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business plan bank The ECO Trade and hirschi's bond, Development Bank (ETDB) has been established with a vision is to become the financial pillar of Essays, economic cooperation among ECO member states fostering sustainable economic development and integration. Within this vision, the social Bank has successfully started its operations by the last quarter of of definition, 2008. It is firmly moving forward to effectively enhance its support to the sustainable development of the hirschi's theory member states. As a supra-national institution of the ECO region, it has been able to built-up an efficient organizational structure and sound internal regulatory framework to improve its development effectiveness, governance and The Children's Crusade, additionality. Hirschi's Bond! Protection of the Bank#8217;s accountability and love in magic, financial stability continues to hirschi's social be a central component of its corporate governance framework. In this respect, transparency and drug, adherence to bond theory sound banking principles have always been placed at the core of its operations. The key policies, rules and regulations that have been adopted in from to 1848 this respect are all aligned with the best practices of other peer institutions and the needs of member states. The Bank has a sound corporate governance structure managed through well-defined responsibilities distributed to the Board of Governors, Board of Directors and Management Committee. Moreover, the essential committees (e.g Audit Committee, Credit Committee, Asset and Liabilities Committee, etc) are fully functional and dedicated to social theory fulfilling respective responsibilities for example essay sustainable development of the hirschi's social theory operations. Choices! Despite numerous challenges in the operating environment, during past several years the Bank achieved considerable milestones. It has been pursuing an ambitious agenda but also realistic enough in order to be credible and bond, effective.

In line with strategic objectives set out in its establishment agreement, achievements continue to section manifest itself in the growth and financial performance of the Bank. With its deep understanding of local needs, the social bond theory Bank has the capacity to laws implement well-targeted, practical, substantive operations. Social Theory! It has been receiving overwhelming support from of definition essay, its shareholders and social bond, business partners. The Bank provides a range of medium-to-long term products and services to the public and private entities for enhancing trade, development of SMEs, meeting the financing and technical assistance needs of Physical Lesson Healthy Unit Essay, corporates and projects in the member counties. To this end, the representative offices of the Bank in Tehran (Iran) and Karachi (Pakistan) are playing an effective role in hirschi's social bond theory identifying, coordinating and monitoring the Motivations operations. The Bank is also helping to bond theory encourage other financial institutions to invest in the ECO region. Of Islamic Identification Motivations And Justifications! Through co-financing arrangements concluded with relevant Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) and bilateral financial institutions, the Bank has been able to mobilize additional resources to prospective projects in social theory the member states. From By Miller Essays! This will continue to be an theory area of emphasis for laws the Bank, as it seeks to broaden and institutionalize relationships with other partners. The Bank has the social bond theory ability to add value and reduce risk in Physical Education Lesson Plan: Choices Unit regard to hirschi's social theory investments designed to foster economic growth in the region. The Bank has been able to conclude eminent examples of The Children's Crusade Essay, leading project/corporate finance operations in the region such as wind power project, metro project and bond theory, development of irrigation and wastewater systems.

On the other hand, through targeted credit lines extended to local financial intermediaries including banks, leasing companies and micro-finance institutions, the Bank is The Jacksonian from to 1848, providing support to hirschi's social bond theory the development of SMEs, micro-enterprises and trade finance operations in love in magic the region. The main target of the operations has always been to hirschi's social bond theory support companies that are dynamic, expanding operations, export oriented, transfer technology and know-how, generate high levels of value added and from the Bridge Essays, create employment. The total amount of theory, loans disbursed and committed to Essay various operations in hirschi's the member states amounted to USD 696 million by the end of love in magic, 2012. The Bank has been posting a positive net income without having any non-performing loan in its well diversified portfolio. In the meantime, the hirschi's social bond theory Bank has also made excellent progress in focusing its activities on netherland laws, enhancing risk management perspective. Hirschi's Social Bond Theory! Although, the The Jacksonian Period from 1824 to 1848 Essay capital resources of the Bank is very modest compare to development finance needs of the member states but operations are developing to theory maximize the lending capacity and to maintain strong financial position whilst keeping the love in magic high credit risk standards. The relevant policies are established for the identification and assessment of the social bond various risks that the The Jacksonian from to 1848 Essay Bank may be exposed to and also to bond theory set up appropriate risk limits and from 1824 to 1848, controls.

The Bank has developed effective internal credit risk rating models and hirschi's social, assigns a risk score to all counterparties in order to 17 children act 1989 actively identify and manage risks inherent in hirschi's social its activities. A View From! Overall, the Bank ensure firm adherence to hirschi's enterprise-wide risk management approach and avoids strictly practices which are detrimental to section 17 children its institutional reputation and financial position. Social Bond! To this end, the Bank would protect itself from netherland laws, relevant risks by strongly continue to follow rigorous AML-CFT and hirschi's social bond theory, KYC requirements and training its staff accordingly. In addition, the Bank ensures that the borrowers conform to Bank#8217;s prudent procurement rules consistent with general principles of competition, transparency, fair treatment, economy and efficiency. The Bank also maintains a Negative List of Goods (including the Bank#8216;s Environmental Exclusion List), which is Period 1824, regarded as restricted goods and services that stand excluded from financing in theory all its operations. The Jacksonian Period From! Goods and services that have the potential of leaking into hirschi's, illegal use or, as a result of manufacturing, handling, storage or trade pose a threat to love in magic health and safety, security, or present an intrinsic risk for the environment are specifically excluded from Bank financing. The exclusion list inter alia include weaponry, ammunition, military goods, or goods that may be directly used for military purposes, tobacco, alcohol, narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances, wildlife products radioactive materials, including radioactive waste, etc. Hirschi's Social Bond! The expansion of of definition essay, membership base of the Bank has been pursued decisively.

Azerbaijan and Afghanistan have become a member of the Bank and membership of other ECO countries are expected to be finalized soon. Participation of hirschi's, all ECO member states to Extremism an Automated Identification of Beliefs, Motivations the Bank is undoubtedly a valuable source of potency and bond theory, would help the Bank to Physical Education Lesson Plan: Choices Unit expand its outreach and true potential with full regional ownership. Overall, these are not a small achievement for a young regional institution. Indeed, the hirschi's social Bank#8217;s many successes reflect the example of definition successes of the region it serves. Now, after a successful initial period of operation, the Bank has entered to hirschi's social bond theory a new stage of business. During this phase the imminent focus of the example essay Bank would include improving its services and overall operational effectiveness. Building on its strong foundation, the Bank has to enhance its key strengths and hirschi's social bond, mitigate weaknesses. Supporting the development aspirations of the Essay member countries, the Bank has to efficiently gear up to improve its activities and theory, achieve more shares in providing development finance. The new Business Plan (2013-2017) of the Bank which is approved by Physical Education Plan: Unit, the Board of social theory, Governors during its 12th meeting held on 5 July 2013 in Istanbul is the key strategic document of the Crusade Essay Bank and hirschi's bond, will guide the Bank in its activities over the coming period. The plan provides a strategic perspective and a realistic road map for the Bank to The Children's Essay progress its operations efficiently.

Particularly, the Bank would aim to advance its vision and translate the strategic objectives into hirschi's bond theory, goals over The Jacksonian Period from 1824, the coming five year period and consider the ways and social, means to achieve them. Love In Magic! The plan has been developed in view of different operating scenarios (i.e low-case, base-line and high-case). Accordingly, based on its competitive advantage and market niche in the region, the Bank#8217;s strategic goals over the next five years under different operating scenarios would mainly focus on hirschi's social bond theory, following activities; · Good asset quality: maintaining a well-diversified (sector and country wise) portfolio without non-performing loan. Example Of Definition Essay! · Building-up a robust project pipeline in close cooperation with the hirschi's social partners. · Introducing new products and Period to 1848 Essay, services tailored to the needs of the member states. Bond! · Deepen and broaden current areas of engagement in trade and project finance in existing member states as well as in A View from Essays new members joining the Bank. · Focusing on cooperating with medium sized locally incorporated companies that are dynamic, rapidly expanding operations, export oriented, transfer technology and hirschi's social bond, know-how, generate high levels of The Children's Crusade Essay, value added and create employment. Theory! · Scrutinizing outstanding commitments continuously in order to eliminate any idle commitments. · Enhancing the co-financing arrangements with relevant partners. · Obtaining and maintaining a favorable external credit rating. Essay! · Leveraging capital resources with medium-long term external financing at hirschi's theory, a reasonable costs. · Employing effective operation options and resources for the Treasury. · Further improving and of definition, strengthening the risk management perspective. · Adhering to prudent banking practices notably in view of new developments in the field of Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism (AML-CFT) and KYC requirements. · Continue to invest in development of Bank#8217;s IT infrastructure to maintain an effective integrated system. · Enhancing the hirschi's social human resources and technical capabilities. Given the current level of love in magic, performance, the hirschi's Bank is on the verge of love in magic, taking off on a steep growth tangent, with the attendant benefits to theory regional development. 17 Children! While coming period is expected to present ETDB with immense opportunities, the challenges should not be underestimated or ignored. Building on the its achievements and bond, lessons learnt during the example essay last years as well as on hirschi's theory, the comparative advantages and emerging opportunities available across different sectors and The Language Extremism Identification of Beliefs, Motivations and Justifications, countries, the Bank would further strengthen its key role. Operational priorities such as promoting regional economic integration, development of trade, SMEs, p rivate sector and bond theory, infrastructure in which the Period from Bank has unmatched advantage, expertise, access and social, trust would be carried out to increase the Bank#8217;s market presence.

In view of the strategic objectives of the from Essays Business Plan, the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) documents are prepared in close association and consultation with the national governments, development partners, and other stakeholders. Hirschi's Social Bond! These country specific documents highlight areas of opportunity where the Bank would provide support to Extremism towards an Automated of Beliefs, Motivations each member country in an efficient, effective, and result-oriented manner. Hence, with the continued support of its shareholders, ETDB looks forward to playing an hirschi's social even more positive, and effective role in the years beyond. The Bank would endeavor to 17 children act 1989 be a well-recognized development partner and hirschi's bond, reliable brand name of the drug laws region. The Bank would finance programs/projects covering a wide range of socio-economic spectrum envisioned to bond contribute its regional development objectives. Physical Education Lesson Choices Unit Essay! Based on hirschi's bond theory, the detail analysis of the business environment and from the Bridge by Miller Essays, country partnership strategies, the Bank, in hirschi's bond theory the short-to-medium term, would mainly focus on following main sectors; · Construction and infrastructure. · Transportation and telecommunication. · Manufacturing Information Technologies.

The financial products and services offered by love in magic, the Bank are based on the strategy to emerge and social, grow as strong financial institution in promoting economic growth among member states. The Bank offers a wide range of products and services in order to respond flexibly and love in magic, effectively to hirschi's bond the diverse needs of its clients and to Physical Education Lesson Healthy address their specific financial risk. The loans are tailored to specific financial requirements of hirschi's social theory, its clients, including project, corporate and trade transactions, and example of definition essay, afford its clients the benefit of the hirschi's social bond theory most sophisticated financial techniques available in netherland drug laws the financial markets. Thus, enabling the beneficiaries to bond manage risks and broaden their access to domestic and foreign capital markets. All operations are required to observe criteria set within the negative list of by Miller Essays, products policy, anti-money laundering regulations as well as environmental policy. The Bank accepts appropriate credit proposals and bond theory, ensures that operations are best suited to the Bank#8217;s mandate and section 17 children, appear to be financially sound and economically viable. Development and hirschi's social bond, integration impact, in particular, tends to preclude a preferential factor in allocation of funds towards operations with the The Language Extremism an Automated of Beliefs, and Justifications optimum risk/return ratio. Social Bond! The services are provided at reasonable costs with favorable repayment conditions. The Language Of Islamic Extremism Towards Identification Motivations! The main objective is not to social maximize profits but at least to recover operating costs, the cost of Essay, capital employed and to theory maintain healthy financial ratios. Plan: Healthy Unit! Keeping in view its evolving capacity and capital base, the hirschi's bond Bank would be offering, to both public and 17 children act 1989, private sectors, diversified products, which would inter-alia include; · Technical assistance and social bond theory, advisory services. Period From 1824 Essay! · Islamic F inance.

The products and services of the Bank are provided through following means i.e. Credit Lines for Banking and hirschi's theory, Non-banking Financial Institutions (FIs), project and corporate finance o perations; Credit Lines for Physical Education Lesson Plan: Healthy Essay Banking and hirschi's bond, Non-banking Financial Institutions (FIs). The Language Extremism Towards Identification Motivations! The Bank has dedicated trade finance and SMEs development facilities conducted through local financial intermediaries. The credit lines extended to FIs (e.g commercial banks, Islamic banks, and non-bank FIs including leasing companies, EDAs, DFIs, microfinance institutions, etc.) enables the Bank in serving specific market segment more efficiently and effectively than the Bank might be able to do directly. The loans provided to selected FIs in the member countries for increasing Bank#8217;s outreach capacity for hirschi's social theory development of SMEs, micro-enterprises and trade finance operations.

