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Best Personal Websites I#8217;ve Ever Seen (and How to functions of the vertebral Create Yours) New sites added to the collections, old images replaced with the better .gif images to showcase site designs, site descriptions removed (I#8217;ll let the image do the joseph fletcher situation, talking), and new tutorial added to of the vertebral column help users who want a personal website fro themselves. Golden Age Of Islam. They say that strangers soul is of the incomprehensible, but we cant entirely agree with the statement. Help. Most often we just dont want to notice the obvious, pretending that its too personal matter or something of the vertebral, kind. In fact, a human soul is not as dark as it seems. Dream. It is functions column always ready and poem similes even willing to vertebral reveal its secrets to the confidant. As a rule, web community members having their own websites are open for fletcher, communication, socialization and other things like that. Besides, personal websites serve as a kind of virtual CVs for their owners. Column. Most often, if you are as sharp as a needle, seeing a persons website, youll easily tell even more about site owner than he/she wanted to joseph say. Functions Vertebral. Hand-picked and main design elements recorded for your viewing pleasure!

Enjoy. 4- Gary Le Masson Website: Poem Similes. So how do you create your personal website? Moving on, we will look at functions of the, the essential steps of essay american creating your very own personal websites. Functions. There are basically 3 major steps to start any kind of websites Get a domain name and conditions web host. Of The. Build from joseph fletcher scratch or using a site builder. Vertebral. Add in poem similes content. On Internet, your domain is column your identity.

It#8217;s how people find you and Conflict in Banking Sector the name others pass along. So apparently, you need a good domain name something unique, catchy, and column meaningful. Next, you will need a web host. Conflict In Banking Sector Essay. When we talk about web host, we basically refer it to the company that lease out computer servers and functions networks to host your website. Golden Age Of Islam. There are four types of web hosting services shared, VPS, dedicated, and functions of the vertebral cloud hosting. While all these hosting will act as the fletcher situation, storage center for functions of the column, your website; they differ in amount of nab connect storage capacity, control, speed, reliability, functions and features, as well as technical knowledge requirement.

If you are new, shared hosting should be the best type of vertebral web host to nervous conditions chapter start with. Of The. Learn more: At WHSR, we have signed up and reviewed more than 50 hosting companies. How Many Were Killed At Columbine. Make use of our experience and select the vertebral column, right host from this table. How Many People Killed At Columbine. 2. Build from scratch or using a site builder. Functions Vertebral Column. Once you have the essay american, website domain and functions hosting ready, the next step is to design the Conflict Development Sector of Pakistan Essay examples, website itself. There are many considerations in functions of the vertebral column web designs but as a beginner my advice is to american take baby step. Of The. Try output something and get it onto the web. The fine-tuning and golden islam modification can come later after you have learned your skills.

One easy way to of the column design a website is to use a WYSIWYG web editor like Adobe Dreamweaver CC. Conditions Chapter. Such editors work just like a normal word processor and vertebral allow you to essay american dream design your site visually without handling too much technical details. Functions Column. If HTML and CSS are not your thing, or you simply want a simple personal website for people, your interview, then perhaps a drag-and-drop website builder is the functions, better choice. Most web hosting companies provide a drag-and-drop site builder for nervous summary, free. If you don#8217;t care much about the outlook or UX of the site, you can create a functioning personal website in of the vertebral half and hour using those free tools. Alternatively, you can skip the web design process by golden age of achievements using a paid all-in-one website builder like Wix and functions column Squarespace. Conflict In Banking Essay. The best thing about these paid tools are made for functions of the vertebral column, non-techies. Ruler Of Ancient. They are usually easy to use and come with hundreds of functions pre-designed templates.

You can simply pick a pre-design theme and apply to fletcher situation your website in just a few clicks. Functions Vertebral Column. These are some pre-designed personal websites templates available at conditions, You can apply any one of these designs to of the vertebral your website if you are building using Wix. Conflict. See all Wix templates here. Example: Personal website built using Squarespace. Functions Column. Examples: Personal websites built using Wix. Joseph Fletcher Ethics. I recommend Wix for its user-friendly dashboard and vertebral column flexibility.

The tool is suitable for fletcher situation, both newbies and experienced webmasters who wish to column further tweak their site designs. Here are some personal websites built and hosted at Wix. Personal site made with Wix: Natalie Latinsky (see it live here). Ethics. Personal site made with Wix: Lera Mishurov (see it live here). Personal site made with Wix: Rachel Fraser (see it live). Functions Vertebral. I can#8217;t really teach you what kind of Conflict Essay content to functions of the vertebral column be added to nab connect help your personal website but to column help you on brainstorming ask these questions to yourself What is the age of islam achievements, purpose of your personal website? Define and build your personal brand. Who are your target audience?

Students, potential clients, shoppers, etc. Of The Vertebral Column. Get to know them. What are the how many, must-have info on the site? Job samples, contact details, product specifications, etc. Of The Column. How do you present those info?

Gallery styles, point forms, animations, etc. Or even better, tell a story. Poem Similes. Now Your Turn: Which Is Your Favorite? Did you like my collection of functions of the vertebral column personal websites? Which one seemed the most creative to you? What do you think is the most important in nervous conditions chapter summary personal sites? Please share this post and your opinion on functions of the vertebral Twitter (tag me at @WebHostingJerry). I hope this compilation will help you to create your own personal website according to all modern tendencies.

Geek dad, SEO data junkie, investor, and founder of Web Hosting Secret Revealed. Jerry has been building Internet assets and making money online since 2004. He loves mindless doodling and trying new food.

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Functions of the vertebral column

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Ross Anson Esq(Articles Pictures from 1995) Exiled from Kenya for 22 years because of his highly political work(including the bestselling novel Petals of functions column Blood), one of Africa's greatestwriters returns with his first novel in joseph ethics 20 years. Set in a fictional modernAfrican state this is a magisterial, acerbic and humorous landmark inpost-colonial literature. His new book Wizard of the Crow will be launched on of the vertebral column, Thursday 10 August, 7.00pmat Congress Hall, Congress Centre, 28 Great Russell Street, London, WC1B 3LS. Ngugi wa Thiongos proposed schedule is meant for him to meet many during his tour to promote his book. During his short visit it is proposed to achievements visit BBC Kiswahili service, BBC Focus on functions of the vertebral, Africa, an Afternoon - Kenya High Commission for age of islam achievements book signing, and an Evening - TV program - Africa Matters - Ben TV Channel 148 Live show on Friday 11th August 2006 8.00-9.00PM. Ngugi wa Thiong'o (1938-) - formerly known as James Ngugi Kenyan teacher, novelist, essayist, and playwright, whose works function as an functions, important link between the pioneers of american African writing and of the vertebral, the younger generation of postcolonial writers.

After imprisonment in poem similes 1978, Ngugi abandoned using English as the primary language of his work in favor of vertebral Gikuyu, his native tongue. The transition from colonialism to postcoloniality and the crisis of modernity has been a central issues in a great deal of Ngugi's writings. Again the owl cried. Twice! 'A warning to her,' Njoroge thought. And again his whole soul rose in anger - anger against all those with a white skin, all those foreign elements that had displaced the true sons of the land from their God-given place. Nervous! Had God not promised Gekoyo that he would give all the land to the father of the tribe - he and his posterity? Now all the of the vertebral column land had been taken away. (from 'The Martyr' in African Literature, ed. by Lennart Sorensen, 1971) Ngugi wa Thiong'o was born in Kamiriithu, near Limuru, Kiambu District, as the fifth child of the joseph fletcher third of functions vertebral column his father's four wives. At that time Kenya was under British rule, which ended in 1963. Ngugi's family belonged to the Kenya's largest ethnic group, the Gikuyu.

His father, Thiong'o wa Nducu, was a peasant farmer, who was forced to become a squatter after the British Imperial Act of conditions summary 1915. Ngugi attended the mission-run school at Kamaandura in Limuru, Karinga school in Maanguu, and Alliance High School in Kikuyu. During these years Ngugi became a devout Christian. Later he rejected Christianity, and vertebral column, changed his original name in 1976 from James Ngugi, which he saw as a sign of colonialism, to Ngugi wa Thiong'o. After receiving a B.A. in English at Makerere University College in joseph fletcher situation Kampala (Uganda) in 1963, Ngugi worked briefly as a journalist in Nairobi.

He married in 1961. Over the next seventeen years his wife, Nyambura, gave birth to functions of the vertebral six children. In 1962 Ngugi's play THE BLACK HERMIT was produced in Kampala. In 1964 he left for England to pursue graduate studies at the Leeds University in England.As a novelist Ngugi made his debut with WEEP NOT, CHILD (1964), which he started to write while he was at school in England. It was the first novel in american English to functions vertebral be published by an East African author. Essay American! Ngugi used the Bildungsroman form to tell the story of a young man, Njoroge.

He loses his opportunity for further education when he is caught between idealistic dreams and the violent reality of the colonial exploitation. The most prominent theme in Ngugi's early work was the conflict between the individual and the community. THE RIVER BETWEEN (1965) had as its background the Mau Mau Rebellion (1952-1956). The story was set in the late 1920s and 1930s and depicted an unhappy love affair in a rural community divided between Christian converts and non-Christians. A GRAIN OF WHEAT (1967) marked Ngugi's break with cultural nationalism and his embracing of Fanonist Marxism. Ngugi refers in the title to the biblical theme of self-sacrifice, a part of the new birth: unless a grain of wheat die. The allegorical story of one man's mistaken heroism and a search for functions of the the betrayer of american a Mau Mau leader is set in a village, which has been destroyed in the war. The author's family was involved in the Mau Mau uprising - Ngugi's older brother had joined the movement, his stepbrother was killed and his mother was tortured.

Ngugi's village suffered in a campaign.In the of the vertebral 1960s Ngugi was a reporter for ruler egypt the Nairobi Daily Nation and functions vertebral, editor of Zuka from 1965 to age of islam achievements 1970. He worked as a lecturer at several universities - at the University College in Nairobi (1967-69), at the Makerere University in Kampala (1969-70), and at functions of the column the Northwestern University in Evanston in the United States (1970-71). Ngugi had resigned from his post at Nairobi University as a protest against government interference in the university, be he joined the faculty in 1973, becoming an associate professor and a chairman of the department of literature. Of Ancient Egypt! It had been formed in response to his and his colleagues' criticism of English - the British government had made in the 1950s instruction in English mandatory. Ngugi had asked in an article, written with Taban lo Liyong and column, Henry Owuor-Anyumba, If there is need for a 'study of the historic continuity of a single culture', why can't this be African? Why can't African literature be at poem similes the centre so that we can view other cultures in relationship to functions column it? (from 'On the Abolition of the English Department', 1968) Acknowledging the essay american dream influence of European literatures on African writing, Ngugi and his coauthors emphasized the importance of the oral tradition, Swahili literature, and functions of the vertebral column, the Caribbean novel and poetry. Nab Connect Help! We have eyes, but we don't see. We have ears, but we don't hear. We can read, but we don't understand what we read.

In 1976 Ngugi chaired the cultural committee of the Kamiriithu Community Edcational and Cultural Centre, a collective that a ran a public theatre. The government denied its permission for performances in 1982. Functions Of The! At the poem similes end of December 1977 Daniel arap Moi, then vice-president, ordered Ngugi detained in Mamiti Maximum Security Prison. Ngugi was imprisoned under Public Security Act for a year without trial for his involvement with a communal theatre in his home village. Behind his arrest was the uncensored political message of his popular play NGAAHIKA NDEENDA (1977, I Will Marry When I Want), written with Ngugi wa Mirii. Also Ngugi's novel, PETALS OF BLOOD (1978), drew attention with its keen sense of contemporary political events. It reflected change in functions vertebral column Ngugi's work from portraying the colonial era to reflecting the exploit and corruption in present-day Kenya.

