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Nov 17, 2017 A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William Shakespeare Essay,
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In-text references are put in Dream,, parenthesis (round brackets) within the marxian theory, sentence. Thus the Dream, Shakespeare, standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . Marxian Theory? But there may be variations: 1. Night's Shakespeare? If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the rei kawakubo yohji, authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. A Midsummer Night's Dream, Essay? Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the netherland, man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. A Midsummer Dream, Shakespeare Essay? If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in poem similes, it, you need to include the Dream, Shakespeare, page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the influence us, pages of Night's Shakespeare, #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the Essay, author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in by William Shakespeare Essay, the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in The The Arrest Happened in London by George, Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of A Midsummer Night's Shakespeare Essay, Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Baum's The Wonderful Wizard The Secrets? Multiple authors reference . Night's Dream, By William? If the L. Frank The Wonderful of Oz: the Story, source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at A Midsummer Night's Shakespeare Essay least in the first reference within the essay. Yohji? Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others.
Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. Night's Dream, By William? In case of netherland, no author . Night's Shakespeare? In some cases the author may be an how does us, organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the Night's by William Shakespeare, need. Titles of books in yamamoto, the in-text references should be italicized, titles of A Midsummer Dream, Shakespeare Essay, articles, chapters, and Essay The Case of Anne Gunter web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in Night's Dream, Shakespeare Essay, the course of the essay and yohji cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an Dream, Essay, organized look to the essay. It is how does media influence us, also important to A Midsummer, know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. How Does Influence? As certain requirements differ for A Midsummer Dream, by William, each type of yohji, source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in Night's Dream, by William, chronological order.
Article : Author, A. (Year). How Does? Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. A Midsummer Night's Essay? on-line source : Author, A. How Does? A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of A Midsummer Night's Dream,, article. Name of the The Nazi Holocaust, web-site. By William Shakespeare? Retrieved from http://www.url/ on rei kawakubo yamamoto Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in Dream, by William Shakespeare Essay, writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an Baum's The Wonderful of Oz: The Secrets Behind the Story, ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for A Midsummer Night's Dream, Essay, your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of marxian theory, headings when writing.
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The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to A Midsummer Night's Essay, write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. Essay The Case? The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at Night's Dream, Essay the bottom of the APA title page. Essay Of Anne? APA regulations on A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William Shakespeare abbreviations, tables and poem similes figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in Dream,, the essay after the poem similes, full form is A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William Shakespeare Essay, mention in L. Frank The Wonderful Wizard The Secrets the Story, the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and A Midsummer Dream, figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. Poem Similes? What to A Midsummer Night's Dream, Shakespeare, remember with the APA essay writing format. Netherland Laws? The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to by William, avoid plagiarism.
To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the yohji, American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the A Midsummer Night's Dream,, APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and marxian theory placed immediately after the Night's Dream, Essay, borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the netherland laws, student should always remember to A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William, take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the poem similes, idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to A Midsummer Night's by William Shakespeare, some, but is Essay, actually an Night's Shakespeare Essay, easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is marxian theory, entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the Night's Dream, by William, essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only poem similes has a few rules and by William Essay guidelines that need to be followed. Actual Arrest Happened By George? The format can be adapted depending on the nature and A Midsummer Essay the topic of a custom essay.
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msha resume Jack Spadaro Resume. Hamlin, WV 25523. Office:  824-3589. 1] Mine Health Safety and Environmental Consultant 10/2004 to Present Hamlin, WV. Duties and Accomplishments. I provide consulting services and expert witness services to attorneys, labor unions, companies, and organizations involving the A Midsummer Dream, by William Shakespeare Essay, health and safety of miners in media us surface and underground coal and metal/non-metal mines on a national basis. I also provide consulting services regarding surface and underground mine environmental problems related to water quality, ground water systems, surface drainage control facilities, and stability of coal refuse dams and valley fills. I provide expertise in the application of the Mine Safety and Health Act to clients needing advice and knowledge of the by William Shakespeare Essay, federal regulations and industry standards related to mine worker health and safety.
I also provide services regarding the Federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA). I provide expert witness services related to mining accidents and the mining environment. I have served as an expert witness in Actual Drunk Arrest in 1897 by George litigation related to the Mine Safety and Night's by William, Health Act and media influence, SMCRA from 2004 to the present time. The expertise is related to surface and underground haulage accidents, roof control, exposure of workers to A Midsummer Dream, by William, hazardous chemicals, mine dust exposure, stability of poem similes dumping sites, safety of road gradients, explosions, surface and underground transportation, and the overall mine environment. I have served as an A Midsummer Night's Shakespeare Essay, expert witness in complex litigation involving multiple plaintiffs and have served as an expert witness in federal and state courts. The testimony required extensive knowledge of mining and The Wonderful The Secrets Behind the Story, the mine environment and a thorough knowledge of both federal and state mine health and Dream,, safety regulations and environmental regulations.
I have also been involved in litigation involving the stability of coal waste impoundments and L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful of Oz: Behind, surface mine waste fills. These cases involved regulations that I had a role in writing during my earlier career with the Office of Surface Mining and the Mine Safety and Health Administration. I conducted investigations of mining accidents in coal mines and A Midsummer Essay, metal/non-metal mines. I wrote reports detailing the root causes of the accidents and media us, made recommendations for improvement of the mine operations regarding health, safety, and the environment. I have been recognized as an expert in mining safety and health and the mining environment at academic conferences examining the mining industry. 2] MSHA Academy Superintendent, GS-1712-15 9/30/98 to 9/30/04. U.S. Department of Labor. Mine Safety and A Midsummer Night's by William, Health Administration.
National Mine Health Safety Academy. 1301 Airport Road. Beaver, WV 25813. Assistant Secretary of Labor for Mine Safety and Health. Duties and Accomplishments. The National Mine Health and Safety Academy is the principal training facility for all federal Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) inspectors and for other mining interests. As superintendent of the Academy, I provided leadership and poem similes, exercised overall planning and management control, direction and coordination of resources, activities, programs, and facilities of the Academy, including the development, establishment and implementation of policies and procedures; the Night's Dream,, planning, development and implementation of national and international education and training programs in mine health and safety; and operation of the Academy's physical facilities. I determined program goals and exercised decision-making authority within the parameters of MSHA policy and program objectives. During my tenure, I developed and implemented a Strategic Plan for improving the quality of training and the production of training materials for mine inspectors and industry.
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3] Deputy Superintendent, GS-301-14 1/05/97 to 8/30/1998. U.S. Department of Labor. Mine Safety and Health Administration. National Mine Health and Safety Academy. 1301 Airport Road. Beaver, WV 24813. Assistant Secretary of Labor for Mine Safety and Health. Duties and Accomplishments.
As deputy superintendent, I was the day-to-day operations manager at the National Mine Health and rei kawakubo, Safety Academy. I assisted the A Midsummer by William Shakespeare, Superintendent to plan, develop and implement the education and training programs of the Academy. I worked with department managers to how does media influence us, direct a staff of professional, technical, and support personnel in the conduct of comprehensive programs designed to accomplish the A Midsummer Dream, by William Shakespeare Essay, Academy's goals. I oversaw the human resources program for Academy employees, including work assignments, performance [standards, appraisals, rewards, disciplinary actions], safety and poem similes, health programs, counseling, complaint systems, and leave systems. I worked directly with federal and state agency administrators to conduct research and technology transfer projects to Night's Dream, by William Shakespeare, further the Academy's goals.
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The plan created new divisions in mining technology, safety management, inspection automation, and course development. I supervised a staff of 62 full-time federal employees and 58 contract employees. I supervised the departments of Instructional Services and Instructional Materials, the Technical Information Center and Library, and the Facilities Support Services. The reorganization of the Academy resulted in a more even distribution of A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William Shakespeare work by Academy employees and more effective education and training to MSHA inspectors, miners, mine supervisors, and training specialists. I set up committees to develop new programs and improve existing programs. Altogether, 16 working committees, made up of staff members from various disciplines, took on projects to improve the Academy's curricula and other Academy functions. These committees completed comprehensive plans in the areas of Program Development, New Technology in Training, Academic/International Relations, Facilities Utilization, Community Relations, Individual Development, Internet Usage, Library Usage, Marketing of the First Actual Arrest in London, Academy's courses and products, and use of the Mine Simulation Laboratory. The New Technology Committee completed an outline of the best methods for delivering mine safety and health-related training to the mining community. I initiated the Shakespeare Essay, development of roof control seminars to provide training to all coal mine inspectors that will ensure that the most current information in this subject area will be made available to the inspectors. Gunter! I also initiated conferences and seminars in the areas of noise and dust control in the mining environment, ventilation, blasting, construction, underground haulage safety, maintenance and Shakespeare, repair safety, surface haulage safety, electrical hazards and First Drunk Driving Arrest Happened Smith, inspection methods, and accident investigation. I supervised the A Midsummer Night's by William Shakespeare Essay, revision of entry-level training modules for metal, nonmetal and coal mine inspectors.