Further improvements in this cooperation would advance the financial sectors ability to respond to the needs of end users and effectiveness of section, operations. In this respect, more attention will be given to hirschi's social bond theory programs continuing promotion of example of definition essay, intra-regional trade, development of social bond, SMEs and example essay, micro-enterprises. The Bank has developed the required infrastructure and executed the hirschi's bond first Islamic SME murabaha facility. Taking into The Jacksonian 1824 to 1848 Essay, consideration the relevant demand in the region, Islamic finance window would bring significant business expansion, hence increased development impact opportunity to the Bank. The Bank would also support FIs through provision of social bond, medium-long term subordinated loans which will be extended on act 1989, case by social bond theory, cases basis with a specific condition to Physical Education Healthy Choices Unit Essay improve the SMEs portfolio of the hirschi's social bond FIs. The operations over the coming years would concentrate on enhancing the love in magic number of FIs benefitting from the resources of the Bank. While strengthening credit relations with the social leading FIs in the member states, the Healthy Essay Bank would target financially sound mid-tier commercial and hirschi's, participation banks and non-FIs e.g leasing companies and microfinance institutions which have effective distribution services and channels for laws SMEs loans and hirschi's, trade finance. The Children's Essay! Particularly, through micro-finance institutions, the Bank will focus on expanding access to finance, particularly among lower-income groups and hirschi's bond, micro-enterprises. Trade finance operations are carried forward as distinct core business of the the Bridge by Miller Essays Bank with an hirschi's bond theory aim to promote exports of the member states and foster intra-regional trade. The Bank offers a number of instruments (e.g. direct and example, intermediated loans, guarantees, pre-export finance facility, buyer credits and hirschi's social bond, discounting, etc.) designed to love in magic address funding needs of the social bond exporters/importers. In order to support competitive advantage for The Language of Islamic Extremism Identification of Beliefs, Motivations and Justifications greater exports, enhance intra-regional trade, job creation in the member states, the Bank also provides finance for import of hirschi's social theory, capital equipment (machinery and relevant spare parts), raw material, intermediary goods and essential humanitarian need items from outside the ECO region.

Trade finance operations shall comply with the relevant Bank policies, strategies, guidelines, rules and regulations. Transactions involving goods mentioned in the ETDB#8216;s Negative List of Goods (including the drug Bank#8216;s Environmental Exclusion List) are excluded from bond theory, financing. The Jacksonian Period From 1824 Essay! Going forward, the Bank would continue supporting trade finance needs and tapping into intra-regional trade opportunities. Corporate loans are provided directly to the private firms and public sector entities in order to cover their needs such as acquisition of equipment, modernization of plant and structures, trade transactions and other related expenditures. Hirschi's! The main target market would be medium sized locally incorporated companies that are dynamic, rapidly expanding operations, export oriented, transfer technology and know-how, generate high levels of Education Lesson Plan: Healthy Choices Unit Essay, value added and create employment. Development of bond, public-private initiatives would contribute towards improving exports and example of definition, competitiveness of respective economies. Hirschi's Social! Meanwhile, promoting complementarities and giving preference to procurement from member economies would be encouraged.

In line with its overall objective of fostering economic development and social progress, the Bank provides medium to long term finance to section development projects. The process of social theory, selecting projects is drug laws, based on the assessment of additionality and development impact. Hirschi's Social! Contribution to national priorities and promoting complementarities among member states, in netherland laws particular, tends to preclude a preferential factor in hirschi's theory allocating funds towards projects with the The Jacksonian from 1824 optimum risk/return ratio. Bond! The Bank finance projects in target sectors, both in the public and private initiatives, which would contribute towards economic development of 17 children, member countries. The guiding principle would remain that the potential projects should be financially viable and hirschi's social theory, operationally feasible for laws the Bank to commit its resources. The Bank would strive to hirschi's bond theory implement best industry practices in a transparent manner by fully observing procurement rules.

To lower potential risks and use the Education Lesson Unit available assets in social an efficient manner, financing of A View from the Bridge by Miller Essays, large scale projects would generally be handled through consortiums. Theory! Growing operations and the increase in the number and netherland drug, size of the transactions would enable the Bank to gather sector know-how and develop internal capacity. In the medium to long term, the Bank aims to put greater emphasis on hirschi's social, tapping additional sources of finance to support its operations. This would allow it to substantially augment its resource base and extend its services and operations. Co-financing has been identified as a preferred option and 17 children, avoiding any duplication of effort and doing more projects more efficiently. The Bank will connect and coordinate co-financing arrangements with partners on both public and private sector projects. Hirschi's Social Bond! It would be performed at two levels: co-financing with commercial banks, e.g. through syndication; and official co-financing with export credit and investment-insurance agencies, and international institutions such as development banks and bilateral donors. The Bank aims to provide equity investments to facilitate the A View from the Bridge by Miller Essays launching of new ventures or the hirschi's bond privatization of state-owned enterprises. Laws! It aims to get involved in provision of capital for innovative and productive industrial and hirschi's social, agro-industrial projects that are economically and financially feasible. The Bank plans to love in magic hold a minority shareholder position in hirschi's social bond the companies in which it invests.

The underlying principle is to A View from by Miller Essays generate enough confidence in the equity markets for hirschi's social theory other investors to Physical Plan: contribute to equity offering strengthening the capital base of the hirschi's bond enterprise. The Bank would not normally be the largest shareholder in A View by Miller Essays a project and would encourage other financiers to participate in the financing of such comp anies/enterpr ise s.

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Internet Encyclopedia of hirschi's social bond theory Philosophy. Just war theory deals with the justification of how and why wars are fought. The justification can be either theoretical or historical. The theoretical aspect is concerned with ethically justifying war and the forms that warfare may or may not take. Love In Magic! The historical aspect, or the hirschi's social theory, just war tradition, deals with the historical body of rules or agreements that have applied in various wars across the ages. For instance, international agreements such as the Geneva and Hague conventions are historical rules aimed at limiting certain kinds of warfare which lawyers may refer to in prosecuting transgressors, but it is the The Children's, role of ethics to examine these institutional agreements for their philosophical coherence as well as to inquire into whether aspects of the conventions ought to be changed. Hirschi's Social Bond! The just war tradition may also consider the thoughts of from the Bridge various philosophers and lawyers through the ages and examine both their philosophical visions of hirschi's social war’s ethical limits (or absence of) and whether their thoughts have contributed to the body of conventions that have evolved to guide war and warfare.

Historically, the just war tradition--a set of mutually agreed rules of love in magic combat—may be said to commonly evolve between two culturally similar enemies. That is, when an hirschi's, array of values are shared between two warring peoples, we often find that they implicitly or explicitly agree upon limits to their warfare. Of Definition! But when enemies differ greatly because of different religious beliefs, race, or language, and as such they see each other as “less than human”, war conventions are rarely applied. Hirschi's Bond! It is only when the enemy is seen to be a people, sharing a moral identity with whom one will do business in the following peace, that tacit or explicit rules are formed for how wars should be fought and laws, who they should involve and what kind of relations should apply in the aftermath of war. In part, the motivation for forming or agreeing to certain conventions, can be seen as mutually benefiting—preferable, for instance, to bond the deployment of any underhand tactics or weapons that may provoke an indefinite series of vengeance acts, or the kinds of Education Lesson Healthy action that have proved to theory be detrimental to the political or moral interests to both sides in the past. Regardless of the conventions that have historically formed, it has been the concern of the majority of A View from the Bridge by Miller Essays just war theorists that the lack of rules to war or any asymmetrical morality between belligerents should be denounced, and that the rules of hirschi's bond theory war should apply to Education Healthy Essay all equally. That is, just war theory should be universal, binding on all and capable in turn of appraising the actions of all parties over and above any historically formed conventions. The just war tradition is indeed as old as warfare itself.

Early records of collective fighting indicate that some moral considerations were used by warriors to limit the outbreak or to rein in the potential devastation of warfare. They may have involved consideration of women and hirschi's bond, children or the treatment of love in magic prisoners (enslaving them rather than killing them, or ransoming or exchanging them). Commonly, the earlier traditions invoked considerations of honor: some acts in theory, war have always been deemed dishonorable, whilst others have been deemed honorable. However, what is “honorable” is often highly specific to culture: for instance, a suicidal attack or defense may be deemed the honorable act for one people but ludicrous to another. Robinson (2006) notes that honor conventions are also contextually slippery, giving way to pragmatic or military interest when required. Essay! Whereas the hirschi's, specifics of what is honorable differ with time and place, the very fact that one moral virtue is alluded to in the netherland laws, great literature (for example, Homer’s Iliad ) is sufficient for us to note that warfare has been infused with some moral concerns from the beginning rather than war being a mere Macbethian bloodbath. The just war theory also has a long history. Parts of the Bible hint at ethical behavior in war and concepts of just cause, typically announcing the justice of war by divine intervention; the Greeks may have paid lip service to social bond the gods, but, as with the Romans, practical and political issues tended to overwhelm any fledgling legal conventions: that is, interests of state or Realpolitik (the theory known as political realism would take precedence in declaring and waging war. Nonetheless, this has also been the reading of political realists, who enjoy Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War as an example of why war is necessarily the extension of netherland laws politics and hence permeated by hard-nosed state interest rather than “lofty” pretensions to moral behavior. Although St.

Augustine provided comments on the morality of war from the Christian perspective (railing against hirschi's social the love of violence that war can engender) as did several Arabic commentators in the intellectual flourishing from the 9th to A View by Miller 12th centuries, but the most systematic exposition in the Western tradition and one that still attracts attention was outlined by hirschi's Saint Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century. In the Summa Theologicae , Aquinas presents the general outline of what becomes the traditional just war theory as discussed in modern universities. He discusses not only the justification of netherland drug laws war but also the kinds of activity that are permissible (for a Christian) in social bond, war (see below). Aquinas's thoughts become the model for later Scholastics and Jurists to netherland drug expand and to gradually to universalize beyond Christendom – notably, for instance, in hirschi's theory, relations with the Education Essay, peoples of America following European incursions into the continent. The most important of these writers are: Francisco de Vitoria (1486-1546), Francisco Suarez (1548-1617), Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), Samuel Pufendorf (1632-1704), Christian Wolff (1679-1754), and Emerich de Vattel (1714-1767). In the twentieth century, just war theory has undergone a revival mainly in response to the invention of nuclear weaponry and hirschi's, American involvement in Essay, the Vietnam war. The most important contemporary texts include Michael Walzer's Just and Unjust Wars (1977), Barrie Paskins and Michael Dockrill The Ethics of theory War (1979), Richard Norman Ethics, Killing, and War (1995), Brian Orend War and International Justice (2001) and Michael Walzer on War and love in magic, Justice (2001), as well as seminal articles by Thomas Nagel War and Massacre, Elizabeth Anscombe War and Murder, and a host of others, commonly found in the journals Ethics or The Journal of Philosophy and hirschi's bond, Public Affairs . Since the terrorist attacks on the USA on 9/11 in 2001, academics have turned their attention to just war once again with international, national, academic, and military conferences developing and love in magic, consolidating the hirschi's social bond, theoretical aspects of the Crusade Essay, conventions. Bond Theory! Just war theory has become a popular topic in International Relations, Political Science, Philosophy, Ethics, and Military History courses. Conference proceedings are regularly published, offering readers a breadth of Education Lesson Healthy Essay issues that the topic stirs: for example, Alexander Moseley and Richard Norman, eds. Human Rights and Military Intervention , Paul Robinson, ed., Just War in a Comparative Perspective , Alexsander Jokic, ed., War Crimes and Collective Wrongdoing . What has been of great interest is that in the headline wars of the past decade, the dynamic interplay of the rules and conventions of warfare not only remain intact on the battlefield but their role and hence their explication have been awarded a higher level of scrutiny and debate.

In the political circles, justification of war still requires even in the most critical analysis a superficial acknowledgement of justification. On the hirschi's theory, ground, generals have extolled their troops to adhere to the rules, soldiers are taught the just war conventions in love in magic, the military academies (for example, explicitly through military ethics courses or implicitly through veterans’ experiences). Yet despite the emphasis on abiding by war’s conventions, war crimes continue - genocidal campaigns have been waged by mutually hating peoples, leaders have waged total war on ethnic groups within or without their borders, and individual soldiers or guerilla bands have committed atrocious, murderous, or humiliating acts on their enemy. Social Bond! But, arguably, such acts do remain atrocities by virtue of the just war conventions that some things in war are deemed to be inexcusable, regardless of the righteousness of the cause or the example of definition, noise and fog of hirschi's social battle. Yet increasingly, the rule of law - the need to hold violators and transgressors responsible for their actions in war and therefore after the battle - is making headway onto the battlefield. Drug Laws! In chivalrous times, the Christian crusader could seek priestly absolution for atrocities committed in war, a stance supported by Augustine for example; today, the law courts are seemingly less forgiving: a violation of the conventions assumes that the soldier is responsible and hirschi's social bond, accountable and should be charged for a crime. Nonetheless, the the Bridge, idealism of those who seek the imposition of law and responsibility on the battlefield (cf. Geoffrey Robertson's Crimes Against Humanity ), often runs ahead of the traditions and customs, or plain state interests, that demean or weaken the justum bellum that may exist between warring factions.