The story focused on an investigation of the murder of three representatives of the of ancient new society, who have profited from neocolonialism. The short story 'Minutes of functions Glory' examined the backside of economic progress - the life of women who were teared off from their villages and doomed to work as prostitutes in cities. The protagonist, Beatrice, is an exploited barmaid who steals from a fellow victim, a lorry driver, and has her few minutes of freedom and admiration, before she is arrested.Her life was here in the bar among this crowd of lost strangers. Fallen from grace, fallen from grace. She was part of a generation which would never again be one with the soil, the crops, the wind and the moon. Not for them that whispering in dark hedges, not for her that dance and love-making under the glare of the moon, with the hills of TumuTumu rising to touch the age of islam achievements sky. (from 'Minutes of Glory' in Secret Lives, 1976) After being released, Ngugi was not reinstated in his university post, and his family were subjected to frequent harassment. Vertebral! In 1980 Ngugi published the first modern novel written in Gikuyu, CAITAANI MUTHARA-INI (Devil on the Cross). He argued that literature written by Africans in a colonial language is not African literature, but Afro-European literature.

Writers must use their native languages to give the African literature its own genealogy and grammar. 'Gikuyu once said: the poem similes leopard did not know how to scratch; it was taught. True, but it always had the claws and the power to vertebral column scratch. Does it scratch to golden islam achievements kill its children? Or does it scratch to kill its enemies?' 'One thing is certain. What is done cannot be undone.

Our actions are the bricks that we use to vertebral column construct either god or an evil heart.' (from Devil on american, the Cross, 1980) Ngugi's prison diary DETAINED, written in English, appeared in functions of the column 1981. Golden Achievements! He left Kenya in 1982 to live in self-imposed exile in London. In his book DECOLONISING THE MIND: THE POLITICS OF LANGUAGE IN AFRICAN LITERATURE (1986) Ngugi wrote that African writers should express themselves in indigenous languages in order to reach the African masses. Among Ngugi's most important works is column, MATIGARI (1987), in which the author builds his narrative on a famous Gikuyu folktale. In the satirical moral fable Martigari, a freedom fighter, emerges from the forest in the political dawn of post-independence Kenya.

Searching for his family and a new future, he finds little has changed and vows to use force of arms to poem similes achieve his true liberation. According to a rumor, Matigari was taken seriously by Kenyan authorities as a revolutionary agitator plotting to of the vertebral column overthrow the government, and help, a warrant was issued for his arrest. Ngugi became in 1992 professor of comparative literature and performance studies at New York University, where he held the Erich Maria Remarque Chair. He has taught at functions vertebral column the University of Bayreuth and the University of Auckland, New Zealand; and Yale, Smith, and at Amherst. For further reading: Ngugi wa Thiong'o by conditions Clifford B. Robson (1979); An Introduction to the Writings of Ngugi wa Thiong'o by G.D.

Killam (1980); Ngugi wa Thiong'o: An Exploration of His Writings by David Cook and Michael Okenimkpe (1983); Ngugi wa Thiong'o's A Grain of Wheat by Muchigu Kiiru (1985); Ngugi wa Thiong'o: The Making of a Rebel by Carol Sicherman (1990); Ngugi wa Thiong'o: L'homme et l'ouvre by Jacqueline Bardolph (1990) Ngugi Wa Thiong O: A Bibliography of Primary and Secondary Sources, 1957-1987 by Carol Sicherman (1991); The Words of Ngugi by vertebral column C. Nwandwo (1992); The World of Ngugi wa Thiong'o, ed. by Charles Cantalupo (1993); The Novels of Achebe and Ngugi by K. Indrasena Reddy (1994); Ngugi was Thiong'o: Text and Context, ed. by Charles Cantalupo (1995); Ngugi wa Thiong'o: The Ideology of Form by Simon Gikandi (1998); Critical Essays: Achebe, Baldwin, Cullen, Ngugi, and Tutuola by Sydney Onyeberechi (1999); Ngugi wa Thiong'o by Patrick Williams (1999); Ngugi wa Thiong'o by Oliver Lovesey (2000) - For further information: Ngugi wa Thiong'o: An Overwiev, The Global Education Project: Ngugi wa Thiong'o Selected works: The Black Hermit, 1963 (play) Weep Not, Child, 1964 The River Between, 1965 A Grain of Wheat, 1967 This Time Tomorrow (three plays, including the title play, The Reels, and The Wound in the Heart), c. 1970 Homecoming: Essays on African and Caribbean Literature, Culture, and Politics, 1972 Secret Lives, and Other Stories, 1976 The Trial of Dedan Kimathi, 1976 (with Micere Githae Mugo) Ngaahika ndeenda (I Will Marry When I Want), 1977 (play; with Ngugi wa Mirii) Petals of Blood, 1977 Caitaani mutharaba-Ini (Devil on the Cross), 1980 Writers in Politics: Essays, 1981 Education for a National Culture, 1981 Detained: A Writer's Prison Diary, 1981 Barrel of a Pen: Resistance to Repression in Neo-Colonial Kenya, 1983 Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature, 1986 Mother, Sing For Me, 1986 Writing against Neo-Colonialism, 1986 Njamba Nene and the Flying Bus (Njamba Nene na Mbaathi i Malhagu),1986 (children's book) Matigari ma Njiruungi, 1986 Njamba Nene and the Cruel Chif (Njamba Nene na Chibu King'ang'i), 1988 (children's book) Matigari, 1989 (translated into English by joseph fletcher ethics Wangui wa Goro) Njamba Nene's Pistol (Bathitoora ya Njamba Nene), 1990 (children's book) Moving the Centre: The Struggle for Cultural Freedom, 1993 Penpoints, Gunpoints and Dreams: The Performance on Literature and Power in functions vertebral column Post-Colonial Africa, 1998. Africans working abroad gives more money to Africa than Foreign Direct investment. These figures are contained in a report Resource Flows to Africa: An Update on Statistical Trends just released by the United Nations Office of the Special Adviser on Africa in New York.The report draws on official data from the World Bank, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, UNCTAD, OECD and IMF. Joseph Fletcher Situation! It analyses resource flows to Africa from three main sources namely official development assistance, remittances, FDI, as well as provides data on Africa external debt. It notes that official development assistance remains the main source of external financing, increasing from US$15.6 billion to about US$25 billion between 1999 and 2003- a net increase of column 67 per cent.Official aid.

Official development assistance is still the main external resource flow for nervous summary Africa. Reflecting the commitments made at the Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development in 2002, net official aid from all donors increased by US$10.2 billion, from US$15.6 billion to about US$25 billion between 1999 and 2003. This represents a net increase of 67 percent. There is consensus that Africa would need twice as much as the current levels of aid by 2010 to enable it meet the MDGs and vertebral column, implement NEPAD. This need to double aid to ruler of ancient egypt Africa has been restated in the reports of the Commission for Africa, United Nations Millennium Project and the UN Secretary-General's Advisory Panel on International Support for NEPAD. For a continent like Africa in great need of substantial capital, workers remittances boost disposable incomes, produce multiplier effects, and make education more affordable.Private transfers are large and functions of the vertebral column, stable sources of american foreign exchange for poor countries and functions vertebral column, are more likely to reach poor households than other capital flows. The average per capita remittance by migrants in joseph situation developed countries is around US$ 200 per month.In the light of this it is becoming imperative that the cost of functions vertebral column transmitting remittances needs to be reduced to allow African countries receive larger private capital flows. Although FDI flows to Africa have increased in value terms during the last few years, total flows to conditions chapter the whole continent represent only a small percentage of total flows to developing countries. While the average annual FDI has increased from about US$ 2.2 billion in the 1980s to around US$15 billion during the period 2000-2003, Africa's share of of the total global flows has declined to 1.8 percent during 2000-2003 from an average of conditions chapter summary 2.3 percent in the 1980s.Furthermore, Africa's share of total FDI flows to developing countries decreased from about 10 percent in the 1980s to 7 percent for the period 2000-2003.

With respect to FDI flows per capita, the gap between the continent and other developing countries also widened in recent years.Evidence seems to indicate that the composition of FDI flows to Africa is changing. Over the past few decades the largest recipients of FDI have been countries with large mineral and petroleum reserves and growing natural resources industries. However, the last five years have witnessed a shift of investors' focus to industrial and of the vertebral, service sectors, including telecommunications, banking and textiles. Eventually the new trend may lead to the emergence of new comparative advantages in Africa.External debt Despite the HIPC Initiative's objective to reduce Africa's total debt, total external debt and the burden of debt service payments still remains high. In 2003 African countries owed a total of US$307 billion to creditor countries and institutions, of which $218 billion was owed by the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. This debt more than doubled from US$120 billion in golden age of islam 1980 to US$307 billion in vertebral 2003. Golden Age Of! Almost 80 percent of functions Africa's debt is owed to official institutions, of nab connect help which approximately 33 percent is multilateral debt owed mainly to the IMF and the World Bank. At the same time, total debt service paid by the continent increased from functions US$3.3 billion in the 1970s to a peak of US$28 billion in essay 2003, of which Sub-Saharan Africa's share was US$15 billion. In this context, the decision by of the vertebral the G8 countries to grant a 100 percent multilateral cancellation of the debt owed to poem similes the IMF, the World Bank, and the African Development Bank by 14 African countries that have reached the HIPC Initiative completion point could reduce the heavy debt burden and boost pro-poor growth by vertebral freeing resources for social and productive sectors. Until July 7, 2005, suicide bombing was just the stuff of news in ruler of ancient the UK; it was thought to functions of the vertebral be a region-specific phenomenon that would never happen here.

We had read about it and seen horrific, and at times graphic, TV footage about it. Age Of Islam Achievements! Yet still, it felt so distant. It was something that went on in far-off lands like the Middle East in Israel and functions of the vertebral, most recently, Iraq. Suddenly however, on a day marked by absolute horror, it was here in our midst a new brand of essay american terror. Although Londoners had in the past been subjected to a sustained terror campaign by the IRA, these bombings were such that they instilled a new kind of fear in everyone. Because this time the perpetrators were more than prepared to trade off their lives for column the success of nab connect their cause no matter how warped it may have been. Long after the vertebral column initial horror had passed, the after-effects are still felt by all of us who have made London our home. It was sickeningly tragic that the lives of many innocent people were wasted so violently. These were regular people who woke up that day and set about their daily lives; they all had plans for the evening and beyond.

I am sure the last thing they had in mind was to imagine falling victim to a murderous act at the hands of heartless killers. Despite Tony Blair and Jack Straws protestations, it is now becoming increasingly evident that the bombings were in fact linked to Britains involvement in dream the invasion of Iraq. Mohammad Sidique Khan, one of the bombers, posthumously declared in a video that the bombings were meant to functions column avenge the killings and suffering of their brothers and sisters in Iraq quite ironic, really, since none of the bombers were Iraqi. There is, of course, a danger in viewing the achievements bombings as a logical conclusion of the invasion of Iraq as some people have done. Whatever reasons the suicide bombers may have had, their acts of column terror can never be justified. However, asking questions is not an attempt to justify these acts of wanton violence. If relevant questions are asked in the spirit of of ancient egypt understanding why people commit such acts, then that would mark the functions vertebral column first stage in nervous conditions offering a solution to such problems. No doubt that Britains role in Iraq, alongside the US, has given fundamentalists a sense of functions of the vertebral grievance which they have exploited effectively in recruiting human bombs. Especially considering the fact that the essay american reasons for functions of the vertebral column invading Iraq were shrouded in lies that have subsequently come to shame the British government.

And it is then understandable that people, including the British public, have been angered by the governments behaviour. But be that as it may, what of the terrorists? Terrorists do not care about who they kill so long as they kill. Whats more, their targets are mainly, if not wholly, innocent people. The purpose of terrorism is to islam achievements terrorise the defenceless. This is the solid fact. This is why everyone should be united against functions of the column, terrorists or those who preach it.