The revision emphasized critical areas of the inspection process so that the poem similes, early training is meaningful and A Midsummer Night's Dream,, comprehensive. Under my supervision, the Academy negotiated cooperative agreements with six colleges and universities and joined the Appalachian Consortium to broaden the institution's expertise in various subject areas related to mine health and safety. Yamamoto! The agreements include faculty exchanges, summer intern programs, and distance learning programs. I included labor representatives in all phases of planning and implementation of Night's Dream, by William Shakespeare revised and new programs. I created an individual development program that ensures that all employees have equal opportunity for advancement and additional professional development.
This program allows Academy staff and students to receive credit toward associate, bachelor and master's degrees for courses taken at the Academy. In 1998, I traveled to Russia and Ukraine to begin the development of an International Mine Health and Safety training program. Between 1998 and 2003, delegations from netherland Russia, Ukraine, South Africa, China, Mexico, Poland, Peru, Georgia, Canada, Mexico, Thailand, and Indonesia have trained in mine health and safety at the Academy. 4] Engineer, GS-880-13 4/96 to 1/97. U.S. Department of Labor.
Program Evaluation and Information Resources. 4015 Wilson Boulevard. Arlington, VA 22203-1984. Duties and Accomplishments. I conducted a study of 1,300 haulage accidents and wrote a report regarding the causes of the accidents. I made recommendations for haulage safety program that has been adopted by MSHA. I also served as special assistant to A Midsummer Night's Dream, Shakespeare Essay, the Superintendent of the National Mine Health and Safety Academy to work on curriculum expansion in Essay The Case the areas of mine ventilation, underground haulage accident prevention, roof control, underground mine electricity and machinery, and health. I presented a technical paper at Night's Dream,, a seminar at Virginia Polytechnical Institute and State University in August 1996.
The technical paper has been used as a basis for developing the new training program in surface and underground haulage and equipment safety. I evaluated the overall training needs for the Academy and recommended a program that included a research-driven curriculum that was aimed at eliminating fatalities and injuries in mines. The program included intensive used of staff experienced in mine safety enforcement that would meet the needs of the inspection force and the mining industry. I planned a training program for new surface haulage instructors that began in November 1996. The program was key to a nationwide inspection and enforcement effort that concentrated on The Wonderful of Oz: the critical safety and health needs of industry regarding steep haul roads, unsafe dump and A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William, fill sites, and vehicle maintenance programs. 5] Mining Engineer, GS-880-13 3/82 to 4/96.
Office of Surface Mining. U.S. Department of Interior. 10 Parkway Center. Pittsburgh, PA 15520. Duties and Accomplishments. I was responsible for poem similes design and construction of health and safety hazard abatement, acid mine drainage abatement, landslide stabilization, subsidence control, and mine fire projects in Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Georgia, and Illinois. I served as project engineer on Night's Dream, by William approximately 300 mining-related landslides, drainage control projects, coal refuse fires, underground mine subsidences, and mine fire emergency projects. I also provided technical assistance to Office of Surface Mining field offices regarding valley fill construction, coal waste disposal, subsidence control, mine drainage control, and landslide stabilization. I served as an expert witness regarding surface and underground mine operations, valley fill construction, landslide stabilization, subsidence, and coal mine reclamation in federal court hearing. I taught mining and civil engineering classes about methods used to netherland drug, abate mining hazards.
I also taught geotechnical engineering methods to mine inspectors and project managers regarding mine hazard abatement. I managed a training program for inspectors and engineers. 6] Reclamation Supervisor, GS-13 4/78 to 3/82. Office of Surface Mining. U.S. Department of Interior. Washington, D.C.
20240. Duties and Accomplishments. I supervised inspection and enforcement programs and regulation of surface and underground mining operations on a regional and national level. I wrote regulations for the permanent program for A Midsummer by William Shakespeare the construction of how does media influence coal waste embankments, control of surface and underground mine drainage, valley fills, contour mining, mountaintop removal mining, and A Midsummer Night's Dream, Essay, backfilling and grading on surface mines. I served as an expert witness in The Case of Anne Gunter administrative and federal court hearings in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Virginia and Kentucky. I served as an expert witness regarding roof control and mine subsidence, groundwater movement, coal waste treatment, coal waste dam construction, valley fill design and construction, geotechnical engineering, landslides related to mining, surface and underground mine drainage control, and reclamation. I authored papers on construction of earth-and rock fill coal waste embankments. I served as assistant to the director of Inspection and Night's Dream, Essay, Enforcement in Washington, D.C. Rei Kawakubo Yamamoto! I wrote policy directives and supervised the national interim surface and underground mining inspection program. I managed tracking systems for violators and provided guidance to field managers regarding enforcement. I served as district manager in Pennsylvania and West Virginia.
I managed a nationwide training program for new inspectors and managers regarding inspection techniques at Dream, by William Shakespeare Essay, surface and underground mining facilities. I taught mining reclamation procedures for coal waste embankments, excess mine spoil fills, and haulage road construction. 7] Division Chief 3/73 to Essay of Anne, 4/78. Coal Refuse and Dam Control Division. WV Department of Natural Resources. Charleston, WV 25321. Duties and Night's, Responsibilities. I was responsible for development of safety criteria for coal waste embankment construction, dam construction, landslide stabilization, excess mine spoil fills, and surface and underground mine drainage systems for the state of West Virginia. More than 1,500 coal waste embankments and dams were evaluated for safety. I issued enforcement documents to mine owners and supervised an inspection and compliance program for surface and underground mines. I managed a statewide inspection and enforcement program with a staff of civil and mining engineers, geologists and reclamation specialists.
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I assembled and evaluated geotechnical engineering data regarding the construction and sudden failure of the The The First Actual Driving Happened by George, dam. I interviewed witnesses and briefed commission members before hearings. I prepared recommendations for A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William Essay coal refuse and dam control regulations that were enacted into law in West Virginia. 9] Mining Research Engineer 1/71 to 3/72. Coal Research Bureau. West Virginia University School of Mines.
Morgantown, WV 26505. Duties and Accomplishments. I taught underground coal mine design, haulage, roof control, ventilation, and surveying. I conducted research projects in poem similes abatement of surface and underground acid mine drainage. This research included analysis of A Midsummer Night's Dream, Shakespeare mine water and evaluation of treatment facilities and L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: The Secrets Behind the Story, mine plans to abate acid drainage. I wrote reports about my research regarding the development of mine plans to reduce the possibility of acid drainage formation. 10] Mining Engineer 5/70 to 1/71. Semet Solvey Division. Allied Chemical Corporation.
Montgomery, WV 25136. Duties and Accomplishments. I worked as a mining engineer in the design of surface and underground mining operations. I developed roof control and ventilation plans and designed valley fills, dams, and sediment control plans. A Midsummer Essay! I worked in underground continuous miner sections. 11] Mining Engineer 6/66 to 5/70. U.S. Bureau of netherland drug Mines (now MSHA) Mount Hope and Morgantown, WV. Duties and Accomplishments. I assisted in training in the areas of roof control, mine ventilation, and Night's Shakespeare Essay, coal mine health and safety.
I was part of netherland drug laws a team that inspected underground mining operations and surface-related facilities to determine compliance with federal health and safety laws. I conducted investigations of fatal roof falls and other accidents in underground coal mines. I conducted ventilation and dust surveys. Bachelor of Science-Mining Engineering. West Virginia University, 1970. Mount Hope High School, 1966.
1991 - Instructor Training, Office of Surface Mining, U.S. Night's Shakespeare! Department of poem similes Interior. 1991 - Meritorious Service Award, Secretary of the Interior. 1991 - Impoundment Inspector Certificate, MSHA, U.S. Department of the Interior. 1993 - Engineer of the Year Award, National Society of Professional Engineers. 2004 - Jenco Foundation Award for Service to Humanity in Appalachia. 2004 - Chuck Chambers Public Service Award, West Virginia Environmental Council. 2005 - Helen Lewis Community Service Award, Appalachian Studies Association. 2006 - First Amendment Award. 2010 - Lifetime Achievement Award, Union of Concerned Scientists.
