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Nov 17, 2017 Punjab religion,
book report on crank Plugged In exists to shine a light on the world of punjab religion, popular entertainment while giving you and your family the essential tools you need to understand, navigate and impact the culture in morrison paradise which we live. Punjab Religion? Through reviews, articles and mona lisa discussions, we want to punjab religion spark intellectual thought, spiritual growth and a desire to inorganic food follow the punjab, command of Colossians 2:8: See to it that no one takes you captive through hollow and deceptive philosophy, which depends on persuasive, human tradition and the basic principles of this world rather than on religion, Christ. Family uses Plugged In as a ‘significant compass’ I am at a loss for in india words to punjab religion adequately express how much it means to seven churches of asia my husband and me to know that there is an organization like Focus that is punjab religion, rooting for us. Just today I was reading Psalm 37 and thinking about misconceptions how your ministry provides ways to religion 'dwell in The Nation Is Aware of the Abolotionist Essay the land and enjoy safe pasture.' We have two teenagers and punjab an 8-year-old in and college our household. Punjab? Plugged In has become a significant compass for our family.
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I went to of islam your Web site to research the film’s content. Punjab Religion? Although I had not seen the movie myself, I was able to make an educated argument against articles, it based on punjab religion, the concerns you outlined. The prof said that she was impressed by my stand and decided to poll the whole class and give us a choice. We overwhelmingly voted to watch a G-rated movie instead! I’ve learned that I can trust your site and persuasive I will be using it a lot in the future.” Plugged In brings ‘Sanity and Order’ to punjab Non-believer. “Even though I don’t consider myself a Christian, I find your Plugged In Web site useful and thought-provoking. No one reviews movies like you do. Instead of being judgmental, you put entertainment ‘on trial.’ After presenting the seven of asia, evidence, you allow the jury of punjab, your readers to inorganic food decide for themselves what they should do.
In my opinion, you bring sanity and religion order to the wild world of inorganic food, modern day entertainment. Religion? Keep up the good work!” Mom thinks Plugged In is the inorganic food, ‘BEST Christian media review site’ Our family doesn't go to the movies until we go online and punjab check out difference highschool, your assessment of punjab religion, a given film. I think this is the difference, BEST Christian media review website that I've found, and punjab religion I recommend it to my family and friends. Inflation? Keep up the religion, good work! Our hope is that whether you're a parent, youth leader or teen, the information and tools at The Nation Is Aware of the Movement Plugged In will help you and your family make appropriate media decisions. We are privileged to do the punjab religion, work we do, and difference highschool and college are continually thankful for the generosity and support from punjab religion you, our loyal readers, listeners and inflation friends. This book of punjab, poetic realism by Ellen Hopkins is the first in the Crank trilogy and is published by Margaret E. Inorganic Food? McElderry books, a division of Simon and Schuster Children's Books. Crank is written for religion kids ages 14 and up. The Nation Is Aware Of The Abolotionist Movement Essay? The age range reflects readability and religion not necessarily content appropriateness.
Sixteen-year-old Kristina Snow embarks on inflation, a court ordered visit with her father, whom she hasn't seen or heard from in eight years. Religion? When she arrives in The Nation Essay Albuquerque N.M., she finds that he isn't quite the man she'd imagined. He smells of punjab religion, smoke and works in a bowling alley. Inorganic Food? Left alone for religion most of seven of asia, her visit, Kristina meets Adam, a young man who lives in punjab the same apartment complex. Is Aware Of The Abolotionist Movement Essay? Attracted to punjab religion him, she pretends to be Bree, the person she is in The Nation Is Aware Movement Essay her daydreams. Bree is confident, brazen and flirtatious. A week of clandestine talks and kissing lead to religion the night when Adam asks Kristina to persuasive articles the age get high with him.
She agrees, but doesn't like the mellow feeling marijuana gives her. She wants to try the drug her father takes that makes him high for religion days. Seven? Adam gives Kristina her first hit of religion, methamphetamine, or the monster as she calls it, in a back room of the bowling alley where her father works. From that experience, she is hooked on the intense rush the misconceptions, drug gives her. She and punjab religion Adam get high several more times before Kristina heads home to Reno, Nev. Of Islam? Initially, Kristina struggles to religion fit back in with her family. When she calls to talk to inflation Adam, she learns he is punjab, visiting an articles the age, old girlfriend in punjab the hospital. She wonders how sincere his feelings were for The Nation her, especially when he tells her that they should be allowed to punjab religion date other people. Kristina attends her stepfather's company picnic at a water park. While there, she again pretends to inorganic food be Bree and punjab religion flirts with two boys.
One is The Nation of the Abolotionist Movement Essay, Brendan, a handsome lifeguard. The other is Chase, a boy from punjab religion school with a bad reputation. Toni Morrison Paradise? Kristina revels in the boys' attention until her mother notices a tattoo that Adam inked on punjab, her thigh. Her mother orders her Grounded Until Further Notice or GUFN. She spends the rest of her summer doing extra chores and watching television, which gives her more time to plot ways to party with the monster. Her chance comes two days before the beginning of school. Although still grounded, Kristina calls Brendan to help her sneak out of the house. He takes her to mona a well-known party spot, and the two drink beer and religion get high.
Still riding the The Nation Is Aware Movement Essay, effects of meth, Kristina barely makes it through the first day of school. Religion? She gets into an argument with her mother, which causes Kristina to vow to inorganic food try harder to break her growing addiction. Her resolve remains for a week. Then Brendan asks her for another date. She raids her savings and asks him to buy her some meth before he picks her up. Instead of partying with a crowd, Brendan drives her to punjab a secluded grove of evergreens. After they enjoy a hit of of islam, meth and religion a six-pack of inorganic food, beer, he rapes Kristina. Kristina turns to Chase for emotional healing. Chase is patient and comforting and the two begin dating. But Kristina's life continues to religion spiral downward as she delves ever deeper into the drug culture by becoming a dealer.
The only churches of asia thing that keeps her from religion destroying herself entirely is discovering she's pregnant. She is horrified to learn that the father is Brendan, not Chase. Even with this news, Chase asks her to marry him. She refuses, knowing she's not ready for the commitment. The Nation Abolotionist Movement? She pressures Brendan into giving her money for an abortion, but while waiting at the clinic, she feels the punjab religion, baby move and Is Aware of the Abolotionist Movement can't go through with the procedure. Religion? She tells her parents and accepts their help in raising her child. Even as she embarks on motherhood, Kristina admits to inorganic food still heeding the punjab, siren call of the monster. Kristina refers to between highschool and college Adam as being an angel several times. He tells her she is his Eve, and punjab they should run away to live in persuasive articles a garden. Kristina describes her first experience with meth as launching her to a place near the religion, gates of heaven.
After contemplating how boys manipulate girls, she surmises that God must be male. Adam's mother prays that he will make better choices than his father and The Nation Is Aware of the Movement brother. Punjab? In Changed, a poem shaped like a cross, Kristina thinks about inorganic food praying but decides God has better things to punjab religion do than help a drug addict. Toni Morrison Paradise? But in religion the words that form the arms of the churches of asia minor, cross, she asks God to punjab keep her safe. When she feels her baby move at the abortion clinic, even though she later learns it was far too early for between and college her to feel it, she takes it as a sign from God to punjab keep her child. Persuasive The Age? Kristina's biological father opens the punjab, door to her experimentation with sex and drugs. He voices only a voyeuristic concern when he asks whether she and Adam have had sex. When he discovers her in the back room of the paradise, bowling alley with Adam, he joins them in partying.
After she returns home to her mother, her father never calls or writes her. Religion? Kristina's mother and stepfather are caring but too self-absorbed to Is Aware of the Movement see her rapid spiral into punjab religion, addiction. They ground Kristina and force her to mona do extra chores when they find a tattoo on her thigh. Both her mother and stepfather question whether she is doing drugs, but both are quick to accept her lies. Punjab Religion? Kristina admits part of of the Movement, her wished they would have pressed harder so she could have told them the truth. During a family outing at punjab an air show, her mother and stepfather flirt with other people. The Nation Is Aware Abolotionist Movement Essay? When Kristina spends a weekend in punjab religion a juvenile detention facility for being out after curfew, the only thing she learns is the name of inorganic food, a man who makes his own meth and how to get in touch with him.
Crank portrays meth addiction and its subculture. As such, the punjab, book is laced with profanity including f---, b--tard, h---, d--n, b--ch and inorganic food s--- . Other crude references are pee, pissed, fart and screwed . God's name is punjab religion, used several times with oh and oh my . Highschool And College? After her first experience with meth, Kristina attempts to religion find her way home alone from the bowling alley. Three thugs approach her, force her into an alley and start to rip off her clothes. Adam saves her. Adam's previous girlfriend ends up in ICU after she discovers Adam and Kristina together and inorganic food jumps from an apartment stairwell. Brendan's rape of Kristina is brutally and graphically recounted. Kristina's mother slaps her across the face when Kristina swears at her. Punjab Religion? While high at a party, Kristina and other guests slice their arms and drink each others' blood. Paradise? Kristina's first encounters with Adam are filled with sexual tension and kissing as she begins to let her guard down. Once she's had her first hit of punjab, meth, she is more willing to have sex with him — several times they come close to completing the inflation in india, act but are interrupted. The first time her father interrupts them, and punjab another time her period arrives.
Adam insists that she needs to difference between and college satisfy him since she has made him need her. Punjab? It isn’t specified as to and college what Kristina does for Adam, but afterward Kristina feels used, and religion Adam is satisfied. The Nation Of The Movement Essay? At this point, Kristina still considers herself a virgin. When Kristina bumps into Chase at the mall, the two go to his car, snort meth and make out. A park ranger's attention prevents them from doing more than that. Punjab? Chase gives her the drug Ecstasy on persuasive articles the age, her 17th birthday, and punjab religion the two have sex. Later she mentions making love to him in his car. Inorganic Food? While making out with her on their first date, Brendan talks about punjab religion being hot. He unbuttons Kristina's shirt and tells her not to say no. Of Islam? She gets him to religion stop by telling him she has her period.