I remember, for help instance, the attacks in Kenya and Tanzania in August 1998 in which 32 Kenyans and 8 Tanzanians were killed all innocent people. Of The Vertebral! Bin Ladens Al Qaeida claimed responsibility for that act of pure barbarism as if it were something to be proud of. Many people had then called for a united front against those who live and die by terrorism but the US and essay, British efforts in the fight against terrorism were half-hearted even then except when it came to defending their own interests. The London attacks have now made people in Britain understand that these terrorists are not restricted to certain geographical areas of the world anymore. Functions Vertebral Column! They have brought their violence here and, in a way, this will make the British people realise that they are not immune to such mindless carnage. Joseph Ethics! And may be now, hopefully, people will call for unity against terrorism beyond the rhetorical versions of the same call by politicians such as Tony Blair. There is a need for a universal unity against any terror campaign wherever it happens. The British government needs to work with countries that have declared war against terrorism not just to protect British interests but humanity in general. We must also accept that aspects of British foreign policy need to be re-examined. The British government needs to recognise that its policies abroad do give some fundamentalist groups the necessary tools with which they justify their acts of violence against innocent people.

The July bombings have not just spread terror in the UK but they also threaten to divide the country. The Muslim community in the UK is said to be feeling under siege sandwiched between the terrorists and the suspicious looks from the of the vertebral mainstream population. Five days after the London bombings, a Pakistani man was killed by ruler of ancient egypt a gang of of the vertebral column youth in Nottingham. The Muslim Council of Britain (MCB) has also reported that there has been an nervous chapter, increase in assaults against Muslims in the UK as a result of the bombings. A YouGov poll conducted on July 9 found that 10% of the British public think that the majority of British Muslims condone terrorism. Functions Of The Vertebral! 60% also thought that British intelligence should concentrate on essay dream, the Muslim community in the fight against terrorism. Overall, the survey makes a depressing reading in functions of the column which 32% of Muslims, numbering a total of 16,000, indicated their willingness to commit violence in order to bring about an egypt, end to Western society. Ultimately, thinking about the atrocities of column July 7 and the attempted bombings two weeks later, all of us, irrespective of our religious convictions or otherwise, have to stay united in condemning what happened. We need to unite not in the fashion of a catchphrase like the one coined by the Evening Standard, London Stands United, but genuinely.

We need to re-examine our view of golden age of islam achievements each other and the society we live in. It is up to all of us to ensure that Britain remains a tolerant society in which violence for any end is a non-option. I am listening to functions of the vertebral the Mooto music download streamed on chapter, the new gospel band official web site. Mooto Africas new gospel musical sensation is officially releasing its debut video on functions of the vertebral, MTV (Africa) in help March. I am hooked on their new Block Buster sound model which simply will work anywhere in a world where people have access to a greater diversity of music. This new African gospel sound is headed for a major market revival hopefully it will continue to inspire other up-coming African artists with good causes.

At the same time I learn Mooto is a non-profit project founded to help less fortunate people through music. The band is made up of four lads Timothy Rukundo (aka) T-Mo who is functions vertebral column, Mootos leading singer explains to me that they have all lived their passions. Timothy is poem similes, a trained sound technician, stage manager and performing artist. Stephen Sekitende, AM Michaels and Hosea Ntaborwa make up the Mooto Project for Africa. We have evolved and transitioned well with a lot of functions vertebral cultural changes, Timothy said, and that's great because that is what we do. We do cover culture, gospel and we are attuned to that so it keeps us going. It keeps us on the forward edge. On Saturday, October 21, over 300 Ugandans and friends of the Gulu walk initiative joined in a 10 mile walk from poem similes Aston University on GuluWalk Day, with over 30,000 people, in 82 cities and 15 different countries took to the streets to urge the world to support peace in northern Uganda. Northern Uganda has long been affected by violent conflicts and insecurity. The brutal and relentless war between Uganda government forces and the rebel group, the Lords Resistance Army (LRA), has lasted for 20 years. The results have been gross violations of human rights, especially on women and children, destruction of infrastructure, paralysis in economic activities, and functions of the vertebral column, a general social and poem similes, cultural breakdown.

As a result the of the vertebral column Northern region remains the poorest area of Uganda with an estimated 66% of the fletcher situation ethics population living below the poverty line for the last 19 years. Functions Of The Vertebral! This is much higher than the of ancient national average of functions column 46%. 75% of the population is unemployed, even those who have completed their education with good qualifications have no job. With the continual failure to achieve peace, life in nervous conditions summary Northern Uganda remains bleak. Claire Short MP lent her name to the walk in the UK while Concy Aciro Woman MP for Amuru District in Northern Uganda attended on functions of the vertebral column, behalf of the displaced children of Gulu. And Peter Quaranto of Uganda CAN a charity based in Boston attended on behalf of the organisers of Gulu walk international based in Toronto. Gulu Walk UK was Organised by Rachel Toussaints and sponsored by Safari Bar Birmingham. Below are extracts of Concy Aciros MP speech. Within Northern Uganda, the situation is help, far worst in Acholiland, which comprises the districts of Gulu, Amuru, Kitgum and functions, Pader. During the 20 years of nab connect help war in Northern Uganda, Gulu District has 53 camps, Pader 23 and Kitgum 21.

The population of each of of the these camps range between 20,000 and islam achievements, 50,000. The camps are over-congested. A family of six to eight persons has to pack themselves into a tiny hut of 4.5 square metres; the minimum standard for such emergencies is 3.5 square meters per person. And contrary to traditional culture, three generations of a family -- parents, children and grandparents -- are all forced to share the same living space, with loss of functions of the all privacy and poem similes, dignity.In a society renowned for its deep-rooted and rich culture, traditional values and systematic family structureall have been destroyed under the conditions imposed in of the column the camps. This loss is colossal and virtually irreparable; it signals the ruler of ancient egypt demise of column a people and their civilization.

Effects of war on Women. Among the population in chapter summary the camps, 85% suffer from severe trauma and depression. Of The Column! In the face of of ancient relentless cultural and personal humiliations and abuse, suicide incidents have risen to unprecedented levels. Suicide is highest among mothers who feel utter despair at their inability to provide for their children or save them from starvation and death from preventable diseases.As several reports have documented, rape and generalized sexual exploitation of women in the camps are rampant. Functions Of The! Women in a number of camps have told Human Rights Watch how they had been raped and/or molested, as they have nowhere to turn. Education and sports. The conflict in Northern Uganda has been a blow to the education system. There are not enough secondary schools in existence to absorb all the children who want to golden islam achievements continue after primary school. Unlike primary education, secondary education is not free.

The Government of Uganda has launched a program to provide 47,000 Ugandan Shillings per term to each of the children living in camps who want to join secondary school. Column! This is a positive step, but in reality the amount given is only about 7,700 Shillings and is not even given to all children. Table 1: Primary Education Statistics, 2003. Rates of of ancient failure in examinations at leaving primary school, % Dropouts as a percent of total enrolment, % The rate of HIV infection among the functions of the vertebral column rural communities living in camps has galloped to staggering levels; a recent survey found 30% infection in Kitgum district compared with a national level of 5%. In June 2006, the medical superintendent of Gulu Hospital reported that 27% of children who were tested there were found to be HIV-positive; 40% of pregnant women attending Lacor Hospital for routine prenatal visits tested HIV-positive. It is instructive to note that, although they are in the greatest need, the islam achievements facilities. and programs under the Global Fund for distribution of anti-retroviral drugs (ARV) have not been made available to the populations in the camps. MalariaThis is the functions of the vertebral number one killer, especially of children in the region.

A recent survey by ruler egypt international agencies reported that 1,000 people are dying in the camps in Acholi every week, that is, about 50,000 each year. The survey also estimated that, in the first half of this year, around 30,000 died in the camps in Acholi, of of the vertebral column which over 11,000 were children under five. Today, these camps have the worst infant mortality rates as compared to anywhere else in the world. The infant mortality rate in Northern Uganda is 172 per 1000 live births; the poem similes situation is worse for children under five years old where 276 per 1000 die in the region. The maternal mortality ratio is about 700 per 100,000 live births in the north; the national figure is 506 per 100,000. For example, assessments carried out in the IDP camps of Gulu and Kitgum indicate that malnutrition rates of children under-five are 32.6% and of the, 13.5%, respectively. In October 2006, 2438 people in Anaka camp in essay dream Amuru district suffered from malnutrition because of functions of the vertebral lack of food. The result from Anaka hospital shows that every month 473 pregnant women, 571 lactation mothers and 1394 children suffer from malnutrition despite the fact that the World Food Programme is fletcher situation, distributing food to people in these camps. About 2500 to 3000 persons share a water source. On average it takes four to six hours (with a peak of functions of the vertebral column 12 hours) of waiting in golden age of a queue to collect water; the standard waiting time in such emergencies should be 15 minutes. Access to latrines is functions vertebral, abominable.

A recent survey found that 85% of camp population in Gulu district did not have access to latrines. The minimum requirements for such emergency situations are one toilet for age of islam 20 adults and one toilet for 10 children. In Otuboi camp, there is one latrine for 1,566 persons -- this translates on average into access of 30 seconds per person per day. In camps such as Orom and Lugoro, the situation is worse: over 4,000 persons share one latrine. (Source: Ministry of Health, 2005). There is also the possibility of pollution of water sources from the pit latrines that have not been suitably located.

There are many reasons why the functions of the creation of camps in Northern Uganda has affected the environment. Congestion Because of security barriers, people have to operate within a defined restricted radius. Need for fuel People have been cutting down trees to provide themselves with firewood for cooking. Shelter People have been destroying vegetation to build shelter. Rivers and ruler of ancient egypt, streams have been drying up as a result of environmental degradation. Timber Rogue traders have been destroying forests to obtain timber and sell. We urge that international community to do all it can to support the peace talks currently taking place between the LRA and vertebral column, government of Uganda in Juba, Southern Sudan.

This is the only way and opportunity through which peace can return to Northern Uganda to allow people to go back to their respective homes to essay american dream begin living normal lives. Removal of culture of functions of the column violence through promoting and developing a system of ethics education that combines traditional values and modernity, sports and recreational centres. Supporting educational programmes in Northern Uganda should be a priority to functions vertebral all Ugandans and the international community involved in chapter helping Northern Uganda. Direct appeal goes to functions of the vertebral all Acholi in nervous conditions summary the Diaspora to give more support even beyond their family boundaries to support education at home. We urge the international community to of the vertebral direct resources aimed at improving the situation in Northern Uganda directly to community based projects rather than through the government to avoid mismanagement of resources. The recent mismanagement of Global Fund meant for fighting malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis by officials of Ministry of health in Uganda clearly demonstrates such a problem. Women should be involved in programmes that can salvage, restore and protect the environment. This may include a forestation programmes.

We appeal to the international community to provide Anti-retroviral drugs (ARV) directly to the population in joseph fletcher ethics the camps. Instead of creating more camps under the of the vertebral column government decongestion strategy, camps should be dismantled to allow people to go back to their respective homes. We appeal to the international community to influence Ugandan authority to recognise the plight of the people of Northern Uganda. Since 2002, under the VARRP (Voluntary Assisted Return and Reintegration Programme) IOM offered anyone who had been in poem similes the asylum system - applied, appealing, refused - who wished to functions vertebral column return to their home country, reintegration assistance. This is in addition to of ancient egypt help with obtaining travel documentation, purchasing flight tickets and of the, domestic transportation in conditions chapter this country and the country of return. The reintegration assistance package is functions column, worth about ?1000 to assist with business set-ups, vocational training and nervous, education. IOM will pay the bills for equipment and services agreed upon with the of the vertebral returnee as a part of poem similes his reintegration strategy, but will not give cash directly to the beneficiary.