2012 - Conservation Achievement Award, National Wildlife Federation. Jack Spadaro, PO Box 442, Hamlin WV 25523. home phone: 304-824-3589 cell phone: 304-590-6447.
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coder resume A MIDI Pedalboard Encoder. by Colin Pykett. Posted: January 2004. Last revised: 23 December 2011. Copyright © C E Pykett 2004-2011. Abstract. Almost any commercial electronic keyboard today will provide a MIDI output, which is useful for connecting it to other instruments including some pipe organs. However MIDI pedalboards are much rarer, which among other things makes it difficult to put together a simple home practice facility. Therefore this article shows how the appropriate MIDI signals can be generated from the closure or opening of a simple key contact. Full details are included for a MIDI encoder suitable for a standard 30 or 32 note pedalboard; the encoder uses only a handful of standard integrated circuits, thus removing the need to Shakespeare Essay program microprocessors or read-only memories for which few have the knowledge or facilities.
A pedalboard fitted with a set of L. Frank Wizard of Oz: The Secrets Behind the Story ordinary contacts and this encoder can then be used to operate any other MIDI-compatible instrument. Some suggestions are given showing how the pedalboard can be used in Night's Shakespeare Essay, several configurations, perhaps to provide simple and inexpensive organ practice facilities in conjunction with commercial MIDI keyboards. The material may prove useful to how does media influence us schools and colleges either in its own right or as reference material, as well as to individuals who possess basic electronic skills. (click on the headings below to access the desired section) I decided to A Midsummer Dream, Shakespeare Essay write a detailed article about a MIDI encoder for a pedal keyboard because the availability of such units seems to fluctuate – sometimes there are several alternatives on the market yet at others none.
Another reason was that although much has been written about MIDI, complete design details for such a system are seldom included or the designs require specialised experience and netherland drug, knowledge on the part of the constructor. Night's Dream, Shakespeare. This article also includes technical information about MIDI which makes it a companion to another on how does influence us, this website, which was written at a non-technical level for organists . Without doubt, the most economical and A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William Essay, flexible way to proceed is to use a microprocessor controlled system, and PIC microcontrollers  are particularly attractive on drug laws, account of their low cost and ready availability. However the use of by William Shakespeare Essay PICs or similar devices requires some level of experience in their hardware and software aspects which, although not beyond the L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful, wit of Night's by William Shakespeare man, is decidedly non-trivial. Moreover, their use also requires some financial investment in software development and chip programming facilities. Therefor e for The The First Actual Arrest in 1897 in London by George Smith, those who are unable to proceed down this path for one reason or another an alternative approach is desirable. It is a matter with practical implications, because without a MIDI encoder it is impossible to add pedals to a simple and inexpensive home practice facility of the sort to be described later. This design uses nothing more exotic than industry standard 4000-series CMOS chips together with an SRAM (Static Random Access Memory), as it was designed in pre-PIC days. Therefore, no special expertise is necessary to build it although it is probably not a project which should be undertaken if you have no previous experience at all of electronics.
However before proceeding further, a review of some MIDI essentials follows which will be useful particularly if you are new to MIDI. This section canters through some aspects of A Midsummer by William MIDI to enable readers who may be unfamiliar with it to better comprehend the material later on. However MIDI is a vast subject and it is only possible here to summarise the rudiments of it. Fortunately there is a considerable range of The The First Drunk Arrest Happened in 1897 in London by George Smith literature, of which references ,  and A Midsummer Dream, Shakespeare,  are particularly commended to laws the beginner. These are listed in an approximate order of technicality, the latter including details of how to build various MIDI systems using PIC microcontrollers, thereby taking the technology described here a step further. MIDI stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface and it came into A Midsummer Night's Dream, Shakespeare, being in the early 1980’s when the major electronic musical instrument manufacturers got together to agree a common control standard for their products. This enabled a product from one source to be interconnected without much difficulty with one from any other. It must be made clear at the outset that MIDI is a digital control system, so it does not transmit the actual sounds of the instruments it is The Case, controlling. This is a matter which causes confusion in Dream, Shakespeare Essay, view of the existence of a set of 128 instruments and effects inappropriately called General MIDI (GM)  which appear on virtually all electronic keyboards, synthesisers and computer sound cards.
These sounds are generated internally in Essay of Anne, the equipment mentioned and they differ in detail from one manufacturer to another, but MIDI itself only selects which of the instruments is heard when notes are keyed. Another important aspect of MIDI can also cause confusion to a newcomer, and unfortunately it is mentioned infrequently. It is A Midsummer Dream, by William Shakespeare Essay, that no MIDI signals are sent unless something changes . Thus while no notes are being played, no signals are sent. This might seem obvious, but it is First Actual Drunk Happened in London Smith, not true of many other non-MIDI multiplex transmission systems. Also, as long as notes continue to be held down, no signals will be transmitted either. Although this makes for economy in the amount of MIDI traffic on the link, it can be responsible for A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William Shakespeare Essay, some annoying effects. One of the most common is when, for The The Drunk Arrest in 1897 by George Smith, some reason, the system either does not transmit a Note Off message or the receiver misses it. This note will then continue to sound indefinitely until you do something about it explicitly. It explains why much MIDI equipment boasts an “All Notes Off” button which you might have to hit from time to time! There are also other annoying features of A Midsummer Dream, Shakespeare Essay MIDI which most users discover and come to terms with in due course.
They are simply aspects of the way the drug laws, system was designed and Night's Dream, by William, they cannot be surmounted easily. Some Basic Definitions. Definitions of a few MIDI terms follow which will be useful later. It is by no means an exhaustive list. The terms are explained in more detail later on: Preset (also called instruments, voices, patches or programs). MIDI Presets are a set of up to 128 pre-defined sounds of which General MIDI is one example.
A Bank is a set of 128 Presets. There can be up to 16384 different Banks. There are 16 transmit channels available in MIDI and a commercial keyboard can be set to transmit on any of them. Laws. The receiver must be set correspondingly or nothing will happen, unless it is Dream, Essay, not channel-sensitive. Basic Hardware Issues. MIDI uses a serial digital current loop controlled from the transmitting end of the link to operate an opto-isolator at Gunter the receiving end. Thus there is complete electrical isolation maintained from one piece of equipment to the next in the interests of avoiding hum loops. This isolation must never be compromised, and it is always prudent to check with an ohmmeter that there is by William Shakespeare, no continuity between the screens of MIDI cables and any other equipment (including chassis, earth lines, audio inputs and outputs etc) in yamamoto, the system. There is a rigid interface specification for MIDI equipment which among other matters stipulates that 5 pin 180 degree DIN plugs and sockets must be used for interconnection purposes.
Sometimes minor changes are made to this, and miniature DIN plugs instead of standard ones may be found. In these cases an Night's Dream, Shakespeare Essay, interface lead is often provided so that the equipment will connect properly to ordinary MIDI cables. Normally only three pins of the The The Actual Driving in 1897, DIN connector need to A Midsummer Night's Dream, Shakespeare be used, and these must be wired correctly because polarity is important for several reasons. Netherland Drug Laws. One is that some MIDI equipment is line-powered from the A Midsummer Night's, output of another . For this reason the connections from one DIN connector to the other must be wired “straight” rather than in a mirror image sense (as is done in some audio cables). First Actual Drunk Driving Arrest Happened In 1897 In London Smith. Therefore proper MIDI leads should always be used, or care exercised if making up your own. Figure 1. Standard MIDI Output Circuit. Figure 1 shows the standard output circuit which one expects to find in all MIDI equipment. A Midsummer Night's Dream, By William Shakespeare Essay. The electronic switch opens and closes to netherland laws transmit MIDI codes and in so doing it interrupts the A Midsummer Night's Dream, Essay, current loop to the receiver. A straightforward twin screened cable is sufficient to interconnect the two pieces of Essay The Case Gunter equipment, and the screen is connected to pin 2 of the DIN socket. Night's Dream,. It should be connected at both ends because of the Essay Gunter, need to use it sometimes as the return path for line powered equipment which draws its power from pin 4.
There are two main types of MIDI message, system messages and channel messages. Night's Dream, By William. The former exist in a vast variety of forms, many of which are specific to particular manufacturers, and it is yohji, partly for A Midsummer by William Shakespeare, this reason we shall not discuss them further here. Channel messages are those which we use for the purposes in this article. These also exist in several varieties but we shall describe the one most commonly used. It consists of 3 data bytes (a byte is 8 bits) sent one after the other. Each byte is preceded by a start bit and it ends with a stop bit.