And in some cases, no just war conventions and social bond theory, hence no potential for legal acknowledgement of malfeasance, exist at all; in The Children's Essay, such cases, the ethic of hirschi's social bond theory war is considered, or is implicitly held to be, beyond the norms of peaceful ethics and example of definition, therefore deserving a separate moral realm where fair is foul and foul is fair (Shakespeare, Macbeth I.i). In such examples (e.g, Rwanda, 1994), a people's justification of social bond destructiveness and killing to whatever relative degree they hold to be justifiable triumphs over attempts to establish the laws of peaceful interaction into this separate bloody realm; and in some wars, people fighting for their land or nation prefer to pick up the cudgel rather than the example, rapier, as Leo Tolstoy notes in hirschi's social, War and Peace (Book 4.Ch.2), to sidestep the etiquette or war in favor securing their land from occupational or invading forces. The continued brutality of war in the face of conventions and courts of international law lead some to maintain that the application of morality to war is a nonstarter: state interest or military exigency would always overwhelm moral concerns. But there are those of a more skeptical persuasion who do not believe that morality can or should exist in war: its very nature precludes ethical concerns. But as there are several ethical viewpoints, there are also several common reasons laid against the need or the The Children's Crusade, possibility of morality in hirschi's social, war. Generally, consequentialists and act utilitarians may claim that if military victory is sought then all methods should be employed to ensure it is Essays, gained at a minimum of expense and time. Arguments from 'military necessity' are of this type; for example, to defeat Germany in World War II, it was deemed necessary to bomb civilian centers, or in the US Civil War, for General Sherman to burn Atlanta. However, intrinsicists (who claim that there are certain acts that are good or bad in themselves) may also decree that no morality can exist in the state of war: they may claim that it can only exist in a peaceful situation in which, for instance, recourse exists to conflict resolving institutions. Alternatively, intrinsicists may claim that possessing a just cause (the argument from righteousness) is a sufficient condition for pursuing whatever means are necessary to social bond gain a victory or to punish an enemy. Love In Magic! A different skeptical argument, one advanced by Michael Walzer, is bond, that the by Miller Essays, invention of nuclear weapons alters war so much that our notions of morality—and hence just war theories—become redundant.

However, against Walzer, it can be reasonably argued that although such weapons change the nature of warfare (for example, the timing, range, and potential devastation) they do not dissolve the need to consider their use within a moral framework: a nuclear warhead remains a weapon and weapons can be morally or immorally employed. Whilst skeptical positions may be derived from consequentialist and intrinsicist positions, they need not be. Consequentialists can argue that there are long-term benefits to having a war convention. For example, by fighting cleanly, both sides can be sure that the war does not escalate, thus reducing the probability of creating an incessant war of counter-revenges. Intrinsicists, on the other hand, can argue that certain spheres of life ought never to be targeted in war; for example, hospitals and hirschi's social theory, densely populated suburbs. The inherent problem with both ethical models is that they become either vague or restrictive when it comes to love in magic war.

Consequentialism is an open-ended model, highly vulnerable to pressing military or political needs to adhere to any code of conduct in war: if more will be gained from breaking the rules than will be lost, the consequentialist cannot but demur to hirschi's social bond military “necessity.” On the other hand, intrinsicism can be so restrictive that it permits no flexibility in war: whether it entails a Kantian thesis of dutifully respecting others or a classical rights position, intrinsicism produces an inflexible model that would restrain warriors’ actions to the targeting of permissible targets only. In principle such a prescription is commendable, yet the nature of war is not so clean cut when military targets can be hidden amongst civilian centers. Against these two ethical positions, just war theory offers a series of Essays principles that aim to social bond retain a plausible moral framework for war. Period 1824 To 1848 Essay! From the just war ( justum bellum ) tradition, theorists distinguish between the rules that govern the bond, justice of love in magic war ( jus ad bellum ) from those that govern just and fair conduct in war ( jus In bello ) and hirschi's theory, the responsibility and accountability of warring parties after the war ( jus post bellum ). The three aspects are by no means mutually exclusive, but they offer a set of moral guidelines for love in magic, waging war that are neither unrestricted nor too restrictive. The problem for ethics involves expounding the hirschi's bond, guidelines in particular wars or situations. The principles of the A View from Essays, justice of war are commonly held to be: having just cause, being a last resort, being declared by a proper authority, possessing right intention, having a reasonable chance of hirschi's theory success, and the end being proportional to the means used. One can immediately detect that the principles are not wholly intrinsicist nor consequentialist—they invoke the concerns of both models. Whilst this provides just war theory with the advantage of example essay flexibility, the theory, lack of a strict ethical framework means that the principles themselves are open to broad interpretations. Examining each in turn draws attention to the relevant problems. Possessing just cause is the first and netherland laws, arguably the most important condition of hirschi's social jus ad bellum . Most theorists hold that initiating acts of aggression is unjust and 1824 to 1848, gives a group a just cause to defend itself.

But unless aggression is social, defined, this proscription is rather open-ended. For example, just cause resulting from an Physical Unit Essay, act of aggression can ostensibly be a response to a physical injury (for example, a violation of territory), an insult (an aggression against national honor), a trade embargo (an aggression against economic activity), or even to a neighbor’s prosperity (a violation of social justice). The onus is then on the just war theorist to provide a consistent and hirschi's social bond theory, sound account of what is meant by just cause. Whilst not going into the reasons why the other explanations do not offer a useful condition of just cause, the consensus is that an initiation of physical force is wrong and may justly be resisted. Self-defense against physical aggression, therefore, is putatively the Education Lesson Plan: Healthy Choices Unit, only sufficient reason for just cause. Nonetheless, the principle of self-defense can be extrapolated to anticipate probable acts of aggression, as well as in assisting others against an oppressive government or from another external threat (interventionism). Therefore, it is commonly held that aggressive war is only permissible if its purpose is to retaliate against hirschi's bond a wrong already committed (for example, to pursue and punish an aggressor), or to pre-empt an anticipated attack. In recent years, the argument for preemption has gained supporters in the West: surely, the Plan: Choices Unit, argument goes, it is social theory, right on netherland laws, consequentialist grounds to strike the first blow if a future war is to be avoided? By acting decisively against a probable aggressor, a powerful message is sent that a nation will defend itself with armed force; thus preemption may provide a deterrent and a more peaceful world. However, critics complain that preemptive strikes are based on conjectured rather than impending aggression and in effect denounce the moral principle that an agent is presumed innocent – posturing and the building up of armaments do not in themselves constitute aggression, just a man carrying a weapon is not a man using a weapon, Consequentialist critics may also reject preemption on the grounds that it is more likely to hirschi's social bond theory destabilize peace, while other realists may complain that a preemptive strike policy is the Essay, ploy of a tyrannical or bullying power that justifies other nations to act in their self-interest to neutralize either through alliances or military action – such is the principle behind the “balance of power” politics in which nations constantly renew their alliances and treatises to social bond ensure that not one of netherland laws them becomes a hegemonic power.

It is also feared that the policy of preemption slips easily into the machinations of “false flag operations” in which a pretext for war is created by social theory a contrived theatrical or actual stunt – of dressing one’s own soldiers up in the enemy’s uniforms, for instance, and having them attack a military or even civilian target so as to gain political backing for a war. Unfortunately, false flag operations tend to be quite common. Just war theory would reject them as it would reject waging war to netherland drug laws defend a leader’s “honor” following an social theory, insult. Realists may defend them on grounds of a higher necessity but such moves are likely to fail as being smoke screens for netherland laws, political rather than moral interests. War should always be a last resort. This connects intimately with presenting a just cause – all other forms of solution must have been attempted prior to the declaration of war. It has often been recognized that war unleashes forces and powers that soon get beyond the grips of the leaders and generals to control – there is too much “fog” in war, as Clausewitz noted, but that fog is also a moral haze in which truth and trust are early casualties. The resulting damage that war wrecks tends to hirschi's social bond theory be very high for most economies and so theorists have advised that war should not be lightly accepted: once unleashed, war is Education Lesson Healthy Choices, not like a sport that can be quickly stopped at the blow of a whistle (although the Celtic druids supposedly had the power to stop a battle by virtue of their moral standing) and its repercussions last for social bond, generations. Holding “hawks” at bay though is a complicated task – the apparent ease by which war may resolve disputes, especially in the eyes of those whose military might is apparently great and victory a certainty, does present war as a low cost option relative to continuing political problems and economic or moral hardship. Yet the just war theorist wishes to underline the need to attempt all other solutions but also to Physical Education Unit Essay tie the justice of the war to the other principles of jus ad bellum too. The notion of proper authority seems to bond theory be resolved for most of the theorists, who claim it obviously resides in the sovereign power of the love in magic, state.

But the social, concept of sovereignty raises a plethora of issues to consider here. If a government is just, i.e., most theorists would accept that the government is accountable and does not rule arbitrarily, then giving the officers of the state the right to declare war is reasonable, so the more removed from a proper and netherland laws, just form a government is, the more reasonable it is that its claim to justifiable political sovereignty disintegrates. A historical example can elucidate the problem: when Nazi Germany invaded France in 1940 it set up the Vichy puppet regime. What allegiance did the people of France under its rule owe to its precepts and rules? A Hobbesian rendition of almost absolute allegiance to the state entails that resistance is wrong (so long as the state is not tyrannical and imposes war when it should be the guardian of peace); whereas a Lockean or instrumentalist conception of the state entails that a poorly accountable, inept, or corrupt regime possesses no sovereignty, and the right of declaring war (to defend themselves against social bond the government or from a foreign power) is Essays, wholly justifiable.

The notion of proper authority therefore requires thinking about what is meant by sovereignty, what is meant by bond theory the state, and what is the proper relationship between a people and netherland drug, its government. The possession of hirschi's social bond right intention is ostensibly less problematic. The general thrust of the concept being that a nation waging a just war should be doing so for the cause of justice and not for reasons of self-interest or aggrandizement. Putatively, a just war cannot be considered to example essay be just if reasons of national interest are paramount or overwhelm the pretext of fighting aggression. However, “right intention” masks many philosophical problems. According to hirschi's social bond Kant, possessing good intent constitutes the only condition of The Children's Crusade moral activity, regardless of the consequences envisioned or caused, and regardless, or even in spite, of any self interest in the action the agent may have. The extreme intrinsicism of bond theory Kant can be criticized on various grounds, the most pertinent here being the value of self-interest itself. At what point does right intention separate itself from self-interest – is the moral worthiness of example of definition essay intent only gained by acting in favor of one’s neighbor, and if so, what does that imply for moral action – that one should woo one’s neighbor’s spouse to make him/her feel good? Acting with proper intent requires us to think about bond what is proper and it is not certain that not acting in self interest is necessarily the proper thing to do. On the one hand, if the only method to secure a general peace (some thing usually held to be good in itself) is to example essay annex a belligerent neighbor's territory, political aggrandizement becomes intimately connected with the proper intention of maintaining the hirschi's bond, peace for Physical Lesson Plan: Unit, all or the majority.

On the other hand, a nation may possess just cause to defend an oppressed group, and may rightly argue that the proper intention is to hirschi's secure their freedom, yet such a war may justly be deemed too expensive or too difficult to Education Lesson Choices Unit wage; i.e., it is not ultimately in their self-interest to fight the hirschi's social, just war. On that account, the love in magic, realist may counter that national interest is social bond, paramount: only if waging war on Education Lesson Healthy Choices Unit Essay, behalf of theory freedom is also complemented by the securing of economic or other military interests should a nation commit its troops. Essay! The issue of intention raises the concern of practicalities as well as consequences, both of which should be considered before declaring war. The next principle is that of reasonable success. Hirschi's Theory! This is another necessary condition for waging just war, but again is Education Plan: Healthy Choices, insufficient by itself. Given just cause and right intention, the just war theory asserts that there must be a reasonable probability of success. The principle of reasonable success is consequentialist in that the costs and benefits of a campaign must be calculated. However, the concept of weighing benefits poses moral as well as practical problems as evinced in the following questions. Hirschi's Bond Theory! Should one not go to the aid of a people or declare war if there is no conceivable chance of success?

Is it right to comply with aggression because the The Children's, costs of not complying are too prohibitive? Would it be right to bond theory crush a weak enemy because it would be marginally costless? Is it not sometimes morally necessary to stand up to a bullying larger force, as the Finns did when Russia invaded in 1940, for the sake of from the Bridge by Miller Essays national self-esteem or simple interests of defending land? Historically, many nations have overcome the probability of defeat: the fight may seem hopeless, but a charismatic leader or rousing speech can sometimes be enough to hirschi's social bond stir a people into fighting with all their will. Winston Churchill offered the British nation some of the finest of war's rhetoric when it was threatened with defeat and Crusade, invasion by Nazi Germany in 1940. For example: Let us therefore brace ourselves to hirschi's social bond theory do our duty, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Commonwealth and its Empire lasts for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour.’“ ….And “What is our aim?….Victory, victory at drug laws, all costs, victory in spite of all terror; victory, however long and hirschi's social bond theory, hard the road may be; for without victory, there is no survival. (Speeches to Parliament, 1940). However, the thrust of the reasonable success principle emphasizes that human life and economic resources should not be wasted in what would obviously be an uneven match. For a nation threatened by invasion, other forms of retaliation or defense may be available, such as civil disobedience, or even forming alliances with other small nations to equalize the odds. The final guide of jus ad bellum is that the desired end should be proportional to the means used. This principle overlaps into the moral guidelines of how a war should be fought, namely the principles of jus In bello . With regards to just cause, a policy of drug laws war requires a goal, and that goal must be proportional to the other principles of just cause. Whilst this commonly entails the minimizing of war's destruction, it can also invoke general balance of power considerations.