Brendan doesn't believe her when she admits to being a virgin but eventually promises to forgive her if she lets him be the of islam, first. Punjab? Kristina isn't sure what she needs to seven of asia minor be forgiven for. She ponders why taking a girl's virginity is so important to punjab religion a guy. In India? Kristina's older sister is punjab religion, a lesbian. She talks to Kristina about clothing her lover. Kristina's friend Trent is religion, also a homosexual. Of Islam? Rachel, another meth addict, convinces Kristina to kiss her in religion public to get a reaction from the people around them.
When Rachel learns of Brendan's rape, she recounts her own story of being lured out to Is Aware Abolotionist Essay the desert by a dealer who raped and punjab religion abused her. Crank is a collection of poems that detail Kristina's descent into drug addiction. Although the Is Aware of the Movement Essay, effects are initially pleasant to Kristina, the religion, book graphically and poignantly discusses the toll methamphetamines make on a person's life. Difference Highschool And College? Book reviews cover the content, themes and world-views of fiction books, not their literary merit, and punjab religion equip parents to inorganic food decide whether a book is appropriate for their children. Punjab Religion? A book's inclusion does not constitute an clothing, endorsement by punjab Focus on of islam, the Family. Punjab? You can request a review of inorganic food, a title you can't find at firstname.lastname@example.org. Punjab Religion? Margaret E. McElderry books, a division of Simon and Schuster Children's Books. Abraham Lincoln Book Award, 2009; Green Mountain Book Award, 2009; Soaring Wings Book Award, 2008-2009.
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Nov 17, 2017 Punjab religion,
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Jeremy Bentham was an English philosopher and religion, political radical. He is primarily known today for his moral philosophy, especially his principle of utilitarianism, which evaluates actions based upon their consequences. The relevant consequences, in particular, are the overall happiness created for everyone affected by the action. Inflation In India! Influenced by many enlightenment thinkers, especially empiricists such as John Locke and David Hume, Bentham developed an ethical theory grounded in a largely empiricist account of punjab, human nature. He famously held a hedonistic account of both motivation and value according to which what is fundamentally valuable and what ultimately motivates us is pleasure and pain.
Happiness, according to Bentham, is thus a matter of experiencing pleasure and lack of pain. Although he never practiced law, Bentham did write a great deal of philosophy of law, spending most of his life critiquing the existing law and strongly advocating legal reform. Throughout his work, he critiques various natural accounts of law which claim, for example, that liberty, rights, and so on exist independent of government. In this way, Bentham arguably developed an early form of what is now often called legal positivism. Beyond such critiques, he ultimately maintained that putting his moral theory into consistent practice would yield results in legal theory by providing justification for social, political, and lisa, legal institutions.
Bentham's influence was minor during his life. Punjab! But his impact was greater in later years as his ideas were carried on by followers such as John Stuart Mill, John Austin, and other consequentialists. A leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law and one of the founders of utilitarianism, Jeremy Bentham was born in Houndsditch, London on February 15, 1748. He was the son and grandson of attorneys, and his early family life was colored by a mix of of the Movement Essay, pious superstition (on his mother's side) and punjab religion, Enlightenment rationalism (from his father). Bentham lived during a time of major social, political and economic change. The Industrial Revolution (with the massive economic and in india, social shifts that it brought in its wake), the rise of the middle class, and revolutions in punjab religion France and America all were reflected in Bentham's reflections on existing institutions.
In 1760, Bentham entered Queen's College, Oxford and, upon graduation in 1764, studied law at Lincoln's Inn. Though qualified to practice law, he never did so. Instead, he devoted most of his life to writing on clothing matters of legal reform—though, curiously, he made little effort to publish much of what he wrote. Bentham spent his time in intense study, often writing some eight to twelve hours a day. While most of his best known work deals with theoretical questions in law, Bentham was an active polemicist and was engaged for some time in developing projects that proposed various practical ideas for the reform of social institutions.
Although his work came to have an important influence on religion political philosophy, Bentham did not write any single text giving the essential principles of his views on this topic. His most important theoretical work is the difference between highschool, Introduction to the Principles of punjab, Morals and Legislation (1789), in which much of his moral theory—which he said reflected the greatest happiness principle—is described and developed. In 1781, Bentham became associated with the Earl of Shelburne and, through him, came into contact with a number of the leading Whig politicians and lawyers. Although his work was admired by The Nation Is Aware of the Abolotionist Movement some at the time, Bentham's ideas were still largely unappreciated. In 1785, he briefly joined his brother Samuel in Russia, where he pursued his writing with even more than his usual intensity, and punjab religion, he devised a plan for the now infamous Panopticon—a model prison where all prisoners would be observable by (unseen) guards at lisa clothing all times—a project which he had hoped would interest the Czarina Catherine the Great. After his return to England in 1788, and for some 20 years thereafter, Bentham pursued—fruitlessly and at great expense—the idea of the panopticon. Punjab! Fortunately, an clothing inheritance received in 1796 provided him with financial stability. By the late 1790s, Bentham's theoretical work came to have a more significant place in political reform.
Still, his influence was, arguably, still greater on the continent. (Bentham was made an honorary citizen of the fledgling French Republic in religion 1792, and his The Theory of mona clothing, Legislation was published first, in French, by his Swiss disciple, Etienne Dumont, in 1802.) The precise extent of Bentham's influence in British politics has been a matter of some debate. Punjab Religion! While he attacked both Tory and Whig policies, both the articles, Reform Bill of 1832 (promoted by Bentham's disciple, Lord Henry Brougham) and later reforms in religion the century (such as the secret ballot, advocated by Bentham's friend, George Grote, who was elected to parliament in 1832) reflected Benthamite concerns. The impact of clothing, Bentham's ideas goes further still. Contemporary philosophical and economic vocabulary (for example, international, maximize, minimize, and codification) is indebted to Bentham's proclivity for punjab religion inventing terms, and among his other disciples were James Mill and his son, John (who was responsible for an early edition of seven minor, some of Bentham's manuscripts), as well as the legal theorist, John Austin. At his death in London, on punjab June 6, 1832, Bentham left literally tens of lisa, thousands of manuscript pages—some of which was work only punjab religion sketched out, but all of which he hoped would be prepared for publication. He also left a large estate, which was used to finance the newly-established University College, London (for those individuals excluded from university education—that is, non-conformists, Catholics and persuasive articles the age, Jews), and his cadaver, per his instructions, was dissected, embalmed, dressed, and placed in a chair, and to this day resides in a cabinet in a corridor of the main building of University College.
The Bentham Project, set up in the early 1960s at University College, has as its aim the publishing of a definitive, scholarly edition of Bentham's works and correspondence. Influenced by the philosophes of the Enlightenment (such as Beccaria, Helvetius, Diderot, D'Alembert, and Voltaire) and also by Locke and punjab religion, Hume, Bentham's work combined an empiricist approach with a rationalism that emphasized conceptual clarity and deductive argument. Locke's influence was primarily as the mona lisa clothing, author of the Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding , and Bentham saw in him a model of religion, one who emphasized the importance of morrison paradise, reason over custom and tradition and who insisted on precision in the use of terms. Hume's influence was not so much on punjab religion Bentham's method as on his account of the underlying principles of psychological associationism and on his articulation of the principle of utility, which was then still often annexed to theological views. Bentham's analytical and empirical method is especially obvious when one looks at some of his main criticisms of the law and The Nation Movement Essay, of moral and religion, political discourse in general.
His principal target was the presence of fictions—in particular, legal fictions. On his view, to consider any part or aspect of a thing in abstraction from that thing is to run the risk of toni morrison paradise, confusion or to punjab religion cause positive deceit. While, in The Nation Abolotionist some cases, such fictional terms as relation, right, power, and possession were of religion, some use, in many cases their original warrant had been forgotten, so that they survived as the product of either prejudice or inattention. In those cases where the terms could be cashed out in terms of the properties of Movement, real things, they could continue to be used, but otherwise they were to be abandoned. Still, Bentham hoped to eliminate legal fictions as far as possible from the punjab, law, including the legal fiction that there was some original contract that explained why there was any law at all. Toni! He thought that, at the very least, clarifications and justifications could be given that avoided the religion, use of toni morrison paradise, such terms.
For Bentham, morals and legislation can be described scientifically, but such a description requires an account of human nature. Just as nature is explained through reference to the laws of physics, so human behavior can be explained by reference to punjab the two primary motives of pleasure and pain; this is the minor, theory of psychological hedonism. There is, Bentham admits, no direct proof of such an analysis of human motivation—though he holds that it is clear that, in acting, all people implicitly refer to it. At the beginning of the Introduction to religion the Principles of Morals and Legislation , Bentham writes: Nature has placed mankind under the in india, governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure . It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do.
On the one hand the religion, standard of right and wrong, on the other the between and college, chain of causes and effects, are fastened to their throne. They govern us in all we do, in all we say, in all we think: every effort we can make to throw off our subjection, will serve but to demonstrate and confirm it. (Ch. 1) From this we see that, for Bentham, pleasure and pain serve not only as explanations for religion action, but they also define one's good. It is, in short, on the basis of pleasures and pains, which can exist only in toni morrison paradise individuals, that Bentham thought one could construct a calculus of value. Related to this fundamental hedonism is a view of the individual as exhibiting a natural, rational self-interest—a form of psychological egoism. In his Remarks on Bentham's Philosophy (1833), Mill cites Bentham's The Book of Fallacies (London: Hunt, 1824, pp. 392-3) that [i]n every human breast. self-regarding interest is predominant over social interest; each person's own individual interest over the interests of all other persons taken together. Fundamental to punjab the nature and activity of individuals, then, is their own well-being, and reason—as a natural capability of the and college, person—is considered to punjab be subservient to this end.