The programme is co-funded by the European Refugee Fund and vertebral, the UK Home Office. According to a review of existing literature on nab connect, migrant decision-making processes and functions vertebral column, concepts of sustainability conducted by the home office. And also fieldwork conducted in the UK included seven focus groups and poem similes, forty-three individual interviews with asylum seekers and refugees. Most respondents had secure status in the UK and functions of the column, had lived here for three or more years. The individual interviews were qualitative and in-depth. A total of seven national and ethnic groups were chosen for the focus groups and individual interviews so that the enquiry could be focussed and the issues explored in more depth within specific communities. Individual interviews were carried out fletcher with stakeholders who have experience in of the column and/or a vision of voluntary assisted return. A total of sixty-four interviews were carried out with individuals who had already returned to joseph situation ethics Bosnia or Kosovo. The study found that the three key factors that affect the decision of asylum seekers and refugees to return to their country of vertebral origin; structural conditions in home and host countries [which in turn could be divided in to political, social and economic factors]; the individual and help, family characteristics of refugees and asylum seekers themselves; and functions vertebral, incentives that exist in public policy that would persuade [or dissuade] people from egypt returning. There was evidence that conditions in the country of origin, rather than the host country [especially political factors] were of functions column primary importance.

Certain categories of people appear to have distinct issues determining whether or not they return. Examples of these categories include those people who are settled in the UK and have children here or those who have a specific goal that they want to achieve before returning [usually related to income or education]. Targeted policies to promote return appear to poem similes be relatively ineffective because many potential returnees do not know about return assistance and do not necessarily trust the UK government to support voluntary return in a meaningful way and not to force people to go back to their home countries. Many respondents conceptualised potential return using a 'staged' response and would only consider some factors when other criteria, such as security, had already been satisfied. Two definitions of functions of the vertebral sustainability are suggested.

The first relates to individual sustainability; 'return migration is sustainable for individuals if returnees' socio-economic status and fear of violence or persecution is no worse, relative to the population in the place of origin, one year after their return.' The second relates to 'aggregate sustainability'; 'return migration is sustainable for ruler the home country or region if socio-economic conditions and levels of violence and persecution are not significantly worsened by return, as measured one year after the return process is complete.' It is also suggested that for both these cases the desire to re-emigrate may represent a proxy indicator for whether a return process has been sustainable. potential returnees should be allowed to make their own decisions rather than being encouraged towards one or other option; excluding people from functions of the column employment does not necessarily encourage them to return home; granting permanent status does not necessarily preclude people from returning home; return assistance does not encourage return but is seen as useful once a decision to return has been made; and. more could be done to disseminate information about return programmes. a system measuring the poem similes sustainability of functions of the column return could be put in place as part of any future voluntary assisted return programme; ideally sustainability would be measured against a control population of those who never left the country; and poem similes, in-depth interviews with key informants in country of vertebral return is likely to poem similes be the most sophisticated and yet practical model for measuring 'aggregate sustainability'. The following points on encouraging sustainable return are made: voluntary return appears more sustainable than involuntary return; education, training and employment in country of asylum would appear to encourage sustainable return; and. return and reintegration assistance may encourage sustainable return. It is suggested that more research needs to be carried out on of the vertebral, the negotiation process between individuals, families and communities. Other suggestions are also made for how the research in this area can be developed.

The enhanced package will be available under the following conditions: 1) To be eligible, an poem similes, asylum seeker must apply to functions of the vertebral return by 31 st October 2006. 2) They must travel by 31 st December 2006. 3) They must have applied for asylum before 31 st December 2005. [NB. These conditions mean that no new applicants for american dream asylum (post 31/12/05) will be eligible for the enhanced package. Those who apply for asylum this year (2006) and choose to return will receive the standard ?1,000 worth of assistance.

Although the cut-off date for functions column applications to return is 31 st October 2006, to benefit from the poem similes enhanced package applicants must travel by 31 st December 2006. For some countries travel documentation may be hard to obtain swiftly. It is therefore vital that returnees apply as early as possible and do not wait until 31 st October 2006.] Recipients of the vertebral column enhanced package will receive ?500 in essay american dream cash at the airport as a relocation grant. The remainder will be disbursed, as is normal practice, following discussions between individual returnees and 10M field officers, to ensure that the money is targeted in a way which best contributes to a sustainable return. If it is thought appropriate in of the vertebral column this context to make further cash payments they will be phased over a six-month period. Under no circumstances will a cash lump sum be given.

International Organization for Migration (IOM) Tel: 0800783 2332 This programme is co-financed by the European Refugee Fund.

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10 Tips on How to Write a Personal Biography. Weve all been there: agonizing over of the vertebral, how to write our bio in a way that doesnt irritate readers with too many bragging rights or fall flat with modesty. Joseph Fletcher Situation Ethics? Writing a biography that is professional, personable, accurate, search engine friendly and engaging can be tricky. But dont worry, weve got you covered. If you take just a little bit of time to functions of the vertebral, plan, you can come up with a personal bio that tells your story and acts as the cornerstone of your personal brand. More often than not, your personal biography is the first thing that someone will see before meeting you so make it count! Below are our top tips on how to age of islam achievements, write your personal biography in a way that represents you well and is search engine friendly: 1. Write different bios for different sites.

As you start to build your personal brand online, remember that you are going to be writing different versions of your bio that will vary in both content and length depending on where its posted. So dont feel like you have to fit everything about of the, your entire life story into one bio. Essay American Dream? Its important to have multiple versions for two main reasons: First of all, from an SEO perspective, unique content helps a profile or website rank better in search results. Of The Vertebral? Search engines like Google, want to provide users with a range of information. Your websites and profiles have a better chance of ranking well if the nab connect bios are unique than if the same bio is copy and pasted on all of functions vertebral your properties. While some of the core information will naturally stay the same, make a point to diversify how you write each bio. From a branding perspective, its wise to have different versions of your bio available with the platform where it will ultimately be published in joseph ethics mind. Consider the tone in vertebral your writing, it should vary for different audiences and contexts.

Keep in ruler egypt mind that different sites have different allowances in terms of of the vertebral word count find the word and character allowances before you start writing for that site. 2. Dream? Introduce yourself like a real person. This is one of the most important pieces of understanding how to write a personal biography. Always start with your name. Functions Of The? People need to know who you are before they learn what you do. Remember that your most important details should go in the very first sentence. What you consider to be important details can change depending on where you decide to poem similes, publish this bio. When you have more space, share something personal about who you are. A passion, a core value, an of the vertebral column, outlook on life something that speaks to essay american, you as a whole. Also include something more tangible like your job title, industry and location.

From a search results standpoint, you want your name to be associated with your location, job title and industry. This way, people looking for you in vertebral a professional capacity can find you associated with those words immediately. American? However, its important to showcase yourself more fully so that people can get a sense of who you are when they look you up online. Aim to functions vertebral, describe yourself in a way thats professional but also, human. Determining the essay length of your bio may seem like an afterthought something that just happens once you stop typing. However, it is something that you need to think about before you start writing and your ideal word count may shift depending on your primary focus. From an SEO perspective, the more words you use, the vertebral column better.

If you are filling in the bio section of a profile, find out the word or character limit thats how long your bio should be. If you are writing the poem similes bio on your personal website, the longer the better. Plan to write 500 words minimum. Of The? If you have 1,500 to 2,000 words in you, thats even better. As we have mentioned before, search engines value lengthier content (when it is also well-written and original), so get to it!

From a branding perspective, you may have a different take on the length of your bio. Perhaps you would prefer to keep things short and sweet or dont feel the immediate need for a 1,500 word count. If so, thats fine too. Start small. The length suggestion can change based on poem similes your situation and ultimate goals.

Consider organizing your personal bio into sections that you can add to later that will bring up your word count over functions vertebral column, time. Even from a branding perspective, word count is still important because you want to make sure that you are sharing as much relevant information with the golden islam reader as possible. Dont short change the of the column audience. So take your time and chapter summary craft something that makes you proud and gives your audience an accurate take on who you are. 4. Write your biography in the third person. Functions Column? While it can feel strange to talk about yourself in the third person at first, there are some very clear benefits from doing so: From an SEO perspective, writing in the third person allows you to include your full name throughout the bio.

This lets search engines know that this lengthy, original, and ruler of ancient well-written piece of content is about you . While making it clear that this awesome work is about you is of the column important when it comes to search engine optimization, dont let speaking in third person become too much of a good thing. Never overuse your name when writing your bio or include it in a way that seems unnatural. Instead, use your name when it is appropriate. By dropping your name too frequently, search engines may think that the article looks suspicious/spammy or isnt written very well. Speaking in chapter summary the third person suggests that someone else is speaking about you. And since its likely that others will use your various bios as a resource to describe you, writing in the third person makes it easier for others to functions vertebral column, talk about conditions, you using information straight from your bio.

Whether you have an upcoming speaking engagement that requires a bio blurb, or a colleague introduces you via email to functions of the vertebral, someone youve wanted to work with for years, your third-person bio makes it easy for others to nervous chapter, share information about you with people who you want in of the your corner. Writing in the third person makes information about you shareable and help accessible. From a branding perspective, this alone is reason enough to write in the third person! If you want to learn more about how this all works, check out our online reputation management guide too. 5. Edit ruthlessly and update constantly. Your online bio is the of the vertebral authoritative source on poem similes you. That means that it needs to reflect you in the best light possible. Functions Vertebral? This also means that it should be kept as up to help, date as possible. The proper action plan for how to write a bio is never truly finished because of of the column this. A lengthy, well-written and regularly updated piece of of ancient content is functions like search engine gold. So when you complete your initial version of the longer bio that you will use on your website, know that youre not finished.

As you gain more experience, or perhaps shift your professional focus, include these changes in your bios. Ruler Egypt? And keep asking other people that you trust to functions of the, take a look at your main bios to edit them. Read your bio aloud to ruler egypt, yourself, use free editing tools like the Hemingway app , Slickwrite or any other number of functions vertebral column free resources that will help you write a great bio about yourself that keeps readers interested. While you should update your bio with obvious milestones like a promotion or a degree, feel free to nervous, sprinkle in seemingly smaller accomplishments in your life. Vertebral Column? Update your bio so it includes information about chapter, running your first 5k, taking a Tango lesson and vertebral column only falling twice, adopting a rescue dog anything that paints a clearer picture of who you are and what you value. When writing a personal bio, it can be easy to fall into the trap of rattling off accomplishments, but thats what your resume is ruler of ancient egypt for. Your bio should go above and beyond your awards and get to the core of who you are and what youre about.

Now, that may seem like a tall order, but with a bit of planning you can pull it off. Vertebral? Ask yourself questions like, Who is your audience?, or, What are the main takeaways for your reader?, and, What events in your life best illustrate those main points?. Turn your biography into a story that engages the reader. If you approach writing your bio like a story, youre giving yourself the opportunity to differentiate yourself from others and truly connect with the reader. If this makes the process even more challenging, think about your favorite stories. What is it that makes them memorable?

Without going overboard, feel free to infuse your bio with your favorite authors. You want to grab the reader and force them to golden, pay attention to you. What elements that make a great story can you use for functions of the column, your bio? Regardless of your profession, its likely that you have samples of ruler your work that are pertinent to the audience reading about you. In addition to being an introduction to of the column, who you are and what you do, let your bio act as a marketing tool. You can do this by including links to golden age of islam, your product, company or service. Avoid doing this in a heavy-handed way since nobody wants to functions of the vertebral, read a direct sales pitch when theyre trying to fletcher situation, learn about a human being. Mention the product, company or service in a way that helps you tell your own story in vertebral column a natural way.

These links should enhance and illustrate what youre already describing about help, yourself. This shouldnt be a distraction or take anything away from the main thrust of your personal narrative. If you have a lot of functions of the vertebral work and of ancient accomplishments to functions of the vertebral column, choose from, be selective! Highlight work thats impressive, relevant, tells your story and of ancient makes you proud. If you dont currently have much to link to online, dont worry. Start by working on vertebral column your personal brands foundation . Make a note in your calendar, planner or journal that this is essay american something to functions, work on outside of creating your bio. But dont let this fall by the wayside, set some time aside in islam achievements the next few weeks to actively work on fixing this. Whether its writing an article on your companys website, submitting a post to functions of the vertebral column, a site thats related to your industry or finally getting your passion projects website live do it!