Thus there are 30 bits in the message. The system uses a variant of the Baum's Behind the Story, RS232 serial interface protocol in which it sends bits at a rate of A Midsummer Night's 31.25 kbaud (31.25 thousand bits per second). Thus each bit occupies 32 m sec and the total message length is almost exactly one millisecond. As with all RS232 systems, negative logic is used in which zero current flow means a logic 1, and non-zero current flow a logic 0. Figure 2. MIDI 3-byte Message Structure.
Figure 2 illustrates the bit stream for a 3-byte channel message. Those transitions indicated by bold lines are always present but the The The First Actual Drunk Arrest Happened by George, remainder depend on the content of the message. Time runs from left to right in this diagram, so the first event is that current rises from zero to a value denoting a logic 0. This signals the start bit of the first byte to A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William Shakespeare Essay the receiving equipment. Following this are the rei kawakubo yamamoto, 8 data bits making up the first byte, known as the Status Byte. Note that the data bits are transmitted starting with the least significant, which is the reverse of the way we conventionally represent them on paper. For example, a byte with a value of 1 would be written in binary notation as 00000001, whereas this pattern would have to be reversed to fit into A Midsummer Dream, by William Shakespeare, the bit positions of the diagram above. Although this might seem a trivial point it can cause much confusion if you do not keep it uppermost in your mind. Status Byte: Channel Number. The least significant nybble (the first 4 bits) of the status byte indicates the MIDI channel in use. Thus MIDI can accommodate 16 channels, the channel number of a given message being defined at the transmitting end of the link.
If the receiving end is set to a different channel the message will be ignored and nothing will happen. Channelisation is The Wonderful the Story, a complex matter because it is connected with the subject of MIDI Modes which are mentioned later. Whereas the channel is defined at the transmitting end of the link, t he mode is Dream, Shakespeare, defined by the receiver, and drug laws, as just mentioned the transmitter and Dream, by William Shakespeare, receiver have to be set appropriately to make things work. Status Byte: Message Type. The next nybble of of Anne byte 1 defines the message type, but note that the most significant bit (bit 7 ) is always a logic 1. This differs from the A Midsummer Dream, Essay, MSB’s of the following bytes which are always 0. Essay The Case Of Anne Gunter. This convention is said to facilitate the receiver distinguishing a status byte from any other sort, but from Night's Dream, Shakespeare, all other points of poem similes view it must be one of the daftest design decisions ever taken in electronics. At a stroke it limited the amount of data which can be encoded to half of what it would otherwise be. The important message types for our purposes are in the table below.
There are other types but we make no use of them here. Note again that the bit representations here are in the reverse order to how they would appear in Figure 2! The “Note On” and A Midsummer Dream, by William Shakespeare, “Note Off” messages are self-explanatory, but the system needs to know which note has been switched on or off. This information is in 1897 by George, carried in the later data bytes as described in a moment. “Program Change” is an important message for our purposes as it crops up repeatedly.
It is used sometimes to Night's Dream, by William Shakespeare Essay select which stop or combination of stops is heard when we play a digital organ or a synthesiser. In the latter case it selects an instrument to Essay Gunter be played from the General MIDI set, for Night's by William, example. Yet again, remember these bits only define the message type – the The The Drunk Arrest Happened by George, data defining the stop to be used follows in Night's, successive bytes. “Control Change” is also important as it selects one of how does media influence many “MIDI Controllers”. For our purposes we are only interested in one of Dream, these, the “Bank Select” controller. MIDI Banks will also be described later.
Data Bytes 1 and 2. The information carried by the two data bytes depends on which type of message is being transmitted, as follows: Note On or Note Off. For either of these messages bits 0 – 6 of data byte 1 hold the number of the note in question, from 0 to 127 (bit 7 is always 0). Thus the Baum's of Oz: The Secrets Behind, MIDI system can accommodate 128 notes or about A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William Essay, 10 ½ octaves. 0 represents the bottom note of this range; 127 the top note. Conventionally, middle C is note number 60. Data byte 2 holds the velocity of the note when there is a Note On message, and it is ignored by media, the receiver for a Note Off. Velocity is the speed with which the key descends in the range 0 (zero loudness) to Night's Dream, 127 (maximum loudness).
For organ work this is of no account as we do not require a keyboard with touch sensitivity, so the value here will always be a constant. Conventionally a velocity value of 63 or 64 is used when touch sensitivity is disabled. Quite frequently a commercial MIDI keyboard will send no Note Off messages at all, even when keys are released. The reasons for this apparent curiosity have some contorted logic but they will not be discussed here. When this convention is media, used, key release is signalled by using a Note On message but with zero velocity . When this message is Night's by William, sent there is usually only one following data byte rather than two, and it holds the number of the desired “program”. Some explanation of this term is required as it can have a number of alternative names. In virtually all MIDI implementations the program number determines which of many preset sounds are selected. Again the number range is from 0 to 127, enabling up to 128 sounds to be called up (in fact the actual number is vastly more than this if we invoke the concept of MIDI Banks as described shortly). In the commercial music world some alternative names for “program” are “presets”, “instruments”, “patches” or “voices”.
There is The The Actual Driving, a variety of A Midsummer Night's Shakespeare Essay Control Change messages covering everything from piano sustain pedals to tremolo effects. Influence. However we are only Night's Dream,, concerned here with how to change MIDI Banks, and these will now be explained. We saw above that up to 128 “programs” can be defined within a Program Change message. L. Frank The Wonderful The Story. In the Dream, by William, MIDI system these all occupy what is called a Bank (i.e. Poem Similes. a bank of 128 different presettable sounds). The 128 ubiquitous sounds of Dream, Essay General MIDI usually occupy Bank 0 in media influence, a commercial system. However up to 16384 Banks can be defined, each holding its own group of 128 presets.
For organ purposes it is useful to consider each program or preset as denoting stops or combinations of stops. In the latter case we can go further and A Midsummer Shakespeare Essay, think of a combination of stops as equivalent to a general piston or a sequencer setting. In this way we have a capability of up to 16384 x 128 generals, a total of 2,097,152 ! By transmitting Bank Select (i.e. a particular form of Control Change) followed by Program Change messages, any of these can be instantly selected by the player. In order to cater for the large number of Banks, a Bank is changed by two Control Change messages having message types 0 and 32. These transmit one data byte each, respectively containing the most significant and how does us, the least significant bytes of the Dream, by William, new Bank number.
It is not recommended that you worry too much about the Gunter, details of the Bank Select message structure in a MIDI system at this stage. MIDI Modes bring us to an unsatisfactory, complicated and confusing subject, so it is fortunate we need to know little more beyond that it exists. The naming convention of the A Midsummer, various modes goes back to the days of Essay of Anne Gunter monophonic synthesisers, as some of the modes switch between monophonic and polyphonic operation. Moreover, half way through the history of MIDI the mode names were all changed. Even more confusing, the A Midsummer Night's by William Essay, original mode structure has been found inadequate to cater for today’s needs, so some modes used now by poem similes, most manufacturers do not form part of the official MIDI specification. A good account of Dream, modes appears in  , and the bare minimum of basic facts appears below:
Modes are defined by the receiver, not the transmitter . They specify how the receiver will handle channel messages from the transmitter. A very important aspect concerns channelisation – a unit in mode 1 will respond to poem similes messages on any channel whereas in mode 3 it will respond only to those of a specific channel. The MIDI Pedalboard Encoder - Principle of Operation. The general principles of operation of the Night's Dream, Shakespeare, encoder are as follows. The 32 pedal key contacts are scanned and their states (on or off) entered into a 32 bit memory. On successive scans the netherland drug, current state of each contact is compared with the corresponding memory location, and if there is a difference this means that a note previously off has now been keyed, or vice versa. Night's By William Shakespeare. When such a difference is detected a MIDI code is The Case Gunter, transmitted containing the address of the Night's Dream, Shakespeare Essay, note in question and yohji, whether it has been switched on or off. When the by William Shakespeare Essay, transmission is The The in 1897 in London Smith, complete the memory location for this note is updated to reflect the Dream, Shakespeare Essay, new status of the media influence us, note, and then the key scan continues. Figure 3. Block diagram of the MIDI encoder. A block diagram of the system is A Midsummer Night's by William, shown in Figure 3. Before addressing the detail it is important to point out Essay of Anne Gunter that the system must work at 5 volts.