Bentham believed that the nature of the between and college, human person can be adequately described without mention of social relationships. To begin with, the idea of relation is but a fictitious entity, though necessary for convenience of discourse. And, more specifically, he remarks that the community is a fictitious body, and it is but the sum of the interests of the several members who compose it. Thus, the extension of the term individual is, in the main, no greater and no less than the punjab religion, biological entity. Bentham's view, then, is that the individual—the basic unit of the of the Movement Essay, social sphere—is an atom and there is no self or individual greater than the human individual. A person's relations with others—even if important—are not essential and describe nothing that is, strictly speaking, necessary to its being what it is. Finally, the picture of the human person presented by Bentham is based on a psychological associationism indebted to David Hartley and Hume; Bentham's analysis of habit (which is punjab, essential to his understanding of highschool and college, society and especially political society) particularly reflects associationist presuppositions. Religion! On this view, pleasure and persuasive, pain are objective states and can be measured in terms of their intensity, duration, certainty, proximity, fecundity and purity. This allows both for an objective determination of an activity or state and for punjab a comparison with others. Bentham's understanding of human nature reveals, in short, a psychological, ontological, and also moral individualism where, to extend the critique of utilitarianism made by Graeme Duncan and John Gray (1979), the individual human being is conceived as the source of values and as himself the supreme value.
As Elie Halevy (1904) notes, there are three principal characteristics of persuasive, which constitute the punjab religion, basis of Bentham's moral and toni morrison, political philosophy: (i) the greatest happiness principle, (ii) universal egoism and (iii) the artificial identification of one's interests with those of others. Though these characteristics are present throughout his work, they are particularly evident in the Introduction to punjab religion the Principles of Morals and Legislation , where Bentham is inflation in india, concerned with articulating rational principles that would provide a basis and guide for legal, social and moral reform. To begin with, Bentham's moral philosophy reflects what he calls at different times the greatest happiness principle or the principle of utility—a term which he borrows from Hume. In adverting to religion this principle, however, he was not referring to just the usefulness of things or actions, but to the extent to which these things or actions promote the general happiness. Specifically, then, what is morally obligatory is that which produces the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people, happiness being determined by reference to the presence of churches of asia minor, pleasure and the absence of punjab religion, pain. Minor! Thus, Bentham writes, By the punjab, principle of utility is meant that principle which approves or disapproves of difference between highschool and college, every action whatsoever, according to the tendency which it appears to have to augment or diminish the happiness of the party whose interest is in question: or, what is the same thing in other words, to promote or to oppose that happiness. And Bentham emphasizes that this applies to every action whatsoever (Ch. 1). Religion! That which does not maximize the seven churches minor, greatest happiness (such as an act of pure ascetic sacrifice) is, therefore, morally wrong. (Unlike some of the punjab, previous attempts at toni articulating a universal hedonism, Bentham's approach is thoroughly naturalistic.)
Bentham's moral philosophy, then, clearly reflects his psychological view that the punjab religion, primary motivators in human beings are pleasure and lisa clothing, pain. Bentham admits that his version of the principle of utility is punjab, something that does not admit of direct proof, but he notes that this is not a problem as some explanatory principles do not admit of any such proof and all explanation must start somewhere. But this, by itself, does not explain why another's happiness—or the paradise, general happiness—should count. Punjab! And, in fact, he provides a number of the age, suggestions that could serve as answers to the question of why we should be concerned with the happiness of others. First, Bentham says, the principle of utility is something to which individuals, in acting, refer either explicitly or implicitly, and punjab religion, this is inflation in india, something that can be ascertained and confirmed by simple observation. Indeed, Bentham held that all existing systems of morality can be reduced to the principles of sympathy and punjab, antipathy, which is precisely that which defines utility. A second argument found in Bentham is that, if pleasure is the The Nation Is Aware of the Movement, good, then it is good irrespective of whose pleasure it is. Thus, a moral injunction to pursue or maximize pleasure has force independently of the specific interests of the person acting. Bentham also suggests that individuals would reasonably seek the general happiness simply because the interests of others are inextricably bound up with their own, though he recognized that this is something that is easy for individuals to ignore.
Nevertheless, Bentham envisages a solution to this as well. Specifically, he proposes that making this identification of interests obvious and, when necessary, bringing diverse interests together would be the responsibility of the legislator. Finally, Bentham held that there are advantages to a moral philosophy based on a principle of utility. To begin with, the principle of punjab religion, utility is clear (compared to other moral principles), allows for objective and disinterested public discussion, and enables decisions to be made where there seem to be conflicts of ( prima facie ) legitimate interests. Moreover, in calculating the pleasures and highschool and college, pains involved in carrying out a course of action (the hedonic calculus), there is a fundamental commitment to punjab religion human equality. The principle of utility presupposes that one man is worth just the same as another man and so there is between, a guarantee that in calculating the greatest happiness each person is to count for one and no one for more than one. For Bentham, then, there is no inconsistency between the greatest happiness principle and his psychological hedonism and egoism. Thus, he writes that moral philosophy or ethics can be simply described as the art of directing men's action to the production of the greatest possible quantity of religion, happiness, on the part of those whose interest is in view. Bentham was regarded as the central figure of a group of intellectuals called, by Elie Halevy (1904), the philosophic radicals, of paradise, which both Mill and Herbert Spencer can be counted among the spiritual descendants. While it would be too strong to claim that the ideas of the philosophic radicals reflected a common political theory, it is nevertheless correct to say that they agreed that many of the social problems of punjab, late eighteenth and early nineteenth century England were due to an antiquated legal system and to the control of the of the Essay, economy by a hereditary landed gentry opposed to modern capitalist institutions. As discussed in the preceding section, for Bentham, the principles that govern morals also govern politics and law, and political reform requires a clear understanding of human nature.
While he develops a number of religion, principles already present in Anglo-Saxon political philosophy, he breaks with that tradition in significant ways. In his earliest work, A Fragment on Government (1776), which is an excerpt from a longer work published only in 1928 as Comment on Blackstone's Commentaries , Bentham attacked the legal theory of inflation in india, Sir William Blackstone. Bentham's target was, primarily, Blackstone's defense of tradition in law. Bentham advocated the rational revision of the legal system, a restructuring of the process of determining responsibility and of punishment, and punjab religion, a more extensive freedom of contract. This, he believed, would favor not only the development of the paradise, community, but the personal development of the individual. Bentham's attack on punjab religion Blackstone targeted more than the latter's use of tradition however. Against Blackstone and a number of seven, earlier thinkers (including Locke), Bentham repudiated many of the concepts underlying their political philosophies, such as natural right, state of nature, and social contract. Punjab! Bentham then attempted to outline positive alternatives to the preceding traditionalisms. Not only did he work to reform and restructure existing institutions, but he promoted broader suffrage and self (that is, representative) government. The notion of liberty present in Bentham's account is what is now generally referred to as negative liberty—freedom from external restraint or compulsion. Churches Of Asia! Bentham says that [l]iberty is the absence of restraint and so, to the extent that one is punjab, not hindered by others, one has liberty and difference between and college, is free.
Bentham denies that liberty is natural (in the sense of existing prior to social life and thereby imposing limits on the state) or that there is an a priori sphere of liberty in religion which the individual is sovereign. In fact, Bentham holds that people have always lived in society, and so there can be no state of nature (though he does distinguish between political society and toni paradise, natural society) and no social contract (a notion which he held was not only unhistorical but pernicious). Nevertheless, he does note that there is an important distinction between one's public and punjab, private life that has morally significant consequences, and toni paradise, he holds that liberty is a good—that, even though it is punjab religion, not something that is a fundamental value, it reflects the greatest happiness principle. Correlative with this account of liberty, Bentham (as Thomas Hobbes before him) viewed law as negative. Given that pleasure and pain are fundamental to—indeed, provide—the standard of lisa clothing, value for Bentham, liberty is a good (because it is pleasant) and punjab, the restriction of liberty is an evil (because it is painful). Law, which is by its very nature a restriction of liberty and painful to paradise those whose freedom is restricted, is a prima facie evil. It is only so far as control by the state is limited that the individual is free. Law is, Bentham recognized, necessary to punjab religion social order and good laws are clearly essential to good government.
Indeed, perhaps more than Locke, Bentham saw the positive role to be played by law and government, particularly in achieving community well-being. To the extent that law advances and protects one's economic and personal goods and that what government exists is self-government, law reflects the interests of the individual. Unlike many earlier thinkers, Bentham held that law is not rooted in a natural law but is simply a command expressing the will of the sovereign. (This account of law, later developed by Austin, is lisa, characteristic of legal positivism.) Thus, a law that commands morally questionable or morally evil actions, or that is not based on consent, is punjab religion, still law. Bentham's views on inflation in india rights are, perhaps, best known through the attacks on the concept of punjab, natural rights that appear throughout his work. These criticisms are especially developed in mona his Anarchical Fallacies (a polemical attack on the declarations of rights issued in France during the French Revolution), written between 1791 and 1795 but not published until 1816, in French. Bentham's criticisms here are rooted in his understanding of the religion, nature of law. Rights are created by the law, and law is difference between and college, simply a command of the sovereign. The existence of law and rights, therefore, requires government. Rights are also usually (though not necessarily) correlative with duties determined by the law and, as in Hobbes, are either those which the punjab, law explicitly gives us or those within a legal system where the The Nation Is Aware Abolotionist Essay, law is silent.
The view that there could be rights not based on sovereign command and which pre-exist the establishment of government is rejected. According to Bentham, then, the term natural right is a perversion of language. It is ambiguous, sentimental and figurative and it has anarchical consequences. At best, such a right may tell us what we ought to do; it cannot serve as a legal restriction on what we can or cannot do. The term natural right is ambiguous, Bentham says, because it suggests that there are general rights—that is, rights over no specific object—so that one would have a claim on whatever one chooses. The effect of exercising such a universal, natural right would be to extinguish the right altogether, since what is every man's right is no man's right. No legal system could function with such a broad conception of rights. Thus, there cannot be any general rights in the sense suggested by the French declarations. Moreover, the punjab, notion of natural rights is articles the age, figurative.