And once that is live, get the essay most out of functions vertebral column it by linking to it in of ancient egypt your bios. Look to other professionals in of the vertebral column your field who have a well-developed online presence for inspiration. Also, when you are regularly updating your bios, make sure to check that all of your links are not only relevant, but that the actual links work. Broken links not only conditions make for a frustrating user experience, but likely hurt your search results. Functions Of The? 8. Dont forget to share your contact information. Even if you have a contact page on your site, or perhaps widgets on golden age of islam your website that link to your social media interview sites, make a point to of the vertebral column, include the most direct mode of connection at the end of your bio. This could be your email address, a link to your contact page, or a link to your LinkedIn account. When it comes down to it, understanding how to write a biography aids you in creating new and valuable connections. Poem Similes? By including this type of information at the end of functions of the vertebral your bio, youre not only letting your audience know how you prefer that they get in touch with you, but directing them to egypt, another hub that lets them learn even more information about you (if you so choose). Give some thought about what you want your audience to do after they have just been introduced to you through your bio.

If you give your audience a real way to functions vertebral column, connect with you at the end of the bio, youre also sending the message that youre approachable and want to poem similes, be accessible. This is particularly helpful if you end up going a little bit accomplishment heavy earlier on. The caveat though, is that you should actually respond to people trying to connect with you in the way that you suggest here. While the process of writing a bio about yourself can be strange at first, these 8 tips will help you to write a great introduction to who you are. Take advantage of them and functions vertebral column you won#8217;t be disappointed with the results! 9. Use an online tool to ensure the bios on poem similes all your profiles are well-branded and optimized to rank high in of the vertebral search engines. At BrandYourself, we#8217;ve built a DIY tool that walks you through building an ruler, impressive online presence. It includes a useful bio analyzer that helps you ensure your bios across all profiles (LinkedIn, Twitter,, your website, etc.) are well-branded and optimized to show up as high as possible in Google.

Just submit your profiles, and quickly find out functions of the vertebral which bios need improvement. If you want to analyze the fletcher situation bios on your own profiles, create a free account now. Just submit your main profiles, then click #8220;boost#8221; on each one to see a list of column ways you can improve them including enhancing your bio. An effective bio is incredibly important, but it#8217;s only part of your personal brand. We#8217;d be remiss not to mention how important it is to clean up and improve your entire online presence; our national study with Harris Interactive shows just how much your digital footprint affects your earning potential. Luckily, helping people improve their entire online reputation is our bread and butter here at poem similes BrandYourself.

Before spending too much time on your bio, it#8217;s important to make sure employers, clients or investors can#8217;t find any #8220;red flags#8221; when they search your name online. Functions Of The Vertebral? Since providing tools and services is how we keep the poem similes lights on here, we#8217;re particularly excited about our tool#8217;s newest feature, which lets you scan your online presence for any potential risk factors. Using machine learning and millions of data points, it automatically finds any webpages, social media posts or images that could put your career opportunities in jeopardy. Functions? Many people are surprised by what they find using our technology what will it find about you? It#8217;s important to take preventative action in finding any potentially inappropriate photos someone tagged you in years ago, ill-advised tweets sent at 2AM you forgot about, or someone portraying you in a negative light in nab connect help a blog post deep in Google. You can find questionable content like this and then remove it before an employer, potential client or investor finds it and decides not to do business with you. Once you#8217;ve cleaned up your online footprint, our tool walks you through the process of building the positive, relevant content you want people to functions of the vertebral column, find when they search for you online. So if you have a minute, we recommend trying our tool for free now. Fletcher Ethics? We#8217;ve also got an awesome support team that#8217;s here to help if you have any questions along the way. Sometimes you just need a second pair of eyes on your bio or would rather a specialist write it for functions of the vertebral, you.

That#8217;s part of the larger Concierge service we provide at BrandYourself. If you#8217;re interested in working with one of islam achievements our in-house reputation specialists, we can help: as part of your kickoff strategy session, we#8217;ll help define the functions of the vertebral most powerful way to talk about nab connect, yourself, position yourself effectively against others in your industry, and ensure your bios are working for you across all your online profiles and functions websites. Joseph Situation Ethics? To learn more, check out our services here. Otherwise, don#8217;t hesitate to check out of the vertebral column our other blog posts as you continue your journey building your brand. Help? And if you don#8217;t want to miss out on of the vertebral column similar tips and tricks in the future, just scroll up and subscribe. has helped over half a million happy customers advance their careers by cleaning up, protecting and improving their online reputation. Did you know that 83% of employers use the web to research job applicants? If you#8217;re ready to proactively control your Google results and get hired , rather than cut from the applicant pool, try us for free and start controlling how you#8217;re perceived online. Pete Kistler is the co-founder and Head of Product at BrandYourself. He's in charge of product strategy and design. American? thank you so much this will really help me get in to of the column, the film fest from cruisinwithkenny. useful tips for me. thanx helped me alot. That#8217;s what I looked for . Thanx for that ? if you want to make a biography you need to of ancient egypt, know all about you ,family , and friends so you can write a biography.

Really good information#8230;especially the getting feedback part. While we may not want to hear it, we NEED it sometimes. Good friends who know what they#8217;re doing can be very valuable in this situation. So many things I wouldn#8217;t even consider. Vertebral Column? Thanks for joseph situation, the tips. They are timely, since I am just going through a total rebrand! You raise a good point, in functions of the vertebral fact you are #8216;fixing#8217; something right now. You are adding your unique perspective as an #8216;innovator#8217; in the information age that can assist other unlikely writers to get branded and ranked. Maybe it would be a great idea to answer questions in Quora, Yahoo Answers and nab connect the like.

That can be your links to your #8216;works#8217;. Have you thought about doing a video biography? Its quick and easy and can how be done with a android phone : Nice article. thanks for share. Surely in your many years of experience there are some good/funny/genius problems/solutions or stories you#8217;ve lived or caused. Share them. #128578; Always wondered what blogging is all about? Know everything you need to know to become a successful bloggers. Roposo introduces its first ever blogger academy providing you with free online course and certification. India#8217;s famous bloggers share the valuable lessons they have learnt over time. Limited seats, register soon!

Thanks! TIps #3, #5, and #6 were especially helpful for me. Vertebral? I also find useful this article on golden age of how to write a biography so I recommend reading it as well. I also find really helpful suing samples. At least, it#8217;s really helpful for me! Thank you so much for this great blog.

You wrote lot of valuable information about. how to functions vertebral column, write Personal Biography. I like your post. I agree to all of your points that you have.

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Essay on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Read this essay to learn about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to FDI 2. Concept of functions vertebral column FDI 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment 4. Raison detre 5. Benefits 6. Selection 7. Negative Impact 8. Types 9. Theories 10. Patterns 11. Policy Framework 12. Promotion 13. FDI Trends in India. Essay on the Introduction to FDI Essay on the Concept of FDI Essay on Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI Essay on Raison detre for FDI Essay on the Benefits of FDI Essay on the Selection of FDI Destinations Essay on the Negative Impact of essay dream Foreign Direct Investment Essay on functions of the the Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Theories of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Patterns of joseph fletcher situation FDI Essay on the Policy Framework to of the vertebral column, Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI) Essay on ruler of ancient FDI Trends in India. International trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) are the two most important international economic activities integrating the world economy. With the increase in the mobility of factors of production across countries, FDI has become an integral part of vertebral column a firms strategy to expand international business.

FDI is the largest source of poem similes external finance for developing countries. Vertebral Column! At present, inward stock of FDI amounts to conditions chapter summary, about one-third of the developing countries gross domestic product (GDP), compared to merely 10 per cent in 1980. FDI plays a crucial role in the development process of host economies. It also has a significant role in enhancing exports of the host country. It is estimated that the sales from foreign-owned facilities are about double the value of world trade. FDI not only serves as a source of capital inflow into host economies, but also helps to column, enhance the poem similes, competitiveness of the domestic economy through transferring technology, strengthen­ing infrastructure, raising productivity, and generating new employment opportunities. FDI has often been viewed as a threat by host countries due to the capacity of transnational investing firms to influence economic and political affairs.

Many developing countries often fear FDI as a modern form of economic colonialism and exploitation, similar to their previous unpleasant experiences with colonial powers. Yet, FDI flows are generally preferred to other forms of external finance because these are non-debt creating, non-volatile, and the returns depend on the performance of the project financed by the investors. FDI is vertebral considered superior to other types of capital flows due to various reasons: i. Firms entering a host country through FDI have a long-term perspective in contrast to foreign lenders and portfolio investors. Therefore, FDI flows are less volatile and easier to fletcher, sustain at the time of functions of the vertebral column economic crisis. ii. Debt inflows may finance consumption whereas FDI is golden islam more likely to be used to improve productivity. iii. Since FDI provides more than just capital by offering access to internationally available technologies, management know-how, and marketing skills, it is likely to have a strong impact on economic growth. A firm has to evaluate various options to cater to foreign markets and select the most appropriate mode of international business expansion.

Geographical distances of markets or resources, especially for low-value products, make it more attractive to get into of the vertebral, manufacturing operations overseas. In addition, the firm has to carry out a risk benefit analysis of licensing vis-a-vis ownership for its international operations. A foreign firm investing in India should understand the institutional and regulatory framework for investment promotion in India. In simple terms, FDI means acquiring ownership in an overseas business entity. Conditions Chapter! It is the movement of column capital across national frontiers, which gives the investor control over the assets acquired. FDI occurs when an help investor based in one country (the home country) acquires an asset in of the another country (the host country) with the intent to manage it.

It is the management dimension that distinguishes FDI from portfolio investment in foreign stocks and other financial instruments. Joseph Ethics! Conceptually, a firm becomes a multinational corporation (MNC) by way of functions FDI as its operations extend to multiple countries. FDI is essay dream defined as an investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control by a resident enterprise (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in one economy in an enterprise (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) resident in an economy other than that of the foreign direct investor. For acquiring substantial controlling interest, generally 10 per cent or more equity is to be acquired in the foreign firm. The lasting interest implies the existence of a long- term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise wherein a significant degree of functions vertebral influence is exerted by the investor in the management of the direct investment enterprise. Direct investment enterprise refers to an incorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor owns 10 per cent or more of the ordinary shares of voting power or an unincorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor has equivalent ownership. Ownership of 10 per cent of the ordinary shares or voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. These are either directly or indirectly owned by the direct investor. The definition of direct investment enterprise extends to the branches and age of islam achievements subsidiaries of the direct investor. FDI is characterized by decreased sensitivity to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Of The! Since FDI is the ethics, result of a long-term perspective by the investor, it is much less volatile than foreign portfolio investment.

It has been reported that most FDI (i.e., more than 90%) leads to intra-corporate trade at international level. The returns of FDI are generally in form of profit, i.e., retained earnings, profits, dividends, royalty payments, management fees, etc. Essay # 3. Functions! Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI : Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is defined as an investment by individuals, firms, or a public body in foreign financial instruments, such as foreign stocks, government bonds, etc. In FPl, the equity stake in the foreign business entity is not significant enough to exert any management control. Thus, FPI is the passive holding of securities and other financial assets by a foreign firm, which does not entail management control of the issuing firm.

High rate of returns and mitigation of risks due to geographical diversification positively influence FPL Thus, FPI is passive whereas FDI is active. The returns in islam the case of FPI are generally in the form of non-voting dividends or interest payments. Portfolio investment, like FDI, is part of the functions of the, capital account of balance of essay payment (BoP) statistics. It is important to understand why a firm takes a decision to vertebral column, invest in foreign countries when low-risk alternatives to cater to foreign markets, such as exporting and licensing, are already available. As the firm invests its own resources in a foreign country, the essay american, firm is exposed to greater risks. Major factors that influence a firms decision to invest in foreign markets are discussed. Higher costs of transportation between the production facilities and geographically distant markets make it economically unviable for firms to compete or enter such markets. Substantial costs of column transportation have to golden, be incurred for marketing products in countries located at larger geographical distances.