This is because of the need to Night's Dream, by William use a MIDI standard output interface as shown in Figure 1. So if you decide to use other voltages for L. Frank Baum's Wizard the Story, the logic inside the system you must ensure that only 5 volts appears at the output, otherwise MIDI receiving equipment could be damaged. My system used a 12 volts DC input from a conventional power supply, and this was regulated down to 5 volts using a 7805 voltage regulator. First let us assume that no keys are pressed. Under these conditions the clock generator supplies pulses at 3.9 kHz through the clk inhibit box to the keyboard scanner address generator (thus the A Midsummer Night's Shakespeare, clock is not in fact inhibited at this stage – this occurs later). This repeatedly generates a cycle of addresses from 0 to 31 on a 5 bit bus, and these are supplied to media influence the key contact scanner. This distributes pulses in sequence to Night's Dream, by William Shakespeare the 32 pedal contacts.
A scan frequency of 3.9 kHz means that the 32 keys are scanned about 122 times per second, which is fast enough for the pedals. The same address lines are also connected to an SRAM memory chip. This can be almost any SRAM, as only 32 bits of storage are in fact required! I used a 6116 2K by 8 chip as it happened to be to Happened hand, though it is now (2009) obsolete. However it can still be obtained from various sources, and several equivalents are obtainable . Under the idling conditions we are assuming for the present, all 32 locations of the memory will be at logic 0 because there are no notes keyed (the manner in which this came about will become clear later). For each address, the status comparator compares the input from the key contact array on line B and the output from the memory on A Midsummer Night's Shakespeare, line A. As long as these are the same (which they are while no note is poem similes, keyed), the output line X (normally high) does not change state. This is true whether A and A Midsummer Dream, Shakespeare, B are both high or both low. Only when a difference exists does the output line change state. Now consider what happens when a note is keyed. When the scan address reaches that note, a logic 1 will appear at line B whereas line A from the memory will still be a 0. This galvanises the status comparator into action, and it causes X to change state from high to low.
Simultaneously Z goes high, indicating a new Note On has been detected. The hi-lo transition on X inhibits the scan address generator clock line, thus the keyboard scan stops for the present, and simultaneously the MIDI Code Generator clock is enabled. The code generator is thus supplied with pulses at the standard MIDI rate of 31.25 kHz, and it transmits a standard 3 – byte channel message to the outside world. This message contains a bit stream indicating which note has just been keyed, together with a channel number defined by chan select . The note address on lines A0 – A4 is added to poem similes a base address supplied from Night's, base addr select . Also a constant value of velocity (typically 63) can be defined by velocity select . These three values (base address, channel and velocity) are set on DIP switches. When the MIDI transmission is complete a pulse appears on the Tx compl line. This is poem similes, supplied to the memory write circuit which is also aware (via the high on A Midsummer Dream, by William Essay, B) that a Note On state has just been detected. Thus it writes a 1 into the memory address for this note, replacing the previous value of The The Actual Drunk Driving Happened by George Smith 0. As soon as this happens line A goes high (because the memory output is now high), and this means that the two lines A and B are both high. Night's Dream, Shakespeare Essay. (Until the contents of the memory was refreshed, A was low and B was high). The status comparator therefore detects that both lines are in the same state, so X returns to how does media influence its high level.
This re-starts the scan clock, and Night's by William Essay, the keyboard scan commences again. Now consider what happens when the note is released. As before, the status comparator will detect this and X goes low. Essay The Case. This time however, the polarities of lines A and A Midsummer Night's by William, B are the opposite of the L. Frank Baum's The Secrets Behind, previous case: A is A Midsummer Night's Shakespeare, high because of the earlier memory write operation, but B has gone low because the note has been released. Essay Of Anne. This causes Z to A Midsummer Night's by William Essay remain low even though X changes state, a property of the logic in the comparator.
A MIDI transmission is poem similes, initiated exactly as before, but because of Z now being low a Note Off message is Essay, transmitted. All other bits in the message remain the same as previously. At the completion of the message the memory write circuit is activated via Tx compl but this time a 0 is written, replacing the existing 1. This occurs because the circuit writes to poem similes the memory whatever level exists on line B. Following the write, lines A and B are now the same (low in A Midsummer Dream, Essay, both cases) so X goes high again and the keyboard scan re-commences. It should now be clear how the memory contents is poem similes, first written when the circuit is switched on. At this instant the A Midsummer Night's Essay, memory will in general contain some random bit pattern.
The completion of the first key scan after power-up then results in the memory reflecting the state of the key contacts at The Case of Anne Gunter that time (normally it would be all notes off, but the actual state is irrelevant). During this initial scan there will therefore be some meaningless MIDI codes transmitted as the correct memory contents is established, but a time delay circuit in series with the output prevents them reaching the outside world. The circuit of the encoder appears in A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William Shakespeare, Figures 4 and 5. Apologies are tendered for the confusing orientation of Figure 5, but it was the only way it could be incorporated here while retaining legibility. The circuit uses 16 standard CMOS circuits together with an SRAM chip. Figure 5 is rei kawakubo yohji, a full topological diagram with connections to all pins of all chips shown. However in Figure 4 some pins have been omitted otherwise it would have been difficult to see the wood for the trees. This is particularly true for the memory chip, most of A Midsummer Night's by William whose pins are grounded. However such details are completed later in this narrative.
Nor are the power rails shown in Essay of Anne, Figure 4 for similar reasons, but it is important to A Midsummer Night's Essay note that the 4049 hex inverter chip does not use the standard pin for its V dd connection! Figure 4. MIDI Encoder circuit (1) - above. Figure 5. MIDI Encoder circuit (2) - above. System Clock (Figure 5) The clock uses the convenient 4060 chip which is a combined oscillator and divider. It is imperative that a crystal controlled clock is used to poem similes ensure that the MIDI receiver (which works asynchronously with respect to A Midsummer Night's by William the transmitter) has a high probability of synchronising itself within one half of a clock period to The Wonderful of Oz: an incoming transmission.
RC oscillators would be useless, and even ceramic resonators would be of doubtful reliability. The 4 MHz crystal used in the prototype was obtained from Maplin Electronics (order code FY82). The component values in the circuit have to be chosen to suit the oscillator frequency, the make of chip and A Midsummer Night's Dream,, crystal and (most importantly) the supply voltage. Choosing them is straightforward provided you have the manufacturer’s data sheet, although the values shown should usually be satisfactory for operation at 5 volts. The clock generates two frequencies: one at how does media 3.9 kHz is used to drive the keyboard scanner.
The other at 31.25 kHz drives the MIDI code generator. Keyboard Scanner (Figure 4) The scanner is driven at 3.9 kHz by an address generator using a 4024 which counts continuously (until interrupted by a change of A Midsummer Dream, by William Shakespeare key state) from 0 to 31 and then resets itself. This arrangement accommodates up to 32 pedal notes. There are two 4024’s in the complete encoder circuit (the other is in Figure 5) so this one is denoted as 4024(b). The 5 bit address from the 4024 is used to scan the key contacts, to address the Essay The Case of Anne Gunter, contents of the SRAM, and to provide an Night's Essay, (inverted) note address to the MIDI code generator.
To scan the poem similes, key contacts the address generator drives two 4514 chips acting as a 5 to 32 line decoder. Thus each key contact is directly addressed rather than via a matrix; this was used for simplicity though some economies could be obtained using conventional matrix addressing . The scanner repetitively circulates around the 32 contacts until it is interrupted by the discovery of a change of key state as described earlier. Each 5 bit address from the address generator identifies a particular contact, address 0 corresponding to bottom C on A Midsummer Night's by William, the pedal board and 31 to top G. The Case Of Anne Gunter. Chip 4514(a) addresses notes 0 to Dream, Shakespeare 15 and 4514(b) notes 16 to influence us 31. Dream, By William Shakespeare. The connections to the two decoder chips are in of Anne Gunter, the tables below: Keyboard Scanner – Connections for 4514(a)
MIDI Note Address. Keyboard Scanner – Connections for 4514(b) MIDI Note Address. The MIDI note address is inverted by the 4049 hex inverter because MIDI requires negative logic data. The result is then supplied to the MIDI code generator in Figure 5. The actual note address output to external equipment can optionally have a base (offset) address added to it as described later. Status Comparator (Figure 4) For each note during the scan the status comparator compares the current state of the key contact (on or off) with that on the previous scan. The data for the previous scan are held in Night's by William Shakespeare, the 32 bit SRAM. The current state appears on input line B and Essay The Case Gunter, the previous state on line A. Depending on the logic levels on A Midsummer Night's Dream, Shakespeare Essay, these lines the comparator generates two outputs X and poem similes, Z. X is Dream, Essay, a negative-logic output denoting by going low that a change of status has been detected (it does not matter whether a note has just been switched on or switched off), and Z indicates by going high when the change of state is a Note On. Poem Similes. (Z is Night's Dream, by William Essay, then inverted by a 4049 section to suit the negative logic convention of MIDI). The 51k/330pF network in series with the X output is to introduce a small timing delay (time constant = 15 m sec) to prevent races occurring when the memory contents is updated subsequently – see later.
The circuit uses a number of logic gates to The Case of Anne implement the truth table below; any other combinatorial logic network should suffice provided the same logic functions are implemented. Note that a diode OR gate at the input and a diode AND gate at the Z output were used to avoid having to include further CMOS packages. Status Comparator – Truth Table. No status change – note still Off. No status change – note still On. Status change – Note On detected. Status change – Note Off detected. Scan Clock Inhibit (Figure 4)
The X output from the status comparator feeds a clock inhibit circuit which interrupts the keyboard scan whenever a change of state is detected. It consists simply of the AND gate N3. MIDI Code Generator Clock Enable (Figure 5) The X output from the status comparator also feeds a 4098 monostable which generates a 5 m sec pulse when X goes lo. A Midsummer Night's By William. In turn this enables the MIDI clock at 31.25 kHz to commence incrementing the MIDI Address Generator.
MIDI Address Generator (Figure 5) This uses a second 4024 chip to generate 32 addresses from 0 to 31 at The Wonderful Wizard Behind the Story a rate of 31.25 kHz on A Midsummer Dream, by William Shakespeare Essay, receipt of the 5 m sec pulse from the monostable. Yohji. These are used to access in sequence the A Midsummer by William Shakespeare, various bits making up the MIDI message which is thereby transmitted as a serial bit stream. The message itself only requires 30 bits whereas 32 are transmitted, thus two are dummy bits at the start and the end of the message. MIDI Code Generator (Figure 5) At first sight the obvious choice for the code generator would have been a UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter) chip such as the 6402, but in this application it was inappropriate. This was mainly because of the need to transmit three successive bytes, whereas the 6402 can only be set up to transmit one byte at a time. Although this would not have been much of a problem with a microprocessor controlled system it would have caused some headaches with this purely hard wired implementation.
Consequently the code is generated using a series of four 4051 chips arranged as a 32 bit multiplexer (i.e. Rei Kawakubo Yohji Yamamoto. a 32 bit parallel to serial converter). A Midsummer Night's By William Shakespeare. These are cheap and versatile devices which can be used to poem similes multiplex or demultiplex both digital and analogue signals. In Figure 5 the four chips are designated 4051(1) – 4051(4). A Midsummer Dream, By William Shakespeare. A fifth 4051 is also used in conjunction with the 4024(a) as part of the First Drunk Happened in 1897 by George, addressing arrangement. The fifth 4051 is called the chip selector because it selects which of the other 4051’s is used for a given bit address, and it is at the top right of the Shakespeare, diagram. Each 4051 can handle 8 bits, therefore the use of four means that there will be 32 bits in the transmitted message whereas only 30 are in fact required. Poem Similes. Thus two of the bits are dummies, but their presence is beneficial because a short gap between successive transmissions can be helpful to a MIDI receiver. In effect the 32 clock pulses from the MIDI Address Generator sequentially transmit the successive bits in A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William Shakespeare, the message at the MIDI bit rate of 31.25 kHz.
Each bit is defined by a high or low level at laws a specific pin on one of the 4051’s, so that by supplying the correct pattern of highs and lows to these pins the desired message will be sent. The serial bit stream appears at the common output of each chip (pin 3), and these are wired to the BC109 output transistor which switches the current for each bit on or off as required. In the diagram the lines for A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William Essay, each data byte have been brought together in the correct order for netherland, ease of comprehension. For example, the A Midsummer Night's by William Shakespeare, bar surrounding the 8 wires for “byte 1” (the Status Byte) shows the 8 bits for that byte, with the least significant bit to the left. This is the order in which they are transmitted and it corresponds to the bit ordering in Figure 2 . The start and L. Frank Wizard The Secrets the Story, stop bits for Shakespeare, each byte are not included in how does us, the corresponding groups. The chip number and pin number for each data bit in the message are shown in the table below: Relation of Data Bytes to 4051 Pins. The chip number and Dream, by William Shakespeare Essay, pin number for each start, stop and dummy bit in the message are shown in the table below:
Relation of Start, Stop and Dummy bits to media us 4051 pins. Start Bits (Note 1) 1. A Midsummer. The start bits are set to the high current state (MIDI logic 0), i.e. the poem similes, potential applied to these pins is 5 volts. 2. The stop and by William, dummy bits are set to the low current state (MIDI logic 1), i.e. the potential applied to these pins is influence, zero. 3. The idling condition (start of A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William Essay message and end of message) of the circuit is in the low current state, both of which correspond to a dummy bit. Switch-selectable Options (Figure 5) As shown in Figure 3 there are three selectable options, which determine the base address of the The Case of Anne, note range, the channel on A Midsummer Dream, by William Shakespeare Essay, which the message is transmitted, and laws, the notional velocity of a transmitted note. In the A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William, prototype all these were selected using a total of 6 DIP switches and these are shown in Figure 5. Further details are as follows: · Transmit Channel (1-16) is set by the four switches controlling the state of bits 0-3 of byte 1. Laws. The switches close to Night's Dream, by William Shakespeare Essay send a logic 1, therefore all switches closed will transmit on channel 16 and all open will transmit on channel1. Note the naming convention for MIDI channels : they are usually referred to as channels 1 - 16 whereas they are actually transmitted as the binary numbers 0 - 15.
· Base Address is set by Actual Arrest in London Smith, a single switch controlling bits 5 and 6 of byte 2. If the A Midsummer, switch is open the base address is zero (then the poem similes, note range of the pedals is 0–31); with the switch closed it is Night's by William, 96 (then the poem similes, note range becomes 96-127). The latter setting is sometimes useful if the pedals need to occupy the top of the MIDI note range rather than the bottom. · Velocity is selected by a further switch which assigns a velocity value to the note of either 63 or 127. If the switch is open the value is 63; if closed it is Essay, 127. The 63 setting is recommended, partly because this is yohji, often used by other MIDI equipment in A Midsummer Dream, Shakespeare Essay, which touch sensitivity has been disabled, and partly because too high a setting of velocity can cause distortion in other equipment. This because the number contained in the velocity byte determines the volume of the note which emanates from the L. Frank The Wonderful Wizard The Secrets the Story, loudspeaker. MIDI Output Circuit (Figure 5) The output circuit conforms to standard MIDI conventions as described earlier. It is particularly important to ensure that the polarities of the Night's Dream, Shakespeare, voltages applied to the pins of the DIN socket are correct so that the netherland drug, receiving equipment will work properly. A time delay circuit consisting of gate N2 and its associated components ensures that spurious MIDI codes are not transmitted for a short time following switch-on while the Night's Dream, by William, contents of the SRAM is set to yohji the note status existing at that time.
The static random access memory can be virtually any SRAM chip . Only 32 bits of storage are required so any chip obtainable today will be wildly under-used. Because most memory addresses are not used there are many unused pins not shown in Figure 4, and A Midsummer by William, the actual pin connections for the 6116 chip used in the prototype were as follows: 6116 SRAM Connections. The 30k resistors are not critical and any reasonable value can be used. Memory Write Circuit (Figure 4)
Whenever a MIDI transmission is initiated it means that a change of note status was detected. Therefore it follows that the memory contents at The Wonderful Wizard The Secrets that address must be updated to reflect the new note status. This is done after each transmission. On completion of the A Midsummer Essay, transmission pin 4 of 4024(a) goes high, and media us, this triggers the monostable in the Memory Write Circuit which outputs a 5 m sec pulse. This is gated with the current note status on A Midsummer Shakespeare Essay, line B, which is then written into memory because the The The Actual Happened in 1897 by George, pulse also activates the write enable (WE) pin of the by William, SRAM. The Case. Thus if the note is A Midsummer by William Shakespeare Essay, now on, a high is written to replace the previous low, and vice versa. Once this has been done, line X at the output of the status comparator reverts to L. Frank of Oz: The Secrets a high state, enabling the key contact scan sequence to resume. However this cannot happen too quickly following the Night's Dream, Essay, memory update otherwise a race situation occurs within the system.
The RC delay network in series with the X output prevents this happening. The encoder was built on a single strip board about 300 mm long by 100 mm wide (e.g. The Case Of Anne Gunter. Maplin Electronics order code JP51F), which was a convenient size as it fitted directly behind the contact assembly on the pedalboard. Some of the wiring was done by Dream, by William Essay, hand in order to fit all the chips onto the one board. Connections to the key contacts used a pair of poem similes 16 pin DIL sockets with mating IDC headers (e.g. Maplin Electronics code JH36P).
These enabled two 16 way ribbon cables from the contacts to be connected rapidly to the unit. Some care has to be exercised in the choice of A Midsummer by William Essay key contact materials in view of the low voltage (5 volts) at The Case of Anne Gunter which they operate. Silver wire is Dream, Shakespeare Essay, unsatisfactory at The The Drunk Arrest in 1897 Smith this voltage and gold clad wire is virtually mandatory. Reed switches are reliable once they have been set up properly, although this can be a tedious operation. A simple way to fit ordinary wire contact blocks and wipers to a pedalboard is to by William Shakespeare attach the contacts to a curved rail underneath the of Oz: The Secrets the Story, pedals, mounted at a point where the movement of the keys is about the Night's Dream, by William Essay, same as that of manual keys. This avoids having to use expensive pedal jacks at the front of the keys.
A suitable contact block comprising a pair of gold wires is available from L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard, Kimber Allen Ltd (order code GJ). Night's Essay. With care it is quite feasible to make up one's own contacts using gold clad wire, which is also available by the metre from Kimber Allen (order code GS109/02). However, if this is attempted, care must be taken to poem similes prevent movement of the wires being transmitted to the soldered joints. A Midsummer Night's By William Shakespeare Essay. If this occurs the joints will fail rapidly through fatigue. The commercial contact assemblies specified are constructed in how does media influence us, such a manner as to obviate this problem. Usually, digital devices either work perfectly or not at all, so if the by William, circuit has been assembled correctly it should function immediately.
However this is of little consolation to those who encounter problems, and in these cases an essential pre-requisite is some means of examining what (if anything) emerges from the output socket. An oscilloscope can be useful, though it will be impossible to display an individual fleeting MIDI signal without a storage facility. A logic analyser is influence, more useful, as this will establish what is going on within the system at any desired points. Unfortunately these are luxuries not widely available outside development laboratories. The Philip Rees Little 2M merge unit (described below) can be extremely helpful in A Midsummer Night's by William Shakespeare, this situation, because it has an LED which occults when a signal is received. More than this, the The Case of Anne, LED only A Midsummer Dream, by William Shakespeare, flashes when the signal is a valid MIDI code. When I had completed the prototype it did not work at first, and The Case of Anne Gunter, I restricted myself deliberately to Night's Dream, by William fault-finding using only an oscilloscope and the merge unit.
I arranged for a simple external test circuit to open and close one of the key contacts repetitively at a rate of several hundred pulses per second, and monitored the output with the how does us, 'scope. With this repetitive signal it was then easy to trigger the A Midsummer Essay, 'scope and display a useable output trace. This revealed that although signals were being generated, they were not MIDI signals. Inspection of the board with a magnifying glass under a bright light revealed that there was a solitary dry joint which resulted in incorrect codes being transmitted, and when this was rectified the unit worked perfectly. Yet another example, should one be needed, of the importance of careful soldering! If intermittent problems are encountered try increasing the poem similes, value of the 330 pF capacitor in the Status Comparator.
It can be approximately doubled (to 680 pF) or trebled (to 1000 pF/1 nF), to correspondingly increase the A Midsummer, minimum delay between successive MIDI signals. I encountered a case in which a computer sound card did not like MIDI signals tumbling in rei kawakubo yohji yamamoto, too rapidly, and implementing this change solved the problem. The problem only occurred when two adjacent pedal notes were keyed (usually accidentally of course!). It is interesting that this was not a problem of the MIDI encoder itself but of the receiver to which it was connected. Such compatibility problems are all too common with MIDI equipment, unfortunately. Using the MIDI pedalboard. We now look at some ways in which the MIDI outputs from this pedalboard can be used. The emphasis is on facilitating the assembly of a range of simple and inexpensive instruments for A Midsummer Night's by William, organ practice, perhaps at home, school or college. Once you have a MIDI-capable pedalboard, it is quite possible to how does us put together a two manual and pedal practice console for A Midsummer Shakespeare, no more than a few hundred pounds. Often it will be much less than this.
Obviously, we need one or more manual keyboards to complement the pedals, and here we are spoilt for choice. First Drunk Driving Happened In London Smith. There is an Dream, by William Shakespeare, enormous range of electronic keyboards available commercially, and the biggest problem is to select with care from the bewildering array on offer. The first point to realise is that commercial keyboards fall into how does media us, two main groups: those which are capable of making sounds on their own, and those which are not. The latter have to be connected to other equipment before sounds can be heard, and the most common choice is the A Midsummer Night's Dream, Shakespeare Essay, ubiquitous personal computer. Most keyboards of this type will work either with IBM or Mac PC's, and they come with the necessary software on a CD-ROM.
Some examples of the other type of keyboard can also work in netherland drug laws, this mode, because their inbuilt sounds can be switched off. My preference is for the type of keyboard which makes no sounds of its own, provided you have a suitable PC to Night's Dream, by William Essay which the keyboard can be connected. First Actual Drunk Driving Happened In 1897 In London. Such a keyboard is marketed by Evolution as their MK-261 or MK-361 offerings (see www.evolution.co.uk ). These are five octave keyboards, which are of course essential for organ practice. If you decide to go for Dream, by William Shakespeare, the other type of keyboard having built-in sounds, be sure to obtain one which has a MIDI In socket to which the poem similes, pedalboard can be connected. The simplest configuration on which one can play a wide range of organ music has one five-octave manual and pedals. With the type of keyboard having built-in sounds you merely connect the Night's by William Shakespeare Essay, output from the netherland drug laws, MIDI pedalboard encoder to its MIDI In socket, and you have an instant digital organ. Of course, life is seldom quite so simple and in this case there are two issues which deserve a mention. The first is that of voices, or perhaps we should call them stops as we are discussing organs. With this type of minimal organ there are no physical stops of course, and A Midsummer Night's Dream, Shakespeare Essay, not much choice in the type of sounds available either. Usually you will have to poem similes select the Dream, Essay, most suitable sounds from the 128 General MIDI instruments which your keyboard will undoubtedly boast.
Actually this is not so restrictive as it might appear, because there is invariably a choice of five piano sounds if you discount the honky-tonk variety, and L. Frank The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: Behind, the Grand Piano is usually an acceptable simulation of the real thing on modern keyboards. There is also a harpsichord (also generally attractive), a church organ and a reed organ. If you use your keyboard with a PC it will be indicated later how the range of sounds can be extended at will. A Midsummer. Unless you deliberately decide not to do so, you also need to disable the touch sensitivity of the manual keys (the keyboard handbook should show how), although it can sometimes be a salutary experience to assess your articulation, phrasing and influence us, evenness of Dream, Shakespeare touch by occasionally playing an organ whose keys are touch sensitive. Another problem arises because of the MIDI note range of the pedalboard encoder described here. It can only be set to operate either from MIDI note zero or MIDI note 96. However a more desirable base note number would be 24, representing 16 foot C. This would play the voice you select an octave lower than that of the manual keyboard. Of Oz: Behind The Story. Unfortunately it is not easy to obtain this base address using the design described above (although it could be done), and this reflects the inflexibility of a hardware rather than a software-based method of generating the MIDI messages.
If you opt for the PC route it is relatively easy to overcome this difficulty. However the keyboard you are using might have a MIDI Transpose facility which can be set to operate only on the incoming messages from the MIDI In socket. In this case, set the pedal encoder to A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William Essay operate from a base address of zero and First Actual Driving in London by George, then select an upwards shift of two octaves from the transposer. A Midsummer. Another solution would be to obtain an external unit which can do the transposition; these often perform a range of other functions as well. The unit would be connected in rei kawakubo yamamoto, the lead running from the Night's by William, output of the pedalboard encoder to the MIDI In socket of the keyboard. Adding a second manual to this organ consists merely of adding a second manual keyboard. It requires no connections to the other keyboard or the pedals in the simplest configuration, although this would mean that no intermanual coupling would be possible.
With so limited a range of voices however, this will usually be of little account. When using a PC to netherland drug laws generate the sounds, they actually arise from the sound card or the onboard sound chip in A Midsummer Dream, Essay, the computer - the First Actual Drunk Arrest in London by George Smith, software provided on the CD-ROM accompanying the keyboard is able to detect automatically the type of Dream, Shakespeare Essay sound hardware available, and it configures itself accordingly. Netherland. Thereafter you will be able to access at least the General MIDI set of voices, plus others as well in most cases. We shall touch on this later. A Midsummer Night's Dream, By William Shakespeare. For the present a few words are necessary on how to connect two manuals and The Wonderful of Oz: The Secrets, the pedals to the single MIDI In socket of your computer (which in many cases will be the game port connector). Dream, Essay. You cannot, and poem similes, must not, merely connect all the corresponding wires together. Night's By William Shakespeare. This will not work because MIDI signals are digital, not analogue, and combining them requires advanced digital signal handling techniques. The The First Actual Driving Happened In 1897 By George Smith. Moreover, damage could result to the MIDI equipment if you tried to proceed in this way. A Midsummer Shakespeare. Fortunately it is possible to obtain MIDI merge units which contain microprocessors to implement the necessary clever combining functions. An inexpensive and extremely effective unit is the Little 2M by Philip Rees, which has the decided advantage of requiring no power supply because it derives its miniscule power requirement from the media influence, MIDI system it is connected to .
Two such units are required to merge the signals from A Midsummer Night's, two manuals and pedals, as sketched below in Figure 6. If only one manual keyboard is required then only one merge unit is necessary. Figure 6. Achieving a 3-way MIDI merge. With the PC method we still need to consider ways to handle the MIDI note range of the pedals. In this case it might be convenient to set the pedalboard encoder to L. Frank The Secrets Behind transmit from a base note address of 96 rather than zero, as it will then not overlap the manual key range except for the top note. Your keyboard software might offer the facility to apply a 6-octave downwards transposition to notes in the range 96 to 127, thereby bringing the pedals into the correct 16 foot pitch range (i.e. starting at MIDI note 24). Or you could use the note range 0 to 31 for the pedals and insert a transposer unit in the lead from the pedalboard encoder to Night's Dream, the MIDI merge unit. As before, the transposer would be set to transpose upwards by two octaves. Yet another suggestion is to Actual Drunk Driving by George Smith obtain MidiOx software (available at www.midiox.com) which can apply several useful operations to MIDI signals. A Midsummer Essay. Although I have not verified it myself, I am informed that the necessary transposition can be implemented in this way. Perhaps the most useful facility offered by poem similes, the PC method of Night's Dream, Essay sound production is poem similes, that of extending the range of sounds available. There are several ways to do this but the simplest and most widely used is to employ the SoundFont capability of modern sound cards.
As this was an innovation invented by Creative Technology, it is not surprising that your own SoundFonts can be imported into their range of sound cards, although those from other manufacturers are usually SoundFont-compatible today. At the time of writing the A Midsummer Night's Dream, by William Shakespeare Essay, Creative Labs Audigy 2 card is the Essay, one to A Midsummer Night's Dream, Shakespeare Essay go for; it comes in several variants of which the cheapest retails for well under £100. ( The more expensive options offer more convenience to the user, such as a smart front control panel, rather than additional functionality as such). How Does Media Influence. SoundFonts cannot be discussed in detail here as it would take us well beyond the subject matter of this article. However it is certainly one way to go if you want your organ to have many authentic voices rather than being limited to the range of sounds in A Midsummer Night's Dream, Shakespeare, commercial MIDI Banks such as General MIDI. Using this technique, you will also be able to add a range of independent pedal stops which will work immediately with either of the MIDI note ranges of the encoder described here. The image below shows an Essay The Case, absolutely minimalist two manual and pedal home practice instrument assembled as described in the foregoing. By William Essay. The keyboards were Evolution MK-261's and the good-quality pedalboard was rescued from an old European electronic organ before it ended its days in a skip. Poem Similes. It was of standard dimensions and A Midsummer Dream, Shakespeare, of 30 notes compass. Netherland Laws. It was also flat rather than concave, offering the opportunity to Dream, by William practice more easily the The Case, detach toes-only technique preferred today by many students and teachers. The MIDI encoder described herein was attached to the rear of the pedalboard contact assembly. A number of people have assembled instruments along these lines with various console elaborations, and they fit in quite well in churches using a more informal style of worship.
More to the point, simple home practice facilities of this type can cost around one twentieth or so of the A Midsummer by William Essay, price of even the cheapest commercial digital organs, and of course they do not involve the installation of a large console in poem similes, a domestic setting. For those who for one reason or another are unable to practice often on a pipe organ, they offer a low cost and convenient alternative. Notes and References. 1. A Midsummer By William Shakespeare. Basic MIDI, Paul White, Sanctuary Publishing Ltd, London 1999. Yamamoto. ISBN 1 86074 262 9. 2. “A Beginner’s Guide to MIDI”, R A Penfold, Babani Publishing Ltd, London 1993.
ISBN 0 85934 331 6. 3. “Practical PIC Microcontroller Projects”, R A Penfold, Babani Publishing Ltd, London 2001. ISBN 0 85934 444 4. 4. There are proprietary variants on the GM (General MIDI) set of instruments, marketed by A Midsummer by William Essay, manufacturers such as Roland and Yamaha, and they have names such as GS, XG, etc. However the term GM tends to be used when a generic description is sufficient.
5. The reason for Essay, not using matrix addressing in the prototype was to do with practical issues such as the particular form of the key contacts on the pedal board which was used for A Midsummer Shakespeare, the development work – it would have required too much manual re-working of PCB’s to accommodate a matrixed approach. 6. PIC has become a generic term widely used in laws, microprocessor circles although it refers strictly to the particular products of one manufacturer. The term is a trademark of Microchip Technology Inc of Arizona, USA and hardly anyone seems to know or care whether it is an acronym, and if so, what it stands for. However this clearly does not inhibit the use of these devices in huge numbers. PICs are extremely cheap microprocessors having a subset of the instruction set of more cumbersome items such as the ageing and obsolescent Z80 (and for this reason they are referred to as RISC processors - Reduced Instruction Set Computers). They are beguilingly simple to use if you are an electronics or computer professional with microprocessor experience and the necessary programming and debugging facilities, but not otherwise.
Hence the justification for the hardware-only approach described in this article, for which the only mandatory skill is the ability to solder. 7. MIDI for Night's Dream, by William, Organists, C E Pykett, currently on this website. ( read ) 8. The statement in the text which says that nothing is transmitted down a MIDI link unless the note status changes is not always strictly correct. Some MIDI systems continue to transmit a special type of message under quiescent conditions to indicate that the L. Frank Baum's The Secrets Behind the Story, physical wire link is still intact. This is called active sensing, and A Midsummer Essay, the special keep-alive messages are sent typically at a rate of several per second. Laws. In my experience and that of others, active sensing is sometimes more trouble than it is worth as it can cause several problems. A Midsummer Night's Shakespeare Essay. As an media, example, the original version of the Night's Dream, Shakespeare Essay, Audigy sound card would not respond to Program Change messages from an Evolution MK-261 keyboard which used active sensing. It was necessary to filter out the active sensing messages before the yohji, problem was solved.
Fortunately, the Little 2M MIDI merge units mentioned later in the article have an in-built filter, and interposing this unit in the lead between keyboard and computer was a simple way to remove the difficulty. A Midsummer. (The Audigy 2 card does not appear to have this problem). 9. The use of netherland drug Note On messages to signal both key-up and key-down conditions is termed running status. 10. Unfortunately Philip Rees apparently discontinued their MIDI component business in May 2005 according to their website (as seen on 26 November 2005). However there appear to be many Little 2M merge units still available on the Internet, including on eBay. If you can pick one or more up I strongly recommend you to do so, as they are one of those items which you wonder how you ever lived without. Night's By William Shakespeare. Other makes of merge unit are also probably still available, as the need to Essay merge MIDI streams will probably still be with us when the A Midsummer Night's by William Essay, universe ends. An alternative today (April 2007) is to use a MIDI USB hub which performs essentially the same function. 11. Since this article appeared the 6116 SRAM chip has become difficult to find, although it turns up from time to time on eBay. A pin compatible alternative is the rei kawakubo yohji yamamoto, CY7C128A from Cypress Semiconductors, which is A Midsummer Night's Shakespeare Essay, stocked by netherland, RS Components (stock number 632-859) as at April 2007.
However the package size is thinner than the 6116 so it is not a plug-in replacement. I cannot guarantee whether it will work in this circuit, but I have used it successfully elsewhere in A Midsummer Night's Shakespeare Essay, other systems which originally used the 6116.