Properly speaking, there are no rights anterior to government. The assumption of the existence of such rights, Bentham says, seems to be derived from the theory of the social contract. Here, individuals form a society and choose a government through the alienation of certain of their rights. But such a doctrine is punjab religion, not only unhistorical, according to Bentham, it does not even serve as a useful fiction to explain the inflation in india, origin of political authority. Governments arise by habit or by force, and for contracts (and, specifically, some original contract) to bind, there must already be a government in place to enforce them. Finally, the idea of a natural right is anarchical. Such a right, Bentham claims, entails a freedom from all restraint and, in particular, from all legal restraint. Since a natural right would be anterior to religion law, it could not be limited by mona clothing law, and (since human beings are motivated by self-interest) if everyone had such freedom, the result would be pure anarchy. To have a right in any meaningful sense entails that others cannot legitimately interfere with one's rights, and this implies that rights must be capable of enforcement.
Such restriction, as noted earlier, is the province of the law. Bentham concludes, therefore, that the term natural rights is simple nonsense: natural and imprescriptible rights, rhetorical nonsense,—nonsense upon stilts. Religion! Rights—what Bentham calls real rights—are fundamentally legal rights. All rights must be legal and specific (that is, having both a specific object and subject). They ought to be made because of their conduciveness to the general mass of felicity, and correlatively, when their abolition would be to the advantage of morrison, society, rights ought to be abolished. So far as rights exist in law, they are protected; outside of law, they are at best reasons for wishing there were such things as rights. While Bentham's essays against natural rights are largely polemical, many of his objections continue to be influential in contemporary political philosophy. Nevertheless, Bentham did not dismiss talk of rights altogether. Punjab! There are some services that are essential to the happiness of human beings and that cannot be left to others to fulfill as they see fit, and so these individuals must be compelled, on pain of difference, punishment, to fulfill them. Religion! They must, in the age other words, respect the rights of others. Thus, although Bentham was generally suspicious of the concept of punjab, rights, he does allow that the term is useful, and in such work as A General View of a Complete Code of Laws , he enumerates a large number of rights.
While the meaning he assigns to these rights is largely stipulative rather than descriptive, they clearly reflect principles defended throughout his work. There has been some debate over the extent to which the rights that Bentham defends are based on of the Abolotionist Essay or reducible to religion duties or obligations, whether he can consistently maintain that such duties or obligations are based on the principle of utility, and whether the existence of what Bentham calls permissive rights—rights one has where the law is toni, silent—is consistent with his general utilitarian view. This latter point has been discussed at punjab religion length by H.L.A. Hart (1973) and David Lyons (1969). The standard edition of Bentham's writings is The Nation Is Aware of the Movement, The Works of Jeremy Bentham , (ed.
John Bowring), London, 1838-1843; Reprinted New York, 1962. The contents are as follows: Volume 1: Introduction; An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation ; Essay on the Promulgation of Laws , Essay on the Influence of Time and religion, Place in Matters of Legislation , A Table of the Springs of Action , A Fragment on Government: or A Comment on the Commentaries; Principles of the Civil Code ; Principles of Penal Law Volume 2: Principles of Judicial Procedure, with the difference between highschool and college, outlines of a Procedural Code ; The Rationale of Reward ; Leading Principles of a Constitutional Code, for punjab religion any state ; On the Liberty of the Press, and public discussion; The Book of Fallacies, from unfinished papers ; Anarchical Fallacies ; Principles of International Law ; A Protest Against Law Taxes ; Supply without Burden ; Tax with Monopoly Volume 3: Defence of Usury ; A Manual of Political Economy ; Observations on the Restrictive and Prohibitory Commercial System ; A Plan for saving all trouble and expense in the transfer of stock ; A General View of a Complete Code of Laws ; Pannomial Fragments ; Nomography, or the art of inditing laws ; Equal Dispatch Court Bill ; Plan of Parliamentary Reform, in The Nation Is Aware of the Abolotionist Movement Essay the form of a catechism ; Radical Reform Bill ; Radicalism Not Dangerous Volume 4: A View of the Hard Labour Bill ; Panopticon, or, the religion, inspection house ; Panopticon versus New South Wales ; A Plea for the Constitution ; Draught of a Code for the Organisation of Judicial Establishment in highschool and college France ; Bentham's Draught for punjab the Organisation of highschool, Judicial Establishments, compared with that of a national assembly ; Emancipate Your Colonies ; Jeremy Bentham to his Fellow Citizens of France, on houses of peers and Senates ; Papers Relative to Codification and Public Instruction ; Codification Proposal Volume 5: Scotch Reform ; Summary View of the Plan of a Judiciary, under the name of the court of religion, lord's delegates ; The Elements of the persuasive articles, Art of punjab, Packing ; Swear Not At All ; Truth versus Ashhurst; The King against Edmonds and Others ; The King against Sir Charles Wolseley and The Nation Is Aware Essay, Joseph Harrison ; Optical Aptitude Maximized, Expense Minimized ; A Commentary on punjab Mr Humphreys' Real Property Code; Outline of a Plan of a General Register of Real Property ; Justice and Codification Petitions ; Lord Brougham Displayed Volume 6: An Introductory View of the Rationale of Evidence ; Rationale of Judicial Evidence, specially applied to English Practice , Books I-IV Volume 7: Rationale of Judicial Evidence, specially applied to English Practice , Books V-X Volume 8: Chrestomathia ; A Fragment on Ontology ; Essay on The Nation Is Aware of the Movement Logic ; Essay on Language ; Fragments on Universal Grammar ; Tracts on Poor Laws and Pauper Management ; Observations on the Poor Bill ; Three Tracts Relative to Spanish and Portuguese Affairs ; Letters to Count Toreno, on the proposed penal code ; Securities against Misrule Volume 9: The Constitutional Code Volume 10: Memoirs of Bentham , Chapters I-XXII Volume 11: Memoirs of Bentham , Chapters XXIII-XXVI; Analytical Index. A new edition of Bentham's Works is being prepared by The Bentham Project at University College, University of London. This edition includes:
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Title IX: 37 words that changed everything. I t's just 37 words, 37 plain and punjab religion grammatically clunky words hiding inside a large education bill, 37 words that didn't seem to be a big deal at mona lisa clothing, the time, 37 words that would change everything: No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. Those are the words of punjab religion Title IX, a section of the morrison paradise Education Amendments signed into law by President Richard M. Nixon on June 23, 1972. Not exactly We hold these truths to religion be self-evident . Movement Essay! but, then again, the punjab Founding Fathers knew they were on to something back in 1776. Title IX opened the door for generations of female athletes, such as Mia Hamm. The Founding Mothers of Title IX were just looking for a more level playing field in academics. We had no idea, says Bernice Bunny Sandler, who helped draft the legislation and inflation in india now works as a senior scholar for the Women's Research and Education Institute in Washington, D.C.
We had no idea how bad the situation really was -- we didn't even use the word sex discrimination back then -- and we certainly had no sense of the revolution we were about to start. You'll notice that not one of those 37 words is athletics or sports, the very words that have come to be associated with Title IX. Religion! The only thought I gave to sports when the bill was passed, Sandler says, was, Oh, maybe now when a school holds its field day, there will be more activities for the girls. They ended up having much more than a field day. The number of girls playing high school sports jumped from 294,015 in in india 1971-72 to punjab 3,172,637 in 2009-10, an paradise, increase of 1079 percent. (The number of male high school athletes grew from punjab 3,666,917 to 4,455,740 during that same period, an persuasive articles the age, increase of punjab religion 22 percent.) The number of women playing varsity sports in The Nation Abolotionist college rose from punjab religion 29,972 in 1971-72 to 186,460 in 2009-10, a 622 percent increase that still leaves them behind the total of between NCAA male athletes, whose population grew from 170,384 to 249,307 (46 percent) in that time frame. Of course, the true significance of Title IX has been the accompanying increase in opportunities for women off the field -- a level of female empowerment so strong that Sandler calls the law the most important step for gender equality since the 19th Amendment gave us the right to vote. And yet, as we celebrate the 40th anniversary of Title IX, we must also recognize that there's still more work to be done.
Female athletes still lag far behind males in participatory opportunities, scholarship money and resources, even though there are more female students in both high school and religion college, according to the Women's Sports Foundation, which was started by Billie Jean King in 1974. Those 37 words mean as much now as they did in 1972. To me, Title IX can be boiled down to just two words, says Margaret Digit Murphy, a former Cornell hockey star and in india the longtime Brown hockey coach, as well as a mother of punjab religion six. Those two words are: Why not? When President Nixon signed Title IX into in india, law in 1972, few anticipated the punjab legislation's impact. W hy not?
That's what Bunny Sandler asked herself back in 1969. While Title IX would need champions and highschool and college examples like King, Donna de Varona, Cheryl Miller and Mia Hamm, it would not have succeeded without the thousands of unsung heroes who fought for punjab it and fight for it still, be they lawyers or athletes, legislators or coaches, civil servants or parents. Sandler was a part-time lecturer on educational counseling at persuasive, the University of Maryland when she applied for a tenure-track position, only to punjab be told that she came on lisa clothing too strong for a woman. So she began to research the laws on gender discrimination and found a footnote to a law on federal contracts that prohibited discrimination based on sex. She also found a sympathetic ear in Vincent Macaluso, an assistant director in the compliance division at the Department of Labor, who told her he'd been waiting for somebody to ask about religion gender bias in academia. My main responsibility was the construction industry, says Macaluso, now 90 and still living in Washington. But discrimination was always my concern. Surreptitiously, he helped Sandler craft a complaint against Maryland based on mona lisa the little-known law. Then, after running an ad in the Saturday Review of punjab Books looking for Abolotionist Movement Essay other examples of discrimination in punjab higher education, Sandler gathered enough material to file 250 complaints against colleges receiving federal contracts. Difference! At the urging of Macaluso, she sent copies of the complaints to members of Congress, asking them to urge the secretary of labor to enforce the religion law. One of the recipients was Edith Green, a Democratic representative from Portland, Ore.
The daughter of schoolteachers and a former teacher herself, Green was also chair of the House committee on education, and she had been waiting for a chance to introduce a bill requiring gender equity in education. Sandler's complaints gave Green the ammunition she needed. The congresswoman held hearings that few of toni morrison her male colleagues bothered to attend, then she hired Sandler to work on her staff. Together they drafted Title IX. It's really just a variation on Title VI of the punjab religion Civil Rights Act of 1964, Sandler explains. Movement Essay! Instead of 'race, color or national origin,' we substituted 'sex.' The language of Title IX might be derivative, but the punjab religion strategy behind it was a stroke of original genius. Sensing its implications and clothing anticipating objections, Green slipped it into the omnibus education bill Congress was preparing.
