments with their growing families. After Independence it became the gray practice for the education departments of the various states of elements, India to depute men and women graduates for training at Sevagram, so that or. their return home they might help to develop teacher education or Nai Talim principles in the languages of their own state. Most of dorien, these deputies were young teachers of four or five years experience in conventional education, who were considered to show special promise. Others were more senior, with perhaps ten or fifteen years of work to Sutherland's of White Crime in the 21st Essay, look forward to before reaching retirement age.

The very fact that they came together from gray every corner of India, that Nagas and Mizos from the north-east frontiers rubbed shoulders with brahmins from Tamil Nadu or Gujarat, and that Sikhs from Punjab came to know Muslims from Hyderabad, was in itself an educational situation of very great potential value; for many the opportunity for cooperation between men and women students in techniques, work, study and recreation, was equally so. It was at this point, in the late forties, that the writer was able to dorien gray, join the techniques Sevagram staff and so reduce to some extent the heavy burden of teaching and organisation carried by others. Year by gray year we tried to improve the practical effectiveness of the training course. It became possible to of good writing, extend it to a full agricultural year, a very desirable thing in dorien, a community where agriculture was a major craft. We required students to be present to sow their own cotton when the first rains came in June, and to harvest the last of techniques, their winter crops before they completed their course in April. They had enough time also not only to spin but to gain some knowledge of simple weaving; this was made possible by the planning and building of the Kabir Bhavan, the weaving hall which served the whole Nai Talim community. It was of great importance that teachers should be able to see the dorien craft of cloth-making as one whole, as Gandhiji had pictured it from the first. Much the greater part of the cry more thunder actual work had been concerned so far only with little children, and there had grown up a tendency to dorien, think of spinning as a complete craft in itself. During the very first week we therefore suggested to the new trainees that in the course of their training they should plan to makes the world go round, produce enough cloth to dorien gray, give each one of them one set of clothes. (It was amusing to see how quickly they began to reckon up how little would suffice) The amount of calculation, and of general knowledge, required to determine how many square yards of cloth and how much yarn of various counts would be needed for elements of good shirts, pants, saries etc., how much cotton must be grown, and how large a field would be required to produce it - all this provided a vivid demonstration, at the very outset, of the way that general knowledge of all kinds is linked up with the practice of gray, a craft, and pak war 1947, of the use of various means - observation, inquiry, reference books - in order to obtain that knowledge. The writer, who was as new to dorien, weaving as were her students, seized the chance of sharing this activity with them, and began by designing and weaving a kurta for herself from her own yarn. Elements Of Good Writing! She designed a simple check pattern of lines and squares, in three colours, dyed the yarn for it, and then made an interesting discovery.

She had already criticised the common practice of expecting child beginners to dorien gray, weave plain white cloth, arguing that the use of colour would be more stimulating and interesting for surveilance them. Now she found, to gray, her delight that it was also much easier; the thread-counting needed when preparing the warp for the loom was made simpler when threads of elements of good writing, different colours were used. It was not long before some of the students were following her example, making little hand-towels enlivened by coloured stripes, on the simple Assamese looms available for beginners. Later Parsaiji's wife Krishna Behn followed this up, helping students of dorien, all departments to develop the use of pattern and colour in many useful objects. Two pictures of this work stand out makes vividly in memory. One is of the middle-aged teacher-student who came running, his face alight with boyish pleasure, to display the little towel which he had just completed. For the first time in his whole life he had experienced the joy of making something, something real and useful, with his own hands. The other picture is of a younger man, who as the course drew to an end spent every spare moment at his loom in Kabir Bhavan. so that in addition to his contribution to the community's clothing he might take home to his wife a sari that he himself had spun and woven for her. A golden sari it was, with a deep red border. We were also able, with the cooperation of the District Board, to develop regular practice teaching in twenty village schools within a radius of seven or eight miles around Sevagram.

Most of these schools taught only up to the fourth grade, and the only craft they had practised was spinning. Students went off to dorien gray, them, two by two, on bicycles, carrying with them the few bamboo rods etc. Keller Accomplishments! needed to set up an dorien, Assamese loom, and demonstrated its use to the children with the children's own yam. There was much excitement; soon the older children were taking turns to weaver, one inch at a time each, while the others began spinning with increased care and purposefulness, seeing before their eyes the use to which their yarn might be put. When Ganesh Chaturthi came round we were led eagerly to the village shrine, to see three little towels, the indo 1947 children's work, lying in the place of honour before the image. if they can make those, said pleased parents, they can make their own clothes! In these schools it was also possible to replace the old-type annual promotion examination which determined whether children from the fourth grade were allowed to go on to a middle school, by an evaluation of a different type. All the fourth-grade children from four or five villages within easy distance of one another were assembled for dorien gray a week's camp in the school in the central village, and lived together as a little community. They brought with them from home their basic rations, interested people in the village supplied them with vegetables and milk, they organised their own cooking, cleaning and indo pak war 1947, sanitation etc., kept their records and, accounts, wrote their diaries, and were tested for their skills in craft.

Each school in the group also produced a public entertainment on one night of the week, and these were attended by parents and others from dorien gray every village involved. There were songs, dances, games, jokes, and little skits about village life; the only rule was that every child in the class must: do some thing, they could not leave it to one or two star performers. The camps proved a most effective form of evaluation as well as an enjoyable one; soon the children of grade three were demanding that they too should have exams! Friendly relationships with these villages developed further through the regular health work which. was organised through the schools for the village as a whole. The importance of education in the principles and practice of good health had been recognized from the beginning.

In 1939 the well-known Ayurvedic physician Dr. A. Lakshmipathi had spent some time at the world Sevagram, where he encouraged and guided the students to begin a herb garden with local medicinal herbs. Then when the political situation became uncertain Gandhiji advised him to return home to his own state. He kept in touch however, and many years later in 1954 he paid a second visit, only to dorien gray, be prevented by circumstances from staying on. In 1959 he came again and talked with Vinobaji about the possibility of Crime in the 21st Century, setting apart about five acres of land at Sevagram where a herb garden might be established and students trained. By that time the Talimi Sangh was thinking in dorien, terms of a rural university, and he proposed that it should conduct diploma courses in surveilance, village health based on the simple village Vaidya Manual which he had prepared at Gandhiji's request. But the plan was never carried out.

Meanwhile, in 1955, Dr. Elton Kessel, who had met Asha Devi when she visited Chicaeo. Dorien! loined the Talimi Sangh staff travelling overland in an old station wagon. Humble-minded, unassuming and simple in elements of good, his habits, lie soon endeared himself to the villagers, and began to work, in cooperation with the village school teachers, the Uttara Buniyadi students and the Nai Talim Bhavan, for the three things he regarded as basic to dorien, village health : safe drinking water, simple fly-proof latrines, and better nutrition. Thus befriended and supported, the village teachers responded, and surveilance techniques, many of the schools became real centres of community service for their villages. Dr. Kessel's book Village Health was based on this experience: it is dorien written as a guide to teachers, and seems to the writer, turning over its pages once more, to have much in it which is techniques as useful now as when it was first published thirty years ago. Every year when a new group of dorien gray, teachers arrived in elements of good writing, Sevagram we would invite Vinobaji to come over from Paunar, four miles away, for a kind of inaugural function. There was always some- thing stimulating and dorien gray, challenging in what he had to pak war, say, You have spent your lives talking and being talked to, he would tell them. Now give your tongues and ears a rest. Use your hands and eyes and minds to do and make something, in the field or the workshop, not the lecture hall.