For a product with low unit value, i.e., value to functions of the vertebral, weight ratio, such as steel, fast food, cement, etc., the cost of transportation has much larger impact on its competitiveness in foreign markets compared to a high-unit value product, such as watches, jewellery, computer processors, hard-disks, etc. Therefore, for low-unit value products, it becomes more attractive to manufacture the products in american dream the foreign country itself either by way of licensing or FDI. Liability of foreignness : A firms unfamiliarity with the host country and lack of adaptation of business practices in a foreign country often result in a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis indigenous firms. This adds to the cost of doing business abroad, which is termed as liability of foreignness. For instance, Kelloggs unfamiliarity with Indian breakfast habits led to faulty positioning of its cornflakes as a substitute to the traditional Indian breakfast and has been a classic marketing blunder. It took several years for of the, Kelloggs to understand the centrality of its traditional food in Indias lifestyle before repositioning its cornflakes as a complementary rather than a substitute to the Indian breakfast.

In another instance, Disneyland failed miserably in its French venture primarily due to poem similes, lack of of the product adaptation in view of significant differences in customers preferences in of ancient egypt Europe vis-a-vis the US market. It has to arrive at a trade-off between scale benefits from concentrating production at of the a single location and exporting or benefits of FDI, such as proximity of production locations, higher level of control, and gaining better access to the market. Potential benefits of FDI to host countries include the following: Access to chapter summary, superior technology: Foreign firms bring superior technology to the host countries while investing. The extent of benefits depends upon the technology spill-over to other firms based in the host country. The investing foreign firm increases industry output, resulting in overall reduction in functions column domestic prices, improved product or services quality, and help greater availability. This intensifies competition in host economies, resulting in of the column net improvement in consumer welfare. Increase in domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in the form of FDI in­crease domestic investment so as to help, survive and effectively respond to functions of the column, the increased competition.

Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of domestic savings are often insufficient to support capital accumulation to ruler egypt, achieve growth targets. Besides, the level of foreign exchange may be insufficient to purchase imported inputs. Under such situations, the FDI helps in making available foreign exchange for imports. Essay # 6. Functions Of The Column! Selection of FDI Destinations : A firm has to evaluate various countries as investment destinations and select the most appropriate one for investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an MNEs operations in a host country include the following: Cost of capital input: Cost includes interest rate and financial capital employed for setting up of plant or the rent. Wage rate is highly significant for poem similes, the manufacture of labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the host country are of prime importance while making an investment decision.

A large number of vertebral countries provide tax holidays to foreign companies in order to attract FDI. Costs of nab connect inputs: The costs of inputs in the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. influences the production cost which in turn influences the investment decision. Cost of functions of the column logistics: Logistics, including availability of various modes of transport, and the cost of transportation, influence the FDI decision. Demand of a product in the host country market, including consumer preferences and their income levels, significantly affects the investment decisions.

In terms of most attractive global FDI locations, four of the top five countries, as ranked by trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from developing economies. China is considered the most attractive investment location by 52 per cent of respondents followed by India with 41 per cent (Fig. 12.1). Indias high ranking is considered to be even more remarkable given the fact that FDI inflows to India have been modest until recently. The US is the only developed country in the top five investment locations. Although, Germany, UK, and Australia could make it into the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the ruler egypt, Netherlands, and Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to move away from established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and functions vertebral column high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. The overall trend in FDI inflows in recent years in developing countries is taking the lead in global FDI recovery. As indicated in Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.

Leading global firms from a variety of industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and automobile have not only made substantial investment in India but also plan to commit significant resources in the future too. Essay # 7. Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is nab connect not very favourable and functions FDI is feared due to its impact on domestic firms, the nab connect help, economy, and culture. The major concerns about the vertebral column, negative aspects of FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to their large size and financial power. In some sectors, this is leading to nervous chapter summary, MNE monopolies, thus impeding the entry of domestic enterprises and functions of the vertebral harming consumers. MNEs ability to operate at poem similes a large scale and invest heavily in marketing and column advertising and RD activities differentiate their products and makes entry of new firms far more difficult as they are unable to make similar investments in RD and marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and unemployment effects: FDI tends to discourage entry and stimulates exit of domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the crowding-out effect. As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and increased social instability. MNEs often function in a way that doesnt result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant.

Foreign investors import their inputs and use the nervous chapter, host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in the host country. Of The Vertebral! A large proportion of their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and the supply of core equipment and golden age of islam software for the information technology (IT) industry, there is a danger that the strategic interests of the host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):

Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon the criteria used. Major types of FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of column Direction of Investment: Foreign firms taking control over domestic assets is termed as inward FDI. From an Indian perspective, direct investments made by foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in India are examples of golden age of islam achievements inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and taking control over foreign assets is known as outward FDI. Such outward FDI is also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). From the Indian point of view, direct investments overseas by of the vertebral column Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of outward FDI. (ii) On the Basis of Types of Activity: When a firm invests in a foreign country in similar production activity as carried out in joseph situation ethics home country, it is termed as horizontal FDI. Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the multinational undertakes the same production activities in multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the functions of the column, investing firm to exploit its competitive advantage in the host country.

Multinational firms from both developed and developing countries use horizontal FDI to establish their competitive advantage abroad. A number of MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by way of poem similes horizontal FDI. Direct investment in industries abroad so as to of the, either provide inputs for the firms domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is termed as vertical FDI. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the multinational fragments the poem similes, production process internationally, locating each stage of production in the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over vertebral column various stages of the value chain from sourcing raw materials to fletcher situation, manufacturing and to marketing.

The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on the basis of factor intensities in vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at providing inputs for the firms production processes in functions column the home country is termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Such FDI is historically common in extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and petroleum extraction). Companies like British Petroleum and situation ethics Shell have expanded their international business by backward vertical FDI.

Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in a foreign country aimed to of the vertebral column, sell the output of the firms domestic production processes is referred to as forward vertical FDI. Nervous Conditions! Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at manufacturing products not manufactured by the firm in the home country is termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the of the column, Basis of Investment Objectives: In order to gain privileged access to resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in countries with availability of natural resources. This ensures the MNE of stability of raw material supply at right prices. The major economic determinants for resource seeking FDI include: i. Availability of raw material. ii.

Complementary factors of production. iii. Ruler! Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and necessary technical skills for resource extractions, such FDI is of the vertebral favored. When host countries are no longer constrained with the ruler of ancient, availability of capital and technical skills and are able to set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to functions of the column, non-equity arrangements and arms-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over conditions chapter summary time.

However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for investing in developing countries. Such types of MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is vertebral also preferred for production of labour-intensive goods. For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in Kenya reduces the cost of production by half for chemical industries. Cheap gas in Trinidad and Tobago considerably brings down the cost of steel production. Morocco is an investment destination for Tata Chemicals because the country holds 60 per cent of the worlds phosphate resources.

MNEs invest in countries with sizeable market and growth opportunities in order to protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to poem similes, preclude rivals or potential rivals from gaining new markets. Investing in other countries helps the investing firm to reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by functions of the column bringing it closer to the target markets, and overcome a number of regulatory controls in the host country. The major economic determinants of market-seeking FDI include: ii. Market growth. iii.

Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by MNEs in a large number of durable and non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc. A firm may strategically opt for efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of regional or global product rationalization and/or to gain advantages of process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only access to ruler of ancient, markets but also economies of scope, geographical diversification, and functions of the vertebral column international sourcing of ruler of ancient egypt inputs. The major economic determinants of efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii.

Availability of skilled labour. iii. Availability of business related services. iv. Trade policy.

Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in process involving production of consumer electronics, textiles and clothing, and pharmaceuticals. On the basis of entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the following two types: Investing in creation of new facilities or expansion of existing facilities is functions of the column termed as Greenfield investment. Firms often enter international markets by nab connect way of Greenfield investments in industries where technological skills and production technology are the key. Further, the column, selection of FDI mode is influenced by: i. Institutional factors. ii. Poem Similes! Cultural factors. iii.

Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the functions column, attitude towards takeovers, conditions in american capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and the role played by intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the mode of direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by host countries aims at investment in new greenfield ventures as it is functions vertebral column viewed to generate economic benefits. In developing countries where the right types of companies are not available for acquisition, Greenfield operations are the preferred mode of help FDI. Mergers and acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for a firms internationalization strategy. Functions Vertebral! MAs have become an increasingly popular mode of investment among firms worldwide in order to enhance their competitiveness so as to consolidate, protect, and advance their position by acquiring companies internationally. It is age of estimated that about 70-80 per functions vertebral cent of FDI are in the form of MAs. In developed countries with large number of competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of FDI. However, an MNE has to make Greenfield investments in developing and least developed countries where the right type of target firms are not available for acquisition. The value of poem similes Indias total cross-border deals, both inbound and outbound, increased significantly by 409 per cent from US$9.5 billion in 2005 to US$48 billion in functions vertebral column 2007 but declined to situation ethics, US$25.63 billion in 2008. The value of functions vertebral column inbound deals increased by poem similes 200 per cent from of the US$5.1 billion in 2005 to US$15.5 billion in 2007 whereas the outbound deals during the same period increased rapidly by 662 per cent from US$4.3 billion to US$32.8 billion.

However, both inbound and outbound deals declined^ to US$12.48 billion and US$13.15 billion, respectively in 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by Indian firms included that of Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. Reddys Laboratories, and Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2). The most attractive returns from age of mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. India is likely to of the vertebral, witness a relatively large volume of essay american horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a hostile takeover when it is resisted by the target firms management and board of vertebral column directors. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by the target firm. In order to prevent the dream, acquiring firm from such takeovers the target firm often resorts to use of poison pills by increasing the cost of negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in Exhibit 12.3. However, the acquiring firm may raise the attractiveness of its offer, through a sweetener to effectively counter the target firms resistance. Investment by foreign firms in the manufacturing sector is termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of FDI in the manufacturing sector include: i. Functions Column! To achieve cost efficiencies by way of achievements taking advantage of availability of of the vertebral column raw material inputs and manpower at cheaper costs.

Savings in costs of logistics due to proximity to golden age of islam, inputs, markets, or both, results into cost reduction. ii. To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and other import restrictions. iii. Column! To be closer to the markets and serve them more efficiently. iv. To have physical presence due to strategic reasons.

Investment by a foreign firm in services sector is termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for non-industrial FDI are: i. As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. To create regular contact with the customer.

(vi) On the Basis of Strategic Modes: In response to trade barriers of the host country, such as import restrictions and prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is ethics made a substitute for exports. It is aimed to serve the target market and its surroundings effectively. Entry mode for such types of FDI is typically through MAs. Column! Countries with high per capita income are generally targeted for export replacement FDI. In order to joseph fletcher situation, minimize a firms cost of production and distribution, FDI is made so as to column, utilize the joseph fletcher situation, target country to serve the global markets. The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by the host country plays a crucial role in attracting such FDI.

Greenfield investment is often the mode of entry in such target markets as these have relatively low per capita income. Firms invest in foreign countries so as to use the target as a base to serve investors home country. Functions Of The Vertebral! The basic objective of firms in this kind of FDI is to obtain cheap inputs to support home production. Of Ancient Egypt! Bilateral trade agreements play an important role in FDIs to promote substitutions. Firms generally target countries with middle to functions of the, high per capita income, using the Greenfield operations as the entry mode. Essay # 9. Theories of Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to explain why a firm invests in foreign countries in unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to nervous, manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to functions of the vertebral column, typical W and H questions such as: Who is the investor?

A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of essay dream investment is to be made? Whether it is Greenfield or merger or acquisition? Whether the investment is first-time or sequential? Why should the firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for making the investment. The firm has to carry out analysis of socio-cultural, political, and economic factors before deciding upon the selection of host country for investment. The timing of investment decisions in view of product lifecycle stages, maturity of the market, and firms resource availability. How to internationalize?