She also shooed away women's rights activists who wanted to religion lobby Congress. She thought that if the bill drew attention, it would be saddled with amendments, or worse, killed altogether, Sandler says. The less we said about it, the better. (She also had a Senate ally in Birch Bayh, a Democrat from morrison paradise Indiana, who is punjab, often hailed as the father of Title IX.) The only time the issue of sports came up was in Senate hearings on the bill, when one senator made a joke about coed football. The laughter ended the discussion. There was, however, a fly in the ointment. Rep. Inflation! Green didn't like the version of the Education Amendments that emerged from the House-Senate conference committee. In fact, she felt betrayed by House members, who didn't object to a busing provision she had opposed.
So after working and fighting for Title IX for punjab religion two years, the principled Green got up before the House and asked her colleagues to defeat the Abolotionist Movement Essay entire bill. Religion! Despite her opposition, the legislation passed 218-180. In later years Green, who died in 1987, came to take pride in Title IX, which now bears the name of minor another of its champions, Rep. Punjab Religion! Patsy T. Mink of Hawaii. It's what she wanted to in india be remembered for, Green's son Richard told The Oregonian two years ago. But on the day Nixon signed the bill into law, Edith Green was not a happy woman. Digit Murphy, who coached women's hockey at Brown for 22 years, has been a tireless advocate of Title IX. M argaret Degidio wasn't very happy that summer either.
She was a 12-year-old girl who wanted to play baseball with the religion boys at Beechmont Field in Cranston, R.I. I was peering through the other side of the chain-link fence, says Digit Murphy, the difference woman Margaret was to become. I never forgot how unfair it all seemed. My gender mattered more than my performance. Fortunately, she found ice hockey. Punjab Religion! I owe it all to Jackie Begosian and Barbara Butler, she says. They were two stay-at-home moms from Cranston who played hockey and started a team for girls. Jackie's husband, Bob, coached us. They gave structure to our athletic abilities. Of Asia Minor! Then Title IX came along and added a whole educational component to our ambitions.
There I was, a kid from the wrong side of the tracks whose parents never went to punjab religion college, and an Ivy League school comes calling. While Degidio was honing her hockey skills, Title IX was going through growing pains. The Nation Is Aware Of The Abolotionist Movement! The history of the law is punjab religion, somewhat complicated (which is difference between highschool and college, why the book Let Me Play, written by Karen Blumenthal, ostensibly for teens, is recommended reading). Suffice to religion say, as soon as the NCAA figured out the implications of Title IX, the organization began challenging it. But Caspar Weinberger, secretary of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, the office charged with implementing and enforcing Title IX, cared very little about sports and ignored the NCAA's cries that the sky was falling.
Meanwhile, as women's right activists kept fighting for Title IX, they found unlikely supporters. There weren't a lot of jocks on The Hill, Sandler says. Democrats and inflation in india Republicans both understood what we were fighting for because they had been the last kids picked for their teams. Even the jock-in-chief himself, former football standout Gerald Ford, spurned lobbying efforts by the most famous football coaches in the land; on May 27, 1975, the president signed into punjab religion, law a set of Title IX regulations for Abolotionist Essay athletics. The man did have a daughter, after all. The Yale women's rowing team made a very loud statement about Title IX in 1976. F ar less cooperative were supposedly enlightened educational institutions. The Boston Tea Party of Title IX happened on March 3, 1976, in religion the athletic department offices at Yale University. Lisa! The members of the women's rowing team were justifiably upset because there were no shower facilities for them at the Yale boathouse -- only for the men.
So, after drenching workouts in the freezing cold, the religion women would sit on the bus that took both crews back to campus, while waiting for difference between highschool and college the men to finish their showers. One of the female rowers had already come down with pneumonia. Fed up with Yale's inattention, and punjab led by future Olympian Chris Ernst, 19 women marched into mona lisa, the office of women's athletic director Johnny Barnett (pronounced Joannie) and took off their clothes, revealing to her the words Title IX written on their chests and backs. In the punjab religion presence of a New York Times correspondent, Ernst then read a statement that said, in part: These are the bodies that Yale is seven churches minor, exploiting. On a day like today, the ice freezes on this skin. And we sit for a half-hour, as the ice melts and soaks through to meet the sweat that is soaking us from the inside. The subsequent story in the Times got them their showers. More important, it raised awareness of punjab religion gender inequity in college sports and served notice to schools that Title IX could no longer be ignored. (The protest is the inflation subject of A Hero For Daisy, a documentary directed by former Olympic rower Mary Mazzio. The hero is Ernst, who, after fighting for showers, now installs them as the co-owner of an all-female plumbing company in Roslindale, Mass.)
Behind the scenes in Washington, Title IX was being poked and prodded and shaped. In the punjab winter of 1979, when Cornell freshman Margaret Degidio was lacing up her skates, the Department of Health, Education and Welfare issued a set of compliance standards for athletics that came to be known as the in india Three-Prong Test, any one of which a school had to meet: • Female sports participation must be proportional to female enrollment in the school. • The school must show a recent history of expanding sports offerings for women. • The interests and abilities of female athletes must be fully and effectively accommodated, as documented by punjab, regularly administered surveys. Alas, the test did not address pay for coaches of women's teams, or facilities and resources for their athletes. Murphy recently told members of the Cornell women's hockey team about what it was like for her and her teammates when they played: We dressed in a locker room that was about half the size that you have now, and we sat on those gray metal folding chairs. Our equipment room was a makeshift cabinet on inflation top of a one-stall bathroom. Punjab Religion! We didn't travel in buses. Imagine 18 of us in two vans, with all our equipment. In her four years at toni paradise, Cornell, Degidio totaled 123 goals and 213 points, made All-Ivy four times and led her team to two Ivy League titles.
She also, on occasion, rubbed people the wrong way. I was a fierce competitor and religion a crotchety athlete, she told the Ithaca Journal. I always wanted to do more and win more. Mona Clothing! Sometimes I was not so nice to be around. In other words, she was the kind of punjab religion person who always asked Why not? She was the kind of soldier Title IX needed.
The law took a major hit in 1984, when the Supreme Court ruled in Grove City v. Bell that Title IX applied only to specific programs that received federal funding, such as financial aid offices, not athletic departments in general. The winds had changed under the Reagan administration and women weren't the only ones to suffer: minorities and the disabled were also left without recourse when faced with discrimination in education. When Edith Green died in 1987, Title IX was under siege. Digit, meanwhile, went to work as a production manager for clothing Data General. She couldn't ignore the siren call of coaching, though, so she took a job as an assistant coach at Brown for the 1987-88 season. Just as that season was ending, activists won a major victory when Congress overrode Reagan's veto of the Civil Rights Restoration Act, which put the religion teeth back into Title IX.
Digit became the paradise Brown head coach for the 1989-90 season and began an unprecedented reign: 22 years, 318 victories (an NCAA Division I record), six ECAC titles, five Ivy League titles, four Frozen Four appearances, seven Olympians. She became a legend, both for her ferocity -- I'm not about nice, she says -- and for her loyalty. Recently, she received a thank-you letter from one of her former players, Kristy Zamora, Class of religion 2002, that read: You were hard on us, but it was only because you wanted us to become better hockey players and difference between highschool and college better people. Your style may have been unorthodox, but everything you did was from the bottom of your heart and soul, and you were willing to go to war with your team every step of the punjab religion way. Along the mona way, Digit found the time to punjab marry Ken Murphy and give birth to four children, whom her mother helped her raise. When Digit wasn't driving her players, she was driving administrators for the rights guaranteed by Title IX. That equity piece is important to me, she says. I don't like standing on persuasive articles the age the other side of that chain link fence. Punjab Religion! I don't like hearing, 'Because I said so,' when I question something.
When Brown was sued by Amy Cohen in 1995 for dropping women's gymnastics, Murphy stood behind the student and not the school, which ultimately lost. Highschool And College! That was a really difficult time, she says. The athletic department was like a war zone. I remember testifying against the school when I was seven months' pregnant. Her advocacy for Title IX also earned her an religion, invitation to Washington in October 2002 to testify before the Senate's Subcommittee on Science, Technology and The Nation Is Aware Abolotionist Movement Essay Space.
The chairman of the subcommittee, Ron Wyden (D-Oregon), wanted to show that Title IX could provide the same kinds of opportunities for women in science and technology that it had for women in sports. The world of sport used to look like the punjab religion world of math and technology -- all boys and no girls, Murphy told the hearing. She went on mona lisa to say, As the parent of punjab a 7-year-old girl, I firmly believe that if parents were more informed of the opportunities or lack thereof for their daughters in math and science, they would be as vocal and engaged as they are in mona clothing their quest for religion equality in athletics. Mona Lisa! She closed by saying: Girls hit hockey pucks, girls are great mathematicians, girls check and girls love technology. If you create environments that send such messages to girls, they will come. That 7-year-old girl, Meaghan, is now a junior defenseman at Noble and Greenough School in Dedham, Mass.; her team just won the New England prep school Division I championship. Punjab Religion! She is part of Digit's blended family -- four boys, two girls -- with her partner of nine years, Aronda. (Digit and Ken divorced in paradise 2003, but we still talk every day, she says.) Murphy retired from Brown last summer because of philosophical differences over the future of the hockey program. But retirement hardly means she's resting. She now does college counseling, advises the Slovakian national team, works with USA Hockey, coaches her 12-year-old son's lacrosse team and maintains a lively blog, Digit Says, in which she rails against punjab religion, everything from pushy parents to the preponderance of male coaches for churches minor women's sports. Back in February, Cornell assistant coach Danielle Bilodeau organized a tribute dinner for Murphy in Ithaca.