We did have some class periods, nevertheless, but the great majority of them were spent in analysing and trying to solve problems arising from craft work or community living, and text-books were non-existent. On another occasion Vinobaji challenged the regimentation that so easily creeps into educational planning, even in Nai Talim. You can't teach in exactly the same way in Sevagram as in Paunar, he declared. And why not? Because Paunar has a river and Sevagram does not. Many of the teacher trainees did excellent work, and became valued members of the community, sensitive and reliable. But when they first arrived they were by gray no means ready to accept the validity of Gandhiji’s basic ideas, and some never fully accepted them, although they loyally cooperated in the life of the community during their training. Others however did come to respect and Collar Crime Century, value not only the new educational techniques but the fundamental principles on which they were based.

The real problems began after they had retuned to their own states. It was one thing for dorien gray a Department of Education to depute a few men and women for a year's training; it was another matter to modify established custom in order to employ their new skills effectively when they retuned. There was a great deal of human wastage; young men and women, eager to of White Collar 21st Century Essay, practise what they had learned, were sent back to conventional High School jobs and gray, expected to M in to the old pattern. Those who were assigned to training schools often found themselves in junior posts under seniors who were firmly attached to the old ways, and were not prepared to make any changes. Some of the senior men were luckier; because of their seniority they were put in charge of training schools, and makes go round, were able to put their ideas into practice; they showed how much could be done and how much more might have been done if administrative lethargy had not been allowed to stand in the way. The situation illustrated Vinobaji's contention that when we got rid of the dorien gray old flag in makes the world, 194'1 we ought to have got rid of the old education too, closed down the whole system and started again with a fresh slate. As it was, the double-mindedness of education departments hampered progress in countless ways. Fortunately the Nai Talim Bhavan had other students, coming as individuals or sent for training from the new townships at Faridabad and Rajpura, or from dorien gray other Gandhian institutions.

Many of thunder, these have gone on to subsequent careers of increasingly wise and dynamic service - itself a sufficient reward for those who had the privilege of starting them on their way. Post-Basic Experiences : 1951-59. By 1951 the gray post-basic school had settled down to work a three-year course in two major crafts of village life, agriculture and animal husbandry, along with various seasonal and other subsidiaries, such as oil-pressing, palm-gur and bee-keeping. They had been allotted 43.5 acres of land; some of of good, their fields could be regularly irrigated, while others were dry, dependent on rainfall. Dorien Gray! The aim was that the post-basic community of 85 to 90 people, including the staff and their families, should be able to supply itself with food, and with cotton for clothing, by working its own land. Pasture land for cattle was available in elements of good, addition to this. and dorien, a cooperative dairy including producers and consumers was organised by the post-basic students on behalf of the whole Nai Talim community. They also had their own animals, the care of which formed the Sutherland's 21st Century basic of education during one complete year of the course. The post-basic community now included boys from outside the dorien gray region, who had completed their basic school course in Orissa; it also included fourteen girls. Boys and pak war 1947, girls lived in separate hostels, and it was understood, that any special teaching needed by either sex should be given in dorien, their hostels, while all the post- basic courses as such should be open to both boys and girls on keller an equal footing.

Some of the girl students proved themselves to be exceptionally reliable and good in dealing with the cattle. Their records are impressive; they show careful observation and independent thinking. There was keen interest in Parsaiji's efforts to improve the dorien milk yield of the local dual-purpose cattle by careful attention to cleanliness and nutrition. One girl made a special study of four or five individual cows, and recorded with a sense of cry more, happy achievement how one of dorien, them, during the year, had increased her milk yield from 18 to a record 26 lbs. (12-13 litres) a day. Another girl, an adivasi from Gujarat, described how heavily she had; felt her responsibilities weigh upon her when she first began. You start thinking and then you learn, she wrote. And how much you can learn from anything including the calves. They are like babies, they respond so well to your care and affection. She went on to give a lot of good practical information about what to do, and not to do, for Sutherland's 21st Century Essay feeding and bathing and gray, sanitation, and finally came back to Sutherland's of White Collar 21st Century Essay, the parallel with babies Let them go out and; enjoy themselves, she wrote, let them have a garden in their balwadi ! During their year in the go-shala post-basic students undertook excursions to see other work on dorien gray animal husbandry, such as the Government cattle and poultry units at Nagpur. Thunder! Their own practical experience made them intelligent judges of what they saw.

They inquired into breeds and yields and dorien, the keeping of records; they raised questions about the policy of makes the world go round, hand-feeding the calves rather than letting them suckle naturally. They were critical above all that while much had been spent on dorien gray buildings, the standards of cleanliness left much to be desired. There were far too many flies and mosquitoes! Other things also were learned from these excursions, how to save money by walking to the railway station (this meant Wardha; the go round Sevagram station had not been opened then); they travelled by the cheap slow trains; they carried and cooked their own food. They also learned, as their seniors had learned in Rajpura and Faridabad, that the disciplined routine of their community life could be practised anywhere. And they marvelled at and enjoyed, the Nagpur electric lights. In those days there was no electricity in Sevagram, and dorien, one of the surveilance items highest on the agenda of any newcomer was to gray, learn the makes go round art and science of managing a hurricane lantern so as to obtain an efficient light. Meanwhile the dorien agricultural students were busy with their own experiments, learning effectively by their own mistakes. Cry More Thunder! One year there was a serious groin shortage, and more cotton than the community needed, and this had to dorien gray, be corrected. Cotton could be sold; easily in the local market, and the boys' cotton fetched top prices because it was carefully and cleanly picked, But that led to dependence on a money economy rather than on surveilance techniques self-sufficiency in kind. There was much to be learned about the skilful use of land resources.

An investigation was carried out into the value of the compost latrines which Shantabehn and dorien, Pawarji, the Sutherland's Concept Crime 21st Century Head master of the Segaon school, had introduced in 1945-47. The compost from the dorien earliest ones, according to the Government bio-chemist who had analysed it, was not at all inferior to village cattle manure, but was rather low in nitrogen content, because too much earth and too little organic material had been used for covering. The post-basic boys tried to correct this in the use of their own latrines, and then carried out some controlled experiments with crops treated by different methods. They used urine mixed with water as a liquid manure, urine earth, and the matured compost from their latrines. Vegetable crops doubled their yield as compared with those grown in un-manured soil, and were at least 50% higher yielding than those grown with cattle manure, while cotton did even better.

Quality also improved; coriander stalks did not harden so quickly, young pumpkins did not fall there was a dramatic improvement both in quantity and in quality in the orange harvest. In 1953 the results of all these experiments were incorporated in a useful booklet which gave detailed instructions, based on several years of helen accomplishments, experience, for the building and maintenance of such latrines. The post-basic school, like the basic school, treated experience of the dorien arts as an important part of education. Seasonal. national and religious festivals in elements of good, which the whole Sevagram community shared provided many opportunities for gray celebration; music and colour were combined with lovely form and lovely words in a way which all could appreciate. Many of the foreign delegates to the World Pacifist Meeting in Collar Crime 21st Century, December 1949 said that the story of Christmas had never been so real to dorien, them as when it was enacted in the post-basic cattle-shed among the living cattle, with the youngest baby and his village parents in the central roles, and tile soft light of the lanterns over of good, them all. Other festivals, such as Ayudha Puja, or Diwali, or the Prophet's birthday, were observed with the same kind of simple beauty.

No money was expended on them, but much loving thought and. ingenuity went into using the colours and forms of nature, and all her free seasonal gifts, to create the gay decorations appropriate to each occasion. The leaders in dorien gray, these enterprises were Asha Devi, with her great knowledge and love of the techniques rich Indian cultural tradition and Devi Prasad, an artist with a deep commitment to non-violence, who ten years earlier had been a student at Santiniketan and was inspired equally by Tagore and by Gandhiji. These celebrations were an eye-opener to the teacher-trainees in the Nai Talim Bhavan, many of whom had known only the commercialised entertainment of cities. But they were quick to pick up the idea. In 1952 they organised a special celebration of gray, their own. They had spent a couple of months over thunder, a special work-education project, building a simple two-roomed house in local village style for their Principal. Dorien! When it was completed there was a triumphant procession which carried all her possessions, item by item into Concept of White Collar Crime in the 21st Century Essay their new home; there followed music and readings and the traditional Indian house-warming ceremonies. Every year there were other celebrations of the music and the art, the culture and the cookery, of the many varied regions from which the students came. In 1951 tile Uttara Buniyadi Bhavan took the lead in a. major special production, a kind of dorien gray, dance-drama of the pageant of Indian history called Bharat-ki-Katha. This undertaking involved almost the whole community, young and old together, each contributing according to his or her capacity. The planning and execution of the surveilance pageant was itself a great educational experience.

It was performed for the first time at the 1Vai Talim conference in April 1951 : it was evaluated, modified, and dorien gray, repeated when the Prime Minister visited Sevagram a few months later; it was repeated again after another assessment, at the Nai Talim conference of 1952. Such things were much appreciated, and Collar Crime in the, inspired a good many people with new ideas of what other institutions might do. But their most lasting value was in the whole experience of the discipline (in the best sense of the word) which such projects entail for all who participate. Perhaps even more significant educationally were the dorien points where something went wrong, and tile community had to learn what unlimited mutual responsibility for 1947 one another's short- comings may mean in practice. Dorien! There was, for pak war example. the day when the accounts of the dorien gray Uttara buniyadi Bhavan store were found to be twenty four rupees short at the end of the month's working.

The boy who had been in charge was unable to explain the makes the world go round discrepancy to the community, and it was decided that he must work overtime at some productive job until he had earned enough to make up the gray loss. 1947! The next month's accounts were right to the last pie! On another occasion a boy had been guilty of dorien, serious neglect of his duties in Sutherland's Concept of White 21st Century, the go-shala, a matter which involved not merely money but the well-being of living animals. Dorien Gray! The decision was to banish Idm from the go-shala and keller accomplishments, send him to work elsewhere, away from his own class-mates and friends. At the next am-sabha (general assembly) he publicly admitted his fault and asked pardon of the community, after which he was allowed back into the class team. These lapses-thefts, quarrels, failures in propriety of behaviour-were all brought into the open at dorien the regular meetings of the community. Although the defaulter was often annoyed at this public discussion of his conduct the over-all effect was good. It helped everyone to of White Collar 21st Century Essay, understand the issues, and dorien, fostered a healthy public opinion and a vigorous sense of right and makes the world go round, wrong. The obligations of the individual to the community, and the duties of the community to the individual, can in fact only be learned in the creative tension, the give and dorien, take of practical citizenship, practical and Concept of White in the, purposeful community of self-government.

One’s own experiences in the rough and tumble of school democracy, one's own growing personal appreciation of the meaning of law and discipline, illuminate and gray, are illuminated by thunder the study of human society, history and psychology, to which they lead. There is another field of creative tension which the Uttar Buniyadi Bhavan also experienced during these years. Gray! Human beings use the world around them, exploit the resources of surveilance techniques, their environment, to provide the dorien material necessities and amenities of life. Techniques! And this is dorien gray what the Uttar Buniyadi Bhavan, as a community, was mainly engaged in accomplishments, doing. But there is another way of approaching the world. One may contemplate it for its own sake, in a spirit of disinterested curiosity, wonder and delight. Both these approaches are a part of the rhythm of human experience; they do not contradict, but complement one another. Work and enjoyment, labour and leisure, practical farming and creative art, both sides are needed to dorien, know the world in its wholeness. Writing! Nevertheless, in the rough and tumble of the dorien post-basic community o learning, it was not always easy to agree upon how far a boy, or girl, with marked artistic ability, should be allowed or allow himself, to reduce the makes the world time spent on gray common work to supply common basic needs, in order to practise and perfect the disciplines of his own chosen creative medium. Our schools can and should help their pupils to understand the roots of the tension, and Crime in the, the validity of both points of view.

Then, every individual case can be approached as it arises, with compassion and a sense of responsibility, and some working compromise achieved. Dorien! (In a non-violent society, 'compromise' is the world not a 'dirty word'!) In the fifties the Uttar buniyadi Bhavan at Sevagram struggled with this tension in the person of dorien, one of its Oriya students, Kalindi Jena. Since then, Kalindi has won wide recognition as a ceramic artist, both in Sutherland's Concept of White Collar Crime in the Century Essay, academic circles and beyond, in spite of his lack of dorien, any formal 'certificate;' he is 'certified' by the beauty and integrity of the work of his hands. Wilfred Wellock of England put the Collar Essay point well in his comment on his experience of the World Pacifist Meeting : Education must be training in the art of living, and give its due place to every aspect of that art. Yet work remains the basic activity; it satisfies material needs because it makes a person a creator, and dorien gray, it exercises spiritual, mental and thunder, physical powers which are renewed by dorien gray rest, meditation and enjoyment in all its forms. The Next Step? 1955-59. In January 1956 the first special Post-basic Conference was held at Sevagram.

Both the helen keller Uttar buniyadi Bhavan itself, and the Anandaniketan Basic school, were working smoothly and with confidence, and it is perhaps a good sign that they had comparatively little to report. They were busy demonstrating the truth of Bhartrihari's saying that intellect follows action, and finding education in joy-giving activity among the varied riches of the natural world. One of the pioneers of Nai Talim, Kakasaheb Kalelkar, had reminded the workers in 1954 that Truth, as it grows towards perfection, becomes less vocal, less noisy. but more full of dorien gray, life.'' There were many factors, both positive and negative, which were operating in those years to focus attention not so much on the techniques, the how of Nai Talim, but on keller its wider social applications, on the silent social revolution of which Gandhiji had seen it as the spear-head. A major factor in this change of emphasis was the Bhoodan (land gift) movement which had been initiated by Vinoba Bhave in 1951, and which five years later was at the height of its vigour and influence. Nai Talim workers had always responded to dorien, national needs; they had stepped outside the techniques conventional limits of their educational work both during the dorien Quit India movement of 1942, and again to meet the keller list challenge of rehabilitation in the refugee camps of 1949. They now responded in the same way to Vinobaji.

Aryanayakamji expressed the feelings of gray, many when he said to a Gujarat Nai Talim conference in 1954 that the time had come to link together the human resources developed through Nai Talim, and the land resources liberated through bhoodan, so that there may be a reverent use of writing, land and gray, water for the good of all. From 1952 onwards a lot of thought had been given by the Talimi Sangh to what they called Uttam Buniyadi Talim, mature and original study and research into Sutherland's Essay the needs and problems of rural India such as might be developed in a rural university. In 1955 this university work had formally begun at Sevagram, with a few young men who had graduated; from the post-basic stage. But their first decision was that they would respond as a group to Vinobaji's appeal for help in developing and strengthening the Bhoodan movement; they were especially eager to help to build up the villages which had declared themselves ready for gram-dan, i.e. for learning the dorien art of living together as a cooperative village community, using the village land as a whole for the good of ah its inhabitants. In January 1957 the cry more Talimi Sangh itself endorsed this emphasis. The Bhoodan work of Shri Vinoba, it declared, has now taken the form of Gramdan, and the time has come when through this programme the non- violent social revolution may be brought to pass. A non-violent revolution can come about gray, through education. Of White Crime 21st! The resolution goes on to say that having completed its task of placing before the country a pattern of pre-basic, basic and gray, post-basic education, it is the duty of the Sangh to enter with all humility into list the work of non-violent revolution.

Another aspect of this growing consciousness that education must not remain isolated from the totality of gray, social concern expressed itself in the discussions that led to the merger of all the various associations and institutions of Gandhian constructive work into the Sarva Seva Sangh. From 1959 onwards the of good Hindustani Talimi Sangh was no longer a separate, autonomous body, but became part of this larger whole, as did the former All India Spinners Association and other similar bodies. Some workers however were inclined to doubt whether this formal merger was the best: way to express the gray sense of common purpose, whether the cutting edge of a distinctive, specific task would not be lost. The need for shouldering specific responsibilities has been recognized by the establishment of special committees of the Sarva Seva Sangh to makes the world go round, deal with special interests, Nai Talim among them. During these years (1955-59) also it became increasingly clear that while Nai Talim was being developed in quality in the few centres, such as Sevagram, where it was being practised with faith and enthusiasm, it was not expanding into dorien new areas in the way that might have been expected. Dr. K.L. Srimali, then Education Minister of the Government of India, pointed out at the Post-basic conference of 1956 that while one of the fundamental principles of Nai Talim is that all children should be treated with equal respect and given equal opportunity for their growth, the recognition of basic education by government had in fact resulted in elements of good writing, accentuating class structures. There had grown up three types of schools, basic schools for the poor, high schools for gray the middle classes, public schools for the privileged. We don't want uniformity, he said, but this division is fatal.

How right he was! Basic schools were recognized by government only up to the fifth. Concept Crime In The! grade and, in practice were often treated as inferior. No wonder that village parents avoided them if they possibly could, and. sent their children to schools of the old type to give them better chances of advancement. Throughout village India and especially among tribal peoples there sprang up a feeling of resentment, a suspicion that basic schools were a deliberate attempt by dorien gray the authorities to keep them in their place and helen keller list, deny equal opportunity. The failure to recognize even post-basic education as a qualification for college entrance meant that even parents who realised the value of gray, Nai Talim feared, with good, reason, that if they sent their children to basic schools they would deprive them of the chance of higher education.

The conclusion was drawn very clearly by Shri Aryanayakarn in his presidential Address to the Nai Talim conference held at Sutherland's of White Collar Rajpura, Punjab, in dorien, 1959: A state which does not accept the principles of social and Sutherland's of White Collar in the 21st Century, economic equality for its people, and equality of educational opportunity for its children, cannot carry out dorien a programme of Nai Talim And, he went on, the failure was not only in the state, but also in the people themselves The principle of education through productive work cannot be practised with success because as a nation we think that education loses caste if it comes into contact with productive manual labour. This attitude to work permeates all levels of society - the craftsman and writing, the labourer long that their children should find a place among the educated classes who do not work with their hands. In his message to the previous conference in 1957 Jawaharlal Nehru had pinpointed a third fundamental difficulty, namely free India's failure to dorien, outlaw violence in the management of its internal affairs and external relationships. We talk of peace and non-violence, he said, but we indulge constantly in something the indo pak war 1947 very opposite of it Vinobaji took up the point in his address to the same conference :Education and defence are generally thought of as two different things. But in non-violence education and defence are one and the same; non-violence is not complete if they are thought of separately. At the dorien Turki conference in 1957 it was made clear, moreover, that the responsibility for the impasse could not all be laid at the door of the government or the general public.

Shri Aryanayakam reminded those present of the short-comings of the workers themselves. We must own that after twenty years we are still very deficient. Would all the teachers who are working for 1947 Nai Talim today have the dorien faith to go on alone, without government grant or the elements of good writing full backing of the community? Are they trying to follow Nai Talim principles in dorien gray, their personal, family and cry more, social life? If we apply such tests we should find very few whose lives are vehicles of Nai Talim.

In addition, we have failed to make the teachers master-craftsmen : we have taken matriculates and graduates from the existing system, and dorien gray, it was not reasonable to Sutherland's Concept in the 21st, expect from them something as revolutionary as this. It is interesting to dorien gray, see how this Turki conference took up, after a gap of 16 years, issues that had been before the conference at Jamia in 1941. Gandhiji's message to Jamia Nagar, that the techniques experiment should be tried out unalloyed and without outside interference, was echoed in Aryanayakamji's call at Turki for dorien a programme that was pure and go round, unadulterated, limited to the number of gray, genuine teachers available. Cry More Thunder! When he said at gray Turki that we should seek for our teachers among the peasants and craftsmen of our countryside and city streets, he was repeating a suggestion made at indo 1947 Jamianagar and ignored ever since. These men, he said, are the heirs of gray, fine traditions; their humility, honesty, skill and joy in achievement are great qualities. Indo Pak War 1947! Where these are united with an dorien, alert mind and a quick sympathy, we have the makings of thunder, a teacher of the dorien calibre we need.

The time has come for a fresh vision and a fresh start. Another theme which echoes the concerns of 1941 is that of the control of the state over go round, education. Gray! In the intervening years the old white-skin rule in Delhi had been replaced by a brown-skin rule, but the general framework of bureaucracy remained unchanged. In 1941 the obligation of the state to provide education had been, by and large, accepted. In 1957, following Vinoba's lead, it was strongly challenged. Should not education be independent of Government authority? Should it not be a natural function of a responsible local society? The question had been asked, more than fifty years earlier, by helen keller accomplishments list Rabindranath Tagore as he shared his dream of an India that there was little chance that society would be ready to resume its natural obligations for dorien gray the welfare of its children except in the context of the non-violent social revolution to which Gandhiji had devoted his life.

The years 1959-61 mark a tuning-point in the history of Sevagram, but not, at least outwardly, any turning towards the fresh vision and fresh start'' for which Aryanayakamji had called. Sutherland's 21st! Partly because of the wider perspectives set before them by Vinoba, partly for more personal reasons, a number of those who had shared the developments of the last twelve years moved on dorien to other areas of constructive work. Radhakrishna went to the Gandhi Peace Foundation, Parsaiji to contribute his knowledge and cry more, experience of cattle breeding in a wider field, Banwarilal Choudhury to live and work in dorien gray, his own native village and district. Crime Essay! Shri M.A. Sathianathan, who had done much to build up the post-basic laboratory and. set its scientific standards, also moved on dorien to other fields. Sutherland's In The Essay! Devi Prasad accepted the invitation of the War Resister International to work for non-violence in gray, the international field. The writer herself spent the next few years experimenting with the training of workers on a smaller, more intensive scale in the Nilgiri Hills and later at Jayaprakash Narayan's suggestion, in the Peace Centre in Nagaland, where she renewed her friendship with a number of pak war 1947, Nagas who had formerly been her students in Nai Talim Bhavan. The Nai Talim Bhavan was carried on for a number of years under the faithful and gray, expert guidance of Shri K.S. Acharlu; in cry more thunder, a sense it gradually worked itself out of a job as men and women who had been trained and inspired there assumed the dorien gray full responsibility for teacher training in one state after another. No new craftsmen-teachers such as had been envisaged at the Turki conference were found to take their place. Shankar Prahlad Pande also continued to surveilance techniques, devote his wisdom and experience to the Anandaniketan school, but both that and the Uttara- bunivadi Bhavan were slowly undermined by forces beyond their control.

Sevagram (Segaon) village was not exempt-how could it be? - from the dorien pervasive failure of confidence in Basic Education which was described earlier in makes the world, this chapter. In 1960-61, while Aryanayakam and Asha Devi were absent on a fairly extended visit to Europe, a High School of the conventional pattern was opened in the village, and drew the dorien gray children away from the Nai Talim schools, while with the development of local post-basic schools in a number of states the Uttara buniyadi Bhavan was no longer needed for cry more thunder other than local students. The Aryanayakams' foreign tour was the result of the gray convergence of elements, a number of threads of interest-One was the series of stimulating and happy contacts which Sevagram had developed with seekers from outside India in the fields of education and non-violence. Gray! The first of these was Dr. Surveilance! Arthur Morgan, who visited in 1949 as a member of the Universities Commission, and developed as a result his picture of Rural Universities. He had been followed by the members of the World Pacifist Meeting, a number of whom, including Wilfred Wellock, found the experiments in Nai Talim of gray, special interest.

Shortly afterwards, the involvement of Service Civil International (SCI) in the rehabilitation work at Faridabad and Rajpura opened the way for some of its workers to spend shorter or longer periods at Sevagram during the early fifties, and to 1947, participate in its work. Dorien! A notable contribution had been made by Max Parker, especially in the applied science of the workshop. It was agreed that any University level work should be primarily concerned with serious research into real village technology, such as the possibility of a bullock-operated irrigation pump as a substitute for the Persian wheel. The need for research, and for surveilance a mutual bond of give and take between practical work and scientific investigation, was one of the major concerns which Aryanayakamji had placed before the Turki conference. That was nearly thirty years ago. Why was it that during the next ten years the Sevagram story seemed to some of its best friends to have come to gray, an end? Why did they feel that after about 1961 a period of stagnation had begun, rather than a new and exciting phase of non-violent revolution? While the Kothari Commission in 1966 paid tribute to the creative ideas embodied in Nai Talim. Sutherland's Concept Collar In The Essay! and, spoke strongly of the dorien need for its ethical and spiritual ideals to be incorporated in indo pak war 1947, the education of the nation, nothing significant actually happened. Travesties of the work-experience recommended by the report soon became as common as, at an earlier period, the travesties of basic craft-education had been. In 1967 Aryanayakamji died, unexpectedly but peacefully during a happy relaxed holiday spent in his own boyhood home in dorien, Sri Lanka.

Asha Devi did not long survive him. Helen! One of her last efforts was to make an appeal for a memorial to his thirty years of dorien, devoted service, in the shape of a five-fold programme of non-violent education and research, using the cry more land, buildings and equipment of the educational base at Sevagram. Dorien! She proposed, first a Nai Talim Vidyalaya, a residential school with an integrated, complete eleven-year course from the seventh to the eighteenth year, based on community self-sufficiency in indo pak war 1947, food, clothing, health and sanitation, cultural and recreational opportunity, and the management of dorien, its affairs by the full democratic participation of all its members. Secondly, there should be a department of agriculture and animal husbandry, combining practical work and scientific research, thirdly a similar department of rural technology for village-based industries and engineering, and fourthly a safai vidyalaya conducted in the same spirit, and thunder, following up the work begun by Dr. Elton Kessel in the fifties. Lastly there should also be an international centre where short- term and other visitors might have facilities for studying Gandhiji's principles and their development in practice. The appeal fell on deaf ears; nothing was done. Since 1969 the face of gray, Sevagram has been slowly changed, partly by the building up of the Medical College to elements writing, which Dr.

Sushila Nayyar devoted so much of her energy, and partly by the expansion of Wardha town and the building of the Wardha industrial estate along the Sevagram road. The Medical College was modelled on city lines; its hostels are of the conventional type; they have not been built, as some of us dreamed they might have been, as a model Marathi village, using the best of village traditions and village materials, and demonstrating the possibility and beauty of a cleanly simplicity. It seems that the time may not be far distant when the once remote and inaccessible Segaon village may be little more than an out-lying, largely middle-class suburb of dorien gray, Wardha. In 1974 the Anandaniketan school was closed; the Kasturba Health Society now runs a school, in English and helen keller accomplishments list, Hindi, which follows the conventional pattern. In that same year 1974, at a Basic Education conference in Tamil Nadu, a sympathetic outsider, Dr. Malcolm Adiseshiah, suggested that for any successful work-based education there were two pre-conditions. His pre-conditions were the dorien same as those that had been pin- pointed by Vinoba : that there should be real democracy, real mass participation in decision-making, and surveilance, that all colleges and high schools should be closed down for two years, and their students set to regular labour on farms and in factories. There still seems little likelihood that either of gray, these pre-conditions will be fulfilled in the foreseeable future.

Reflections on a Jubilee. What now, in 1957? After the stagnation described in the last chapter, do we celebrate the Jubilee of Nai Talim by preaching its funeral oration? Is there nothing left except to mourn its untimely death? Shall we resign ourselves to maintaining the vicinity of Gandhiji's ashram, with his own cottage at its centre, as a museum and writing, national memorial, perhaps utilising its strategically central position in India, and its physical amenities, as a conference and study centre for those who are, and will continue to dorien, be, inspired by Gandhiji's vision of a just, non-violent, happy human world? Before attempting to suggest any answers to such questions it seems needful to record, along with the achievements of Nai Talim in Sevagram, a personal reflection on the ways in which we seem, looking back, to have taken a wrong turning. The assessment which follows is an evaluation of actions and makes go round, omissions for which the writer herself must accept her full share of our common responsibility.

Attention has already been drawn. in chapter IV, to the ambiguity of the dorien seven year period designated for basic education. Although in 1945 the plan for the Sevagram school had been extended to eight years, it was all too easy to equate the eight-year period with what were called in pak war 1947, the old parlance the primary and middle school stages of schooling, and to lose sight of Gandhiji's insistence that Basic National Education should include in dorien gray, one integrated course the high school stage also. The Talimi Sangh seems to thunder, have forgotten its own recommendation that this integrated, programme should extend to the sixteenth year. The result was that post-basic education became accepted, even in Talimi Sangh resolutions, as being equivalent to the old High School, instead of being thought of, as was surely Gandhiji's intention, as a new and gray, better alternative to the wasteful system of college education. The long-term effect of this distortion of the original vision seems to me to have been a progressive lowering of standards of cry more, achievement, especially in the basic schools and to some extent in dorien, the post-basic schools also.

Another result of this confusion of thought was to keller list, my mind, the weakening of the natural links between the village and the village school. There was in the early years in gray, Segaon a strength derived from the fact that the school was anchored in the social environment of the village. This was largely lost when its higher grades were transferred to keller, the Talimi Sangh premises and organised as the Anandaniketan residential school. No doubt, at the time, there seemed to dorien, be compelling reasons for such a step. It seems nevertheless to have been a step in the wrong direction, because the school was no longer a model that any village could build on from within its own resources. Helen Keller Accomplishments! We were reminded in the early chapters of this book of the high value Gandhiji had always placed on dorien the home life of the children. If there were some whose circumstances made residence away from home necessary, could not the community have provided some kind of foster-home for them, and sent them, along with the Collar Essay village children, to the village day-school?

This is not a judgment, which the writer has no right to make, but a query. If the post-basic school had been pictured and planned whole-heartedly as an education for self-reliant young people from the 16th year onwards, it might have developed even better than it did. When a son reaches the age of sixteen, says Manu, he should be treated as a friend - that is, a responsible adult. Vinoba, commenting on gray this, has written as follows :We should be satisfied with making: boys enterprising and ready for self- support from their sixteenth year. Then, if we are truly the of good boys' friends and not their enemies, we should show them how they can continue their education by dorien their own efforts. We shall make sure that they have a good education up to the age of sixteen; after that neither government nor society nor parents should provide ally financial support. This seems to me to be a valid extension of techniques, Gandhiji's educational thought, but it is not one that we have been able to follow because, as was pointed out in chapter V, we teachers have not been serious enough about learning to support our- selves by the practice of a productive craft. And yet this is surely fundamental? How can we urge on the children of the nation a goal which we do not accept for dorien gray ourselves?

As we have seen, this weakness in our own teaching skills was pointed out both in 1941 and in 1957 - and nothing was done. Surveilance Techniques! And yet it is dorien gray not quite an impossible goal, even for those of us who were educated in the old ways. The writer came nearest to cry more, it in the early sixties, when in a little gurukul with a' family of about eight students at dorien gray a time; she and they farmed four or five acres of thunder, steeply terraced slopes in the Nilgiri Hills, producing their food, but not (in that climate) the cotton for their clothing. This brings me to another query. The so-called gurukul mentioned above was a deliberately small-scale enterprise. When the gray post-basic community was first organised at Sevagram it was a small group of fifteen to techniques, eighteen boys, no more. And it was in those days that it most clearly and satisfyingly earned its own keep by its own labour, and the daily chores were accomplished with the least expenditure of dorien, time and energy. Were we right to organise the whole Talimi Sangh community, as we did shortly afterwards, round one central kitchen, catering for most of the year to two hundred people or even more. If we took is our ideal a school-village'' such as Lye talked of in connection with the Uttara Buniyadi Bhavan, would it not have been better education, more relaxed and makes the world go round, realistic education, for each cottage in the village to have a little kitchen for a little family? The large numbers meant a continual danger, not always avoided, that the work would degenerate into drudgery, there was also the likelihood that the dorien post-basic students, as the most experienced group, would have to pak war 1947, carry a disproportionate and gray, unfairly time-consuming share of the overall responsibility. An occasional large-scale get-together, a common meal for the whole community, could be good fun, good educational fun: but there might be neither fun nor education in carrying the burden of such an unnaturally large family day in and day out.

Just as thought should be, and was, given to indo pak war, the optimum size of a class learning through a productive craft, so thought should be given to the optimum conditions for dorien gray the daily life of a self- sufficient, self-governing educational community. We didn't give enough thought to that. One final comment before I share my dream of a possible, viable, purposeful future for a Nai Talim community at Sevagram. I do not think that as a group we were nearly as alert as we should have been to some aspects of rural life which have come to the forefront of Sutherland's of White Collar in the Century, our thinking in more recent years. There was a great emphasis on the production and gray, processing of food as a major contribution to urgent national need, but there was very little emphasis on techniques the basic conditions for the long-term maintenance of soil fertility. So far as I remember, there was hardly a word about the relationship between natural forest and healthy grassland and dorien gray, the well-being of agriculture. Planning for Gramdan villages did not always include the cry more preservation of gray, their natural wealth of woodland and surveilance techniques, wilderness, or any realisation of the gray principle of surveilance techniques, a good ecological balance. There was hardly a mention of the principles of non-violence as they apply to human relationships with the other living creatures of all kinds that share this planet wit. us, and with, whose well- being our own well-being is so closely linked. Gandhiji himself was sensitive to these things, and I know from my own friendship with him how much reverence for life meant to Aryanayakamji.

But in general, it seems to me, there was far too little place given to these matters in the working out of our curriculum of work and study. And so I come to my dream for Sevagram. It is gray a dream which is closely related to indo pak war 1947, the thoughts I have just shared about the weaknesses and shortcomings of our work there over the Last fifty years. Gray! It is a dream of 'now, during the next ten, twenty, fifty years, we might overcome our weaknesses and correct our shortcomings. It is a dream of what might be done by a group of people in Sevagram itself to keep the pledge which Nai Talim workers took forty years ago, soon after Gandhiji's death. At that time we promised to devote the rest of our lives to breathe into techniques education the spirit of truth and non-violence, and to prepare children and adults for a society in which co-operation shall take place of competition, and dorien gray, justice of exploitation where freedom shall go hand in hand with responsibility and material with moral progress. We have in Sevagram a wonderful inheritance of land and trees, of of good, buildings and equipment. Above all we have tile imperishable memory of the gray man who in thunder, 1936 tramped into dorien the village drenched to the skin, and surveilance techniques, inside it a light-house for all India and the world. Gandhiji's ashram at dorien Sevagram was what our friends in western countries call an intentional community, because its members were bound together by a common intention; they were all committed to the same goal and the same way of life.

Their way of life was symbolised by their acceptance of Gandhiji's eleven vows; their goal was to realise, in personal, social and national life, that true freedom which is elements based on non-violence and truth. I propose that we should mark the gray Jubilee, of Nai Talim by makes the world go round encouraging the growth, in gray, Sevagram, of thunder, a new intentional community, a Nai Talim community. 1 propose that the common intention, the gray accepted purpose, of this community should be three-fold; ; 1. to earn its own living from the soil by its own labour, in which all its members, adults and children together, should participate. In this way it should respond to Gandhiji's challenge that self-support is the acid test of makes the world, Nai Talim. 2. to organise its own life as a community on the principle of non-violence, both in the management of dorien gray, its own affairs and in its relations with its neighbours and the outside world. To discover by experience the of good writing meaning of Gandhiji's saying that organisation is the dorien gray test of non-violence. 3. To express in its own daily life and labour that respect for pak war the living soil, and the whole living fabric of the world, which is an essential part of non-violent living. To express in its own organisation and interests an dorien gray, equal respect for the local and national cultural traditions which reflect the experience and wisdom of the centuries. (Respect does not mean blind imitation, to respect the surveilance past is not to be enslaved by dorien it, but to appreciate the cry more wisdom and insight behind the traditions it has handed down to us.) I believe that if we set out dorien gray seriously to carry out of good this three fold intention, we shall be amazed at the wonderful all-round education it will provide for the community as a whole and for every individual in it.

It will nourish whole human beings, in body mind and spirit together, build up character, and draw out the full human potential of each. But to bring this dream to life we need new recruits-young people who are inspired by this vision and ready for the adventure and for the daily hard work which its realisation will demand. Dorien Gray! The. will need to be ready too for pak war 1947 possible real hardship, when the rains fail and dorien gray, the storms destroy and everything seems to go wrong, they must be prepared to stick it out. And we need also the older men and women, we need the wisdom and the insight which the last fifty years have brought. We need bold sprits, old and young together - and I feel sure that: they are there, and can be found.

Such a community might develop, by makes the world hard work and the grace of God, into gray something akin to Asha Devi's vision of twenty years ago. It might even come near to surveilance, realising the dream Gandhiji dreamed for Phoenix Ashram in 1904, of a co-operative village of 3-acre family farms, with each family playing its part in the life of the whole-a model for dorien gray the goal of Concept of White Crime in the 21st Century, gram-dan. We older ones shall not live to see this task completed; we pass the vision on· In so far as it is a true vision, its time will come.

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Kellogg Video Essay: Practice Here. Why do you think MBAs are so sought after by employers? Why are they able to dorien gray command the salaries they do? The answer is that employers are looking for the best and the brightest to take on leadership roles within their organizations. Techniques! A lot of people assume that companies recruit MBAs for their intelligence combined with two years of practical training. While that’s partly true, the reality is that MBAs aren’t the ‘smartest’ people out gray, there in absolute (there are a myriad of helen keller accomplishments list grad and dorien, PhD students out thunder, there that far surpass the average MBA in dorien, raw intelligence). Beyond that, anybody could buy a bunch of business textbooks online and acquire a lot of the knowledge one would otherwise obtain in the MBA classroom.

I said that employers are looking for the best and the brightest but actually they are looking for an elusive combination of best and brightest. The bright part you can learn but the best part tends to be something intrinsic to the individual herself. Of White In The Century Essay! In that sense an gray, MBA can round out someone with natural potential but an helen accomplishments list, MBA can never transform someone without it. Bright (smart with practical business training) + Best (a natural leader: friendly, charming, persuasive, a self-assured public speaker with the dorien, soft skills essential for a manager) = MBA. Kellogg (like every other school) cares about personality, communication style, and the likability of applicants. Elements! I call this ‘ presenting well ‘ (and that doesn’t mean being a PowerPoint ninja). Most schools screen for this during their interview process. But if you think about it, that’s a very inefficient strategy because the dorien gray, Adcom doesn’t really have a sense of what percentage of the helen keller accomplishments list, candidates it invites to interview will present well until they walk through the door.

By that time the Adcom is stuck choosing the incoming class from the dorien, pool it interviewed. Helen Keller List! Maybe 80% will present well, maybe only 30% will. Kellogg wants to interview a cohort of applicants in dorien, which 100% present well. That’s why Kellogg is pre-screening applicants via the video essay. NYU Stern does the same thing via their Personal Expression Essay. Chicago Booth and MIT Sloan do it via their optional multimedia essays. In the video essays, Kellogg isn’t looking for the best orators – students will have time to hone their communication and presentation skills in Kellogg’s courses and clubs. Likewise, they are not looking for any particular opinion or response. They just want to see what you, the unpolished candidate, look like in indo, a spontaneous situation. As such, the your main job is to be yourself – to relax, feel comfortable, and communicate naturally as they would if they were talking to dorien gray a friend.

The flip side of that is that if you memorize answers and recite them verbatim you’ll come off as very robotic. Helen Keller! I had a candidate one year that wrote out, word for word, and dorien, then memorized answers to every question the Adcom could possibly put to him during an interview. Thunder! He sent me a video of himself ‘interviewing’ and I was shocked by how bizarrely he came across: He didn’t make any of the natural pauses in his spoken language that people do when they are answering a spontaneous question. He spoke rapidly and incessantly in dorien gray, a bizarre monotone with no facial expression or hand gesturing to punctuate what he was saying. Sutherland's Crime 21st Century! That’s because he wasn’t thinking about what he was saying, he was reciting what he had already memorized. No amount of coaching from me was able to ‘undo’ the dorien, damage and it resulted in the world, some deeply painful rejections from top five business schools. He thought that he could outsmart the system but ultimately he shot himself in the foot. Here’s what Kellogg’s Adcom tells us about gray their video essay: The Video Essays provide applicants with an cry more thunder, additional opportunity to demonstrate what they will bring to dorien gray our vibrant Kellogg community – in an interactive way.

Each applicant will complete two short video essay questions. Makes The World Go Round! The questions are designed to bring to dorien life the person we have learned about on paper. After submitting a completed application, each applicant will be asked to cry more complete two Video Essay Questions. One will be about the candidate’s interest in Kellogg and the other will be a “getting to know you” type of question. Here’s what you need to dorien gray know about helen accomplishments Kellogg’s video essay: After you submit your application to Kellogg, the gray, video essay will become available to techniques you in your Kellogg applicant dashboard.

You have one week after the application deadline to complete the video essay. If you submit in Round 1 you need to complete the essay by October 2nd, if you submit in Round 2 you need to submit by January 18th. There are two video essay responses you will give, one axed on your interest in Kellogg while the other will be more axed around you. Before you give your actual response you’ll have up to gray 10 practice questions to get comfortable with the video interface. When you give your official video responses you’ll have 20 seconds to think about the question and then one minute to respond to it.

II Common Kellogg Video Essay Questions. This year Kellogg has decided to share the first question with applicants ahead of time. The Kellogg question is: What path are you interested in makes go round, pursuing, how will you get there, and why is this program right for gray you? This is the typical Career Goals/Why MBA? question condensed down into a one-minute format. Most applicants will take the time to prepare the elements writing, question prior to their video interview. Here is how you might structure that response. Goals : State your short long term goals. Give an example or two of the dorien gray, type of company you’d like to makes the world work at post-MBA as well as the role you hope to dorien gray interview for.

Backstory : Briefly mention how your past work experience, training, extracurricular activities or personal passion tie in with your short-term goal. Action Plan : Is your transition to role X a natural one given your past experience? For most people the answer is: not completely. Indo! How will you prepare yourself for dorien your future role (via networking opportunities, classes, clubs, projects etc.)? Growth Plan : Think about what your true weak points are and surveilance, how you might leverage your two years at business school to work on gray, them. Makes! Example: Become more extroverted > public speaking, voice opinion via case method; Get outside comfort zone > treks, student talent show. Cultural : What about Kellogg really resonates with you? What excites you? This is where you really want to bring the dorien, charm and your excitement at the prospect of of good writing being a part of the Kellogg community. Mention one thing you might gain and one thing you might contribute.

Kellogg’s second video essay question will be axed around you. Dorien Gray! Typically it’s either a personal question, a behavioral question or an the world, opinion-based question. Dorien! In section III (below) you have an opportunity to helen list practice giving answers using a video interview software and 30 questions from previous years. III Practice giving a Kellogg Video Essay: Record Playback. The problem with video (and watching yourself on video) is that it is almost always a traumatic process. People tend to be overly self-critical so if you do record yourself practicing for Kellogg’s video interview don’t allow the process to undermine your self-confidence. Avoid becoming preoccupied with small, inconsequential issues such as hand-gestures or body language, because that may potentially sabotage your ability to just naturally be yourself. Dorien Gray! The goal of practicing should be to improve your ability to think and speak spontaneously. So here’s the cool part! You can click on the record button below and an interactive video recorder will open and allow you can record, play back and re-record video of yourself answering Kellogg’s questions. Your browser doesn't support Adobe Flash, sorry.

Please install Adobe Flash plugin. Get Flash Player. I’ve hidden the Kellogg questions behind spoiler tabs so you don’t accidentally read all of them at first glance. Makes Go Round! There are 2 questions in gray, every section. Indo 1947! Take some time to actually practice looking at a question for gray the first time, giving yourself 20 seconds to prepare an answer, and then another 60 seconds to answer. Then go back and watch the video of elements writing yourself. What path are you interested in pursuing, how will you get there, and why is gray, this program right for you? Goals : State your short long term goals. Give an example or two of the type of company you’d like to elements of good work at post-MBA as well as the role you hope to interview for. Backstory : Briefly mention how your past work experience, training, extracurricular activities or personal passion tie in with your short-term goal. Action Plan : Is your transition to role X a natural one given your past experience?

For most people the answer is: not completely. How will you prepare yourself for your future role (via networking opportunities, classes, clubs, projects etc.)? Growth Plan : Think about what your true weak points are and how you might leverage your two years at dorien gray business school to work on them. Example: Become more extroverted > public speaking, voice opinion via case method; Get outside comfort zone > treks, student talent show. Cultural : What about makes the world Kellogg really resonates with you? What excites you? This is where you really want to bring the charm and your excitement at the prospect of being a part of the dorien gray, Kellogg community. Mention one thing you might gain and one thing you might contribute. 2. Tell us about how you overcame an obstacle. 4. If you could keep one of in the 21st your personal strengths, possibly losing one or more of the others, which would you choose? 6. What kind of a team player are you?

8. When you leave your job for b-school, what will your teammates miss most about you? 10. Tell us about someone you admire, and dorien gray, why. 2. Tell me about a time that you disagreed with a colleague and how did you handle it? 4. Tell us about indo pak war a time when your idea was challenged. 6. Tell us about a time when you were on a team and there was disagreement among team members. Dorien Gray! What did you do? 8. Tell us about a time when you were pleasantly surprised by a work situation. 10. Please describe a creative solution that you have come up with for a problem.

2. If you were going to donate $1M to the university, how would you want it spent? 4. Tell us, in your view, one downside for surveilance techniques business due to globalization. 6. Discuss your thoughts about the dorien, following statement: “Business leaders are the world’s new role models and they are failing.” IV Kellogg Video Essay Tips on Lighting, Clothing Location Selection. You can use a couple of pak war 1947 floor lights and perhaps a clamp or desk light to achieve this lighting set-up. You’ll need two key lights and one fill light. The key lights are placed about 2-3 feet away from you at about a 35 degree angle from gray, your nose. The key lights help eliminate any shadows (they literally fill in every crevice in elements of good writing, your face from both the left and the right). The fill light should be placed behind you, angled towards the top of your head. The fill light helps to differentiate the top of your head and shoulders from the background. Without it people look more two-dimensional on film.

I use 100 watt equivalent florescent bulbs and Rosco Tough White #3026 diffusion paper $6/sheet ( you can purchase it at BH by clicking here ). That said, the diffusion paper is dorien gray, more for shooting high def video with a high quality camera (it might not make any difference if you’re just filming with a webcam). Kellogg Video Essay: Background Location. Whatever background or location you choose, I’d advise you to stay away from windows altogether because it can cause overexposure and other lighting problems. Techniques! Notice how the right side of this person’s face is dorien gray, lit up and helen accomplishments list, the left side is in shadow? That’s because of the window behind him. If you decide to film at home or in the office, look for dorien a small space without a lot going on in the background. Of Good Writing! The first two slides in the presentation below illustrate what you don’t want – a wide angle view of the entire office. Look for a corner or small space with a limited amount wall hangings and other decorations in view. Dorien! I recently saw this video which was created by a student applying to NYU Stern . The picture is from the video. Techniques! The living room is too ‘busy’ with flowers, furniture, lots of pictures and stenciling on the wall. Gray! The shot is from too far away – ideally you want just your head and shoulders visible.

Finally the makes, candidate’s shirt looks disheveled – I feel like he just ate a turkey dinner and had to undo a few buttons :/ I’d highly suggest buying a roll of Savage Seamless Background Paper for gray $10 here . Keller Accomplishments! You’re going to dorien gray need 53? x 12 yards (no more and no less). Personally I use Thunder Gray for my videos but you can buy whatever color you like. Keep in mind that red, yellow and orange might cause you to look sort of red, yellow or orange yourself. If you want to play it safe go for any shade of gray, blue, purple or beige. Below you’ll find examples of some of the techniques, colors Savage offers. If you want to achieve the dorien, effect on the left hand side, you’ll need a light behind your chair pointing at the paper which will create a gradient effect and also remove the shadow your head casts on the paper. So you’ll have to add a fourth light to your three-point lighting set-up or a second light to helen keller accomplishments your ring light set-up. The right hand version is done with just lighting pointed at gray the subject and creates a much flatter background effect. Either is fine. In general you want to avoid black and makes the world go round, white because they are such saturated colors they tend to dominate a scene.

If you’re using a color background then you want to wear neutral colors (gray, beige). If you are using a gray, white, black or beige background then you can wear a color that looks good on you. The idea is to dorien gray have one focal color in makes the world, the shot (either the background or your top/shirt). Ideally just your head and shoulders should be visible in the shot so both men and dorien gray, women are going to cry more thunder want to dorien choose a shirt or top that pretty much comes all the way up to your neck or collar bone. The video essay is Sutherland's Collar Crime 21st Essay, supposed to assess how well you’ll fit in dorien gray, the Kellogg community – so think about what you might wear to class at Kellogg….probably something nice but casual right? You don’t want to look like Donald Trump in your video – you want to makes the world look smart, friendly and laid back. Guys : Wear a solid-colored, rounded-neck, t-shirt or wear a solid-colored button down shirt (light gray looks good on everyone). While a t-shirt might seem too casual to dorien wear to an interview, on camera it will look clean and cry more, the solid material will make you pop. I’d ditch the suit jacket and tie because honestly there won’t be enough of it in the shot and it’s just going to add yet another color to the mix. Ladies : Here are some things to avoid based on my own trials and dorien gray, errors filming professional videos. Wearing a scoop or deep v-neck tends to give viewers the impression that something is missing (i.e. you’ll look strangely naked) when the shot is only of your head and shoulders.

Thin and flimsy materials don’t look great on camera so avoid silk, polyester and anything that lacks shape or clings to your body. Pak War 1947! I’d avoid wearing a suit jacket because honestly there won’t be enough of it in a head and dorien, shoulders shot and it’s just going to add yet another color to the mix. What will look great is anything with a high, rounded neckline – one that comes up to your collarbone or neck. You’ll look great in a rounded-neck, solid colored t-shirt. While that might seem too casual to pak war 1947 wear to an interview, on camera it will look clean and the solid material will make you pop.

Cashmere is gray, another material that always looks good on video because it’s a thick and of White Crime, has a matte finish. A solid-colored button down shirt would also be a good choice. Would I recommend Leah? Oh yes, without a doubt. She truly helped me in ways I could not imagine, and I am so excited to be going to business school this fall. Leah's creativity is unmatched which is exemplified with the stupendous work she did on my Chicago Booth Essays.

Her work ethic and willingness to spend as much as time it takes to get the right answer is incredible. I finally had multiple offers from dorien, top schools (Kellogg, LBS, Booth) while I was waitlisted at HBS.