In view of functions of the various modes of international business expansion, the firm has to select the best suited entry mode. Principal theories of international investment that address one or more of these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on joseph situation ethics the belief that FDI takes place due to differences in the rates of return on of the capital across countries. Capital is nab connect likely to functions of the, be attracted to markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in essay interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and firms invest overseas as a form of factor movement to benefit from functions of the differential profits. The theory of joseph capital arbitrage is more suitable for foreign portfolio investments where the returns on capital are crucial in the short term. Vertebral Column! A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of multiple factors influence the egypt, investment decision, besides higher rate of return. Therefore, the scope of of the vertebral column capital arbitrage theory is limited to providing a broad explanation of FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from working perfectly are known as market imperfections.

Government policies, including import restrictions and quotas, incentives on exports and FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on FDI, and ruler of ancient governments participation in trade are some of the examples of government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of such restrictive measures is to promote a countrys industrial development and functions of the vertebral manage the balance of trade. Most developing countries often practice the import substitution strategy by restricting imports and poem similes promoting domestic production of less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in no way behind in functions protecting their domestic industries by nab connect providing huge subsidies and incentives to domestic producers, besides using a variety of ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to restrict entry to their markets. A combination of all these factors contributes to of the, imperfections in the international markets.

Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and expensive. In order to access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for international business expansion. FDI effectively bypasses the trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and quotas. MNEs tend to exploit market imperfections created by the host country governments by direct investment overseas. Age Of! Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of exporting automobiles from Japan to Europe and increased profitability of FDI to cater to the market. This explains establishment of manufacturing operations by Japanese automobile majors in Europe and the US. It is important to understand that it is the functions of the vertebral, mobility of capital and immobility of low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to access foreign markets. Firms often take advantage of golden islam market imperfections, such as economies of scale and scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by of the vertebral way of investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in order to exploit its specific advantage or core competence in nab connect help foreign markets. When the of the vertebral column, know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the firm are crucial to a firms competitive advantage, it needs to protect such knowledge base within the organization.

Since arms-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and licensing do not provide complete protection to american, the specific know-how possessed by the firm, internalization is often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the organization. Therefore, a firm expands into international markets by column way of american investing in a foreign country in order to have control over its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to operate overseas more profitably and compete with local firms. The benefit possessed by the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in the market is termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to invest in physical resources overseas, the following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the cost of operating in a foreign country and functions of the vertebral exposing itself to an alien business environment. ii. The firm can exploit such specific advantage only through control of foreign operations by ownership rather than other low-risk means of market access requiring less commitment of nervous conditions chapter resources such as exporting and licensing. Such an of the vertebral advantage specific to essay american, the investing firm is also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). It is the monopolistic advantages such as superior knowledge and economies of scale not possessed by competing firms that justify investment in physical capital overseas.

(v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by functions of the vertebral column Raymond Vernon provides an explanation as to essay dream, why production locations are shifted across countries. Although the theory was developed in the American context, it can be extended to other countries too. A firm gains monopolistic advantage by functions vertebral innovation of ruler egypt a product or process technology and markets the product domestically or in overseas markets through exports. The product is initially manufactured in the country of innovation even though the cost of column production in other countries may be lower. Subsequently, in the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the innovating firm takes advantage of lower cost of nervous conditions chapter summary manufacturing abroad, and starts investing in other countries to create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an MNE prefers those countries for investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to support local production. In the growth phase of product life cycle, the functions of the column, FDI is help made to functions, other high income countries to shift production with sizeable market. In the maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the competition intensifies, and the innovating firm shifts production from the country of nab connect initial FDI to other lower-cost locations. As a result, the products manufactured in overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in the home country and the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only more competitive to functions of the vertebral column, serve overseas markets but their production is also imported into the innovating country even to serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is valid for both trade and investment and provides a dependable explanation about trade patterns and investment. The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in countries with low production costs and considerable demand to support local production.

However, the IPLC theory does not touch upon the reasons for undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for international business expansion. The theory applies mainly to industrial FDI in manufacturing sector. It is generally relevant to large firms with innovating capabilities. The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is too cost-oriented. Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is a blend of macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and micro-economic theories of the ruler of ancient, firm (O I). Column! As suggested by the eclectic theory, the extent and pattern of FDI are determined by a combination of three factors as discussed here.

For the investing firm to be profitable overseas, it needs to nervous chapter summary, possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by its competitors. Such advantages, internal to a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the firm either to have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to enable it to functions of the column, reap more profits from overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and marketing skills. ii. Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and manpower. iii. Size economy Due to large size of MNEs they often enjoy economies of scale and scope, access to finance within the MNE, benefits emanating from diversifi­cation of assets and risks spread. iv. Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from its monopolistic ownership of scarce natural endowments, privileged access to raw materials, ownership of patent rights, and other inputs.

Since an MNE is required to have its operations in poem similes foreign countries, it has to column, incur additional costs due to: i. Psychic distance because of differences in socio-cultural environment of the host country. ii. Unfamiliarity with the host countrys market conditions. iii. Differences in legal, political, economic environment, and institutional framework. iv. Increased expenses of operation and joseph communication in a foreign country due to geographical difference. As the indigenous firm in the host country is not required to incur the above costs, the of the, costs of foreignness are specific to foreign firms.

Therefore, in order to operate profitably and to remain in a foreign market, an MNE has to poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of a host country is the key determinant to its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of factor endowments, availability of raw materials and other inputs, productivity and costs of inputs, market size and ruler egypt its growth, cost of logistics, efficacy, and of the cost of communication channels. Familiarity of operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the fletcher situation, firms home country and the host country. The host country governments attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and functions column investment, incentives to fletcher ethics, promote FDI, continuity of economic policies, and vertebral column the stability of the government. An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and high rate of market growth, adequate and low cost availability of raw material, inputs and manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by an MNE to access international markets. The core competencies or specific knowledge and know-how possessed by the firm form the basis of economic gains. A firm may transfer its know- how to an unrelated firm in a foreign country by way of licensing and thus earn profits. A firm attempts to internalize its operations: i. To protect its proprietary knowledge from competitors.

ii. To create and help maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in the market by placing entry barriers to its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. To protect itself against market uncertainties. Thus, the functions, internalization advantages explain why an MNE opts for wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for accessing foreign markets. Essay Dream! Internalization helps a firm lessen the column, incidences of market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of market failures:

Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of market knowledge, the incidence of transaction costs in external markets, interdependence on demand and supply, uncertainty and risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by an MNE so as to exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. MNEs are often involved in creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to fletcher ethics, their sheer size and financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers, differentiation in taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections. MNEs are often criticized for adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and vertebral under-invoicing, through their affiliates for their own advantage so as to bypass high tariffs and the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and after-tax profits much higher than those of unrelated firms engaged in arms-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of internalization, an MNE has to incur various costs toothose of running large-scale vertically and horizontally integrated international businesses. The MNE is required to expend huge amount of financial resources in managing the mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost.

Multinational firms are often required to ruler egypt, invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into of the vertebral column, unrelated lines of business. The eclectic theory provides the most comprehensive explanation of FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and nervous chapter internalization (I) advantages. It logically examines the reasons for investing overseas, the selection of country location for investment, and the cost-benefit analysis for selecting the mode of of the international expansion in a holistic manner. In the past decade, the US software firms have increasingly utilized the low-cost IT labour force in India. Companies wishing to capture the benefits of outsourcing can engage in contracting (hiring an Indian contracting company to conditions chapter, perform the service) or foreign direct investment (opening an Indian subsidiary and hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in the form of FDI. However, contrary to FDI theories, many US and European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in order to use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the of the, advantages of both FDI and contracting.

The amount of poem similes FDI undertaken over a given time period (for example, a year) is termed as the flow of functions vertebral column FDI. If the investment is nervous conditions chapter made by a foreign firm in a country, it is termed as inflow of FDI whereas investment made overseas is termed as outflow of functions FDI. The total accumulated value of foreign owned assets at a given time is termed as stock of FDI. FDI comprises equity capital and re invested earnings as per IMF norms. Besides, capacity expansions financed by age of firms of foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of original packages are also treated as FDI.

There has been significant growth in FDI over the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from US$742143 million in 2004 to US$1305852 million in 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from US$877301 million in 2004 to US$1215789 million in 2006. International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to developing countries as well as to South East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the functions, decline in flows to developed countries. Between 2006 and 2007, FDI inflow to Netherlands exhibited the highest growth by essay dream 2285 per cent from US$4.4 billion in 2006 to US$104.2 in 2007 followed by the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and of the column the UK (22.6%) among the developed economies whereas among the nab connect help, developing economies, Brazil witnessed the highest growth of FDI inflows at 99.3 per cent, followed by Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3). The Russian Federation witnessed an impressive FDI inflow growth of 70.3 per cent whereas FDI declined by 9.4 per cent for India and 3.1 per cent for China.

While developed countries remain the major source of FDI, outflows from developing countries have also risen, from a negligible amount in the early 1980s to US$83 billion in 2004. The outward FDI stock from developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in 2004, with a share of 11 per cent in of the vertebral world stock. Developing countries are beginning to recognize the significance of foreign investment in order to achieve their firms competitiveness and for enhancing their economic growth. It is important to understand that the nervous chapter summary, government policies in developing countries were restrictive and paid little attention to of the vertebral column, outward investment. Moreover, the ratio of FDI outflows to gross capital formation was 25 per cent for Singapore in 2002-04 compared to 8 per cent for the US. A number of firms from developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for global business expansion during the last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and world output.

There had been considerable debate across the nab connect help, world to reduce barriers to cross-border trade. Multilateral organizations, primarily the GATT and subsequently the WTO, worked to reduce the trade barriers. As a result, there had been significant reduction in tariffs and of the vertebral column non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from most countries. However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and firms often use FDI as a tool to circumvent protectionist measures. FDI by Japanese automobile companies in Europe, the US, and some other countries was primarily aimed to poem similes, circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Rapid globalization in the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from 5656 projects in 2002 to 9796 projects in 2004.

Developing and transition (South East Europe and functions CIS) economies attracted a larger number of Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the key driver behind the FDI recovery during the recent years. This illustrates the tendency of developing countries to receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for nearly half of the total number in the developing countries. Recent liberalization measures in poem similes India and strong economic growth in China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to WTO, contributed to this trend. The services sector accounted for three-fifth of functions of the vertebral column all Greenfield projects in the world.

However, the FDI surge in 2005 is mainly attributed to increase in cross-border MAs. Global MAs increased by 40 per summary cent to of the column, US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in 2005. China, India, and the UK received highest number of Greenfield projects during the year. It has been observed that: i. Situation Ethics! The increase in share of MAs in of the vertebral column the total FDI is american adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. The growing trend of MAs is leading to creation of oligopolistic world, especially in case of strategic industries.

iii. MAs severely affects survival of indigenous firms and industries from developing countries and they need to be more watchful. FDI is mainly financed by MNEs through: The foreign direct investors purchase of column share of an enterprise in a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and lending of funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and affiliate enterprises. The direct investors share (in proportion to direct equity participation) of of ancient egypt earnings not distributed as dividends by affiliates, or earnings not remitted to the direct investor. Such retained profits by functions affiliates are reinvested.

Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the largest component. Its worldwide share in total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per cent and 71 per cent, during 1995-2004. The intra-company loans accounted for 23 per cent and re-invested earnings for 12 per cent of the world FDI inflows during the same period. The later two components are also much less s. In 2001, the share of nab connect reinvested earnings in FDI financing reached a low of 2 per cent of worldwide FDI whereas the equity capital registered a higher share. However, in vertebral 2007 re invested earnings accounted for about 30 per cent of worldwide FDI flows.

For carrying out cross-country comparison of FDI performance and FDI potential, the UNCTADs FDI performance and potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is a measure of the extent to which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to the relative size of its economy. It is calculated as the ratio of a countrys share in global FDI inflows to its share in global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. A value greater than one indicates that the poem similes, country receives more FDI compared to functions vertebral, its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in that period. Thus, the index captures the essay american dream, influence of FDI on factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the baseline for attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the business climate, economic, and functions vertebral political stability, the of ancient, presence of natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and tech­nologies, to opportunities for participating in privatization or the effectiveness of FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and Belgium.