More like a living funeral, Digit says. In her speech that night, Murphy relived her Big Red days, thanked her family, her former players, her fellow coaches and punjab religion Title IX for what sport did for clothing me. She closed by issuing a challenge: Why can't a woman be a coach in punjab the NHL? When she heard the laughter, she said: If you laugh about that, we will never be coaches at the highest level. There is no reason that a female cannot coach at that level. We are doctors, lawyers, scientists, engineers.
Don't you think it's a little funny that women aren't coaches?
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Nov 17, 2017 Punjab religion,
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Nov 17, 2017 Punjab religion,
Essay on Epilepsy: It’s Causes Diagnosis and Treatment. Essay on Epilepsy: It’s Causes Diagnosis and punjab religion Treatment! Having the oldest history among all mental disorders, and most widely known and found throughout the history of human beings, epilepsy refers to a group of brain disorders, the chief symptoms of Abolotionist Movement Essay which are partial or complete loss of consciousness with or without convulsive behaviour or psychomotor disturbances. Image Courtesy : goeshealth.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/epilepsy-patient.jpg. Epilepsy is caused by brain lesions or other disorders leading to a disturbance of the rhythm of electrical discharges of brain cells. In the middle age epileptics were considered as the curse of punjab God. But later on it was believed to be mainly the result of chronic brain pathology having its origin in the cerebrum.
Epilepsy is also called falling disease, fits, or convulsions. As a result of chronic brain pathology there are unpredictable seizures and persuasive articles the age frequent states of punjab delirium which of course remain for a short duration. Epilepsy, in fact, does not denote a specific disease, but a symptom. Epilepsy constitutes an important mental health problem. It is the most common chronic neurological disease having a prevalence of about 1 per cent in toni morrison the general population. Religion? It has been estimated that thirty to fifty per cent of all epileptic subjects have significant psychiatric difficulties. Although the incidence of psychoses is high in epilepsy, personality disturbances lead to a lot of psychiatric problems. Epilepsy includes a chronic condition of recurrent or repeated seizures.
A seizure is a transient, paroxysmal, patho-physiological disturbance of cerebral function caused by a spontaneous excessive discharge of The Nation Is Aware of the Essay cortical neurons. A seizure may be abnormal movements or an arrest of movement, a disorder of punjab sensation or perception or a disturbance of behaviour or an clothing impairment of consciousness. Almost any required or genetic pathological process involving the brain may cause epilepsy. The symptoms of epilepsy include falling down, shaking of hands, legs and bodies, biting the punjab, teeth, foaming in the mouth etc. Also is found paroxysmal bursts of abnormal cortical activity which leads to a rhythmic pattern of E.E.G. showing abnormalities in the rate and voltage of The Nation Abolotionist Movement Essay these currents.
Though epilepsy is irreversible, it on the whole does not involve the progressive deterioration and dementia commonly found in the syphilitic, presenile and senile demetias. The epileptic seizures involve loss or distortion of punjab consciousness and psychological and physical symptoms. Though about 20 per cent of these epileptic fits may be attributed to chronic brain disorders such as tumours, inflammation or trauma in the brain, more than 75 per cent of the epileptic fits are called idiopathic epilepsy as they do not have any known cause. Recent report indicates that the incidence of epilepsy is found in about 1 person in 100 in the U.S.A. which tentatively affects between 2 and 3 million people. Though epilepsy is not limited to any age group, it is more common in The Nation Is Aware Movement Essay children and adolescents than adults. About 50 per punjab cent of the highschool, recorded epileptic cases belong to the age under 15 years. The epileptics continue their normal life otherwise and usually do not need hospitalisation; unless there is serious complication. Chances are equal for both the sexes though it is more frequent in males.
Jackson (1931) defined epilepsy as “the name for occasional, sudden, excessive, rapid and local discharges of grey matter.” This view of Jackson has been amply confirmed by the E.E.G. or brain waves of epileptic patients. Comparison of the brain waves of epileptic and normal patient shows a great difference in amplitude and punjab frequency. The normal people show a constant brain system such as a mean frequency of 10 waves per second while the E.E.G. systems of the epileptics are unusually large due to the increased voltage and furthermore they are either too fast or too slow. Though rhythm disturbances are most marked in actual attack even during the periods when there is no attack, in 85 per cent of the patients, transient disturbances of rhythm are observed. Great individual differences occur so far as the frequency of seven churches of asia minor attack is concerned. Some persons have a few attacks during their lifetime while others have several attacks in a year. Seizures are broadly characterised as partial seizures (caused by punjab religion a focal lesion) and generalised seizure (caused by diffuse brain dysfunction). The psychiatric manifestations of epilepsy are divided into those associated with seizures itself and those occurring between seizures (interracially). According to Ervin (1967) the epilepsy may be categorised on the basis of the type of seizure manifested.
Kolb (1963) and Ervin (1967) hold that in some cases the type of seizure manifested may depend upon the heredity, though the exact nature of the hereditary defect is yet unknown. Kolb (1977) has broadly categorised epilepsy into (1) symptomatic or acquired epilepsy (2) idiopathic or essential epilepsy. It is called symptomatic epilepsy as it is the function of brain damage caused by factors other than epilepsy. Inflation In India? Symptomatic epilepsy includes those types of convulsions and seizures that occur in quite a numbers of brain syndromes like neuro syphilis, acute alcohol or drug hysteria, intoxication, tumour etc. or other toxic condition. Idiopathic epilepsy is due to some constitutional defect. It is punjab religion, genuine and mona lisa clothing it has no relation with the toxic condition of the brain. Certain cases have no known cause for punjab religion the convulsive disorder.
Idiopathic epileptics have usually early onset. They occur at lisa clothing anytime, at any place and are different from hysterical fits in this regard. About 30 per cent of the epileptics are classified as symptomatic and 60 per cent as idiopathic and the remaining 10 per cent are unclassified. Epilepsy has been classified in the West by Wilson (1940) into Grandmal or major; Petitmal or minor and psychomotor equivalent and Jacksoniad types. This classification is based on the area and the degree of brain damage. In the words of Coleman (1981) it is the most prevalent and religion spectacular form of the The Nation Is Aware Abolotionist Movement Essay, epileptic seizure and it occurs in some 60 per cent of the cases. Grandmal has four stages: (a) The aura or warning.
(b) Tonic phase or attack proper. In the punjab, aura or warning stage the initial sign of seizure occurs. It arises a few seconds or before a day prior to the onset of the convulsion; where a signal or warning about the paradise, coming danger is religion, experienced. This is associated with headache, unusual sensory experiences such as strange smells or sounds, fear or dizziness. It may also consist of lisa clothing numbness, tingling, and a sense of distress in the stomach, hallucinated light flashes, voices, stiffness, choking, sensation and feeling of religion strong-ness. Next comes the mona lisa, tonic phase. Religion? Here actual convulsion is experienced. It is the in india, onset of fit proper. During the onset of fits there is violent respiratory disturbance and the face becomes blue.
In this stage the body of the victim becomes rigid. Air is religion, suddenly expelled from the lungs producing a crying sound. He loses consciousness and between highschool falls on the ground. The arms and punjab trunks are flexed and legs are stretched. The eyes become wide open and the age breathing is suspended during this period. As the person falls, his entire voluntary musculature goes into a continuous contraction. This period fortunately lasts for punjab about 20 to Is Aware of the Abolotionist Movement, 30 seconds.
The generalised spasm includes the muscles of the chest, abdomen and the larynx. The clonic phase follows the tonic phase. This period is religion, characterised by contraction and mona lisa relaxation leading to punjab religion, jerking movements which continue for about one to several minutes. During this stage violent continuous and jerking movements of the limbs are produced and the jaws are open and close. He can seriously wound his tongue by biting it at this stage.
In the inflation in india, clonic phase the EEG spikes of the tonic stage continues but there is decrement in frequency to one per second and increase in amplitude. Fourthly saliva is usually present tinged with blood from a bitten tongue or cheek. After the clonic phase the coma phase starts where the individual still continues to remain in unconscious stage but there is punjab religion, a complete stop of convulsions. The person during the coma stage sleeps deeply for a long period. Persuasive? Some persons sleep for punjab a few hours or may awaken immediately and when they gain consciousness, they have no memory for toni the events immediately preceding the convulsions and experiences involved therein. In some rare cases, however, one convulsion may follow another, still another. Such cases are rare but when occur pose danger to religion, the life of the mona lisa, patient. It will cause death if not treated at religion once. Is Aware Abolotionist? In the religion, post conversant period some patients become so much confused that they forget about the attack or are even not conscious of their action. The patient comes out of the coma stage and returns immediately to the normal stage.
He may either complain of headache or may feel relaxed. In certain cases, attack proper is accompanied by Is Aware Abolotionist emotional pathology. The external physical signs of the coma stage are very few. Sometimes the object held in the hand falls down and the person looks pale. It is a small or incomplete grandmal convulsion. In this type of seizure there is a loss of consciousness for 5 to 30 seconds. In this category, there is no aura or warning signal and punjab the patient does not fall down. The patient only stops all his activities and stares vacantly on the ground.
But nevertheless, he resumes his activity after a few seconds. He may however throw the thing which he is holding. This stage comes so suddenly that even the patient is not aware that a convulsion has already taken place. There are instances of petitmal convulsions occurring 100 times per day. Toni Morrison? This type of convulsion begins early in life between 4 and 8 years and decreases with the increase in religion age.
The E.E.G. record during the petitmal period reveals bursts of spike and slow wave activity. In other words, the brain wave is slow and fast alternatively. In this type of morrison paradise seizure there are fair chances of recovery. It is punjab religion, said that this attack occurs because of a decreased carbon dioxide content of the breath. The attacks of the toni, psychomotor equivalent are same as the post conversant period. There is great loss of consciousness. The individual indulges in various antisocial and punjab religion irrational activities. Psychomotor seizures are connected with abnormal EEG in specific parts of the brain.
The main characteristic of this type varies significantly from patient to churches of asia minor, patient. However, it is said to produce changes in punjab religion perception, self awareness, thought patterns and mood. The attack starts with unusual small and lasts for a few seconds up to several minutes. There is loss of consciousness but the articles the age, person continues with his work at that time. During this period of attack they are said to become violent, destructive and punjab religion often commit crimes. But experimental studies do not confirm this view.
In this type of Abolotionist Movement Essay epilepsy there is a typical EEG disturbance in punjab the region of an difference and college anterior temporal lobe. So this type of epilepsy is quite difficult to treat. Punjab? However, Penfield and his associates have reported improvement and even in some cases complete cure with the mona clothing, removal of the lobe. There is excessive anger and emotional outbursts. Attempts for suicide and homicide are found in some cases. This type of epilepsy was first described by the English neurologist Hiegh Lings Jackson and so it is punjab, also called Jacksonian epilepsy. Like psychomotor seizures it is related to abnormal EEG activity in inflation specific parts of the brain. The attack first starts in punjab religion one part of the mona, body with a tingling or numbing sensation around the corner of the mouth or in a thumb along with muscle switches and burning sensations.
Gradually this sensation spreads to adjourning part of the body until half of the body or full body is involved. The variation in sensation depends upon the area of the brain affected. There is gradual loss of consciousness. The attack then becomes similar to grandmal epilepsy. When the clinical manifestations of epilepsy are more emotional or psychotic and when changes in level of punjab consciousness and level of cognition are not apparent difficulty relating to diagnosis arises in distinguishing an churches minor organic mental disorder of epileptic origin from a psychiatric disorder. This is punjab religion, type of episodic psychiatric dysfunction should always be suspected to be epileptic provided it occurs in patient in whom epilepsy has been diagnosed previously. Further the diagnosis is confirmed if continuous or nearly continuous epileptic discharges are observed during the attack. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of epilepsy becomes more difficult in patients who are not known to have epilepsy earlier. In such cases, if he following four clinical features are noticed in the patient, it can be said to Is Aware Abolotionist, have the possibility of epilepsy.
1. Abrupt onset of psychoses in a person, previously considered as psychologically healthy. 2. Abrupt onset of delirium that cannot be accounted for by more common causes. 3. A history of similar episodes with abrupt and punjab spontaneous onset and remission. 4. Inflation? A history of previous fainting or falling episodes that could not be explained. Personality disturbances in epileptic patients: Personality disturbances are more frequently reported in epileptic patients. These disorders are more likely to punjab, occur in patients with epilepsy of temporal lobe origin. These disorders and articles personality changes include changes in punjab sexual behaviour, viscosity (stickiness), religiosity and a heightened experience of emotions. Viscosity is most noticeable in the conversation of the patient which is mostly slow, serious, pedantic, overly replete with detail, and full of nonessential matters.
This tendency is also reflected in persuasive articles the writing and drawing of the patient. However, it is seen that many patients are not affected by personality disturbances. Others suffer from a variety of disturbances which cannot be said to be personality disturbances. The causes of epilepsy have been attributed to hereditary factors by punjab religion many investigators. Reports are available which suggest that typical epileptic brain waves are found in close relatives. About one-third of the institutionalised, one fifth of the non-institutionalised epileptic patients have a family of epilepsy. The parents, brothers and sisters of the epileptics are expected to have seizures five times more than that for the general population. Of Asia Minor? When one of the identical twins has epileptic fit, in 61 to 67 per punjab religion cent of the cases, the other twin has also fits; 86 per cent of the persuasive the age, cot wins of idiopathic patients have also fits. In cases of fraternal twins, when one child suffers from epilepsy in 11 per cent of the punjab religion, cases the other twin is affected by epilepsy. According to the irritation theory epileptic seizures occur as a result of direct stimulation or irritation of the cerebral cortex.
This neurological theory argues that injury makes the neural tissues of the cortex hyper sensitive to the stimulation. Cerebral dysrhythmia, which predisposes an Is Aware Movement individual to have seizures, is present in about 85 per cent of the epileptic patients during periods when even they are free from attacks and in 53 per cent of religion their close relatives and 10 per cent of the unselected general population. All these data give sufficient evidence to hold that epilepsy is mainly a disease of heredity. In the opinion of Page (1976) “Seizure prone individuals apparently inherit a somewhat unstable nervous system whose faulty functioning is revealed by abnormal brain waves.” But it is a fact that many people who inherit a predisposition do not have seizures. Moreover, the The Nation of the Abolotionist Movement Essay, nervous systems of identical twins are derived from the same genes and the recorded electrical discharges of the brain cells are practically identical. From that point of view, all the cotwins of identical epileptic twins should have convulsions but only 61 to 86 per cent are affected.
What about the rest. If we accept heredity as the only aetiology of epilepsy this would not explain the punjab, causes of the remaining epileptic cases. If epilepsy is cent per Is Aware Abolotionist cent inherited all cases of twins should have been epileptics because they are derived from the same genes and same nervous system. This is, however, not a fact, E.E.G. Punjab Religion? records also show inconsistencies. Thus, the most reasonable explanation to these inconsistencies is that individuals do not inherit convulsions. What is in reality inherited is the between highschool, physical constitution (and not the seizure or fits) which has a high or low potentiality for having epileptic attacks. If a person is highly predisposed, he is religion, expected to have an attack. It has also been observed that the first born children who usually experience greater birth trauma and minor brain lesions are more susceptible to convulsions.
Similarly, certain percentage of epileptic fits may be accounted to differences in order of toni morrison birth, difficulty in delivery and head injuries in later life. Religion? Difference in precipitating causes such as injury in the brain and biochemical disturbances make the constitution more predisposed to fits. Keeping the heredity sound, head injuries, brain lesions and biochemical disturbances also are likely to produce convulsions. However, reports show that less than 5 per cent of epileptic attack is due to head injury. It is true to some extent that a few cases of epilepsy are caused by emotional stresses. Studies at the same time however indicate that the importance of emotional stress in epilepsy has been over-emphasised. As Fox has noted there is no increase in the number of seizures during intense emotional excitement and activities connected with air raids. About 5 per cent of the toni morrison paradise, cases showed an punjab attack but 95 per cent remained undisturbed. Studying a number of epileptic patients, Clark (1933) has reported four important personality traits present in articles the epileptics. They are eccentricity, poverty of emotions, hypersensitivity and rigidity. Gibbs (1968) on the contrary reported to have found some positive traits in epileptics.
They are intellectually bright with pleasant personal experiences, courage to religion, face problems of life without getting depressed and losing competency in work. Petitmal attacks are very mild and hence may not require any attention, but with respect to grandmal attack, it is desirable to protect the patient from injury by keeping a pillow or some soft object under his head during the attack. Biting of tongue and lips can be prevented by inserting a handkerchief in the mouth. Currently certain drugs like Luminal, sodium dilantin and higher doses of bromide are used to reduce the The Nation of the Abolotionist Essay, incidence of epilepsy. It has been noted that these drugs raise the convulsion threshold and punjab have a normalising effect on the brain rhythms. According to Coleman (1981) “Fortunately drug medication and other treatment measures make it possible to mona, prevent seizures in 80 per punjab cent or more epileptics”.
But unfortunately, drugs do not always help. If the dose becomes excessive it may lead to confusion and other complications. In case of violent attacks accompanied by excitement, confusion and various psychotic symptoms, it is mona lisa, advised to institutionalise the patient. Epileptics should not be allowed to drive cars, or even to engage themselves in occupations where a fall or unconsciousness may lead to danger. In a few cases, where a circumscribed brain area is affected, surgery may do some good. Mental retardation should be kept to the minimum to decrease the number of attacks. The patients should be kept emotionally sound; they should be kept engaged in some occupation and be given job opportunities. Regular work keeps the patient engaged and reduces the number of attacks. The patient himself must learn to accept his own problem and should try to adjust with the circumstances around him.
The misconceptions regarding epilepsy can be erased by educational efforts and propaganda through audio-visual aids. This can help the epileptics boost their self confidence, to change their self image in a positive direction and religion finally to live normal lives. Current laws permit the seizure free epileptics to drive motor vehicles. In a few cases, a diet rich in fats and in india poor in starch and proteins has been found helpful. The water intake should also be kept at a minimum.
This is popularly known as dehydration treatment. Steps should be taken to maintain a healthy and cheerful personality of the patient. Trails like ego-centralism, bad temper and hyper sensitiveness should be avoided to reduce the frequency of attacks. Proper personal and social adjustment is desirable. By the psychological treatment of the patient and his family, pleasant and happy personality can be maintained. He must accept the disease openly. Parents should also learn to accept it.
They should never resent it. Punjab? Their attitude towards the epileptic child should be same as the normal child. The patient should not develop any complex for his disease. Special workshops should be introduced for the epileptics who at least develops the sense of self-esteem of the patient and improve his outlook towards life. Finally the attitude towards the epileptic patient should be one of understanding and sympathy rather than disgust, fear and difference between highschool and college ridicule.
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Nov 17, 2017 Punjab religion,
Essay on Education in punjab religion Great Britain. Education is a highly topical issue in Britain since it affects nearly everybody. Morrison? Everyone has at one stage of punjab religion their lives attended school and after all it is there where people acquired their first long-time friends, developed their social personalities and gained a lasting sense of a communal identity. Governments both Labour and Conservative have always influenced the education system according to their believes and so the discussion around that controversial topic 'education' never finds an end. In this essay I want to briefly characterise the British school system and explain its historic development. By pointing out the most important innovations and achievements I try to make clear how this system changed and what impact this had on the present situation. A look into the future of in india British education will conclude my essay. Schooling in Great Britain has evolved over time as a result of both state and private systems. The state offers primary and secondary education for ages five to eleven or eleven to eighteen respectively. A few middle schools for children aged ten to thirteen and some 'special schools' for pupils with learning difficulties round off the state system.
State schools in Britain are non-denominational. Of the state-supported schools with a religious affiliation the majority are Anglican, but other denominations of religion schools exist, mainly Roman Catholic and Jewish. Their capital expenditure is The Nation Abolotionist Essay, covered by punjab, the state and their running expenses are paid by the members of the referent congregations. The private sector, for the people who can afford it, offers education for the same age groups as the of asia, state system in religion the 'prepatory schools' from the age of five and the 'public schools' from the age of thirteen. The misleading term 'public schools' originally referred to a grammar school endowed for the public but is nowadays used for private secondary schools like Eton, Harrow or Winchester which are still open for the public but of course only for that part of the articles the age, public that can afford the relatively high school fees. Under the reign of the Tudors the first attempts were made to introduce a school system in England; the monarchs covered the land with grammar schools. Before that, only church cared about education in their cathedral and Protestant schools as education was not regarded as a prior duty of state.
The situation, however, did not much improve because of the Tudors' innovations; schools were unevenly spread over the country and their presence often depended less on need in the locality than on the fortuitous piety of some local grandee. There was no assumption that every town should have a grammar school or that every village should have an elementary school. Furthermore, it was never assumed that every child should attend any educational institution at any time in punjab their lives. While for a minority of middle-class and upper-class families adequate education was normally provided within the families, literacy had to be bought elsewhere by the majority of the population. By the beginning of the nineteenth century a vast number of private establishments were founded which spread basic literacy and numeracy among a great number of the population. Many of the old-established grammar schools began to be refurbished by enterprising headmasters who dropped the schools' local connections in order to seven churches attract a clientele from all over the country. Some of them were superbly endowed and offered good education but only for the highest levels of society that could pay for their children's education. Not even by 1830, when finally the first state subsidies for elementary education were paid, any part of the British Isles could be said to have an adequate system even of religion part-time state education of a type that had already been established in Is Aware most Western European countries. Schooling was to be understood in a very limited sense: many of the children attended school only for punjab religion, certain hours on certain days and there was not at all that commitment to a single institution which has characterised schooling in recent years. The British government was very much involved in the adoption of European models for new state-subsidised schooling throughout the inflation, British Isles.
The Elementary Education Act of 1870 then extended the class-divided system through the creation of School Boards. Religion? Yet, the progress was slow as only persuasive the age, elementary education was supervised by punjab, the governmental boards. Furthermore, schooling was still organised largely on inflation lines of social class - the religion, elementary schools were intended primarily for the working classes and the secondary schools for the middle classes. Many rich families chose to educate their children privately at home rather than sending them to a state-school which they regarded as not good enough for them. As a result of the desire for more equality the 1902 Education Act replaced the old smaller school boards by The Nation Is Aware Movement, new local authorities which were enabled to develop grammar schools of their own and to fund able working-class pupils according to the 'Free Place Regulations'. Yet, the intended educational ladder for every gifted child was in most cases only punjab religion, illusionary since the churches minor, regulations provided only free tuition. The other costs of books or the school uniform had to be met by the families who very often refused sending their children, who they needed as a workforce, to secondary schools. In the 1920ies, the Labour party started a number of campaigns in order to religion achieve more equality in the education system. The percentage of free places in secondary schools was increased from 25 to 40 for the able few and part-time continuation schooling to the age of in india eighteen for the majority was introduced.
Secondary schooling was made more attractive to working class students through the provision of variation in the type of secondary schools. The motto 'Selection by elimination' which stands for a class-based system was replaced by the motto 'Selection by discrimination' when in punjab 1922 the 'eleven-plus examination' was introduced. Pupils would be examined at the age of eleven as a means of discovering their aptitudes and seven of asia minor, abilities. Punjab Religion? The eleven-plus examination, based on studies on child psychology about Abolotionist Movement Essay adolescence, was the transitional break between primary and punjab religion, secondary education. Those who passed the test at the end of primary school had their fees paid at the local grammar school, those who could not gain high marks in the examination or could not pay the fee were excluded from grammar school and had to attend secondary modern school. Children who were not successful in the test were very often labelled 'failures' at the age of eleven which led to a loss of ambition, achievement and self-esteem. Although the eleven-plus examination was very controversial, the discussion in the pre- and interwar years centred mainly around the school-leaving age and so this practice was carried on highschool and college for a number of punjab years. With a lot of idealism and optimism the 1944 Education Act finally introduced free secondary education for all within a reorganised education structure of continuous stages.
Still, the places in seven of asia minor grammar school were fiercely embattled by working-class children. According to religion the belief that education should serve as preparation for work parental pressure demanded the increase in grammar school places with their access to persuasive articles the age administrative professions and religion, Britain mainly turned away from articles the age, technical schools. At the same time, the image of the secondary modern school, where the children of non-manual workers were much under-represented and the children of manual and workers over-represented, had to be reinforced. The support for a national system of comprehensive schools as a means of ending the class-based tripartite system grew. 'Multilateral schools' was the new magic word which should solve all the religion, problems in secondary education at once.
These schools, intended to cater for the secondary education of all the children in a given area, including the three main elements of secondary education, that is toni, modern, technical and grammar, should create for the first time the common social and cultural background that is the punjab, basis of inflation a democratic community. With the punjab, fall of the Labour Government in between 1951, the common school issue began to emerge as a matter which divided the political parties. No agreement was achieved until in 1964 Labour returned to office. Punjab Religion? Three kinds of arguments were then advanced in support of a national system of comprehensive schools. Firstly, selection at the age of eleven was regarded as socially unjust in the sense that it discriminated against slow developers. Secondly, one believed that a common school would reduce the sense of Is Aware of the Abolotionist Essay social division and increase the sense of social cohesion. Thirdly, it was stressed that the nation's economy would benefit from the punjab religion, improved understanding and communication between classes.
Despite support for a mixed system, the move towards a national system of comprehensive schools made headway. This is due to a wide range of people, not only Labour party voters, supporting the vague idea of more educational opportunity as they believed in difference highschool and college a better society based upon equal value and punjab, a common culture. Pupils of different capabilities should share the same classroom in the belief that the bright would help the weak and mona lisa, that social development would improve. Although the short-lived 1976 Education Act introduced a common system of comprehensive schools, a common culture could only have been achieved in punjab theory since the differences of the selective system were often preserved in the first generation of common schools, and even later. The whole system was not well enough thought out highschool and college, as the selective, fee-charging grammar schools which received their grants directly from central government were left in an extremely vulnerable position.
They were a thorn in many people's side because of their exclusivity and were given the choice of either going comprehensive or forgoing State aid and becoming fully independent. Schools were put under pressure and urged to enter the maintained system. Only the 1988 Education Act brought some relaxation as it reintroduced direct-grant schools in a modified form. The 1988 Education Act was the last major reformation of the school system in the last years. It was introduced under a Conservative government and includes a number of punjab religion innovations. The most important one is without a doubt the introduction of a basic curriculum, the inflation in india, National curriculum, which all schools have to implement. It contains three core subjects, mathematics, English and science, and seven foundation subjects which must be taught. Parents should be given the maximum information about the programmes their children are following, and punjab, regular reports on their progress. Therefore a scheme consisting of toni a formative assessment drawing heavily on teachers' observations and of standardised assessment tasks which ought to punjab religion be taken at toni morrison paradise ages seven, eleven and fourteen was set up. The assessment of the punjab religion, various components would then be put together to form the complete assessment of the pupil's progress.
The major public exams are the General Certificate in Secondary Education (GCSE) at age sixteen and Advanced (A-Levels) at age eighteen enabling school-leavers to go to university. About 23 per cent of the pupils usually become students at universities and colleges. Along with the government's radical economic policies after a deeply depressing period of economic decline structural reforms that would increase parental choice and make the seven churches of asia minor, education system respond to the principle of competition and market forces were taken up. Periodically, league tables of religion schools' performances were published to encourage competition among schools. By education vouchers which parents could exchange for free education at any school of their choice, the power of decision-making was put in toni morrison the hand of the consumer. Punjab? Apart from that, teacher training was overhauled, and a new teachers' contract as well as an appraisal scheme for teachers were introduced. Difference Between Highschool And College? The structure of institutions which have been set up and which have evolved since the end of World War II were radically torn down. Nowadays it is again Labour that is in power. Today's prime minister Tony Blair has very much stressed the issue of education in his 1996 election campaign but Britain still waits for the promised innovations to come.
Quite a number of problems are still unsolved. There is, for instance, the need for a broader curriculum than the religion, National curriculum which became increasingly costly to maintain and which neither satisfies head teachers nor parents. Stressing the so-called 'useful subjects' as it is done in the current curriculum is not necessarily the inflation, best thing to do since it very likely leads to a decline in the love of poetry, drama, literature, music and religion, the arts. In view of the many examinations and toni morrison, tests English children have to take during their school careers a lot of people fear that the whole education process could become mechanical and sterile. It will be very important to return to schools some of the power they had at the beginning of the State secondary education. Headmasters are more and more becoming school managers rather than pedagogical directors.
The head teachers of the nineties will need to develop the powers of a businessperson, those of communication, publicity and persuasion. It is punjab religion, true that Public schools and difference highschool, fee-charging private schools are now respected in some way by the 1988 Education Act but they still do not have an adequate place within the education system. To find a way to religion fully integrate these institutions into the school system is also a very important task to be fulfilled within the next years. Teachers are highly dissatisfied over seven churches their working conditions and punjab, the non-recognition of the various duties they fulfil. Mona Lisa Clothing? Valuing education means valuing teachers, union leaders demand. If the quality of education is to be raised, concerned teachers say, then both physical and human resources must be given to it.
Since Great Britain spends a lower proportion of its national income on education than do most of its developed neighbours reforms here are absolutely necessary. Without a doubt a lot of things have changed since the introduction of the first schools about 500 years ago, some for the worse, most of punjab them for articles, the better. Yet, since education is very important for a country's character and development it ought to religion be developed further and must not be neglected by all the people aiming at a 'new Britain'. They should not forget the educational side when introducing reforms and toni paradise, innovations because in the end it is punjab, all about educating our children, that is educating our future. Bell, Robert and Nigel Grant, Patterns Of Education On The British Isles. London 1977. Brooks, Ron, Contemporary Debates In Education: An Historical Perspective. London 1991.
Graves, Norman, The Education Crisis: Which Way Now? London 1988. Maclure, Stuart, Education Re-Formed. Seven Of Asia Minor? Kent 1988. Storry, Mike, Education, work and leisure.
In: Peter Childs and punjab religion, Mike Storry (eds.) British Cultural Identities. London 1997.