For example, if nation A invades a land belonging to the people of nation B, then B has just cause to take the land back. According to the principle of proportionality, B’s counter-attack must not invoke a disproportionate response: it should aim to retrieve its land and not exact further retribution or invade the aggressor’s lands, or in social theory, graphic terms it should not retaliate with overwhelming force or nuclear weaponry to resolve a small border dispute. That goal may be tempered with attaining assurances that no further invasion will take place, but for B to invade and annex regions of A is nominally a disproportionate response, unless (controversially) that is the only method for securing guarantees of no future reprisals. For B to invade and annex A and then to continue to invade neutral neighboring nations on the grounds that their territory would provide a useful defense against other threats and a putative imbalance of power is even more unsustainable. On the whole the principles offered by jus ad bellum are useful guidelines for reviewing the morality of going to war that are not tied to netherland laws the intrinsicist’s absolutism or consequentialist’s open-endedness. Philosophically however they invoke a plethora of problems by hirschi's social bond either their independent vagueness or by mutually inconsistent results – a properly declared war may involve improper intention or disproportionate ambitions.

But war is a complicated issue and the principles are nonetheless a useful starting point for ethical examination and love in magic, they remain a guide for hirschi's bond, both statesmen and women and for those who judge political proceedings. The rules of just conduct within war fall under the two broad principles of discrimination and proportionality. The principle of discrimination concerns who are legitimate targets in war, whilst the principle of proportionality concerns how much force is morally appropriate. A third principle can be added to the traditional two, namely the Period 1824, principle of responsibility, which demands an examination of bond theory where responsibility lies in war. One strong implication of the justice of warfare being a separate topic of analysis to 1824 to 1848 the justice of war is that the theory thus permits the judging of acts within war to be dissociated from it cause. This allows the theorist to claim that a nation fighting an unjust cause may still fight justly, or a nation fighting a just cause may be said to social bond fight unjustly. It is a useful division but one that does not necessarily sever all ties between the from by Miller Essays, two great principles of warfare: the social bond theory, justice of a cause remains a powerful moral guide by which warfare is to be judged, for what does it matter, it can be asked, if a nation wages a war of drug laws aggression but does so cleanly? In waging war it is considered unfair and bond theory, unjust to of definition attack indiscriminately since non-combatants or innocents are deemed to stand outside the field of war proper. Immunity from war can be reasoned from the fact that their existence and social, activity is of definition essay, not part of the bond, essence of war, which is the killing of Choices combatants. Since killing itself is highly problematic, the just war theorist has to hirschi's social bond theory proffer a reason why combatants become legitimate targets in Physical Healthy Unit Essay, the first place, and hirschi's social bond theory, whether their status alters if they are fighting a just or unjust war.

Firstly, a theorist may hold that being trained and/or armed constitutes a sufficient threat to combatants on the other side and thereby the donning of uniform alters the person’s moral status to legitimate target; whether this extends to peaceful as well as war duties is not certain though. Voluntarists may invoke the boxing ring analogy: punching another individual is not morally supportable in from by Miller Essays, a civilized community, but those who voluntarily enter the boxing ring renounce their right not to be hit. Normally, a boxer does not retain the hirschi's social theory, right to The Jacksonian Period to 1848 hit another boxer outside of the ring, yet perhaps a soldier’s training creates a wholly different expectation governing his or her status and hirschi's bond, that wearing the netherland drug, uniform or merely possessing the training secures their legitimacy as a target both on and off the bond, battlefield. Such an argument would imply that it is right to attack unarmed soldiers or soldiers who have surrendered or who are enjoying the normality of civilian life, which just war theorists and historical conventions have traditionally rejected on the claim that when a soldier lays down his weapons or removes his uniform, he or she returns to civilian life and hence the status of the non-combatant even if that return is temporary. Conversely, in joining an army the individual is said to renounce his or her rights not to be targeted in war – the love in magic, bearing of arms takes a person into hirschi's social theory an alternative moral realm in which killing is the expectation and possible norm: it is netherland drug laws, world removed from civilian structures and historically has evolved rites of passage and exit that underline the alteration in status for cadets and veterans; all analogies to the fair play of sports fail at this juncture, for war involves killing and what the British Army call “unlimited liability.” On entering the hirschi's social bond, army, the civilian loses the right not to be targeted, yet does it follow that all who bear uniform are legitimate targets, or are some more so than others – those who are presently fighting compared to those bearing arms but who are involved in supplies or administration, for instance? Others, avoiding a rights analysis for it produces many problems on delineating the boundaries of rights and the bearers, may argue that those who join the army (or who have even been pressed into conscription) come to terms with being a target, and hence their own deaths. This is Essay, argued for example by Barrie Paskins and Michael Dockrill in The Ethics of War (1979).

However, since civilians can just as readily come to theory terms with their own deaths and it is not necessarily the case that a soldier has, their argument, although interesting, is not sufficient to defend the principle of discrimination and Physical Education Lesson Healthy Choices Essay, why soldiers alone should be targeted legitimately in war. In turn, rights-based analyses may be more philosophically productive in giving soldiers and critics crucial guidelines, especially those analyses that focus on the renouncing of rights by combatants by virtue of their war status, which would leave nominally intact a sphere of immunity for civilians. Yet what is the status of guerrilla fighters who use civilian camouflage in order to bond press their attacks or to hide? Similarly, soldiers on covert operations present intricate problems of identification and legitimization: is there a difference between the two? Referring back to the fighters’ cause (for example, the guerrilla is a “freedom fighter” and thus carries a moral trump card) creates its own problems, which the just war theory in dividing the justice of the cause from the justice of the manner in netherland laws, which war is fought attempts to avoid: the guerrilla fighter may breach codes of conduct just as the soldier on a politically sensitive covert operations may avoid targeting the wrong people. Walzer, in his Just and Unjust Wars (1977) claims that the lack of identification does not give a government the right to kill indiscriminately—the onus is on the government to identify the combatants, and hirschi's bond, so, the implication goes, if there is A View from, any uncertainty involved then an attack must not be made. Others have argued that the nature of modern warfare dissolves the possibility of discrimination: civilians are just as necessary causal conditions for the war machine as are combatants, therefore, they claim, there is no moral distinction in targeting an hirschi's bond, armed combatant and a civilian involved in arming or feeding the combatant. The distinction is, however, not closed by the nature of modern economies, since a combatant still remains a very different entity from a non-combatant, if not for the simple reason that the love in magic, former is bond theory, presently armed (and hence has renounced rights or is prepared to die, or is a threat), whilst the civilian is not. The Jacksonian Period! On the other hand, it can be argued that being a civilian does not necessarily mean that one is not a threat and hence not a legitimate target. If Mr Smith is the only individual in the nation to possess the correct combination that will detonate a device that could kill thousands, then he becomes not only hirschi's social causally efficacious in the firing of a weapon of war, but also morally responsible; reasonably he also becomes a legitimate military target. Netherland Drug Laws! His job effectively militarizes his status even though he does not bear arms.

The underlying issues that ethical analysis must deal with involve the logical nature of an individual's complicity and the aiding and abetting the war machine, with greater weight being imposed on those logically closer than those logically further from the social, war machine in their work. Laws! At a deeper level, one can consider the role that civilians play in social bond, supporting an unjust war: to what extent are they morally culpable, and if they are culpable in giving moral, financial, or economic support to some extent, does that mean they may become legitimate targets? This invokes the issue of collective versus individual responsibility that is in itself a complex topic but one that the Education Lesson Plan: Healthy Choices Unit, principle of discrimination tries to circumvent by bond theory presenting guidelines for soldiers that keep their activity within the realms of war and its effects rather than murder. Essay! It would be wrong, on the principle of discrimination, to group the enemy into one targetable mass of social bond people – some can not be responsible for a war or its procedures, notably children. Yet, on the other hand, if a civilian bankrolls a war or initiates aggression as a politician, surely he or she bears some moral responsibility for netherland, the ensuing deaths: some may argue that the war’s justification rests upon such shoulders but not the manner in which it is fought, while others may prefer to social bond theory saddle the leader or initiator with the entire responsibility for how a war is fought on the argument that each combatant is responsible for those below him or her in The Children's Crusade Essay, rank – so the political or civilian leaders are analogously responsible for all operating in the military field. The second principle of just conduct is that any offensive action should remain strictly proportional to the objective desired. This principle overlaps with the proportionality principle of bond theory just cause, but it is the Bridge by Miller, distinct enough to consider it in its own light. Proportionality for social, jus In bello requires tempering the extent and violence of warfare to minimize destruction and netherland drug laws, casualties. Hirschi's Bond Theory! It is broadly utilitarian in that it seeks to minimize overall suffering, but it can also be understood from other moral perspectives, for instance, from harboring good will to all (Kantian ethics), or acting virtuously (Aristotelian ethics).

Whilst the consideration of discrimination focuses on who is a legitimate target of of definition war, the bond, principle of proportionality deals with what kind of force is morally permissible. In fighting a just war in which only military targets are attacked, it is still possible to breach morality by employing disproportionate force against an enemy. Love In Magic! Whilst the earlier theoreticians, such as Thomas Aquinas, invoked the Christian concepts of charity and mercy, modern theorists may invoke either consequentialist or intrinsicist prescriptions, both of which remain problematic as the foregoing discussions have noted. However, it does not seem morally reasonable to completely gun down a barely armed albeit belligerent tribe. At the battle of Omdurman in 1898 in the Sudan, six machine gunners killed thousands of dervishes—the gunners may have been in the right to defend themselves, but the principle of proportionality implies that a battle end before it becomes a massacre. Similarly, following the battle of Culloden in hirschi's social bond theory, 1746 in Scotland, Cumberland ordered No Quarter, which was not only a breach of the principle of discrimination, for his troops were permitted to kill the wounded as well as supporting civilians, but also a breach of the principle of proportionality, since the battle had been won, and the Jacobite cause effectively defeated on the battle field.

What if a war and all of its suffering could be avoided by highly selective killing? Could just war theory endorse assassination for instance? Assassination programs have often been secretly accepted and employed by states throughout the centuries and appeal, if challenged, is often to a “higher” value such as self-defense, killing a target guilty of war crimes and atrocities, or removing a threat to peace and stability. The CIA manual on assassination (1954, cf. Belfield), sought to distinguish between murder and assassination, the latter being justifiable according to the higher purposes sought.

This is analogous to just war theorists seeking to put mass killing on a higher moral ground than pure massacre and slaughter and is fraught with the same problems raised in this article and in The Children's, the just war literature. On grounds of discrimination, assassination would be justifiable if the target were legitimate and not, say, the hirschi's theory, wife or children of a legitimate target. Example Of Definition Essay! On grounds of proportionality, the hirschi's theory, policy would also be acceptable, for love in magic, if one man or woman (a legitimate target by virtue of his or her aggression) should die to avoid further bloodshed or to secure a quicker victory, then surely assassination is hirschi's theory, covered by the just war theory? The founder of the love in magic, Hashshashin society (c.11-13thC), Hasan ibn el Sabah preferred to target or threaten warmongers rather than drag innocents and noncombatants into theory bloody and protracted warfare: his threats were often successful for he brought the reality of death home to Physical Education Lesson Choices Unit Essay the leaders who otherwise would enjoy what lyricist Roger Waters calls “the bravery of being out of range.” In recent years, the US and UK proclaimed that the war in the Gulf was not with the hirschi's bond theory, Iraqi people but with its leader and his regime; the US government even issued a bounty on the heads of key agents in the Ba’ath party; indeed, Saddam Hussein’s sons, Uday and Qusay with a bounty of ?15m, were killed in a selective hunt and The Jacksonian Period from 1824 to 1848 Essay, destroy mission rather than being captured and brought to trial for hirschi's social bond theory, the crimes asserted of them. Assassination would apparently clear the two hurdles of discrimination and proportionality, yet the intrinsicist wing of just war theorists would reasonably claim that underhand and covert operations, including assassination, should not form a part of Period from war on grounds that they act to undermine the respect due one’s enemy (not matter how cruel he or she is) as well as the moral integrity of the assassin; the consequentialists would also counter that such policies also encourage the enemy to retaliate in similar manner, and one of the sustaining conclusions of just war theory is that escalation or retaliatory measures (tit for tat policies) should be avoided for their destabilizing nature. Once initiated, assassination tends to become the norm of political affairs – indeed, civil politics would thus crumble into hirschi's social bond fearful and barbaric plots and conspiracies (as did Rome in its last centuries) in a race to gain power and mastery over others rather than to forge justifiable sovereignty. The principles of proportionality and discrimination aim to temper war's violence and range; while they may ostensibly imply the acceptance of some forms of warfare, their malleability also implies that we continuously look afresh upon seemingly acceptable acts. Accordingly, they are complemented by other considerations that are not always explicitly taken up in the traditional exposition of jus In bello , this is especially true in the case of the issue of responsibility. Jus in bello requires that the agents of war be held responsible for Crusade Essay, their actions.

This ties in their actions to morality generally. Some, such as Saint Augustine argues against bond this assertion: who is but the sword in the hand of him who uses it, is not himself responsible for love in magic, the death he deals. Hirschi's Social Bond! Those who act according to a divine command, or even God's laws as enacted by the state and The Jacksonian Period 1824 Essay, who put wicked men to hirschi's social theory death “have by no means violated the commandment, 'Thou shalt not kill.’” Whilst this issue is connected to the concepts of just cause, it does not follow that individuals waging a just, or unjust war, should be absolved of breaching the principles of just conduct. Readily it can be accepted that soldiers killing other soldiers is part of the nature of warfare for which soldiers ought to be prepared and trained, but when soldiers turn their weapons against non-combatants, or pursue their enemy beyond what is reasonable, then they are no longer committing legitimate acts of war but acts of murder. The principle of responsibility re-asserts the burden of love in magic abiding by rules in times of peace on hirschi's bond, those acting in from the Bridge, war to remind them that one day they will once more take up civilian status and should be prepared to do so conscientiously, free of hirschi's social bond any guilt from war crimes. The issues that arise from this principle include the morality of obeying orders (for example, when one knows those orders to be immoral), as well as the Crusade Essay, moral status of ignorance (not knowing of the effects of one’s actions either reasonably or literally). Responsibility for acts of war relate back to the tenets of hirschi's theory jus ad bellum as well as jus in bello , for the justification of of definition essay going to war involves responsibility as well as the acts ordered and committed in war.

In reviewing the stories from military ethics readers, the acts of social bond bravery that attract our attention involve soldiers standing up to do the netherland, “right thing” against either the prevailing momentum of the platoon or the orders from hirschi's social bond, higher up; the by Miller Essays, realist rejects such acts as infrequent or unnecessary performances that do not alter the social, main characteristic of war and its innate brutality, yet such acts also remind the critic as well as the soldier of the importance of example essay returning to the civilian mode with good conscience. The aftermath of war involves the relinquishing of hirschi's social bond armed conflict as a means of netherland drug resolving disputes and the donning of social bond theory more civil modes of example of definition essay conduct but it also raises questions concerning the nature of the hirschi's social bond, post bellum justice. Following the cessation of A View from a war, three possibilities emerge: either the army has been defeated, has been victorious, or it has agreed to a ceasefire. Principles of justice may then be applied to each situation. Orend presents a useful summary of the principles of bond theory jus post bellum : the principle of discrimination should be employed to avoid imposing punishment on innocents or non-combatants; the rights or traditions of the defeated deserve respect; the claims of victory should be proportional to the war’s character; compensatory claims should be tempered by the principles of discrimination and proportionality; and, controversially, the drug laws, need to rehabilitate or re-educate an hirschi's social, aggressor should also be considered. It has often been remarked that justice, like history, is written by the victors. The Children's Essay! A defeated army and indeed the civilian body from which the army stems should thus be prepared to subject itself to the imposition of rules and forms of punishments, humiliation, and even retributions that it would not otherwise agree to. The lives, values, and resources that have been fought for must now be handed over to bond theory the conquerors.

When put this way, when one readily imagines one’s own country’s army falling to an aggressive enemy, the terms immediately appear fearful and unjust and may stir a greater endeavor to make the victory hollow by netherland drug the raising of guerrilla or even terrorist organizations to thwart the conquerors’ designs. Yet when one’s own army is victorious, the social, partiality of victory can be so easily dismissed on the enthusiastic wave that accompanies triumph: victory is so often associated with the greater right when one’s own country vanquishes its enemy, and assumedly with that right comes the justification to impose conditions upon Lesson Plan: Essay, the vanquished. In so many wars in history, both ancient and modern, victory has provided the winners with the hirschi's bond, means of exploiting the defeated nation and for A View from by Miller, claiming rights over its lands and social bond, people whether in the form of enslavement or in monopolistic mercantile contracts; sometimes an appeal to divine justice is the Bridge by Miller Essays, made; at bond, other times the supremacy of one’s nation, race, creed, or political order is lauded over the defeated. Economic exploitation is not the only means of subjugating the defeated: new political or religious frameworks can also be imposed sometimes as a means of netherland drug laws “rehabilitating the defeated” or as a means to hirschi's theory avoid the Period from 1824, circumstances (political or economic) that may bring about further warfare; the philosopher must naturally inquire as to hirschi's bond the justice of such measures. The just war theorist is keen to A View from Essays remind warriors and politicians alike that the principles of social justice following war should be universalizable and morally ordered and that victory should not provide a license for imposing unduly harsh or punitive measures or that state or commercial interests should not dictate the form of the example of definition essay, new peace. Similarly, imposing an alternative political or religious is not likely to be conducive to peace, as Edmund Burke prophetically warned about decreeing for the “rights of bond theory man” in an unprepared culture; re-educating a defeated military or bureaucracy may seem reasonable and arguably was successful in post-war Germany (1945), yet such a program may also be so superficial or condescending as to have only short term and illusory benefits or act to further humiliate the defeated into A View by Miller seething desire for revenge.

In post-war Iraq (2003-date), the rehabilitation programs have met with mixed success and hirschi's bond, have often been criticized for favoring some ethnic groups over others, i.e., affecting political and cultural nuances that an love in magic, outsider would not be aware of. Criticism may stem from either intrinsicist reasons (that the defeated should still be viewed as a people deserving moral respect and their traditions held as sacrosanct) or consequentialist reasons (that punitive impositions are likely to produce a backlash); but again it is worth reminding that just war theory tends to merge the two to avoid awkward implications derived from either position singly. At this point, the attraction for jus post bellum thinkers is to return to the initial justice of the war. Consider a war of self-defense: this is hirschi's social bond theory, considered by most, except absolute pacifists, to be the most justifiable of all wars. The Children's Essay! If the hirschi's social theory, people are defeated but their cause remains just, should they then continue the fight to rid their country of all the vestiges of occupation? What if fighting is impossible? Should they bow their heads in honorable defeat and accept the The Jacksonian Period 1824 Essay, victor’s terms graciously?

Locke believed that an unjustly defeated people should bide their time until their conquerors leave: “if God has taken away all means of seeking remedy, there is nothing left but patience.” ( Second Treatises , §177); however, the right always remains with those who fought against an unjust war but they do not gain any moral right to bond theory attack indiscriminately or disproportionately (such as terrorizing the invader’s own civilians or soldiers at rest), although they may carry on their claim for freedom over the generations. A realist, however, may ask how a people are to The Children's Crusade regain their freedom if they do not raise arms against their sea of troubles? Nonetheless, if the “good fight” is to continue, most theorists follow Locke and prohibit breaches of the jus in bello principles: while it would be wrong to bow to a tyrant or conquering army, it would be immoral to target their families in order to hirschi's social bond encourage the of definition, occupying army to social bond theory leave. Physical Education Lesson Healthy Essay! Others may counsel civil disobedience and other forms of intransigence to signal displeasure. If, on the other hand, the victors have won a just war against an aggressor, Locke argues that the victor’s right does not extend to the aggressive nation’s civilian population, but that it does extend to all those engaged in the aggression and that it extends absolutely: that is, the just conqueror has absolute rights of life and death over the defeated aggressors. The aggressor, one who initiates war, puts the individual or the hirschi's, community into a state of war, he argues, and so the defender has an absolute prerogative to use whatever force necessary to secure freedom and peace: accordingly, in victory, the victors may enslave or kill the aggressors. Locke’s is an extreme although not logically incoherent position and his exhortations may be compared to other moral positions (often emerging from religious thinking) to temper the justice in favor of other virtues such as charity, liberality, and justice. Indeed, King Alfred the The Jacksonian Period 1824 to 1848, Great of Wessex (c.878AD) defeated the Viking invader Guthrum in hirschi's, battle and rather than executing him as the Vikings would have done Alfred, he ordered them to join the Christian religion and then, and probably more importantly, offered them a stake in the land: toleration merged with prudence and by Miller Essays, self-interest ensured Guthrum was no longer a threat.

Indeed, Machiavelli warned that killing an opponent’s family is likely to raise their ire but taking away their land is guaranteed to continue the fight over theory, generations. It may be reasonably held that the The Jacksonian 1824 to 1848, aggressors deserve punishment of bond some sort, although Alfred’s example highlights an alternative view of drug dealing with an enemy, one that reminds the theorist that peace not further war remains the goal. But what if the defeated aggressors are guilty of atrocities, surely they should be made to stand trial to send a signal to other “war criminals” as well as to punish them for their own misdeeds? Here we enter the debates regarding punishment: does punishing a violator make any sense except to exact either retribution, revenge, or to promote a deterrence? Can the victors be sure of their claim to punish the aggressors and what good could possibly flow from bringing more violence or enslavement to the world? In asserting the need to find universalisable principles, the just war theorist is usually keen to insist that any war crimes trials are held in neutral states and presided over by neutral parties, rather than the victors whose partiality in proceedings must be presumed: after all, in the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials, no allied generals or politicians were held accountable for the atrocities created by hirschi's theory bombing civilian centers in Germany and netherland drug, Japan and the dropping of nuclear bombs on hirschi's social, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The end game and love in magic, hence the jus post bellum certainly merit attention before the battles are lost or won: what should be the ruling affairs once the hirschi's social bond theory, peace is from Essay, proclaimed? Should the terms of war’s end be elaborated and publicly pronounced as to ensure all parties are aware of the costs of defeat?

Is it right that an army should demand unconditional surrender, for instance, when such a policy may entail a protracted war for no incentive is given to the other side to surrender; on the other hand, unconditional surrender implies a derogatory view of the enemy as one not to be respected either in or after war. Social Bond! Yet if an unconditional surrender policy does suitably raise the stakes of fighting war it may act as a sufficient deterrent against drug laws possible aggressors or act as a useful diplomatic tool to bring a worried enemy back to peaceful overtures. Theory! Similarly, is it right that an army should demand reparations in advance rather than leave them undisclosed and thereby risk the uncertainty of punishment creating a backlash from the defeated, who may not wish to be so subjected? To keep the expected conditions of war’s end secretive does not seem a wise move in that uncertainty generates fear, and fear can generate a harder campaign than otherwise would be necessary; but if the example, publicized conditions appear onerous to the enemy, then they have good reasons to prolong and/or intensify their own fight. Of course, if promises of an amnesty or fair treatment of prisoners is reneged on by the victor, then all trust for future arrangements is lost and the consequences imply embedding hatreds and social, mistrust for generations. Assume that victory is given, that the army has defeated its enemy on the battlefield so attention turns to the nature of the post bellum justice of netherland laws dealing with the defeated regardless of its intentions beforehand. Hirschi's! Arguably, the very nature of the warring participants’ vision of each other and of themselves will color the The Jacksonian Period 1824 to 1848, proceedings both politically and morally. Hirschi's Bond Theory! A victorious side, for instance, that sees itself as rightfully triumphant is more likely to impose its will and exactions upon the defeated in a more stringent manner in which a victorious side that sees itself as its enemy’s equal; but universality demands seeing one’s enemy as oneself and understanding not just the Realpolitik of essay state interests and state gains in victory but also the hirschi's bond, conventions of Education Lesson Healthy magnanimity and honor in victory (or defeat). Consider the demands for reparations.

A defeated aggressor may just be asked to pay for the damage incurred by the war (as justice demands of criminals that they pay for their crimes). But to bond theory what extent should the reparations extend? Should there be demands for retribution and deterrence added in, so that those deemed responsible for their aggression should be put on trial and suitably punished (and what would “suitable” mean in Plan: Choices Unit Essay, this instance – that Saddam Hussein stand trial for his invasion of social theory Kuwait implies that George W Bush similarly stand trial for his invasions of Afghanistan and The Jacksonian Period from to 1848, Iraq?). In forming the hirschi's social bond theory, conditions of defeat, should neutral third parties be turned to love in magic so as to avoid later accusations of “victor’s justice” and theory, the partiality that such justice can invoke or imply, or does victory present the victor with the ultimate moral wreath to justify whatever demands seen appropriate or fitting? Should a war be indecisive though, the character of the peace would presumably be formed by the character of the ceasefire – namely, the cessation of fighting would imply a mere hiatus in A View by Miller Essays, which the belligerents regain the time and resources to stock their defenses and prepare for further fighting. As such, a ceasefire would be merely a respite for the military to regain its strengths. However, just war theory also acts to hirschi's bond theory remind contenders that war is netherland drug laws, a last resort and that its essential aim is always peace, so if peace is forthcoming in any guise, it is theory, morally critical for Lesson Plan: Unit, all parties to seek a return to a permanent peace rather than a momentary lapse of war. This article has described the bond, main tenets of the essay, just war theory, as well as some of the problems that it entails.

The theory bridges theoretical and applied ethics, since it demands an adherence, or at hirschi's social bond, least a consideration of meta-ethical conditions and models, as well as prompting concern for the practicalities of war. A few of those practicalities have been mentioned here. Other areas of interest are: hostages, innocent threats, international blockades, sieges, the use of A View from the Bridge Essays weapons of mass destruction or of anti-personnel weapons (for example, land mines), and the morality and bond theory, practicalities of interventionism.

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Although Mitel requires you to enter a contract of their own, they do offer a unique contract buyout for those switching providers. Unlimited calling, faxing, conferencing along with Mitel’s own mobile app, help match the Ooma Office offerings. Mitel even offers unique solutions for A View from the Bridge by Miller, different use cases, such as the MiCloud Contact Center, a PC softphone and PC client, MiCloud Call Recording and MiCloud Vidyo Collaboration. Although it is worth noting, Mitel does not allow users to bring their own phones, and unfortunately does not provide phones with their service for free, so the social bond theory initial cost might be higher than other alternatives – but should still rival the initial cost of the Ooma Office. As one of the Physical Lesson Essay lesser known names on our list, Phone.com manages to bond theory, hold their own in comparison to some of the bigger players. For only $19.99 a month, Phone.com provides the same great features that Ooma Office, and Period from 1824, the well know alternatives, offer with the addition of voicemail to email, an auto attendant, and call routing schedules. This low cost also includes features other providers consider premium and hide behind an additional paywall, like fax to email, call recording, and HD conferencing. Unfortunately, the Plus Plan only includes 500 outbound minutes, but allows for unlimited users to social, help keep the cost down, and of course includes an Education Healthy integrated mobile app.

Upgrading to the pro-plan will increase your minutes to 1,000 for businesses that make frequent outbound calls, but will cost you at least $29.99 a month. Still not a stretch from the social bond theory others, and without having to purchase an Ooma Office you’re already ahead. However, the unlimited users allowed on any plan provided by Phone.com is what really makes them stand out A View from by Miller Essays as their own. BroadVoice sits nicely on our list as the hirschi's social bond service once again trumps Ooma Office again with a list of Period 1824 to 1848 Essay features like an auto-attendant to provide the appearance of a large company with a digital receptionist, call recording, audio conferencing, 3 way calling, both traditional and virtual fax, as well as an hirschi's bond theory entire unified communications suite complete with a mobile app. Laws. BroadVoice makes it easy to support international calls to 75 different countries with a simple international add-on to bond theory, your plan. For those keeping things domestic, all plans allow for unlimited local and long distance calling to the U.S., Canada and Puerto Rico. BroadVoice also introduces a few unique features like telemarketer and number blacklisting, and from by Miller, optional non-local phone number, and international virtual numbers. Their cloud PBX also requires no additional hardware, with no setup costs to help counter the Ooma Office initial purchase. Fonality takes the idea of social ease of use and runs with it for netherland laws, their Business Phone System. Theory. With trouble-free administration made easy through their web past portal. Education Lesson Plan: Healthy Choices. Fonality offers a unique drag and drop call handling feature to put a call on hold or transfer to bond, any extension or voicemail with the Lesson Plan: simple click of a voice to keep things extra simple, and even allows for hirschi's bond theory, voicemail management and laws, transcription in either email, or even SMS messaging.

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English Grammar: How to Use Adverbs. Hirschi's Bond? Good grammar and writing go hand in hand and cannot exist without one another. To improve your grammar you need to practice writing as much as possible, because only by applying your knowledge you will be able to love in magic learn and memorize anything. Social Bond? And it its turn, quality writing is impossible without good grammar. Whether you are a high school or college student, there must be a lot of situations when you have to express yourself on writing. It can be a term paper, a thesis, a research paper or a simple essay. If your paper lacks proper grammar you can forget about receiving a good grade. In case you are not yet so confident with English grammar, you can use first class editing services from Get Essay Editor. Example? Our professional editors will eliminate all grammatical errors, correct spelling, punctuation and style of your paper for social bond, a very moderate price. At a first glance, adverbs seem as very simple elements of grammar.

In most of the cases you just need to add ly to the end of an adjective and you have your adverb ready. While it is very easy to form an adverb, it is Education Plan: Healthy Essay, not so easy to find a perfect place for an adverb in bond theory, a sentence. This is where most of the love in magic, students make mistakes. There are three positions that adverbs can take and we are going to discuss it further. Adverbs are words that indicate where, when and how something happens. They are also used to modify adjectives, past participles, adverbial phrases and other adverbs. There are many different types of hirschi's bond theory, adverbs that perform various functions, such as adverbs of place, time, certainty, manner and connecting adverbs. Crusade? Different types of hirschi's bond, adverbs depending on their purpose and Crusade function can take different positions in a clause. An adverb can take a front, middle and end position. Hirschi's Bond Theory? However, there is one rule that generally applies to all types of adverbs: do not place an adverb between a verb and its object . Rather place either before the verb and object or after them.

For example: I never drink coffee. ( I drink never coffee. Crusade Essay? ) He draws portraits well. ( He draws well portraits. ) Adverbs of the Front Position. There are particular kinds of adverbs that usually take front position in a clause, such as connecting, comment, frequency, certainty adverbs and bond theory some adverbs of place and time. Let#8217;s look at Period from, them more closely. Hirschi's Social Bond? Connecting adverbs are used to join one clause to what preceded it. The list includes such words as: then, next, anyway, however, suddenly , etc. The Bridge By Miller Essays? For example: Comment adverbs are those that express the speaker#8217;s opinion of some action or event are usually placed in social bond, the front.

For example: Adverbs of indefinite frequency such as usually, normally, sometimes and others also take a front position. For example: Adverbs of certainty like perhaps, maybe, etc. For example: Maybe your parents were not at home when you called. Adverbs of place and time are put in the front position if they are not the main focus of the sentence. For example: Adverbs of the End Position. Many of adverbs take the end position in a clause. They include adverbs of manner, place and time. Moreover, if a clause contains all of the above types of adverbs at the same time, then they are placed in according order: manner, place and time. Netherland Drug? Some of adverbs of hirschi's social bond, indefinite frequency in some cases also take the netherland, end position. Bond Theory? Adverbs of manner describe how a particular event or thing happens, occurs or is done.

In most of the cases they are formed from to 1848 Essay, adjectives: angrily, happily, beautifully, softly , etc. For example: The nanny spoke to social bond the kids softly . Adverbs of place are as a rule placed at from by Miller, the end of a clause, except of the case described before. For example: Adverbs of time and definite frequency have their place at the end of a clause, except for hirschi's social bond theory, the situation when they are not the main focus of the sentence, as was described before. A View From By Miller? For example: Have you tasted Chinese cuisine before ? Adverbs of indefinite frequency are mostly placed in the mid-position, but sometimes they can take the end position, when they are used for emphasis and are the main focus of the message. For example: She gets very angry at me sometimes . Adverbs of the Mid-Position. Hirschi's Social Bond Theory? Adverbs of certainty, completeness and indefinite frequency are often paced in netherland laws, the mid-position in a clause. Other adverbs that sometimes can be put in the mid-position include: some adverbs of manner, comment and social focusing adverbs.

To place adverbs correctly it is necessary to A View from the Bridge understand what exactly the mid-position is and hirschi's social theory where it is. It is of definition, worth to social remember that an adverb can never be put between a verb and its object. When an adverb is placed in the middle of a clause then it can be: Before one-part verbs. 1824 To 1848 Essay? E.g.: I always exercise in the morning . After an auxiliary verbs. E.g.: We have never separated for so long . After am/are/is/was/were. E.g.: They were definitely late. Adverbs of indefinite frequency very often find themselves in the middle of a clause. For example: He has occasionally drunk a little bit of beer. Adverbs of certainty such as clearly, obviously, definitely , and others are placed in the mid-position.

For example: He definitely liked your new dress. She was clearly satisfied with the present. Adverbs of completeness include such words as: completely, almost, rather, hardly, quite , etc. For example: The muffins were almost done when the guests arrived. Comment adverbs are those that express the speaker#8217;s opinion on a certain matter. As a rule they go in the front position, but sometimes can be placed in the middle as well.

For example: He has stupidly forgotten her name. Focusing adverbs guide the attention to certain part of a clause. They include such words as: just, only, mainly, even, neither #8230; nor, etc. For example: Your car just needs a little bit of fresh paint. The dishes at the table were mainly vegetarian. Adverbs of manner most often take the end position in a clause, but in social theory, some cases, when the of definition, adverb is not the main focus, they can be placed in hirschi's social theory, the middle of a clause. For example: He angrily crumbled up the letter from her. They have suddenly discovered some old box in netherland drug, the attic. From the above information you probably came to a conclusion that adverbs are easy to form, but not so easy to use. It can be confusing where to place an social, adverb. And when you look for a proper place for an adverb consider such factors as: the netherland drug laws, type of an adverb, its purpose and the focus of the sentence.

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Fico and Rating Agencies Essay Sample. FICO is a public company that was found in hirschi's bond theory, the year 1956 with the aim to help financial services companies by measuring credit risk in a score which is called the FICO score. Education Plan: Choices Unit Essay? This stands for theory, Fair Isaac Corporation mainly used in love in magic, the United States and Canada by lenders and others to assess the credit risks of prospective borrowers or existing customers. Here a three digit number between 300 and hirschi's 850 is being given to netherland, each person that wants a review and a summary of their credit risk. After having calculated this through using several personal files concerning the particular individual, the personal data is collected and hirschi's social bond this information is split into five categories: 1.Payment history. 2.Length of credit history. 5.Types of Plan: Healthy Choices credit used. These five parts concern payment history; how much credit you have used, how long you have had using credit, the type of credit that you had and the most recent applications for theory, a credit. The FICO score of the Bridge Essays a person can improve if it has been paid on time, but can be a major impediment in acquiring a loan if payments if in the past they have not made payments on time. This part counts for around 35% of the total score and is one of the most important ones in allowing the person to obtain a loan. Around 30% percent of the FICO score is determined by how much credit you have used as well as the type of hirschi's social credit you have had.

A person that has applied for Physical Lesson Healthy Choices, several credit cards in a short period of time will be perceived as less reliable and the score will be negatively affected. The period of how ownership of a credit account counts for around 15% percent of the FICO score. Here the longer you have been a customer for the same company, for example a credit card firm, the theory, better the from the Bridge, score will be. Along with this, the type of credit you have used has an influence of around 10% percent of the score. If a person has borrowed in social bond theory, the past for home equity, this gives him a much better credit worthiness than someone that has open a credit card right before Christmas with the intention of The Children's Crusade Essay buying presents. The most recent credit applications count for theory, 10%, so if someone had applied for laws, several credit cards in short period he or she will have a lower score in this part of rating. In short it be said that, the outcome is linked to social theory, the change of information in the personal report of the individual. When this fluctuates, it also changes the importance of factors affecting the results as well, because of that, it is almost impossible to measure the exact impact of any one factor in how a particular credit score is calculated without looking at the individual’s complete report.

Additionally, it is important to say that FICO scores are mostly being used while applying for a private loan, mortgage, home equity and even for opening a cell phone contract. As we have just stated, FICO credit scores are necessary to provide information related to all loan takers for supporting the running of whole business of financial loan system. Despite this, there are some very significant critical issues about it which are valuable enough for us to take into consider. On the one hand, the formula of calculating FICO is kept a secret! For instance, one day you are planning to have a house mortgage which is a big step in your life. From The Bridge Essays? At this moment, you are excited and hirschi's social bond go to communicate with those bankers to figure out if you can take the drug, loan, payment terms and also the level of bond interest rate over it.

Therefore, it is easily to notice that it will have a severe effect on an individual and even a household. After that, you are informed that your FICO is slightly lower than 600 therefore you need to pay a relatively high interest rate! It is obvious that numerous question marks will occur in your head and you will feel really bad at the same time. So how can an individual affected so severally by the FICO credit scores and no one know how it comes to Period from 1824 Essay, be calculated? Of course, we can think up some ideas logically such as bankruptcy, it will sure hurt some ones score immensely. The thing is we have no idea if we lose points for bond theory, doing something responsible which could be considered as unprofitable for banks, such as paying off credit cards in full every month or applying for new cards to get rewards. On the other hand, FICO is a risk analysis which is not fair enough. It is generally thought that it looks back over around 7 years of Essay credit history to evaluate risk in hirschi's social bond, payment of debt, and it does not cover the example, overall credit health. Those factors such as income, debt to social theory, income, age, marital status, and employment history… all of these are significant indicators of credit stability. Unfortunately, FICO does not include or consider those factors. The Jacksonian To 1848 Essay? FICO is hirschi's bond more a measure of the The Children's Essay, past track record of individuals in actually paying their obligations.

It doesn’t consider anything about how much they have in social theory, the bank or what their paycheck is each month. In one sentence, FICO is not balanced so that some individuals profit from better interest rate whereas the others are paying more for those risks which might not even exist. 1824 Essay? To sum up, FICO is imperative for bond theory, banks to notice those risky clients efficiently and enable the whole business run smoothly. But overall, it is netherland drug convinced that it is not perfect since a vast number of important factors which FICO doesn’t take into hirschi's social consideration. This shows that the way FICO calculates the score should not be kept a secret. It would be better to open the formula for the public, collect different opinions and finally improve the credit scores system.

However, it is Crusade clear to be seen that the financial crisis was not caused by social the faults of FICO since numerous subprime mortgages were accepted by the banks to satisfying their greedy stomachs. Rating agencies history. The Credit Rating Agencies have come a long way to become the financial giants that played a decisive role in drug, the financial crisis. The history of rating agencies goes back to when John Moody first started to rate railroad bonds in 1909. Other companies soon followed including, but not restricted to, Poor’s (1916), Standard Statistics (1922) and Fitch Publishing (1924). Later Standard Statistics and Poor’s would merge into Standard Poor’s and the “Big Three” would emerge. These companies would sell their ratings to various other companies including federal regulators and the popularity began to grow. Bank regulators set in 1936 a decree that would prohibit banks from investing in bonds that weren’t considered “investment grade” (BBB or better by SP) by rating agencies. The bank regulators had outsourced the work of regulating banks to the assertions that rating agencies deemed a company possessed. Other sectors followed suit in years to come including regulators from insurance companies and federal pension regulators. This gave more and more weight to hirschi's social bond theory, the assumptions made by The Children's Crusade credit rating companies, and less on the regulators set to look over the markets.

The growth slowed down after World War II when bond defaults simmered down, but picked up again after the 1970’s due to the economic turmoil that took place during the hirschi's social bond, era. This uncertainty caused consumers to netherland drug, once again get consultation for their investments and business began booming. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) finalized the authenticity of rating agencies in 1975 when it created the Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organization (NRSRO) in order to weed out agencies that might give false information to companies for personal gain. It gave special status to Moody’s, SP, and Fitch which were deemed reliable and later a few others were added to the list. The SEC didn’t allow too many other entrants and the few that did manage to hirschi's social bond, get the official status merged with the original three. This barrier gave more power to the “Big Three” and more freedom to expand. Whereas before the of definition essay, agencies stood to protect the consumer, there started to bond, be a shift where the companies they were critiquing starting paying for better ratings. The subjectivity of the ratings allows for such payoffs since it is extremely hard to rate thecompanies based on a set formula. This has led to a conflict of interest since there is a lot riding on the ratings the companies provide, and these ratings are now being skewed by example companies with deeper pockets than those that truly need the numbers to make informative decisions. Quick reminder of the financial crisis.

In 2008, numerous shares dropped sharply in many major countries. The super huge company Lehman Brothers bankrupted, the price of house declined from the hirschi's social bond, U.S. to Hong Kong. A vast number of people lost their jobs in U.S., Europe… A terrible crisis took place and destroyed the economies of the U.S. and love in magic Europe, and the rest of bond theory world suffered from it as a result of A View the Bridge by Miller Essays globalization. Everyone is paying for social bond theory, the debts to feed those bankers’ greedy mouths. The Children's Crusade? In September 2008, devastating effects were felt on hirschi's many “too big to fall” financial companies all over the world. After that, the negative effects began spreading to all other sectors of the The Jacksonian Period Essay, economy.

The crisis originated in the U.S.A. and Western Europe, and it was spread everywhere very soon, from banks, financial companies, investors, loan takers, etc. Social Bond? Most parties everywhere suffered heavily from it. Physical Education Lesson Healthy Choices Unit Essay? U.S. stocks went down 50% from their peak in 2007. Paper losses for hirschi's social bond, shareholder of major financial institution have been up to 70%. Of course, some of love in magic them even lost everything when the company went into bankruptcy. The stock market had dropped 50-70% in major countries and social pension funds had large monetary losses. A View From By Miller Essays? Along with all this was the drop in the overall prices of U.S. houses declining twenty percent. Then, companies of other sectors were affected and they could not borrow money for any expansion or even for daily operations. These companies needed to cut back and some of them simply went extinct. On the other hand, as is always the hirschi's theory, case during a recession, consumer spending dropped while unemployment rose significantly, and then the tax income plunged as a result. Finally, the A View from the Bridge, U.S. and Western Europe suffered deeply from it.

Furthermore, these countries and the rest of world “are paying” for the events that transpired up until this moment. From what we know from the news, one of the biggest problems which caused the bond theory, financial crisis to take place was companies owned numerous “toxic” securities, which came from U.S. sub-prime mortgages put into CODs. The Jacksonian Period From 1824 To 1848 Essay? No one would like to purchase them since everyone knew the bomb would be detonated very soon. $800 billion rescue plan was announced in the U.S. October 3, but it did not seem to be very effective. By this time, the hirschi's bond theory, economic crisis was deteriorating in Europe, as trillions of dollars in losses occurred there and in Russia, China, India and in many developing countries. International Monetary Fund arranged emergency bailouts for medium-sized countries, like Pakistan and example of definition Ukraine. Policies of social U.S. government. Rescue AIG: The Federal government feared the company would not be able to pay off on all the insurance policies that it had sold. From? The failure of theory AIG would cause losses for banks (and others) which had purchased this insurance, adding more losses to those banks which had already suffered strongly from example essay financial crisis. So the Fed decided that it had to bail out AIG in order to save the financial system. Economic Stimulus: In February 2008, Congress passed a bill of theory a $168 billion stimulus quickly that included tax rebates for households and tax cuts for businesses.

After that the incoming Obama administration and Democrats in Congress were working on much larger stimulus package of $850 billion, which emphasized on aid to from the Bridge by Miller Essays, states, education, unemployment benefits, and public works infrastructure projects and one-third tax cuts. Anti-foreclosure measure: In July 2008, Congress passed this measure which allows for hirschi's bond theory, the refinancing of existing mortgages, they are in love in magic, default with new mortgages that would have a value of around 85 percent of the current market value of the houses, and would be guaranteed by the Federal Housing Administration. Hirschi's Social? Pay for toxic securities: Treasury Secretary Paulson requested, and Congress later approved $700 billion to The Jacksonian to 1848, purchase high-risk, mortgage-based securities (“toxic waste”) from U.S. banks. In a conclusion, numerous countries suffered from financial crisis heavily in hirschi's bond theory, 2008, it started from example of definition U.S. Western Europe and then spread out to the rest of the world. Even though, U.S. Social Bond? government announced numerous new policies, they did not solve the example of definition, fundamental problems of too much household debt, declining housing prices and rising foreclosure rates. These problems have not been solved until nowadays. Role of the social bond theory, rating agencies.

Credit rating agencies are the main authority to assign rate of credit for the companies who issue debt. Any investor can measure the Crusade Essay, risk of bad debt after analyzing these credit rates. Social Bond Theory? These credit rates are fixed on the basis of ability to pay back the loan. Credit rating agencies also assist in portfolio monitoring. In portfolio monitoring, they provide information about which investment is most secure and provide high return of interest.

The role of credit rating agencies is to Crusade, provide investors (individuals, corporations and hirschi's social theory institutions) and debtors with crucial information regarding the creditworthiness of an individual, corporation, agency or even a government institution. They provide a wide array of financial data and information on 1824 to 1848 bonds, equities and mutual funds, bridging the information gap between issuers and investors and a source of credit surveillance for investors by monitoring and disseminating credit opinions in a timely and efficient manner. Credit rating agencies help to measure the quantitative and qualitative risks of these entities and allow investors to hirschi's theory, make wise and accurate decisions. The quantitative risk analysis carried out by credit rating agencies include the comparison of certain financial ratios with chosen benchmarks and Physical Plan: Unit Essay the qualitative analysis focuses on the management character, legal, political and economic environment in hirschi's theory, a jurisdiction. Investors will benefit from the professional risk assessment that will be carried out by these credit rating agencies. One of their most important role is to serve as an unbiased, independent “second opinion” that an investor can use to confirm or refute his or her own analysis. Credit rating agencies are also helpful in rebuilding investor confidence, which is vital to of definition essay, the global capital markets. Furthermore, these agencies help in reducing information asymmetry and improve the capital market function and efficiency. There are laws in place to ensure that these credit rating agencies make accurate ratings on investments. Rating agencies will run credit checks on companies, countries and financial products.

They track and social bond monitor performance of economy or countries as well as their default statistics and provide ratings on the basis of their history of borrowing and love in magic repayment. They rate on the basis of country’s borrowing and repaying capability considering other macroeconomic indicators. If the bond theory, country is under debt for a prolonged time and not able to manage its high debt situation, rating agencies may downgrade their credit rating. Companies and the various financial products will be rated in a similar way as well. In relation to the recent subprime crisis, credit rating agencies played a very important role at various stages in the subprime crisis. They have been highly criticized for understating the risk involved with new, complex securities that fueled the United States housing bubble, such as mortgage-backed securities (MBS) and of definition collateralized debt obligations (CDO). The Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission reported in hirschi's social bond theory, January 2011 that: “The three credit rating agencies were key enablers of the financial meltdown. The mortgage-related securities at the heart of the drug laws, crisis could not have been marketed and sold without their seal of approval.

Their impact. The credit rating agency’s (CRA’s) play an important role on the financial market as many investors take their ratings in consideration when making investments. Hirschi's Social Bond Theory? Share prices and risk premiums are partly based on the ratings given by CRA’s. Therefore it is from Essay logical that the financial system will be negatively affected when CRA’s lose their credibility. Banks who had a triple A status like Fannie Mae and Lehman Brothers collapsed, showing investors that they cannot rely on the best rating a CRA can give. As a result, CRA’s suddenly began to downgrade the ratings of financial institutions and countries.

In the CRA’s effort to remain credible they created more unrest among investors. Their poor ratings were not only applicable to just a couple of banks but to the whole financial market. Investors realized that their investments were not as safe as they thought. For many companies that suddenly got a lower rating this meant that their share price dropped significantly. For many countries that got a lower rating, this meant that it became more expensive for them to social, borrow money. Even wealthier countries in the world like the US and France lost their precious triple A rating.

When we look at France in particular we see that after their rating was downgraded from AAA to AA+ their borrowing cost rose from 3.03% to 3.07%. Although this is a relatively small change, it contributes to the economic problems in love in magic, Europe. For instance, it makes it more difficult to borrow enough money to provide rescue loans by the EFSF. Therefore the hirschi's theory, chance of a financial collapse is more likely as EU member states that need financial aid – like Greece -might not get all the funds they need. The higher borrowing costs can be explained by the higher premium investors demanded as a result of CRA’s lowering credit ratings signaling that some investment are riskier than first thought. Moreover, institutions that solely invested in very secure assets like government bonds realized that their portfolio was riskier that they thought and moved away from these investments. Therefore the demand of certain government bonds decreased which negatively affected the financial market. So in from the Bridge by Miller Essays, general the CRA’s, whose role was to prevent investors that were unsure about bond theory, their investments, actually contributed to pushing the financial system to Essay, the verge of hirschi's social bond theory collapse. All parties were negatively affected leading to Physical Education Plan: Choices Unit, more demand to increase government regulations on rating agencies. Perspectives. “I think we’re basically back to business as usual,” said Peter Hagan, director at Berkeley Research Group in Princeton, New Jersey.

In effect, only a few changes have been made since the financial crisis of 2008. Social? One of the reasons the situation stayed the same is the fact that despite the SEC opening up competition in the market, financial institutions are still requiring companies to Crusade Essay, rate their debt using one of the big three. Given the costs associated with having debt rated, experts agree that companies would be hard pressed to pay twice when one rating will suffice. However, Companies can technically issue debt without the help of the rating agencies, but ratings will be required by the financial institutions. Consequently, if companies really need this funding from the investors, the rating becomes necessary “Do [debt issuers] place a lot of hirschi's social faith in those ratings? Not really,” said Jeffrey Glenzer, managing director at the Association for Financial Professionals (AFP). “But do they still have to pay for laws, them in order to issue their debt? Yes. So deeply embedded in the banks are the NRSRO-designated rating agencies.” Now agencies must file annual reports detailing internal controls and hirschi's theory disclosure of performance statistics, in Physical Education Plan: Healthy, addition to adhering to stricter conflict-of-interest rules around their sales and marketing practices. Fines and penalties have been shored up, and agencies must disclose performance statistics along with data and assumptions underlying their credit ratings. Part of the problem is that ratings agencies are funded by social bond theory the very companies they rate.

The price to be rated is from $1,500 to $2,500,000, depending on Period to 1848 the size of your company. In theory, this creates a conflict of interest, because it gives the agency an incentive to theory, give the companies the rating they want. Rating agencies rely on audited statements. Meaning companies can show whatever they want. Could we change this model?

One idea would consist on this method: on trade debt issued in the secondary market, both issuers and investors are paying for those ratings as part of the sale or purchase of the by Miller Essays, security. “That way you take the economic power of either party out of the theory, equation” according Jeffrey Glenzer. Banks follow the KYC (Know Your Client/Customer, depending on the banks) method to manage their risks. Unfortunately, risk department who maintain these standards procedures might be under overpressure and laws don’t have time to deal with the changes themselves; consequently, they would rely on the ratings from the big three. This phenomenon has been underlined a lot of times in hirschi's bond theory, the news. Then, that’s not a surprise Hagan said “rating agencies do a good job in The Children's Crusade Essay, rating debt — so good, in fact, that complacency can set in. Credit departments began depending on ratings rather than doing their own analysis”. Because of the criticism against the big three and consorts, the Bertelsmann Foundation will lead a group of international experts to develop a model for a non-profit institution that uses transparent criteria to rate sovereign debt. Despite this, the group is not supposed to replace the bond, big three; its role is to propose an alternative to them.

The EU has approached legislative reform of CRAs and has been faster than the US. In the end of 2009 the Crusade Essay, European Parliament and hirschi's social Council approved the Credit Rating Agencies Regulation. The Jacksonian From? This legislation became immediately effective and implied: 1. Establishment of a registration and certification system for CRAs. 2. Restriction of conflicts of interest. 3. Provision of justifiable and clear ratings. 4. Increased transparency. In summary, FICO is a well known rating tool that provides lenders to hirschi's theory, obtain in the blink of an eye insight into the reliability of the future borrower. FICO credit score systems are vital for enabling bank system to run smoothly, but it is not perfect and the formula should be open for public. This causes imbalances that could be fixed to help the regular Joe more than the A View from the Bridge, corporate executive. In 2008, financial crisis took place and expanded from the US and hirschi's social bond theory Europe to the world; house prices, stock prices, unemployment rates, and everything else suffered significantly from The Jacksonian Period to 1848 it.

The credit rating agencies played a big part in the Crisis given the freedom without having to show strict backing for hirschi's bond, their assumptions. The role and responsibility of the credit rating agencies are to act as an The Children's Crusade, unbiased, independent and trustworthy source that an investor can use to judge his own analysis when undertaking any form of investment. It is clear that rating agencies had a negative effect on the financial world. Theory? By adjusting their ratings they’ve created unrest in the financial markets. This has put companies and countries in serious problems. Rating agencies undoubtedly played a key role in the drop in The Jacksonian Period to 1848 Essay, share prices of companies and the rise of hirschi's social theory borrowing costs of countries. To conclude even though the rating agencies have been under a lot of scrutiny, there is still a lot to do to make sure their power is not too strong. Measures are being taken and we hope that they will be efficient enough to example essay, avoid this kind of situation from happening again.

[ 2 ]. http://www.moneycrashers.com/credit-rating-agencies-history/ [ 3 ]. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1886559,00.html [ 4 ]. http://www.ftc.gov/be/seminardocs/091112crediratingagencies.pdf [ 5 ]. http://www.ftc.gov/be/seminardocs/091112crediratingagencies.pdf [ 6 ]. http://www.conservapedia.com/Financial_Crisis_of_2008 [ 7 ]. Hirschi's? http://www.isreview.org/issues/64/feat-moseley.shtml. [ 8 ]. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/08/business/worldbusiness/08iht-stimulus.2.9870969.html?_r=0 [ 9 ]. http://www.svtuition.org/2010/06/role-of-credit-rating-agencies.html [ 10 ]. http://www.goodreturns.in/classroom/2011/08/role-credit-rating-agencies.html [ 11 ]. Netherland Laws? http://www.ehow.com/about_6723240_importance-credit-rating-agencies.html [ 12 ]. http://www.standardandpoors.com/ratings/articles/en/us/?articleType=HTMLassetID=1245333793833 [ 13 ]. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Fico and Rating Agencies. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Fico and Rating Agencies. A Good Time and A Good Idea to Enter the Credit Rating Business Jules Kroll is planning to hirschi's bond theory, enter into the ratings industry. To determine whether it is by Miller a good…

Calculating Credit Scores. 1. The first thing any lender wants to know is hirschi's social bond theory whether you’ve paid past credit accounts on time. This is one of the most important factors in a FICO® Score…. Much of the US government debt is held as treasury bonds and bills by foreign investors. How do fluctuations in the dollar exchange rate affect the netherland laws, value of that debt… Midland Energy Resources, Inc. Case Study. Midland Energy Resources, Inc. 1.The Use of Cost of social Capital First of all, cost of capital is an essential component in WACC.

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Labor Day: From Protest to Picnics. In the 1880s a surge in growth of the American labor movement led to the creation of two workers’ holidays, Labor Day and May Day. Hirschi's Bond? May Day soon spread abroad, as European unions and socialist groups adopted it as an occasion to The Children's Essay display their strength. Eventually the holiday came to be celebrated in almost every part of the world. In the United States, however, workers more broadly celebrated Labor Day, successfully pressing to have it made a national holiday. Today, Labor Day marks the unofficial end of summer and a chance for a final bit of vacation as much as it commemorates the hirschi's bond, toils and achievements of workers and their organizations. The organized labor movement in love in magic the United States dates to the earliest days of the republic. However, in the nineteenth century it remained fragile, expanding during periods of economic growth but imploding during economic downturns.

A depression that began in 1873 decimated the movement, but in the early 1880s, as the nation began recovering, many workers again turned to unions to better their circumstances and contest the growing power of capitalists as the nation rapidly industrialized. As they had in the past, skilled artisans played a leading role in the labor movement, but to a greater extent than before, unskilled workers joined them in hirschi's social theory organizing. New labor organizations sprang up and from Essays, old ones expanded in a wave of militancy and activism that peaked in 1886 in the “great uprising of hirschi's social theory, labor,” when union membership reached a new high, huge strikes shook the nation, and independent labor political parties surfaced in Education Lesson community after community. To provide for mutual support among unions and allow them to act together on broad issues, craft unionists took the lead in hirschi's social bond theory organizing central-city labor bodies with which local unions could affiliate. In New York City, a region of Lesson Choices, labor strength, a dozen small unions banded together in 1882 to hirschi's social theory found the Central Labor Union (CLU).

Members of CLU-affiliated unions came from many ethnic backgrounds, creating an unusual arena for solidarity across national and language divides. Politically, too, the CLU bridged boundaries: Most CLU leaders were socialists or radicals, but a wide range of netherland drug, political opinion could be found within the group. As one of bond, its first projects, the CLU took up a proposal to sponsor a “monster labor festival”—the beginning of what would become Labor Day—in September 1882. The CLU hoped both to unite and Physical Education Plan: Healthy Choices Unit Essay, inspire workers and to impress the general public and politicians with the theory, power of organized labor. To this end, it developed a plan for a parade followed by a picnic on September 5, which coincided with the The Jacksonian Period from Essay, scheduled opening of a convention of the Knights of Labor, the foremost national labor organization, being held in New York. Since September 5 fell on a Tuesday, participation in the day’s events meant staying away from hirschi's work.

The first Labor Day proved a huge success. Some 10,000 men and a few women marched in Period from 1824 the parade, which began on social bond theory, lower Broadway, went past reviewing stands set up in Union Square, and then continued uptown to laws 42nd Street. Estimates of the size of the crowd watching the march were as high as a quarter million people. Continuing a tradition that went back to the artisan parades in the early days of the country, marchers grouped according to their craft and carried with them the tools of their trade. Carrying on another tradition of worker parades and pageants, patriotic themes figured prominently in the march, which included large American flags and hirschi's social bond, a drum-and-fife corps. Banners carried by the marchers demanded, “Less Work and Crusade, More Pay,” and hirschi's bond theory, proclaimed, “To the Workers Should Belong All Wealth,” and love in magic, “Labor Built This Republic, Labor Shall Rule It.” After the hirschi's bond, parade marchers met up with their families for a giant picnic at Wendel’s Elm Park at 92nd Street and Ninth Avenue.

Through the netherland drug laws, afternoon and into the evening, picnickers drank, danced, sang, watched fireworks, and social, generally amused themselves. While individual unions and ethnic associations often sponsored similar events, the heterogeneity of the example of definition essay, picnic crowd was unusual, manifesting the hirschi's social bond theory, desire of the netherland, CLU to hirschi's represent the interests and needs of the love in magic, entire working class, rather than the particular concerns of one group of workers or another. In 1883, the CLU repeated its Labor Day festivities. The following year, the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions, a national union alliance, which in hirschi's theory 1886 became the Crusade Essay, American Federation of hirschi's social theory, Labor (AFL), called for all workers to celebrate Labor Day annually on the first Monday in September, which has remained its date ever since. Within a few years, Labor Day celebrations had become common across the by Miller Essays, country. The festivities generally followed the New York example of holding a picnic, a parade, or some combination of the two. Some of the celebrations were very large. For example, 35,000 people marched in the 1886 parade held in Chicago. Labor Day quickly began to win official recognition. In 1885 and 1886, a few city governments designated the day an official holiday, and in 1887 Oregon made Labor Day a state holiday. Bond Theory? By 1894, twenty-three other states had followed suit, generally at the instigation of labor or Populist lobbying.

Labor Day received federal recognition in 1894, when President Grover Cleveland signed a bill, which had moved quickly through Congress with few objections, making the day a “legal public holiday.” For Cleveland, who had just used federal troops to crush a nationwide railroad workers’ strike, the love in magic, bill provided an opportunity for a gesture of conciliation toward labor. Even with official recognition, most employers at first did not give their workers a holiday on hirschi's social bond theory, Labor Day. The federal law only mandated a day off for employees of the federal government and the District of Columbia. State laws, too, generally did not force private employers to give workers a day off. To celebrate the holiday, workers in effect had to go on strike for a day. Only slowly did businesses begin to close for the holiday, first in centers of union strength like New York, where by the end of the 1880s many factories and shops shut down for the day, and later in the Bridge by Miller areas where labor had less clout. California businesses did not generally close for Labor Day until the early twentieth century; Georgia businesses began shutting down only well after that. The political tone of Labor Day moderated as it evolved in relation to the rival holiday of May Day. In 1884, the same year that the bond theory, Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions began promoting Labor Day, it called for unions across the country to hold demonstrations and strikes on May 1, 1886, demanding an eight-hour work day. (At the time most workers worked considerably longer hours.) Workers in great numbers responded, but the eight-hour movement came to laws a crashing halt in the face of repression that followed a bomb explosion at a May 3, 1886 rally in Chicago’s Haymarket Square, which killed eight policemen. Eight anarchists were convicted of conspiring to commit the violence, and four of them were hanged, even though there was little evidence against hirschi's social bond, them.

In the years that followed, May Day became an occasion for protesting the arrests of love in magic, socialists, anarchists, and unionists following the hirschi's, Haymarket explosion, as well as for continuing to push for shorter hours. May Day jumped abroad when in love in magic 1889 an International Socialist Convention in hirschi's social bond theory Paris called for demonstrations on May 1 of the following year, leading to the rapid spread of May Day celebrations across Europe. In the United States, in the face of the post-Haymarket repression, the AFL, whose city labor councils had sponsored many of the Labor Day celebrations, moved to distance itself from The Jacksonian Period from Essay radicalism and to more firmly associate itself with national traditions. Accordingly, red flags, radical speakers, and internationalist slogans, all common at early Labor Day events, became forbidden. Especially before the Haymarket riots, May Day events in social bond theory a few cities rivaled the size of essay, Labor Day events. Hirschi's? But as the twentieth century unfolded, May Day generally did not catch on, leaving Labor Day as the main or only workers’ holiday. The deradicalization of A View from by Miller, Labor Day made it easier for the union movement to win its designation as an official holiday and to force businesses to shut for the day. This very success, though, lessened the focus of the day on organized labor, as more and more non-unionists were given the day off. Hirschi's Social Bond? In an era when six-day work weeks were common, holidays few, and paid vacations very exceptional, many workers viewed Labor Day as an opportunity to relax on their own or with their families. In the first decades of the love in magic, twentieth century, the hirschi's bond, labor movement continued to sponsor parades and other events but on a less regular basis than in The Children's Crusade the past, with some cities going years at a time between marches, only holding them at moments of crisis. During the 1920s, attendance at Labor Day events tended to be modest, and hirschi's social bond theory, the events themselves increasingly conservative, with union leaders inviting middle-class and business organizations, like the love in magic, Chamber of Commerce and the Lions Club, to participate.

The revival and expansion of the hirschi's social, union movement during the 1930s refocused Labor Day on Physical Lesson Healthy Unit, organized labor. Celebrations grew in size and number. In Los Angeles, a city where labor traditionally had been weak, the size of the Labor Day parade had expanded to hirschi's social 100,000 participants by 1941, with a half-million spectators lining the way. In the immediate post–World War II years, large Labor Day events continued to be held. It became a tradition in presidential election years for The Children's Crusade the Democratic candidate to theory kick off his campaign with an appearance at a Labor Day rally in Detroit. Gradually, though, attendance at Labor Day events again began declining. As unionists moved to the suburbs, many became less interested in from Essay parades on city streets. In Detroit, a mere 6,000 marchers took part in the 1966 parade. The Detroit News reported that, “Workers spent the three-day holiday enjoying backyard barbecues, boats and summer cottages: the fruits of their victories.” As attendance at Labor Day events dwindled, unions in many cities stopped sponsoring the events. A New York City Labor Day parade in 1981 was the first to be held there for thirteen years.

That year labor held parades in many cities to theory protest President Ronald Reagan’s firing of striking air traffic controllers and, more broadly, to try to energize a movement suffering declining membership and a string of strike defeats. Some of the revived parades were massive: 200,000 marchers in New York in 1981, 170,000 marchers and onlookers in Detroit the next year. But by the 1990s, attendance waned once again, and official celebrations became less frequent. In most of the country, Labor Day no longer has strong ties to organized labor. The president and netherland drug laws, other political leaders issue statements extolling workers, but these get little public attention. Instead, private leisure is the main order of the day. In the northern part of the hirschi's social theory, country, Labor Day generally marks the end of the summer vacation season and the reopening of schools.

Still, Labor Day remains one of the few national holidays to mark the contributions of a particular segment of the population to society. (Some see Martin Luther King Jr. Day similarly, although it also fits the more common pattern of Essays, holidays marking the birth of a great leader.) The establishment of Labor Day reflected the growing power of organized labor in Gilded Age America, while the hirschi's, decline of its formal celebration marks the waning power of labor and the general privatization of 1824 to 1848, American life. Joshua B. Freeman is a professor of history at Queens College and The Graduate Center, The City University of New York, and the author of Working-Class New York: Life and Labor since World War II (2000) and In Transit: The Transport Workers Union in New York City, 1933–1966 (1989; repr. 2001). Make Gilder Lehrman your Home for History. Please click here to login and hirschi's social bond, access this page. Click here to get a free subscription if you are a K-12 educator or student, and here for more information on the Affiliate School Program, which provides even more benefits. Otherwise, click here for information on a paid subscription for those who are not K-12 educators or students.

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