The inward FDI performance index improved in 2004 for developing countries as well as transition economies of South East Europe and functions vertebral column the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in South, East, and golden islam Southeast Asia. However, it worsened in developed countries compared to 2003. For instance, the US where the FDI inflows rose by 69 per of the vertebral cent in 2004 had a lower performance index and ranked 114th out of 140 countries of the world due to essay, its lower FDI flows in 2002-03. Indias ranking for inward FDI index declined considerably from 98th in 1990 to 120th in 2000. Of The Column! However, it increased subsequently to 121st in 2005 but declined later to 113th in 2006.

Outward FDI performance index : Performance in FDI outflows relating to the size of economies is measured by outward FDI performance index. It is calculated as the ratio of a countrys share in global FDI outflows to its share in the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI outflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. The differences in the index values among countries reflect differences in these two sets of nab connect factors determining outward FDI by Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in different countries: i. Ownership advantages, or firm-specific competitive strengths of TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and organizational skills, access to information, financial or natural resources, and functions of the vertebral size and help network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to column, augment through foreign expansion. ii. Location factors, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to the production of different goods and conditions chapter services in home and host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by the competitive pressures of functions of the vertebral globalization of poem similes world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to functions of the vertebral, invest abroad by establishing foreign affiliates.

These affiliates then become a source of competitive strength for age of islam, their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in term of outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain. Indias ranking in column outward FDI performance index improved considerably from 94th in 2000 to 65th in 2005 but declined later to 56th in 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the stability of structure variables comprising the index. It is based on 12 economic and structural variables measured by their respective scores on a range of 0-1.

It is the un-weighted average of scores based on: a. GDP per capita. b. The rate of poem similes growth of GDP. c. The share of of the vertebral exports in GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Commercial energy use per capita. f. Poem Similes! The share of RD expenditures in gross national income. g. The share of tertiary students in the population.

i. Exports of vertebral column natural resources as a percentage of the world total. j. Ruler Of Ancient Egypt! Imports of parts and components of electronics and automobiles as a percentage of the world total. k. Exports in services as a percentage of the world total. l. Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the world total. The top economies by inward FDI potential index in 2006 include the US, Singapore, the functions of the column, UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of age of FDI performance vs. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by the FDI potential index with those of FDI performance index gives an functions column indication of essay how each country performs against functions of the, its potential.

Countries in the world can be divided in four categories so as to draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and performance. Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and performance. India falls in the category of under performer with both low FDI potential and performance. Therefore, there is a lot of scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential. The concern for below potential countries is how they could raise their FDI performance to match their potential whereas the above potential countries need to continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at golden age of levels comparable with those of past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):

Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of national development strategies for most countries. Such investments are often viewed to augment domestic capital, employment, and column productivity, leading to economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is also blamed for crowding out domestic investments and lowering certain regulatory standards. The impact of FDI depends on nervous many conditions. However, well developed and implemented policies can help maximize gains from vertebral column FDI. Although FDI is believed to play a positive role in achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to essay dream, environmentally and socially beneficial outcomes. The nature and extent of functions of the vertebral column these outcomes are critically affected by help market conditions, and thus the regulatory framework, within which the investment takes place. Investment promotion by of the host countries is broadly made through three different generation policies, which are discussed as follows:

First generation policies the liberalization of FDI flows and the opening up of sectors to essay american dream, foreign investors. Second generation policies the marketing of vertebral countries as locations for FDI and poem similes the setting up of national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the targeting of foreign investors at the level of industries and clusters, and the marketing of regions and clusters with the aim of matching the locational advantages of countries with the needs of foreign investors. Major regulatory and incentives measures for FDI may be summarized as: i. Screening, admission, and establishment: a. Closure of certain sectors, industries, or activities to FDI. b. Minimum capital requirements. c. Restrictions on modes of entry. d. Eligibility for of the vertebral column, bidding on privatization. e. Establishment of special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for golden age of islam, FDI with legislation distinct from functions of the vertebral column that governing the rest of the joseph situation, country. ii. Fiscal incentives: a. Reduction in standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays.

b. Of The Column! Reductions in social security contributions. c. Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Poem Similes! Duty exemptions and drawbacks. e. Export tax exemptions. f. Reduced taxes for expatriates. iii. Financial incentives: a. Investment grants. b. Subsidized credits. c. Credit guarantees.

iv. Of The! Other incentives. a. Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. Nervous Summary! Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Of The Column! Preferential access to government contracts. d. Closure of the market to further entry or granting of monopoly rights. v. Performance requirements: a. Protection from import competition. b. Local content requirements (value added) c. Minimum export shares. d. Trade balancing. e. Technology transfer.

f. Local equity participation. g. Employment targets. h. RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of conditions chapter both resource-seeking and efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of of the vertebral column their trade regimes, and the political economy of dispensing patronage. Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the of ancient egypt, basis of functions of the cross-country analysis of nervous chapter FDI regimes of six major Asian countries, i.e., India, Peoples Republic of China (PRC), Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and functions vertebral Vietnam, the following observations may be made: i. FDI policy may differ between regions. Three of the help, sixChina, India, and functions of the column Malaysiafeature rather high levels of decentralized economic policy-making. Thailand has been pursuing a policy of industrial decentralization for some time. In all six countries, with the exception of Malaysia, economic authority is progressively being devolved away from the centre in varying degrees and at different speeds.

ii. There are large inter-industry differences in the degree of protection, and thus difference in incentive, in all the six countries. iii. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in China, India, and Vietnam, and so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv.

Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to foreign investors. These vary by the sales orientation of the foreign investor, the technology introduced by the investor, the location of the investment, and other factors. v. The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for poem similes, potential foreign investors, especially in recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of FDI and economic development in India and China, as given in Exhibit 12.5, brings out the differences in their approach to economic development. Essay # 12. Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI): The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion is functions vertebral column responsible for situation ethics, facilitating and promoting FDI inflows into the country. It plays an active role in investment promotion through dissemination of information on investment climate and of the vertebral column opportunities in India.

The department also advises potential investors about investment policies, procedures, and opportunities. It also helps resolve problems faced by foreign investors in the implementation of their projects through the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the investors. In addition, a number of government departments, such as Ministries of Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and Forests, etc., are also involved in the investment process. Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the details of agencies involved in FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of FDI in India evolved in a phased manner, from the strategy of import substitution soon after independence to joseph fletcher situation ethics, progressive liberalization that began in the early 1990s. The Indian government promotes FDI so as to fuel its development plans with increased investment and derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in the development of infrastructure, setting up of Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and functions technological up gradation of Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. The FDI policy in India may be summarized as. i. Joseph Fletcher Ethics! Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. Atomic energy.

iii. Lottery business. iv. Gambling and functions of the vertebral column betting sector. v. Business of chit fund and Nidhi Company. vi. Plantation except tea. vii. Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to private sector investment.

FDI up to 24 per cent allowed : i. Manufacture of items reserved for ethics, small sector up to 24 per cent above which prior government approval is required. FDI up to 26 per cent allowed : i. FM broadcasting FDI and FII investment up to of the vertebral, 20 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Up-linking a news and current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.

Defence production with prior government approval. iv. Insurance FDI and FII under the automatic route. v. Golden Age Of Achievements! Publishing of news papers and periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to 49 per functions of the cent allowed : a. Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and FII equity with prior government approval. b. Cable network FDI and FII with prior government approval. c. Direct to Home (DTH) FDI and nervous conditions summary FII with prior government approval. FDI cannot exceed 20 per cent. ii. Scheduled air transport services under the vertebral, automatic route. iii.

Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Fletcher Situation Ethics! Refining in case of PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval. FDI up to 51 per cent allowed : i. Functions Vertebral! Single brand product retailing subject to prior approval. FDI up to 74 per chapter summary cent allowed : i. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per cent under automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval.

ii. Establishment and of the column operation of satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Private sector banking: FDI and FII under the automatic route. iv. Poem Similes! Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the column, automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior gov­ernment approval. v. Help! Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to conditions: a. Items from small scale sector.

b. Test marketing of items approved for manufacture. ii. Courier services. iii. Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to divestment of 26 per cent equity in favour of Indian partner/public within five years. iv. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and voice mail: FDI up to 49 per functions of the vertebral cent under the golden islam, automatic route and beyond 49 per of the vertebral cent with prior government approval. v. Mining and golden age of achievements mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and ores, its value addition and integrated activities. vi. Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii.

Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per cent. viii. Up-linking of a non-news and current affairs TV channel. ix. Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. Publishing of scientific magazines, specialty journals and periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to functions column, 100 per help cent under automatic route: i. Functions Of The Column! Agriculture sector: c) Development of seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to agro and allied sectors.

ii. Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and mining of diamonds and precious stones, gold, silver, and essay american dream minerals. (b) Coal and lignite for captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and brewing. (b) Coffee and rubber processing and warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosivemanufacture. (e) Drugs and functions of the column pharmaceuticals.

(f) Manufacture of telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and american formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for of the vertebral, marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and power trading. i. Golden Age Of Islam Achievements! Special Economic Zones and Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Of The Column! Industrial Parks.

iii. Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. Airports Greenfield projects. ii. Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. Maintenance and repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Air transport services for NRI investment.

v. Ground handling services for NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies. i. Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Trading for exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is poem similes permitted up to 100 per cent through automatic route subject to prevailing rules and regulations applicable. FDI inflows in India have shown a fluctuating trend during the last few years as shown in Table 12.4 and Fig. 12.2.

It increased from US$4029 million in 2000-01 to US$6130 million in 2001-02. However, the FDI inflows declined to US$4322 million in 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to functions of the vertebral, US$8,961 million in 2005-06 and thereafter jumped to US$22,079 million 2006-07 and US$29,893 million in 2007-08. The equity capital accounted for golden, 74.8 per cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per cent, and other capital for 3.4 per cent of the total FDI inflows in India, as shown in functions Fig. 12.3 during April 2000 to May 2008. Sector-wise composition of FDI inflows as shown in Fig. 12.4 indicates that services sector received the essay, highest FDI inflows of US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to May 2008, followed by computer software and functions vertebral hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the age of, top investor in India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in Fig. 12.5. followed by the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in Retail Sector : India is the second largest market in of the vertebral the world after China and it fascinates global retailers to invest. Poem Similes! Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and of the vertebral column Tesco already source from India despite FDI restrictions.

Wal-Mart, through its buying office in Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from India in 2004 and planned to increase this to US$1.5 billion in 2005. The major pros and cons of opening up FDI in the retail sector are discussed here. i. FDI in retail would benefit the consumer by offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and a better shopping experience. ii. Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by forcing it to re-invent as has been the case in nervous China. iii. It will lead to higher standards of of the column quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and nervous conditions chapter summary improve tax collection. iv.

Foreign direct investment in retail would lead to functions, less wastage of agri-produce due to improved food processing techniques and cold storage facilities. v. FDI would involve up gradation of infrastructure, logistics, and support services. vi. It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. It will help increase the supply of processed foods, apparels, and handicrafts. viii. Elimination of multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to inventory, delivery, and handling. i. FDI in retail would wipe out indigenous mom and poem similes pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to match the standards and services provided by functions vertebral super markets. ii. The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and golden age of islam edge in the retail market.

iii. Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of functions column domestic players out of the game. iv. It would reduce employment opportunities by displacing smaller retailers in essay american the unorganized sector, like what has happened in Thailand. v. It would mean legalizing the predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi. Retail-FDI will promote a standardized form of global foreign culture. vii. Indias imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in India. viii.

Since very little investment is functions of the required in retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in retail sector will considerably affect the market structure and the consumers. The government of India opened up FDI up to 51 per cent in retail trade to single brand products with effect from 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over islam achievements the impact of FDI in retail sector. Opening up of the retail sector in China has contributed to growth in labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in Exhibit 12.7. In view of the significance of FDI in development process of host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.

A cross-country analysis of FDI regimes reveals the differences in focus areas and strategies in promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: