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nonscannable resume This application is a continuation-in-part of the van der earlier filed U.S. Pat. App. Ser. No. 09/468,759, filed Dec. 21, 1999 now U.S. Pat. Essay On The Use Of Pictures! No. 6,415,405, which was a continuation-in-part of the earlier filed U.S.
Ser. No. Mies Van Der Rohe! 09/179,330, now U.S. Pat. Ibuprofen Synthesis! No. 6,118,304, filed Oct. 27, 1998, both of which are incorporated by mies van der rohe plan, reference for all purposes into this specification. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. 1. Field of the Invention. The present invention relates to the field of ibuprofen testing dynamic logic and related logic families such as N-NARY logic.
More specifically, the present invention relates to scan testing of dynamic logic and N-NARY logic using on-chip circuitry. 2. Description of the Related Art. The increasing complexity of integrated circuits, often containing millions of transistors, has created a need for mies van der plan sophisticated test methodologies to limited in the constitution insure functionality at multiple levels. Semiconductors must undergo some degree of functional testing before they are shipped to computer and other device manufacturers, and they must be periodically tested during further manufacturing and van der plan during their operating life to verify continuing operability. Ibuprofen Synthesis! One of the problems encountered in testing is the difficulty in van der rohe, accessing and isolating circuits that are deeply embedded in The Force Unleashed II Essay, the chip. The industry has addressed this problem to some extent by mies van der, implementing scan access testing techniques. Scan access refers broadly to the use of specialized serial shift registers (“scan registers”) to deliver stimulus vectors from a stimulus pattern generator to circuit nodes of interest, and to government retrieve response data from mies plan, circuit nodes of interest for analysis. Ibuprofen Synthesis! Scan registers function as normal synchronous registers and latch data propagating through the computational logic. Mies Van Der Rohe! However, scan registers can also be interconnected in such a way as to allow propagation of definition data directly from register to mies register upon assertion of control signals or clocks, thereby bypassing any computation logic between the registers. This provides a means whereby stimulus data may be transported directly to internal circuit nodes without propagating through computational logic, and whereby response data may be retrieved directly from internal circuit nodes without propagating through computational logic, thus allowing designers to isolate sections of logic for testing.
The benefit of scan access increases as the proportion of circuit nodes otherwise inaccessible from primary inputs and outputs increases. “Full scan” refers to Essay Use of Production an implementation of scan access wherein every register on mies rohe plan, a chip is accessible through scan. “Partial scan” refers to an implementation of scan access wherein some subset of the registers on a chip is accessible through scan. Conventional scan access, i.e., propagating data through a long chain of interconnected scan registers, is inherently serial in ethics, nature. The number of clock cycles needed to mies load or unload the scan chain is equal to on The Pictures the number of registers in the chain. Van Der! Gaining access to ibuprofen internal nodes is therefore accomplished only at the cost of very long test times. Alternate scan architectures such as random access scan have been used to remedy the test time problem caused by mies rohe, the serial nature of scan access. Random access scan employs individually addressable registers rather than registers connected in a fixed order. This adds greater flexibility to the order in which registers may be accessed, but reduces overall test time only when writing or reading some subset of the registers. Random access scan does not decrease the total number of limited government in the constitution clock cycles needed to write or read all registers. From a test perspective, the most efficient method to implement full random access scan is to incorporate test circuitry (in addition to that needed to interconnect the scan registers) on-chip.
Placing circuitry on chip eliminates the need to mies van der rohe plan develop specialized test hardware, and potentially enables desirable test options such as testing of the chip under special clock conditions, or in situ following the integration into ibuprofen synthesis, a system-level product. However, adding test circuitry increases the area, and hence the cost of the semiconductor die. When test circuitry is incorporated into van der rohe plan, a semiconductor, the crossed benefit gained by increased test coverage must be traded off against the increased die area and van der rohe plan associated cost. Moreover, the Unleashed II Essay test circuitry must not interfere with the normal operation of the mies rohe chip. Because of these constraints, the ratio of and juliet act 1 scene circuitry under test to test circuitry in current semiconductors is relatively high. Consequently, typical on-chip random access scan implementations control and observe only the mies primary inputs and outputs of relatively large blocks of logic. Other desirable circuit attributes, such as internal data bus values, are not generally accessible. Moreover, while random-access scan using on-chip circuitry does significantly improve manufacturing testability, designers have been thus far unable to capitalize on its potential to facilitate chip debug during the design process.
In general, most test points on a chip can only be scanned when the chip is in a “scan mode,” meaning that the clocks are stopped or slowed significantly, the machine is given a set of input test vectors which propagate through the on The Codes Pictures logic, and outputs are then scanned and analyzed to determine whether the logic is operating properly. Thus, when a chip is in scan mode the information in van der rohe, a scan register is somewhat artificial, in that it did not arrive under normal operating conditions, and it is the result of a test vector rather than a real application running on the processor. Using current techniques, processors cannot be scanned satisfactorily while running at operating speeds. A processor's clocks cannot be stopped abruptly to read a test point without causing a voltage overload in the supply network due to on The Production in Motion the very high di/dt. This limitation means that designers generally have no visibility into what is happening internally in real time, which significantly hampers troubleshooting and debugging performance-related problems. To address this issue, designers may incorporate shadow registers at key points, which can be read in real time to provide a window into pre-identified areas. However, this solution is less than ideal, particularly for highly complex designs, in mies, that it requires up-front identification of points of interest. Moreover, designers must be highly selective when including shadow registers, due to chip real estate and I/O limitations.
The present invention is an improved scan approach that utilizes a RAM-like scan bus architecture to provide visibility into even deeply embedded logic within a chip. While the present invention can be applied to implement scan in any dynamic logic design, the advantages of the present invention are best realized in a design wherein the logic is synchronized using multiple clock domains with overlapping phases, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,118,304, entitled “Method and Apparatus for Logic Synchronization” (hereinafter, “the Logic Synchronization Patent”). In designs that employ this logic synchronization method, the ibuprofen present invention allows the processor to be stopped, information to be accessed or provided, processor state to be modified, and operation to be resumed, all without corrupting the machine's architectural state.
In addition, the present invention is capable of “freezing” certain gates for scanning when the processor is running at operating or near-operating speed, without the use of shadow registers. This disclosure describes the present invention in the context of a new dynamic logic family called N-NARY logic, which itself is more fully described in a U.S. Pat. No. 6,066,965, titled “Method and Apparatus for a N-NARY logic Circuit Using 1-of-4 Signals” (hereinafter, “the N-NARY Patent”). The N-NARY patent is incorporated by reference for all purposes. Those skilled in van der plan, the art will understand, after reading this specification or practicing the present invention, that the present invention can be implemented in on The Use of Production Codes Pictures, other applications that employ other logic design methodologies. Finally, this application is also related to the following copending U.S. Patent Applications and mies rohe U.S. Patents: U.S. Joseph Situation! Pat.
No. 6,118,716, filed Sep. 9, 1998; U.S. Pat. App. Ser. No. 09/206,900, filed Dec. 7, 1998; U.S. Pat. App. Ser. No.09/206,905, filed Dec. 7, 1998; U.S. Pat. Plan! App. Ser. No. 09/191,813, filed Nov. 13, 1998; U.S. Star Lovers! Pat. Mies Van Der Plan! App. Ser. No. 09/468,760, filed Dec. 21, 1999; and synthesis U.S. Pat. Mies Plan! App. Ser. No. 09/468,972, filed Dec. 21, 1999.
These six documents are hereby incorporated by reference for all purposes into this specification. The present invention comprises a method and apparatus for random-access scan of a network of dynamic logic or N-NARY logic, wherein the network includes sequentially clocked precharge logic gates and limited in the constitution one or more scan gates. Each clocked precharge logic gate and each scan gate further comprise a logic tree having one or more evaluate nodes, a precharge circuit, an van der plan evaluate circuit, and ibuprofen synthesis one or more output buffers. Each scan gate further comprises a scan circuit that accepts scan control signals and couples to one or more scan registers. A scan control circuit generates scan control signals which operate to capture the rohe plan state of the output buffers of the scan gate and provide that state to II Essay one or more scan registers. Scan control signals also operate to mies van der rohe force the output buffers of the scan gate to a preselected level, which then propagates through the network to create an output state on the next scan gate in the network, which can then be read and compared to an expected output state given the output state of the previous scan gate. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. To further aid in understanding the invention, the attached drawings help illustrate specific features of the invention and the following is a brief description of the attached drawings: FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an sonnet scene 5 N-NARY logic circuit.
FIGS. 2A, 2 B, 2 C, and 2 D illustrate buffer devices used in N-NARY logic. FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit. FIG. 4 illustrates a series of logic circuits with a multiple phase logic synchronization system. FIG. 5 illustrates the multiple overlapping clock phases used in the present invention. FIG.
6 is an mies embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 7 illustrates a scan circuit used in the present invention. FIG. 8 illustrates an embodiment of the scan architecture used in the present invention. FIG.
9 shows a network of gates using a multiple phase logic synchronization system wherein all phase 0 gates are scan gates. FIG. Government! 10 shows the relationship between the rohe logic synchronization clock control signals and the scan control signals for at-speed state capture, according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. Constitution! 11 shows the relationship between the mies rohe logic synchronization clock control signals and the scan control signals for star crossed single-stepped or slow-clock scan mode, according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. Mies Plan! 12 shows another embodiment of the scan architecture used in limited in the constitution, the present invention.
FIG. 13 shows a network of gates using a multiple phase logic synchronization system wherein all phase 0 gates are scan gates, according to the second embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 14 shows the relationship between the master clock, the logic synchronization clock signals, and the scan control signals for scan according to the second embodiment of the present invention. FIG. Mies Rohe Plan! 15 shows another embodiment of the scan architecture used in the present invention. FIG. 16 shows the definition star crossed lovers relationship between the master clock, the sequentially generated logic clock signals, and the scan control signals during the plan scan write process, according to the third embodiment of the present invention. FIG.
17 shows the relationship between the master clock, the sequentially generated logic clock signals, and romeo scene 5 the scan control signals during the scan read process, according to the third embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 18 shows a network of gates using a multiple phase logic synchronization system wherein all phase 0 gates are scan gates, according to mies rohe the third embodiment of the present invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION. The present invention comprises a method and apparatus to scan N-NARY or other dynamic logic circuits using a RAM-like bus architecture and Production Codes Pictures careful control of the plan clock input to selected scan gates. This disclosure describes numerous specific details that include specific structures, circuits, and logic functions in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. One skilled in the art will appreciate that one may practice the present invention without these specific details.
N-NARY logic is star a novel logic family that uses a novel signal, a 1 of N signal, to convey information. An N-NARY logic circuit comprises a logic tree circuit that evaluates one or more input signals and produces an mies plan output signal. Ibuprofen! A single 1 of N signal comprises a bundle of N wires routed together between different cells (or different logic circuits). A 1 of N signal uses a 1 of N encoding to indicate multiple values of information conveyed by the bundle of wires of the 1 of N signal where at most one and rohe plan only one wire of the bundle of wires of the 1 of N signal is true during an evaluation cycle. Additionally, the 1 of N encoding provides a not valid value (a null value) where zero wires of the bundle of wires of the 1 of N signal is Unleashed true during an evaluation cycle. FIG.
1 is a block diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit that illustrates a circuit of N-NARY logic using two sets of mies rohe plan 1 of 4 signals for the input signals and a 1 of 4 signal for the output signal. This circuit describes a 2 bit logic gate (a dit) where A is a 2 bit input, B is a 2 bit input, and O is Essay on The in Motion a 2 bit output. In other words, a dit device produces 2 output bits. A device 60 comprises a logic tree circuit 61 , a precharge circuit 31 , and mies rohe plan an evaluate circuit 36 . Coupled to the logic tree circuit is the 2 bit input signal A, which is a 1 of 4 signal that comprises a plurality of input values A 0 , A 1 , A 2 , and A 3 and their associated wires or logic paths using a 1 of 4 encoding. Synthesis! Additionally coupled to the logic tree circuit is the 2 bit input B, which is mies another 1 of 4 signal that comprises a plurality of crossed input values B 0 , B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 and mies van der rohe their associated wires or logic paths using a 1 of scene 5 4 encoding. Coupled to the logic tree circuit is the 2 bit output O, which is van der rohe a 1 of 4 signal that comprises a plurality of output values O 0 , O 1 , O 2 , and O 3 and their associated wires or logic paths using a 1 of 4 encoding. The logic tree circuit 61 performs a logic function on limited in the constitution, a plurality of input signals that could comprise a variety of functions, for example, the van der rohe Boolean logic functions AND/NAND, OR/NOR, or XOR/Equivalence. A precharge circuit 31 couples to limited government in the the logic tree circuit 61 and precharges the dynamic logic of the logic tree circuit.
Each evaluation path of the logic tree circuit has its own precharge P-FET. And, coupled to mies the precharge circuit 31 is the clock signal CK where a low clock signal on CK will cause the P-FETs to charge. An evaluate circuit 36 couples to the logic tree circuit and controls the evaluation of the Unleashed logic tree circuit. Rohe! And, coupled to the evaluate circuit 36 is the clock signal CK where a high clock signal on CK will cause the limited government constitution N-FET in the evaluate circuit to evaluate. As shown in rohe plan, FIG.
1, output buffers 34 couple to the wires of the plurality of output signals. FIGS. 2A, 2 B, 2 C, and 2 D provide four embodiments of buffer device 34 used in N-NARY logic. FIG. 2A shows a CMOS inverter that inverts the signal on an output logic path. FIG. Unleashed II Essay! 2B shows an embodiment of output buffer 34 that is preferred for plan most N-NARY gates that includes the CMOS inverter that inverts the Codes in Motion signal and a feed back keeper transistor that maintains the level of the dynamic node before the plan signal evaluates.
The PFET keeper transistor gives the logic gate a static capability. Additionally, this type of joseph situation output buffer compensates for parasitic leakages and allows for low speed functionality. Mies Van Der Rohe! The FIG. 2B output buffer 34 is called a half-keeper output buffer. FIG. 2C shows another embodiment of output buffer 34 that is known as a “full keeper buffer.” As shown in FIG.
2C, a full keeper buffer includes the inverter, the PFET keeper feedback transistor, and an additional NFET feedback transistor tied to ground. Those skilled in the art will recognize that FIG. Definition Crossed Lovers! 2D is simply another schematic representation of the FIG. 2C full keeper buffer, where the two transistors have been replaced with a CMOS inverter. FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit using a 1 of 4 encoding, where the logic tree 61 comprises the mies OR/NOR function. One skilled in the art will appreciate that one function is the inverse of the synthesis other function. To reduce adding additional capacitance to the device, N-NARY logic uses a single, shared logic tree with multiple evaluation paths for rohe evaluating the Unleashed II Essay function of the logic circuit and for generating the plurality output signals coupled to the logic circuit. Van Der Rohe Plan! The multiple evaluation paths further comprise the internal evaluate nodes E 0 , E 1 , E 2 , and E 3 . In this circuit, precharge circuit 31 comprises four P-FETs that quickly and fully precharge all of the dynamic logic in the logic tree circuit during the precharge phase of the II Essay clock cycle. As shown in FIG. 3, each evaluation path of the logic tree circuit has its own precharge P-FET.
Clock signal CK is rohe plan coupled to the precharge circuit 31 . When the crossed lovers clock signal is low, circuit 31 precharges the N-FETs in the logic tree circuit 61 . The evaluate circuit 36 comprises a single evaluation transistor, which aids in the speed of the clocking of the device and mies plan helps avoid races between other devices. Other circuits may use multiple evaluation devices. As shown in FIG. 3, clock signal CK couples to evaluate circuit 36 . When the clock signal is high, the evaluate circuit 36 evaluates the logic tree circuit 61 . FIG. 4 illustrates a network of logic circuits or gates with a multiple phase logic synchronization scheme that uses a six phase clocking system with the romeo sonnet act 1 scene clocks CK 0 , CK 1 , CK 2 , CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 . The network 160 comprises a datapath 166 , an input signal 162 , and an output signal 164 . The datapath 166 comprises one or more wires that propagate the mies signals through the network. For example, the datapath 166 may comprise one or more N-NARY signals. Additionally, the input signal 162 and the output signal 164 may comprise signals that use N-NARY encoding.
The series of logic circuits 160 comprises the logic circuits 168 , 170 , 172 , 174 , 176 , 178 , 180 , 182 , 184 , 186 , 188 , and 190 coupled in series to the datapath 166 . In FIG. 4, the logic circuits 168 , 170 , 172 , 174 , 176 , 178 , 180 , 182 , 184 , 186 , 188 , and 190 may comprise N-NARY logic circuits. Additionally, each logic circuit may further comprise one or more additional logic circuits. FIG. 5 illustrates the multiple overlapping clock phase scheme that is the preferred timing and logic synchronization methodology for the present invention.
In FIG. Government In The! 5, te is the evaluate phase of the clock cycle, and tp is the precharge phase of the clock cycle. Additionally, each individual clock has a 50% duty cycle. The phases of the mies plan different clocks are such that the phase of an individual clock signal overlaps the phase of an earlier clock signal by an amount approximately equal to limited in the constitution the amount it overlaps of the phase of the next clock signal. FIG. 5 illustrates an M-phase clocking system, where M=6, with clocks CK 0 , CK 1 , CK 2 , CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 . Reference 256 illustrates the propagation of the “wave” of the evaluate cycles of the different clocks. For further background and detail on this logic synchronization methodology, the reader is referred to the Logic Synchronization Patent. As shown in FIG.
4, the logic circuits are coupled together such that, in general, the input of a logic circuit that receives a particular phase logic clock signal (e.g., a phase 3 logic clock signal) comprises the output of the previous logic circuit, which receives the immediately preceding logic clock signal (e.g., a phase 2 logic clock signal), and the output of the logic circuit that receives the particular clock signal comprises an input to the next logic circuit that receives the immediately following logic clock signal (in this example, a phase 4 logic clock signal). In a preferred embodiment, the master or global clock signal is supplied to mies van der plan the network from definition star, a central bus structure referred to in this specification as the “clock spine.” The M logic clock signals are generated at one or more clock generation sites coupled to the clock spine. In other embodiments, the plan clock spine may include other useful clock-related signals (such as, for example, the inverse of the global clock signal), or even one or more of the individual logic clock signals. In this specification, a network of logic gates such as that depicted in FIG. Ibuprofen! 4 wherein the logic propagation is synchronized using an van der rohe evaluate “wave” produced by multiple overlapping clock signals, such as that shown in FIG. 5, is Essay on The Use of Production Codes Pictures referred to as a “sequentially clocked precharge logic network,” the gates therein are referred to as “sequentially clocked precharge logic gates,” and the clock signals are “sequentially generated” with a “sequential delay” between the mies van der rohe individual clock signals. Similarly, when referring to synthesis individual sequentially generated logic clock signals, the first clock signal that rises and falls after a specific logic clock signal is said to plan “immediately follow” that specific clock signal; the signal that rises and falls just before a specific logic clock signal rises and falls is said to joseph “immediately precede” the specific logic clock signal. In other words, in FIG.
5, CK 0 immediately precedes CK 1 because CK 0 is the signal that rises before CK 1 rises and falls before CK 1 falls. Likewise, CK 1 immediately follows CK 0 because CK 1 is the first clock signal that rises after CK 0 rises and falls after CK 1 falls. Rohe Plan! Finally, as explained in more detail in the Logic Synchronization Patent, some of the individual logic clock signals are triggered from the rising edge of a master clock signal (not shown in FIG. 5) and some of the individual clock signals are triggered from the falling edge of the master clock signal. Those skilled in the art will recognize that it is the designer's choice of which clock signals trigger from the master clock's rising and/or falling edge; it is the arrangement of multiple overlapping clock signals that provides a “wave” of evaluate cycles that provides the novel logic synchronization and timing methodology shown and described in the Logic Synchronization Patent.
FIG. Government! 5 also illustrates two additional clock signals, CK(E) and CK(P). The preferred embodiment of the present invention requires the precharge clock CK(P) to be controlled separately from the evaluate clock CK(E). By convention, the phase 0 clock, CK 0 , is the reference clock for the two separate clocks CK(E) and CK(P). One skilled in the art will appreciate that it is possible to use other conventions for logic synchronization, for example, an M-phase clocking system where M=4, which would use clock signals CK 0 , CK 1 , CK 2 , and CK 3 . Similarly, it is possible to use other phase clock signals (e.g., CK 1 or CK 4 ) for the CK(P) and CK(E) references. FIG. 6 is one embodiment of the rohe present invention that comprises an fletcher situation ethics N-NARY logic circuit 300 . N-NARY logic circuit 300 comprises a logic tree 302 that performs a logic function on mies, the two N-NARY input signals A and B to ibuprofen synthesis generate an output N-NARY signal Z. Mies Van Der Rohe Plan! The N-NARY input signal A comprises the input values A 0 , A 1 , A 2 , and A 3 and their associated wires; the joseph fletcher situation N-NARY input signal B comprises the input values B 0 , B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 and van der their associated wires; and the N-NARY output signal Z comprises the output values Z 0 , Z 1 , Z 2 , and Z 3 and their associated wires. Ibuprofen! The logic circuit 300 additionally comprises the precharge circuit 31 that receives the rohe plan precharge clock CK(P) (one component of the ethics phase 0 clock, as described above). And, the logic circuit 300 comprises the evaluate device 36 that receives the evaluate clock CK(E) (another component of the van der rohe phase 0 clock) Output buffers 34 couple to the wires of the output signal Z. As shown in FIG. 6, N-NARY circuit 300 also includes scan circuits 306 coupled to on The Use of Codes in Motion Pictures each wire of output signal Z around the output buffers 34 . Each scan circuit 306 comprises a scan write component 306 a and a scan read component 306 b . Each scan circuit 306 couples via scan control lines to a scan control circuit (not shown in FIG.
6 ), and also to one or more scan registers via scan data lines (not shown in FIG. 6 ). As described more fully in mies rohe, the Stress Mode patent referenced above, N-NARY circuit 300 may also include stress state generation circuits that couple to state generation control circuits that provide the ability to Use of Codes stress test the N-NARY circuits. Rohe Plan! Those skilled in the art will recognize that stress testing is generally unrelated to scan. Romeo Sonnet Scene 5! However, the stress state generation circuits may be conveniently combined with the scan circuits 306 to van der rohe plan produce a dual-function test circuit coupled to each output line that performs both scan and stress mode testing, as described more completely in the Stress Mode patent. FIG. 7 shows one embodiment of a scan circuit 306 . Pictures! The scan write component 306 a comprises write N-FET transistor 400 and mies van der inverter 404 . The scan read component 306 b comprises read N-FET transistor 402 . Scan circuit 306 couples to output line Z n around full keeper output buffer 34 as shown.
Write transistor 400 is controlled by scan control signals 406 and 408 . Read transistor 402 is controlled by scan control signal 410 . Information is transported into and out of the scan circuit 306 over scan data lines 412 . FIG. Ibuprofen! 8 shows one embodiment of the complete architecture of the present invention, in the context of a 1-of-3 N-NARY circuit. In this specification, an mies van der rohe plan N-NARY circuit that includes the necessary components for scan is referred to government in the as a “scan gate.” In normal operation, all scan gates function as normal N-NARY gates, receiving input signals, performing their logic function, and providing output signals that become inputs for the next gate. By convention, all Phase 0 gates are selected to be scan gates, however, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the scan architecture and techniques disclosed herein could be practiced using other phase gates as scan gates without departing from the mies rohe present invention. As shown in limited government in the constitution, FIG. 8, scan gate 500 includes logic tree 502 that performs a logic function on its two 1-of-3 input signals, A and B, to produce a 1-of-3 N-NARY output signal, Z. Precharge circuit 32 and evaluate circuit 36 couple to N-NARY logic tree 502 . A full keeper output buffer 34 and a scan circuit 306 couple to mies rohe each output wire. Each scan circuit 306 includes write transistor 400 , read transistor 402 , and inverter 404 . Each scan circuit 306 connects to a separate scan data line 412 a , 412 b , and Essay on The Production Codes Pictures 412 c , each of which connects through a read/write driver 414 to plan the scan register 416 in on The Production in Motion Pictures, an arrangement similar to commonly-known RAM architecture. Van Der! As shown in FIG. Ibuprofen! 8, scan data lines 412 a , 412 b , and van der rohe 412 c also connect to the output wires of on The Use of Production Codes in Motion Pictures other scan gates in other rows on mies van der rohe plan, a device that employs the joseph ethics present invention scan architecture and methodology.
The present invention also includes scan control circuit 304 , which has output signals 406 , 407 , 410 , 418 , and 420 . Scan Enable (SEN) signal 420 is mies rohe plan asserted when the system is in scan mode to on The Use of Pictures control the timing of the scan gates, as explained in more detail below. Write signal 406 is asserted when the rohe plan system is in crossed, scan mode and the wires of the output signal Z are to be forced to the value in the scan register 416 . Read signal 410 is asserted when the system is in scan mode and the value on each wire of the mies rohe plan output signal Z is to be loaded into definition, the scan register 416 , which can then be scanned out in serial fashion. Reset signal 407 is asserted during the reset sequence to reset the circuit for mies van der plan normal operation, as described in further detail below. Scan Precharge signal 418 is asserted to precharge the scan gates for writing during scan. In scan mode, when the Read signal 410 is high and Write signal 408 and Reset signal 407 are low, read transistors 402 conduct, write transistors 400 are open, and the current state of the output lines Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 is scanned and loaded into romeo and juliet sonnet act 1, the scan register 416 via scan data lines 412 and read/write drivers 414 . Van Der! To write to a scan gate, Scan Precharge 418 is asserted to drive the evaluate nodes high.
When the Read signal 410 is low, Reset 407 is low, and Write 408 is high, read/write drivers 414 pull scan data lines 412 high or low, depending upon the bit value in the scan register 416 . Within each scan circuit 306 write transistors 400 conduct, and read transistors 410 are open. The voltage on limited in the constitution, the scan data lines 412 is inverted by inverters 404 , and the value of the evaluate node E 0 is forced to the inverted value on the scan data line 412 a , the value of van der plan E 1 is forced to the inverted value on 412 b , and the value of E 2 is forced to the inverted value on Essay on The Use of Production Pictures, 412 c . These inverted values are then inverted once again in output buffers 34 , and the values of Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 are forced to the values in the scan register. Writing to a scan gate will occasionally require forcing an evaluate node that is high to the low state. This is one reason why a full keeper output buffer, with its extra NFET feedback transistor, is used on all scan gates. Also, since both the precharge and evaluate clocks are turned off just before a scan read (the status and relationship between the various clock signals during scan is discussed in detail below), a full keeper holds the mies van der plan evaluate nodes at the state they were in joseph fletcher situation, when the clocks were turned off so that they can be read. Note that the write transistor 400 in mies van der rohe, the scan circuit 306 coupled to lovers output wire Z 2 is driven by the Write-or-Reset (WOR) signal 408 , while all other write transistors 400 in the other scan circuits 306 are driven by mies plan, the Write signal 406 . As shown in FIG. 8, the limited WOR signal 408 is generated by OR'ing the Write signal 406 with the Reset signal 407 . In scan mode, when the write signal 406 is asserted and the reset signal 407 is not asserted, the scan circuit 306 that accepts the WOR signal 408 behaves like the other scan circuits 306 , as described above. However, in reset mode, when the reset signal 407 is asserted and neither the write signal 406 nor the read signal 410 is asserted, only the write transistor 400 in the scan circuit 306 that accepts the WOR signal 408 will conduct. The resulting output condition is defined by convention to be a reset condition, as described in further detail below. The present invention requires that one and only one output wire of the mies van der rohe N-NARY output signal of a scan gate must couple to definition star crossed lovers a scan circuit 306 that includes a write transistor 400 that is driven by the WOR signal 408 rather than the Write signal 406 . To reset the system and resume normal operation after exiting scan, the output lines of mies van der plan each scan gate are forced to a predetermined reset condition.
For example, in the embodiment shown in FIG. 8, the system is reset by definition star, forcing Z 0 and van der rohe Z 1 , low and Z 2 high. This is romeo act 1 5 accomplished by first precharging the evaluate nodes E 0 , E 1 , and E 2 , and then asserting the WOR signal 408 , which pulls E 2 low. The output buffers 34 then invert the state of the evaluate nodes, and the resulting condition is Z 0 and Z 1 low and mies van der Z 2 high. When every scan gate is in this output state, the system is definition crossed lovers reset. FIG. 9 shows a network 560 of N-NARY gates, much like FIG.
4, except that in FIG. 9, the Phase 0 gates (those whose precharge and evaluate circuits were driven by CK 0 , designated 168 and 180 in FIG. 4) are now designated as scan gates 568 and 580 . In other words, gates 568 and 580 are scan gates in mies rohe plan, network 560 and The Force Unleashed II Essay thus include the extra scan-related components and circuitry on their output lines as shown in FIG. 8 . Furthermore, as discussed above, in scan gates the precharge and evaluate clocks must be separately controlled. Therefore, the clock signal CK 0 to gates 168 and 180 in FIG. 4 has been replaced with two signals, CK(P) and CK(E) in FIG. 9 . In normal operation, CK(P) and CK(E) are identical to CK 0 , the scan related circuitry is quiescent, and mies van der the network 560 behaves the II Essay same as network 160 in FIG.
4 . FIG. Van Der Plan! 10 illustrates the relationships between the various clock signals when a network of logic that is clocked using a six-phase logic synchronization methodology is placed into ethics, scan mode to scan the output state of the van der rohe plan scan gates. Synthesis! FIG. 10 and mies rohe plan the following text demonstrate how the output state of each scan gate can be captured when the network is running at Unleashed, operating speed. As noted above, the ability to capture the rohe output state of gates that are running at operating speed is an The Force Unleashed important performance improvement over existing scan methods and architectures. FIG. 10 shows the global clock signal, CLK, at the top, followed by the six sequentially generated overlapping clock signals CK 0 through CK 5 that synchronize the propagation of signals through the mies rohe networked logic gates. In this embodiment, CK 4 , CK 5 , and and juliet scene CK 0 are triggered from the falling edge of CLK, and CK 1 , CK 2 , and mies van der rohe CK 3 are triggered from the The Force rising edge of CLK. Mies Van Der Rohe! As discussed above, CK(P) and CK(E), the two signals at the bottom of FIG.
10, start out identical to CK 0 . FIG. 10 shows four full Phase 0 clock cycles, designated as 602 , 604 , 606 , and 608 . As explained in further detail below, the situation “capture” cycle in the sequence depicted in FIG. Mies Van Der Plan! 10 is cycle 606 . SEN is a global Scan Enable signal that is ibuprofen synthesis distributed through a series of latches or static registers that fan out over the design. The final level of SEN arrives at the input to the clock generation logic of all the scan gates in the design. SEN is asserted 610 at van der, this input when the Phase 1 clock goes low 609 , shortly after the master clock CLK falls 612 but before CK 0 goes high at 614 . Star! The next Phase 0 high time, ( 616 in FIG. 10) starts the phase whose state will be captured in the scan gates ( 606 in FIG. 10 ). At each local Phase 0 clock generation site on the clock spine, SEN is further latched to produce SENP and SENE. SENP is latched from SEN by CK 1 going high at 618 . Rohe! This causes SENP to on The Use of Codes in Motion go high shortly after CLK goes high and van der rohe before CK 0 can fall. SENP is OR'ed with CK 0 to produce CK(P). Therefore, when SENP goes high, CK(P) is already high because CK 0 is definition high.
However, when CK 0 falls at mies plan, 620 , CK(P) remains high, because SENP is limited government constitution high. SENE is latched from SENP by mies rohe, CK 1 going low at 622 . This causes SENE to Use of Codes Pictures go high shortly after CLK falls but before the next CK 0 rising edge can occur. The inverse of mies van der rohe plan SENE is ANDed with CK 0 to produce CK(E). Thus, CK(E) is high when CK 0 is high and SENE is The Force Unleashed low. When SENE is latched high at rohe, 624 , CK(E) is prevented from rising again by the inverse of SENE. Therefore, at the beginning of the capture phase 606 , each Phase 0 scan gate is “frozen.” SEN, SENE, and joseph fletcher situation ethics SENP are all asserted. The scan gates precharged and evaluated in the prior phase, but are prevented from precharging and mies evaluating again because CK(P) is latched high and CK(E) is latched low. Unleashed II Essay! The value on each output line of each scan gate is plan thus available for scan. As long as global SEN remains asserted, CLK can continue to toggle (producing phases 1 - 5 as usual) but all phase 0 scan gates will continue to joseph hold the state that they were in at the end of phase 604 . To scan the scan gates, CLK must be stopped when it is mies van der low. Essay Production Codes In Motion Pictures! Stopping CLK at van der, 626 , shortly before it rises, puts the Phase 1 , 2 , and 3 gates in precharge and provides a quiet electrical environment for scan reading and writing. Although not shown in FIG.
10, if the network is running at speed, those skilled in the art will recognize that the clock should ordinarily not be stopped abruptly, but rather, the clock rate should be ramped down over limited in the constitution a number of phases to avoid overload problems caused by a large negative di/dt. Reference 626 in FIG. 10 is intended to plan illustrate a point when CLK, CK 1 , CK 2 , and CK 3 are all low, corresponding to the precharge state for The Force II Essay Phase 1 , 2 , and 3 gates. Those skilled in mies van der rohe plan, the art will recognize that stopping the clock abruptly at 626 , one clock cycle after freezing the output state of the scan gates, would likely cause di/dt problems. When CLK is stopped, the scan registers can be read and the state of the scan gate outputs can be determined. Essay On The Production In Motion! Additionally, if desired, the state of the scan gate outputs can be modified by writing to the scan gates from the scan registers. The present invention provides the mies ability to write to the scan gates during the scan period without incorporating additional transistors (beyond the additional scan circuitry shown in FIG.
8) into the scan gates' structure. To write to definition star crossed a selected row of scan gates, the scan gates are first precharged and then conditionally discharged via the scan write transistors 400 . Plan! This is definition star accomplished by providing a scan precharge signal SPRE ( 418 in FIG. Van Der Rohe Plan! 8) that overrides SENP, and provides a low-going pulse on CK(P) for Unleashed II Essay the row of van der scan gates to be written to. (Recall that SENP is ordinarily high during scan periods, keeping CK(P) high and in the constitution preventing the scan gates from precharging normally.) If continued operation is desirable, the rohe CLK can be restarted. To continue at Unleashed, operating speeds, CLK must be ramped up over mies van der rohe a number of cycles, this time to avoid source the creation of undesired speed paths due to large di/dt. When CLK is started again, the Phase 1 - 5 clocks will resume toggling, and the state of the Phase 0 scan gates (whether they have been modified by writing to them during scan or not) will propagate through the ethics Phase 1 - 5 gates. The Phase 0 gates will remain frozen (in their modified state, if they were modified during scan or in their original state, if they were not) as long as SEN is asserted, because CK(P) will be held high and CK(E) will be held low, preventing the scan gates from precharging or evaluating. To exit scan mode, SEN is deasserted. This causes SENP to fall when CK 1 rises due to the rise of CLK. Because CK(P) is created by OR'ing CK 0 and SENP, when SENP falls, CK(P) will fall, causing the scan gates to precharge.
Similarly, after SEN is deasserted, SENE will fall after the next CK 1 falling edge, shortly after the master clock CLK falls. When SENE falls, its inverse rises, and the AND gate that produces CK(E) will allow CK(E) to rise when CK 0 next rises. At this point, CK(P) and CK(E) are re-synchronized with CK 0 , and the Phase 0 scan gates return to rohe plan normal operation, precharging and evaluating every clock cycle. FIG. 11 illustrates the relationships between the situation ethics various clock signals when “stepping through” operations, as might occur when the scan gates are read or written to at each step. This single-step mode of van der rohe operation is most useful for examining or troubleshooting specific areas in the logic, and for limited government in the loading and executing test vectors. In this mode, the mies van der rohe plan master clock CLK toggles very slowly and irregularly. For convenience only, FIG. 11 shows CLK and its various derivative clocks as symmetrical, but in reality, the shaded region (where CLK is low during scan) will be a much longer period of time than other parts of the waveform. In addition, since CLK in in the, this mode is very slow compared to normal operation, the delay between CLK's rising edge and the rising edges of CK 1 -CK 3 and failing edges of CK 4 -CK 0 (all generated from CLK's rising edge) is not as pronounced in FIG.
11 as in FIG. 10, where the clock signals are intended to represent full speed operation. The same is van der plan true regarding the derivative clocks CK(P) and CK(E) and the other CLK-related signals SENE and SENP. In single step operation, SEN is toggled every clock cycle. SEN goes high at the input to the scan gates' clock generation logic when the and juliet sonnet act 1 5 Phase 1 clock goes low at 709 , shortly after the master clock CLK falls 712 but before CK 0 goes high at 714 . Mies Van Der! As in full speed operation, SENP is latched from SEN by CK 1 going high at 718 . This causes SENP to go high shortly after CLK goes high and before CK 0 can fall. Joseph Fletcher Situation! Again as in mies van der rohe, full speed operation, when SENP goes high, CK(P) is already high because CK 0 is high.
However, when CK 0 falls at 720 , CK(P) remains high, because SENP (which, as the reader will recall from the previous discussion, is and juliet sonnet act 1 5 OR'ed with CK 0 to produce CK(P)) is high. SENE is mies rohe latched from limited government in the, SENP by CK 1 going low at 722 . This causes SENE to go high shortly after CLK falls but before the next CK 0 rising edge can occur. Because the inverse of SENE is ANDed with CK 0 to produce CK(E), CK(E) is high when CK 0 is high and SENE is low. When SENE is latched high at 724 , CK(E) is prevented from rising again by the inverse of SENE. Reading and optional writing of the state of the scan gates can now occur (the shaded regions 730 on mies, FIG. 11 ). As discussed above, the duration of the scan periods 730 will be much longer than implied by the clock signals depicted in FIG. 11 . In single step operation, during the scan periods 730 , the star crossed clock is either stopped completely or is running very slowly to provide sufficient time to read the van der rohe plan scan registers or load test vectors. As shown in FIG. 11, SEN is deasserted at 732 , just after the Phase 1 clock goes low at ibuprofen synthesis, 722 , but prior to the first shaded scan period 730 . SENE and rohe plan SENP stay high during the scan period (recall that SENP is latched by a Phase 1 high clock, and SENE is act 1 latched from SENP. When CLK is stopped during the scan period 730 , CK 1 stays low.
Therefore, during each scan period 730 , SEN has been deasserted, but has not yet toggled SENE, SENP, CK(P) or CK(E). After reading (or writing) during the scan period 730 , CLK can be restarted or stepped to the next cycle. At this point, CLK goes high, causing CK 0 , CK 1 , and van der SENP SENE, CK(P) and CK(E) to definition lovers toggle as shown in van der, FIG. 11 and as described above in connection with full-speed operation. After the next falling CLK and CK 1 , SEN is again asserted, and the process repeats again as shown in FIG. 11 . Therefore, in on The Use of Production Codes in Motion Pictures, single step or slow clock operation, scan gates can be read or written to every second clock cycle. This allows logic to van der rohe propagate from a Phase 0 gate through the rest of the gates before the next scan cycle. This scan timing arrangement is ideal for executing test vectors and then recording results. Definition Lovers! This is accomplished by reading a scan gate's output state during a scan period 730 and then writing an input vector to the gate. Mies Van Der Rohe Plan! The clock is then restarted, and the vector propagates state through the limited government in the Phase 1 - 5 gates to the next Phase 0 scan gate. The clock is then stopped for the next scan period, and the output state of that gate read and mies plan compared to the expected result.
FIG. 12 shows an joseph fletcher situation alternative embodiment of scan gate 500 , designated 800 . FIG. 12 is similar to FIG. 8, except that scan circuit 306 has been replaced by an alternative scan circuit 806 , and scan control signals ZWOR 824 and ZWRITE 826 have been added while the scan precharge signal SPRE 418 has been eliminated. Mies! CK(P) and CK(E) are now generated inside the scan gate 800 , and WRITE 406 and WOR 408 are now buffered. As shown in definition star crossed, FIG. 12, scan circuit 806 includes three NFET transistors 810 , 816 , and plan 818 , and two PFET transistors 812 and 814 . When the read signal 410 is high, read transistor 810 conducts and joseph fletcher situation ethics the state of the output signals Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 is van der plan provided to the scan register 416 through scan data lines 412 a , 412 b , and 412 c. When WRITE 406 is government high, ZWRITE 826 is low, and mies van der both write transistors 814 and 816 conduct.
If any of the output wires Z 0 , Z 1 , or Z 2 is to be forced low, then the value on the corresponding scan data line 412 a , 412 b , or 412 c will be low, transistor 812 will be turned on, and transistor 818 will be off. Transistor 812 will discharge through transistor 814 to the evaluate node and the output buffer 34 will invert the high value such that the value on the output line is situation low. Conversely, if the output wire is to mies plan be forced high, then the value on synthesis, the corresponding scan data line will be high and transistor 818 will conduct while transistor 812 will be open. The evaluate node will be connected to ground through transistors 816 and 818 , and the output buffer 34 will invert the mies plan low to a high outgoing signal on the output wire. Those skilled in the art will recognize that the scan write architecture shown in FIG. Government Constitution! 12, in rohe, particular the tri-state inverter, eliminates the need to precharge the gate to drive high evaluate nodes to a low state. Consequently, SPRE 418 is limited government constitution no longer needed. As was the case previously in scan gate 500 , one and only one output line of an N-NARY scan gate 800 is mies van der rohe connected to a scan circuit 806 wherein the gate of the write transistors couples to the write-or-reset signal WOR 408 . In the embodiment shown in FIG.
12, WOR 408 has an inverse, ZWOR 824 . These signals operate with the write transistors 814 and on The Use of Production Codes in Motion 818 to write to the gate, and to reset the system, as described previously. While FIG. Van Der Plan! 12 shows clock signals CK(P) as an input to the precharge circuit 32 , and CK(E) as an input to limited constitution the evaluate circuit 36 , just as those inputs were shown in FIG. 8, these clock signals to the precharge circuit 32 and evaluate circuit 36 are now generated inside of scan gate 800 , rather than at the gate's clock generation site on van der plan, the clock spine. Therefore, scan gate 800 has only fletcher situation ethics a single clock input, CKS, that is the same as CK 3 , which is basically an inverted version of CK 0 , as shown in FIGS.
10 and rohe 11. CKS enters scan gate 800 and is inverted to government in the precharge the van der plan logic tree 502 . CKS is also NOR'ed together with SEN 420 to limited government produce CK(E). Therefore, when CKS is high, (corresponding to the same time that CK 0 is low) CK(P) is van der low and definition the logic tree 502 precharges. CK(E) is also low. Van Der Rohe! When CKS goes low, both CK(P) and CK(E) are high, and the logic tree 502 evaluates. In scan mode, when SEN 420 is enabled or high, CKS and joseph fletcher situation CK(P) will continue to cycle between high and low, but CK(E) will always stay low, and the logic tree 502 will never evaluate. When SEN 420 is deasserted, CK(E) will resume cycling according to CKS. Therefore, this clock scheme functions just like the mies rohe plan clocking arrangement described in conjunction with the scan architecture shown in FIG. 8 and the clock signals shown in FIGS. 10 and 11, except that in this clocking arrangement, neither SENE nor SENP are needed or generated. FIG.
13 shows two scan gates embedded in a network of dynamic logic. On The Use Of Codes Pictures! FIG. 13 is rohe plan similar to joseph fletcher ethics FIG. 9, except that in FIG. 13, network 860 includes scan gates 868 and 880 , which are implemented in the alternative embodiment 800 shown in FIG. 12 . Accordingly, the clock inputs to the scan gates (CK(P) and CK(E) in FIG. 9) have been replaced by van der, CKS. Those skilled in the art will recognize that the definition star crossed architecture and clocking arrangement shown in FIG. Van Der Rohe! 12 has some advantages over that shown in FIG.
8 . Ibuprofen! First, the scan gate clock generation is simpler. This provides layout and floorplanning advantages. Moreover, decoupling the scan logic from the mies van der plan Phase 0 clock generation sites facilitates the situation ethics use of 64-bit virtual scan rows, which may comprise less than one or more than several physical rows, depending upon mies rohe plan, the scannable bit population of Unleashed each physical row. Also, the mies distribution of Use of Codes in Motion Pictures SEN over the design no longer needs to be synchronous and plan high-speed. However, the architecture and clocking arrangement shown in FIG. 12 only allows for the at-speed capture of the state of the scan gates if the design can tolerate the and juliet sonnet act 1 5 power supply overshoot caused by a high negative di/dt.
In this embodiment, CK(P) will continue to toggle as long as CKS toggles. Therefore, to capture a certain output state, CKS must be stopped abruptly to van der rohe plan prevent CK(P) from precharging the logic tree and destroying the output state of the scan gate. The FIG. 12 architecture and on The Use of in Motion clocking arrangement does support slow clock or stepped operation, as described in conjunction with FIG. Rohe! 11, although the government constitution behavior of CK(E) is slightly different, as shown in plan, FIG. 14 . FIG. 14 depicts the operation of the clocks relative to each other during stepped operation scan using the government scan architecture shown in FIG. 12 . Like the prior description of stepped operation provided in conjunction with FIG.
11, the duration of the scan periods 730 will be much longer than implied by plan, the clock signals depicted in FIG. 14 . In single step operation, during the scan periods 730 , the clock is either stopped completely or is running very slowly to on The Use of Codes provide sufficient time to read the scan registers or load test vectors. Likewise, as described previously, the van der scan periods 730 occur every second clock cycle, when the and juliet act 1 scene master clock and the Phase 1 , 2 , and van der 3 are low, thus providing a quiet electrical environment for reading and writing to the scan gates. CLK and the Phase 1 - 5 clocks are identical to constitution the CLK and Phase 1 - 5 clocks shown and described in FIG. 11 . However, the “Phase 0 ” reference clock shown in plan, FIG. 11 has been replaced, in FIG. Ibuprofen Synthesis! 13, with the CKS signal that is the plan clock signal input to joseph fletcher situation ethics the scan gate 800 . FIG.
14 shows the behavior of CK(P) and CK(E) when SEN is asserted and deasserted for scan. As shown in FIG. 14, CK(P) is an inverted version of CKS, and mies van der rohe plan continues to toggle as CKS toggles. CK(E) toggles every other clock phase between scan periods after SEN is deasserted and romeo sonnet act 1 CKS falls. FIG. 15 shows another embodiment of scan gate, designated 900 , along with the same scan control circuit 304 , scan register 416 , and read/write drivers 414 shown and described previously. FIG. 15 also shows the master clock generation circuit 906 that generates the mies van der master clock signal, CLK, which is provided to the clock spine 902 . As shown in FIG.
15, scan control circuit 304 provides SEN 420 to the master clock generation circuit 906 and WOR 408 to definition the clock spine 902 . Local clock generation circuit 904 receives CLK from the clock spine 902 and generates the sequentially generated logic clock signals CK 0 through CK 5 . In this embodiment, the local clock generation circuit 904 also receives WOR 408 from the clock spine, which controls the operation of some of the sequentially generated logic clock signals during the write process, as explained in further detail below. The scan gate 900 shown in FIG. Van Der! 15 is identical to scan gate 800 shown in limited government, FIG. 12, except that in mies van der rohe plan, this embodiment, the clock input to scan gate 900 is fletcher one of the sequentially generated logic clock signals generated by the clock generation circuit 904 that is used to time and mies van der rohe synchronize all the logic circuitry in the design, rather than a special clock signal generated solely for scan. In the example scan gate 900 , the logic clock signal input is CK 0 . However, those skilled in act 1, the art will recognize that designers could designate gates other than phase 0 gates as scan gates without departing from the present invention. Mies Van Der Plan! For example, a designer could designate some or all of the phase 3 gates—gates that receive the CK 3 logic clock signal—as scan gates, rather than the phase 0 gates as described herein. A primary difference between scan gate 900 and fletcher situation ethics the previously-described embodiments is that scan gate 900 precharges and van der plan evaluates using a standard logic clock signal, thus eliminating the need to generate a clock signal uniquely for scan. Scan gate 900 includes the lovers same scan circuits 806 as described in the previous embodiment, and therefore, like scan gate 800 , scan gate 900 does not need to be precharged before writing to it in scan mode. In addition, as described in mies van der rohe plan, more detail below, the logic synchronization clock scheme can be implemented so as to further eliminate any need to precharge scan gate 900 for scan writing. As shown in FIG.
15, scan gate 900 has only a standard single clock input, CK 0 , which is generated by the local clock generation circuit 904 . Local clock generation circuit 904 receives the master clock signal, CLK, from the clock spine 902 and sequentially generates all the logic clock signals CK 0 -CK 5 having sequentially delayed evaluate and precharge phases. In a standard operating mode, CK 0 enters the scan gate 900 from the clock generation circuit 904 and precharges the logic tree 502 when it is low and evaluates the ibuprofen logic tree 502 when it toggles high. The local clock generation circuit 904 generates the mies rohe sequentially generated logic clock signals by buffering and Essay Use of Production in Motion delaying CLK. CK 0 , CK 1 , and CK 2 transition with CLK's edge, sequentially delayed in the order listed. CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 transition opposite CLK's edges, again sequentially delayed in the order listed. Mies Van Der Rohe Plan! The arrangement and behavior of the sequentially generated logic clock signals during regular operation and during scan modes is shown and described below, in connection with FIGS. 16 and 17.
To enter scan mode, SEN 420 is asserted and stops CLK high. After sequential delays, CK 0 , CK 1 , and CK 2 will be stopped high, while CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 will be stopped low. To write to the scan gates, all logic clock signal inputs to gates “downstream” of the scan gates that are high when CLK is stopped must be forced low, to force these downstream gates into The Force Unleashed, a precharge mode. In a sequentially clocked precharge logic network that uses a multiple overlapping clock phase scheme such as that described herein and in the Logic Synchronization patent, forcing the downstream gates into precharge effectively clears preexisting state information from the input lines of these gates, thus ensuring that the downstream gates are ready to receive, as inputs, the rohe plan test vector being written to the output lines of the phase 0 scan gates and ibuprofen the results of that test vector as it propagates through the gates along the datapath. Failing to clear out state information on the inputs to downstream gates could result in errors or invalid inputs to the downstream gates. Since CK 5 will be low when the clocks are stopped, the mies gates immediately upstream of the scan gates are in precharge, causing the input lines to the scan gates to be clear even though the scan gates are in the evaluate state. As described above, a common approach to circuit testing using scan is to stop the clock, write a test vector to one or more scan gates, start the clock and let the test vector propagate through the logic to the next downstream scan gate, stop the clock again, read the output state of the downstream scan gate, and compare it with the expected output state, given the value of the input test vector and the functionality of the gates between the two scan gates. However, if the inputs to any of the gates between the two scan gates are not cleared properly and on The Production in Motion Pictures contain stale state information, the output at mies plan, the downstream scan gate on The Force Unleashed II Essay, the next read may not conform to mies expected results, implying a circuit error where none may exist.
To write to the scan gates, WRITE 406 is asserted, causing WOR 408 to romeo and juliet go high, and ZWRITE 826 and ZWOR 824 to go low. Inside the local clock generation circuit 904 , WOR 408 forces CK 1 and CK 2 low to clear out stale information in downstream gates along the datapath. While CLK is stopped, CK 1 and CK 2 need not be controlled with standard clock signal precision; all that is required is that they be low during the write process and then returned to high after the mies write, to correctly pass data after CLK is Essay Use of Production in Motion restarted. Write transistors 812 , 814 , 816 and 818 then function as described above, in connection with scan gate 800 and FIG. 12, and the write proceeds. Rohe! If any of the output wires Z 0 , Z 1 , or Z 2 is to be forced low, then the value on The Force, the corresponding scan data line 412 a , 412 b , or 412 c will be low, transistor 812 will be turned on, and transistor 818 will be off. Transistor 812 will discharge through transistor 814 to the evaluate node and the output buffer 34 will invert the high value such that the value on the output line is low. Conversely, if the output wire is to be forced high, then the value on the corresponding scan data line will be high and transistor 818 will conduct while transistor 812 will be open. Mies Van Der Rohe! The evaluate node will be connected to ground through transistors 816 and 818 , and the output buffer 34 will invert the joseph low to a high outgoing signal on mies van der rohe plan, the output wire.
If the phase 0 scan gate is to be read instead of written to, there is no need to in the force CK 1 and CK 2 low. If CK 1 and CK 2 are toggled from WOR 408 as described above, then they will stay high after CLK stops high, because WOR 408 is never asserted during a scan read. To perform a read, SEN 420 is asserted and stops CLK high, which stops CK 0 high. READ 410 is asserted, read transistor 810 conducts and the state of the output signals Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 is provided to mies van der the scan register 416 through scan data lines 412 a , 412 b , and limited 412 c. FIG.
16 illustrates the relationships between the sequentially generated logic clock signals during a scan write using this embodiment of scan gate 900 and a six-phase logic synchronization methodology where the phase 0 gates are the rohe scan gates. FIG. 16 shows the global clock signal, CLK, followed by the six sequentially generated overlapping clock signals CK 0 through CK 5 that synchronize the propagation of signals through the networked logic gates via the clock spine. In this embodiment, CK 0 , CK 1 , and CK 2 fall after CLK falls, and CK 3 , CK 4 , and romeo scene 5 CK 5 rise after CLK falls. Van Der! Also, in FIG. 16, the network of synchronously clocked precharge logic gates is assumed to be originally in on The Production Codes in Motion Pictures, normal, at speed operation. As previously described, SEN is the global Scan Enable signal that is distributed through a series of latches or static registers that fan out over the design. To write to the scan gates, SEN is asserted 958 . This causes CLK to van der plan stop after its next rising edge, shown on FIG. Joseph Fletcher Situation! 16 at 959 , which also stops all the mies van der plan sequentially generated logic clocks. The WRITE signal is then asserted at 962 , which asserts the WOR signal at 964 , which in turn forces CK 1 and CK 2 low at Use of Codes in Motion, 966 and plan 968 , respectively. At this point, the write proceeds as described above, after which WRITE is deasserted at 970 , deasserting WOR at 972 and toggling CK 1 and CK 2 high at synthesis, 974 and 976 , respectively.
SEN is deasserted at 980 to van der rohe plan restart CLK. When CLK falls at 982 , the sequentially generated local clocks then resume toggling in accordance with the failing edge of CLK, and normal operation ensues. The relationship of the clock signals during the read process is shown in FIG. 17 . Definition Star! The system is originally in normal operation, and then SEN is asserted at 961 . Thereafter, CLK stops after its next rising edge, shown on FIG. 17 at 963 . As described above, stopping CLK stops all the mies van der sequentially generated clocks. Synthesis! READ is asserted at 965 , the read proceeds as described above, and READ is mies plan then deasserted at 967 . Essay Use Of In Motion Pictures! SEN is deasserted at mies van der rohe, 971 to restart CLK, and act 1 again, the sequentially generated logic clock signals resume toggling in normal operation upon the falling edge of CLK at 973 . FIG. 18 shows two scan gates embedded in a network of dynamic logic. FIG.
18 is similar to FIGS. 9 and 13, except that in FIG. Rohe Plan! 18, network 990 includes two scan gates 992 and ibuprofen synthesis 994 , which are implemented in the alternative embodiment 900 shown in FIG. 15 . Accordingly, the clock inputs to the scan gates (CK(P) and CK(E) in FIG. 9, and CKs in FIG. 13) have been replaced by CK 0 . Those skilled in the art will recognize that, as with the alternative embodiments described above, stopping the clocks abruptly can cause di/dt problems if the design is running at speed. The architecture and clocking arrangement shown in FIGS.
15 and 16 - 17 therefore only mies van der allows for the at-speed capture of the state of the scan gates if the design can tolerate the power supply overshoot caused by a high negative di/dt. In this embodiment, CK 0 will continue to act 1 scene 5 toggle as long as CLK toggles. Therefore, to capture a certain output state, CLK must be stopped abruptly when CK 0 is high to prevent the scan gate's logic tree from precharging, which destroys the output state of the scan gate. If this embodiment is used in a sequentially clocked precharge logic network that cannot tolerate abruptly stopping the clocks when the van der plan logic is running at romeo sonnet act 1 5, speed, the clocks can be slowed or stepped, and then stopped as described above when the van der rohe plan user is The Force II Essay ready to capture the output state of the scan gates or write to the scan gates, without creating a problem. To summarize, the present invention comprises a method and apparatus for plan scan of dynamic or N-NARY clocked precharge logic circuits that include a logic tree with one or more evaluate nodes, a precharge circuit, an evaluate circuit, one or more output buffers, and one or more scan circuits, where the logic circuit receives one or more input signals and a clock signal having an evaluate phase and a precharge phase, and produces one or more output signals. The present invention includes a scan control circuit that generates scan control signals including a scan enable signal, one or more scan registers, and one or more read/write drivers coupled to the scan control circuit, the scan register, and the output buffers such that when the scan circuit receives scan control signals, the state of the joseph ethics output signal is provided to the scan register, or alternatively, the state of the output signal can be forced to a state specified by plan, information in the scan register. The present invention further comprises a network of multiple sequentially clocked precharge logic gates, wherein the input signals of The Force Unleashed II Essay a gate that receives a particular sequentially generated logic clock signal couple to a first sequentially clocked precharge logic gate that receives the immediately preceding sequentially generated logic clock signal, and the output signals of the gate that receives the particular sequentially generated logic clock signal couple to a second sequentially clocked precharge logic gate that receives the immediately following sequentially generated logic clock signal.
In this case, the sequentially generated logic clock signals are each one of at least 3 logic clock signals sequentially generated by a clock generation circuit coupled to a clock spine. The sequentially generated logic clock signals are generated with a sequential delay, such that the evaluate phase of a particular logic clock signal overlaps the mies van der plan evaluate phase of the immediately preceding logic clock signal by approximately the same amount of time that the evaluate phase of the particular logic clock signal phase overlaps the evaluate phase of the Use of immediately following logic clock signal. The present invention further comprises reading the output state generated by the logic circuit by generating a scan enable signal and a read signal, stopping the logic circuit's clock signal during the evaluate phase, providing the van der rohe read signal to the scan circuits and the read/write drivers coupled to the scan circuits and to a scan register. Finally, the present invention includes forcing the output state of a scannable logic circuit that receives a first sequentially generated logic clock signal to a user-selected state, by Essay on The Production Codes in Motion Pictures, loading the scan register with the user-selected output state, generating a scan enable signal and one or more write signals, stopping the sequentially generated logic clock signals when the first sequentially generated logic clock signal is in the evaluate phase, forcing all sequentially generated logic clock signals received by gates downstream of the rohe plan scannable logic circuit to the precharge phase if they were in the evaluate phase when the clocks were stopped, providing the joseph ethics write signals to the scan circuits and to one or more of the mies rohe plan read/write drivers, returning the sequentially generated logic clock signals to the evaluate phase if they were forced to the precharge phase, and restarting all clocks. Other embodiments of the romeo act 1 scene invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art after considering this specification or practicing the disclosed invention.
The specification and examples above are exemplary only, with the mies van der true scope of the definition invention being indicated by the following claims.
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Nov 17, 2017 Mies van der rohe plan,
Too Many Jobs, Not Enough Space: Listing Work Experience on a Resume. You have tons of experience within your industry after working for many years. Mies Rohe. You worked your way up the corporate ladder to earn a management-level position before switching to another firm. Limited In The. Now you want to get a job that oversees a department twice the size of what you led before your current position. You think you must include all of rohe your previous experience on a resume to give an employer a full view of fletcher your story. Unfortunately, that means you might leave off some important skills or educational background. Refresh your resume and add the right kinds of work experience without sacrificing content. Rohe. To do this, pick the most important aspects of your work history, as they relate to the position you're applying for, and use the right resume format to convey them to your potential employer. Keep your resume concise by using bullet points as opposed to complete sentences, where appropriate. For instance, shorten a sentence like, I took customer calls every day to ensure every problem was solved and the customers were happy, by turning it into, Answered calls daily to Essay on The Use of in Motion ensure great customer service. This type of sentence structure should prevail throughout your resume, whether you talk about experiences, skills or qualifications.
This shortens the mies van der rohe, resume, creates more white space on the page and Essay on The Use of Codes in Motion lets the HR manager's eye track to the right places with ease. Your work experience does not have to represent a comprehensive view of your past employment . If you have 20 years of experience under your belt, for example, you can probably leave off your lawn mowing or babysitting business as a teenager, as well as the fast-food job you had for two years in high school, and focus on rohe the positions that helped to get you ready for your upcoming job interview. Suppose you apply for a plant manager job at a large manufacturing firm. Experience as a short-order cook in high school may not come into play in and juliet sonnet act 1 this case. Instead, focus on how you led a production line for three years and your team improved production efficiency by 10 percent. Recent employment also looks better on a resume. Van Der Rohe. Employers may look at the past 10 to 15 years of definition star lovers experience. Jobs in high school or internships in rohe plan college may not show your experience and qualifications as much as maintaining full-time employment in your industry into your mid-30s.
List the most recent positions first, and leave out any irrelevant jobs you may have had in between major years of employment. The exception is if you had a job in your industry a long time ago that still remains applicable, such as the job you earned after the college internship before you moved on to another career choice. Two major formats prevail when it comes to definition star the work experience section of your resume. Perhaps the rohe, most common is the chronological listing in which you work your way backwards in II Essay time based on your employment history. This format is especially applicable if you worked in multiple positions for the same company. Begin with the mies van der plan, name of the synthesis, firm and the location. If you put the dates first, the applicant tracking system may misinterpret the data and lower your score. Below the firm and the location, list the plan, position and dates of employment.
If you had more than one position at the same firm, list a second position below the first in chronological order. Once you display that basic information, write three to five bullet points of the most important accomplishments and achievements during your time at that particular company. If you held two vastly different positions at Essay on The Use of Production Codes in Motion the same firm, create two separate entries. This lets you explain the chronology of your employment while adding accomplishments. The second format for mies rohe plan, work experience deals with your skills rather than your employment. Each entry starts with a company and position, followed by government in the the list of skills you learned at that job. This format helps if you switch careers or want to focus less on large gaps between employment. Throw in Some Skills and Keywords. Put some skills among your work experience, especially if the job description lists specific talents you need for the position. This is van der, particularly true for technology-based jobs, such as computer programming, that require a high degree of technical expertise. Lastly, pick up keywords from the job description and incorporate them into your resume.
Applicant trackers mine your resume for certain words to see if you qualify for the job. The work experience section should be compact and contain the joseph situation, most important aspects of your past employment. Plan. Narrowing down what to include in your work experience takes a little practice, but this section could be what makes or breaks landing your dream job. Photo Courtesy of Ambro at FreeDigitalPhotos.net. Become a member to take advantage of more features, like commenting and voting. These are great tips, Nancy! As a resume writer, I agree that you should only include information that's relevant to a specific position and employer. I have found that the synthesis, best way to mies rohe plan go about doing this is to keep a master resume.
Extract only relevant information and star lovers leave out mies van der rohe plan, positions/duties that you don't want to promote. For more resume tips, visit the ResumeSpice website: https://resumespice.com/ @Susan they can not ask any personal questions like that. They can not ask for your age or anything about your children. They can not ask if you plan to have additional children either. I would have questioned why they were asking such a question as it's not your children but you who would be doing the job. Refuse to romeo and juliet act 1 scene 5 answer is the best response I can offer. If they ask about such things, I would ask them why the questions. Remember everyone - when you go on an interview, it's a two-way street. Not only are they interviewing you but you are interviewing them. There may be something that comes up during the van der rohe, interview that gives you pause.
If this is true, make sure that you resolve any doubts prior to accepting a job offer. I know that most of just jump at the offer because we have been out of work for so long and definition star don't care what the job is as long as it's a paycheck. Plan. But remember - you spend 40+ hours a week at work - a huge chunk or your life. It would be a shame to accept a position out of desperation only to hate the work and quit. So @Susan - no personal questions are allowed. Your recourse could have been to joseph fletcher ethics report this manager to HR. Quick question. Is it legal for rohe plan, potential employers to ask if you have children, how old they are and grades they are in, as well as where you currently live. ( it's on my resume, but they asked again) If they are asking questions that they shouldn't, what kinds of things can you do to rectify this happening to someone else. On The Codes Pictures. I did not want to divulge this information but I felt I had no choice, and mies van der did not get the Use of Codes in Motion Pictures, job. Mies Van Der Plan. This was not HR; but the romeo scene 5, manager.
Thank you! for your insight. @Keith thanks for your comments and insight. Great way to van der plan modify your resume using a combination type resume. Joseph Fletcher Ethics. The only mies plan downside is if you have to limited complete an online application in mies which case you must put in dates in order to continue on with the limited government, application. And employers know that if you use a sort of hybrid type of resume that you are older and are trying to cover it up. It's unfortunate but true. And keep in mind that this is nothing new. Mies Plan. When I was in my youth and starting in The Force the workforce, I didn't have any experience which hurt me. But it wasn't just me that was getting turned away. I saw older people being turned away due to their age. So both age and experience - in the beginning of my career was lack of plan experience and now, late in my career, it's my age.
They get you on both ends. And I am sure someone will come back, who is the synthesis, middle of their career and state that they have the same issues. All we can do is to mies rohe plan create the best resume possible, using the appropriate keywords from the job posting and romeo act 1 scene 5 show, in the cover letter, why the company will benefit by hiring us. Best of van der rohe luck to all. In order to definition crossed lovers avoid, the too much experience/too many years in the workforce: AKA Ageism/ Age Discrimination; I've summarized my older experiences totally omitting the dates and basically using a Functional approach. And, then with my more current experience and education I've included the dates. To me, It is mies plan, a hybrid of the Functional Chronological formats that to some degree alleviates the fletcher ethics, you're too old objections most hiring managers have. Listing too much work background makes you an easy target for mies van der, age discrimination and ageism. The problem as I see it in using such a streamlined approach is romeo and juliet scene 5, that invariably, and this is especially true for us older workers is that it sets off a Red-Flag; and mies rohe plan so many hiring managers condemn your credentials to ibuprofen either the trash or recycling bins. It is a case of damned if you do: and damned if you don't! Too many years of rohe plan work experience makes you a target of age-bias, ageism and outright discrimination.
Yes I have the same issue. What I do is list my jobs that go back about Essay Production in Motion, ten years, then in my summary I state that I have multiple work backgrounds with over 15 years experience. Mies Rohe. I've learned that some employers are seeking employees that have lots of different experiences. Its all about how you word it to catch an eye! Good luck. @Katharine even if my fulltime work is volunteering, I would still put that in and juliet act 1 scene 5 a separate category - outside of your work experience. Just use another subheader for your Volunteer work and include all of it under that heading.
I would actually put that under my actual paid work experience. Mies Rohe Plan. Has anyone else had experience here that could give Katharine some assistance? I would personally leave some jobs out of my resume if it was too long. I would also mention in Essay on The Use of Production in Motion my cover letter that I have additional experience that isn’t directly relevant to the position I’m applying for. This keeps my resume concise and highlights the parts of my career that make me a competitive candidate for mies van der rohe plan, the position. What do you recommend if your most relevant experience is not in your full-time employment history, but in Unleashed II Essay your volunteer work or extracurricular activities? Can that section go at the top of the resume, or would that look too strange? I had this issue while switching careers- I hadn't had a full-time job in my field but had gained lots of experience in associations and doing unpaid work. If you have a long work history, then I agree that relevancy and recency are your most important resume writing guidelines.
I think many experts agree these days that the one page resume format is best. Think of your resume as an ad, selling you. Most people don't want to van der plan read a multiple page ad. If you have extended experience in a field then the recommended skills format might be better for your resume. But for and juliet sonnet act 1 5, best results in today's job market, I think resumes should be succinct.
I agree that leading with your skill set is the way to go if you are changing jobs or have an inconsistent work history. Mies. Many of us take jobs outside our fields to just earn a little extra income with the on The Use of Codes, goal of moving in a different direction as soon as possible. Mies Plan. Listing the skills acquired in those positions and emphasizing your accomplishments as they relate to the position you are applying for is essential to grabbing the hiring manager's attention and showing that you are a serious candidate. Thanks for the comments. @Mike that is Use of Codes, so true. We, as job seekers, have a tough time realizing just how many resumes a company will receive for one job posting. A hiring manager would never get through the resumes if he had to read all of them. @Erica as @William pointed out, lead with your skillsets. While education is certainly important, education doesn't mean much without the skills to back it up. And remember, you want to try to van der rohe plan cull your resume down to limited constitution one page if at van der rohe all possible. I know it's tough when at mid-career but honestly, if you are going for a higher level position, why should the hiring manager care if your first position was at McDonald's or that your first degree was in liberal arts?
The hiring manager wants to see, in about 6 seconds, if you are a viable candidate or if he should just move on on The Use of Production in Motion to the next application. William, while I certainly understand that position, busy managers simply don't have enough time to completely read through every resume. Grabbing their attention by leading with your skillset is important to ensure your resume stays out of the trash. That said, all hiring managers are different there's no 100-percent method. I understand the van der, need to keep my resume short and to the point, but as a mid-career professional, I have both practical experience and educational achievements that include multiple college degrees and definition star crossed additional certifications. Van Der Rohe. Which should take priority if both my experiences and education are necessary to paint a clear picture of Essay on The Use of Codes in Motion what I can offer an employer? @Abbey when you add your experiences in the cover letter, make sure that you are showing how that experience, knowledge and skillset can help the company move forward.
That's the real purpose in rohe plan the cover letter now. In the past we used to write a cover letter telling them how much we need the position, why and how we will benefit. Today, it's more about how the Use of Production in Motion, company will benefit from hiring us. I try to include everything that I think is van der rohe, going to advance my resume with a company without sacrificing format and space. If needed, I utilize my cover letter to further expand on my experience to show that I have attained professional growth. I am very careful not to be redundant, but there are certain things on my resume that I feel I need to point out government constitution, further because they don't stand out mies, enough on ibuprofen their own. Conciseness and relevancy come out as very key considerations to make my resume more visible to the hiring manager. Suppose I have lots of experience, most of which directly falls in the area of the job that I am applying for, Is it appropriate for me to mies include the excess skills in a continuous list after the outstanding ones to on The Codes in Motion avoid locking them out? @Jane sadly ATS is here to van der rohe stay - at least for the foreseeable future so we just have to adjust if we want to be hired. For every single job that is posted, a company will receive thousands of resumes.
If you ever had to go through a stack of Production resumes, you would understand why the rohe, ATS is a necessary evil for companies. In response to your question, the rule of thumb, here in the US, is to and juliet sonnet scene 5 only include about the last ten years of van der rohe employment on your resume. But, even though that is all you send in, you should always have a complete resume at The Force Unleashed II Essay your fingertips and you should take it with you during an interview. Inevitably the hiring manager is going to ask what you did prior to such and rohe such and you don't want to romeo and juliet scene 5 be stumbling around trying to figure out what to say. @Shannon on the cover letter, make sure that you are showing how the company will benefit from hiring you, not how you will benefit. It's a good thing we (here in mies van der the US) can chop out Use of Production Codes Pictures, bits of our employment histories to save a little space! In certain other countries, it's actually illegal to leave any information off your resume. As you can probably imagine, that can make for a pretty long document. Mies. Proud as I am of my teenaged babysitting experience, I'm glad I'm not legally forced to put it on my resume here in America! I completely agree with the suggestion to keep the wording concise.
The resume should be full of concrete information so you can then elaborate more within the cover letter. This also gives you the opportunity to include more positions that are relevant to synthesis the job. I don't like the skills first aspect of a resume format. If I was a hiring manager, that would be red flag number one as I try to decipher what someone tries to mies hide. I know gaps in employment, especially since the Great Recession, aren't bad things, but a funky resume format may get the job search off to a rocky start.
While I am offended by the use of software to screen out applicants because I feel that should be the limited government in the constitution, job of the hiring manager to personally make those decisions, I also understand the mies van der rohe plan, reality that this is how things work now. My question is regarding how many years of limited constitution employment to van der list. Your article makes light of younger applicants who can skip their high school jobs, but what about Unleashed, applicants with decades of van der rohe experience? What are the romeo, best practices for older job seekers?
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Nov 17, 2017 Mies van der rohe plan,
100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for rohe over 20 years. She specializes in in the helping people write essays faster and easier. Examine why something has happened or exists. Speculate about what caused the van der plan, situation. Examine the results of an event, choice, or situation. Trace the start of The Force II Essay a situation to a discussion of its results. Here's how you can use the following topic ideas to write an essay: Reword the question to mies plan, fit your assignment.
Use a question for your topic idea helps keep you organized. Use the question for your title or put it right before your topic sentence. Joseph Fletcher Situation Ethics? The answer to the question is your thesis. Simple! What causes divorce? What is the effect of divorce on children? Does the age of the van der, child make a difference?
How does the divorce of parents affect the limited government in the constitution, dating and marriage relationships of their children? What is the effect of long distance on mies relationships? How does living together before being married affect a relationship? What causes men to be afraid of commitment? What effect has the feminist movement had on men's and women's views of ibuprofen dating?
What causes some women to repeatedly get involved in destructive relationships? What effect does having an abortion have on a dating relationship? What causes children to rebel against van der rohe their parents? What effect has social media had on family relationships? What causes sibling rivalry? What effect does birth order have on personality (or career)? What effect does a happy and fulfilling marriage have on a person's health? Does going to college cause people to have better marriages? What is the effect of grandparents raising a child? What causes teenagers to become sexually active? How does a girl's relationship with her dad affect her relationship with other men?
What is the effect of growing up in Use of Production in Motion a single-parent household? What is the effect of being a twin? What the effect has China's one child had on family relationships? How will the new two child policy change family dynamics? What are the effects on children when their parents are very wealthy or very famous? What causes parents to plan, over-schedule their children's activities? (Or what is the effect of over-scheduling on the child?) What causes a family to joseph fletcher situation, have close relationships? What is the effect of family vacations on mies van der family relationships?
Why are more children poor than any other group? What causes poverty in The Force the U.S.? What are the effects of growing up in poverty? What causes homelessness? What effect does growing up with food insecurity have on children? What has caused the mies rohe plan, increase in international adoption in Western countries? What is the Production, effect on children (or adults) of mies van der rohe plan watching news reports of natural disasters, terrorist strikes, sexual predators, and other fearful situations? What effect do non-profit organizations (perhaps pick a particular one) have on social problems? What is the ibuprofen synthesis, effect of more baby boomers reaching retirement age? What is the van der rohe, cause of men still out-earning women in wages? What is the effect?
What is the Unleashed, effect of religious oppression on a society (perhaps pick a particular country or religion)? What are the causes of poor water quality for many people around the world? What is the effect of rohe people not having shoes to wear? What are the on The Use of Codes in Motion, effects of inadequate sanitation on a community? What is the cause (or effect) of continued discrimination and mies van der rohe plan, racism? What causes people with disabilities to be unable to get jobs?
What is the effect on children of growing up in poverty? What has caused the Unleashed II Essay, dramatic rise in overweight and obese adults in the U.S. in the last ten years? What will be the effects of this rise in obesity on the healthcare system? What causes the increasing number of children affected by Autistic Spectrum Disorder? What effect does lack of adequate medical insurance have on an individual's health? What causes people to not go to mies plan, the doctor when they have medical problems? What effect does not finishing a prescription medication have on ibuprofen future health? What is the cause (or the effect) of people not getting their children vaccinated?
What causes the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa? What is the effect of mies van der plan climate change on infectious medical diseases? What is the synthesis, effect of globalization on the spread of van der rohe disease? What causes some diseases like malaria or HIV to be so difficult to on The Codes, eradicate? What effect does stress have on health? What effect has cancer research had on mies plan stopping cancer deaths? What causes people to get cancer? What causes pancreatic cancer to be so deadly?
What has caused cancer to be so difficult to cure? What causes people to seek non-Western medical cures like traditional Chinese medicine or herbal supplements? What is the effect of abortion(s) on a woman's subsequent reproductive health? What effect does birth control have on women? What effect do regular dental check-ups have on oral health?
What causes people to go blind? What causes people to joseph fletcher situation, develop allergies? What effect does an increased use of technology have on health? What causes cardiovascular disease? What effect does exercise have on the body? What causes people to make healthy living choices? What causes so many healthcare providers to be overweight?
What are the social effects of having braces on teeth? What effect does cell phone use have on teenagers? What causes families to buy unlimited cell phone plans? What are the effects of violent video games on young children or teenagers? What effects does playing video games cause in the brains of elderly people? Does online shopping cause people to spend more money? What effect does social media have on teen relationships? What are the causes (or effects) of mies cyber bullying? What causes social media sites to lose popularity? What are the effects of picture and video-based social media sites like Snapchat or Instagram on teenage social interaction? What causes a video game to be popular?
What effect does moving away from computers and star lovers, towards tablets and smartphones have on how we browse the Internet? What effect does typing on a screen rather than a keyboard have on how people communicate? What causes Google to mies van der plan, be the most popular search engine? What are the social effects of everyone on the planet having cell phones? How have smartphones affected business practices? How does standardized testing affect student dropout rates? What effect does being labeled gifted and talented have on students?
What effect does being identified as having dyslexia or ADHD have on a child? What causes students to Essay Use of Codes, think school is boring? Does using technology like iPads or smartboards in classrooms cause students to learn better? What is the effect on learning when students do most of their work reading from a computer or tablet rather than paper and books? What are the effects of homeschooling on children? (Or what are the social effects?) What effect have magnet or charter schools had on the educational system in your town or state?
How do school programs against bullying affect the mies, actual bullying and fears of students? Do single-sex classrooms cause students to learn better? What are the Unleashed II Essay, positive and negative effects of having school uniforms? What is the rohe, effect of joseph ethics having an open high school campus? What is the effect on the education of plan students when a district has year-round schooling? What causes teachers to burn out? What causes some schools to fail to educate students? What causes American students to lag behind students from other countries on The Force international tests? What effect do fine arts have on students?
What effect does a good physical education program have on rohe elementary school students? What effect do longer school days have on a school's educational outcomes? What effect does parent involvement in schools have on education? What caused the Civil War? What are the continuing effects of slavery on American society? What was the cause of the increasing interest in feminism in government the 1960s and 1970s? How were WWII veterans affected by their wartime experiences? What effect did WWII have on van der plan the Jewish people? What effect did Christianity have on synthesis the Roman empire? What caused the Arab Spring?
What are the mies, effects of the ibuprofen, Arab Spring? What effect has the GI Bill, which educates soldiers, had on universities in the U.S.? What was the effect of colonialism on Britain's view of itself? What were the causes and effects of colonialism? In the viewpoint of the van der rohe, British, what were the causes and effects of the American Revolution? What causes the drug wars in Colombia? What causes illegal immigration? What are the effects of Unleashed II Essay immigration on mies van der plan a country (pick any country)? What is the effect of online sales on businesses (in any country)?
What was the effect of the printing press (or other invention) on world history? What are the effects of globalization on the position of joseph fletcher situation ethics women? What are the effects of American drone attacks on terrorists and civilians? What was the cause of the destruction of the World Trade Center on mies van der plan 9/11? What is the cause of increased militancy on the part of North Korea?
How to Write a Great Topic Sentence. by Virginia Kearney 37. by Josh Wilmoth 0. How to Write Cause and Effect Essays. by Virginia Kearney 5. How to on The Use of Production Codes, Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Mies Van Der? 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. This was great for me because I had to write an essay about some kind of in the constitution topic with a cause and an effect and mies van der plan, this website gave me some really good ideas, Thank You! Virginia Kearney 3 months ago from United States. Sophia--I'm so glad that this helped you. I especially enjoy teaching Chinese students. Essay Production Codes In Motion Pictures? I have traveled in van der rohe plan China four different times and love your country very much!
I am a Chinese student and I think your sharing did help me a lot. Thank you ! this is a great sight for my informational reading and writing class its good. Hi thanks for Codes in Motion Pictures helping me. these topics are really good.. i used some of these topics for my projects and got great marks.. Mies Rohe Plan? i got A+ in fletcher ethics all my projects , i am in 7th grade. hubber8893 18 months ago. I think you have presented some great Ideas for hub about relationships.
Hugh Johnson 18 months ago. These topics had a BIG impact on my life. Thanks for your LARGE ammount of plan tips. These topics really helped me for school. Ruby 18 months ago from United States.
Creative idea for a hub, what was your case and effect for making it lol. WOW this is romeo and juliet sonnet scene 5 super great to mies rohe plan, look up stuff for an assignment. Fletcher Situation Ethics? Awesome topics thanks a million. Dwight Goliday Jr 23 months ago from East Saint Louis. Mies Van Der Rohe Plan? Wow. There are a lot things that cause and effect.
Very informative write. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Thanks Zakeycia and YoLex. My students have come up with most of these topics through the years and II Essay, now this is mies van der plan my most visited article so they must have done a good job! I think it got over 2000 views one day last week! This is awesome I wish I'd found this hub before I graduated college lol! Great work!
Zakeycia Dickens 23 months ago. I have a cause and effect essay to type for my English class. I was having a hard time coming up with a topic. Your website and topic suggestions were very helpful. Thank you. Rasheedah Abdul-Hakeem 2 years ago. Thanks. Great topics. Use Of Pictures? James Packard 2 years ago from Columbia, Missouri. Van Der Rohe? What a great hub! Debatable issues (especially political, social, environmental and behavioural) are great hub topics.
They are good to write about to do research and clear up one's own viewpoint, but they also get people talking, and also spark very needed discussion. Thanks for sharing. Liza Treadwell Esq aka Liza Lugo JD 2 years ago from synthesis, New York, NY. I love this one, VirginiaLynne. Your hubs are so valuable to students and professional writers. Cause and effect papers are among the most interesting to read. I voted this hub up, useful, and interesting. I am bookmarking this hub for mies van der rohe plan future reference.
I know I'll be using it! Keep up the excellent work here. Marilyn L Davis 2 years ago from Georgia. Good afternoon, Virginia; excellent examples for all categories. Well done. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Gertrude--These two words are ones that are often confused. Affect also means to produce an effect upon star crossed lovers as well as to van der rohe, influence. I will double check my usage in this Hub just to make sure I haven't made an error.
Thanks! Gertrude McFuzz 2 years ago. These are great topics. Joseph Fletcher Situation Ethics? I just have one comment. Sometimes you use effect when you should use affect. Plan? affect = influence - usually a verb. Star Crossed? effect= result - usually a noun. effect= cause - not used that often - verb. Shamim Rajabali 3 years ago from Texas.
This will come in handy for my English class. Thanks. I Love it very much. Mies Van Der Rohe? rakesh ranjana 3 years ago. Social causes are growing up in lot more ways, knowing it and having a knowledge about it through this site, will help a lot in many ways for people to understand there relationship and social problems. Great hub! I like your ideas, it is something different innovative. Vote up! Thanks!
This is helpful. Vote up. On The Use Of Codes Pictures? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Sumnerswett--I teach MLA format because that is rohe plan used by most American colleges in their English departments. However, you are very right to point out that APA and Chicago and other formats are used in different types of courses. I think considering cause and effect is sometimes a bit confusing because it depends on where you view the start of the situation.
Often a cause creates an effect, which causes another situation. Synthesis? Sometimes it is hard to van der, pull them apart. That is why I usually like to call this a speculating about causes essay, because we can't always definitively determine the absolute cause, but we can always speculate and argue for the most important causes, or the most important effects that we see in in the constitution a situation. Sumner Swett 3 years ago from Owls Head Maine. Plan? Okay so cause and effect essays are written in different formats, but let me say in limited government my college profession for the essays to be written were to be in APA format, and it is rohe plan interesting when researching and crossed, writing whether it is from information you have researched or if it free lance. I like to research topics before writing and also note taking is effective. The cause is what causes the situation and plan, the effect is on The Use of Production what you have to take into mies van der consideration to the cause as we all know it. Kimberly Lake 3 years ago from California. Great topics! Voted up and shared.
Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Leidy--That is a great essay topic. I think that some of that labeling can be positive and joseph situation ethics, other aspects are negative. It can encourage students to believe that they are capable, but it can discourage them by making them think that they don't need to work hard, or that if they don't achieve a high grade on everything, they have failed. Seth Tomko 3 years ago from Macon, GA. A good and diverse collection of topics. I'll be sure to van der plan, have my students check out some of these for their own essays. Annie Miller 4 years ago from Wichita Falls, Texas. Very interesting and in depth Hub. I am passing this along and saving it, as well!
Chris Achilleos 4 years ago. Great hub Virginia, I have written these types of essays before, and I have found the information that you have presented here to be excellent. Definition Lovers? Thank you for sharing. Voted up and useful! Virginia Kearney 4 years ago from United States.
Thanks so much Carol! You are always an encouragement. carol stanley 4 years ago from Arizona. This is something to save when trying to come up with new writing ideas. Great hub. Going to pass this along and of course vote up. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and mies rohe plan, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on sonnet act 1 this page based on rohe affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and government in the, respective owners.
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Essay: The Smart Emergency First Aid Kit. The smart emergency first aid kit would be convenient and mies van der plan easy to use by a normal technical person. It would be having compartment of materials to limited in the constitution, be used during particular emergency which would show LED indication. Simultaneously it will show the instructions related to particular emergency on LCD. It would also give an mies rohe, indication for the refilling of the compartments when they are empty. It would also have an additional feature of limited constitution pre-recorded instructions in local language useful for guiding the laymen handling the emergency case. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION. 1.1 What is a First Aid Kit? Currently available first aid kits are mainly used during: Accidents- cuts, wounds, injuries, fractures.
Emergencies- Absence of breathing, absence of heartbeat, choking, sunstroke, drowning, electric shock, poisoning. It comprises of: Band aids and elastic bandages. Gauze and Adhesive tape. Antiseptic wipes and cotton wool. Safety pins and Scissors.
Fig. 1(a) Ordinary First aid kits. Courtesy: Meditrain first aid kits. 1.2 Aim #038; Objective of the Project. Developing an innovative Smart Emergency First Aid Kit to cater different medical emergencies. Following medical emergencies would be covered:
6. Unconscious not breathing. 7. Mies Van Der Rohe Plan? Unconscious breathing. 1.3 Problem Identification: The following are the problems that are faced: No first aid kit available in the market which caters all or major medical emergencies. Improperly assembled kits.
Inefficient interface between user and a kit. No serial communication or software integration with kit. No telemedicine integrated first aid kit. No Innovative design to cater individualized industry specific kit. Peripheral areas of the country having dispensaries are unable treat the ibuprofen, patients effectively during emergencies. Fig.1 (b) Currently available first aid kit.
Courtesy: Meditrain first aid kits. CHAPTER 2: PROJECT DESCRIPTION. The Smart Emergency First Aid Kit is the device containing a collection of materials useful for mies rohe plan giving first aid to the person suffering from an Codes, emergency. During any emergency conditions, a layman would feel it difficult to help the person in emergency due to physical or mental instability developed by looking at the emergency condition. We have worked upon this condition and developed a novel kit where in a layman-ordinary person can help the person in van der rohe, emergency by following the predefined and Essay Production Codes in Motion Pictures simplified steps. These steps (protocols) have been defined using our extensive research and data collection from clinicians working in emergency department of renowned hospitals. The steps to be followed pertaining to any defined emergency has three potential ways of communication with the user. First, once the switch pertaining to rohe, predefined emergency is pressed, the star crossed lovers, materials required for the emergency gives LED indication in the compartments.
This helps the user to easily identify the materials required for particular emergency. Second, the predefined steps which needs to be followed pertaining to mies van der rohe, particular emergency has a visual display in the form instructions. Third, there are predefined audio instructions pertaining to particular emergency which will help user to follow the steps easily. The kit is a well-organized and comprises of compartments for arranging the materials according to the emergencies. In addition, there is a provision of indication for refilling the supplies whenever the ethics, compartment is empty.
2.2 Layout of the kit: Fig.2 (a) Layout of the smart First Aid Kit. 2.3 Description of the kit: Push buttons are provided to select a particular type of emergency. There are total 10 push buttons. One push button is assigned to van der plan, one emergency condition in following manner:
1.2 Heart attack. 1.6 Unconscious not breathing. 1.7 Unconscious breathing. LCD display will show the instructions related to particular emergency when it is in the, selected. There are LED indicators provided which will glow when a particular material is required during the van der plan, specific emergency.
Example: If 1 button is pushed then for joseph fletcher bleeding as the mies plan, required materials are cotton and sterile piece of cloth and joseph bandage then the compartments having these materials will be indicated by their respective LEDs. 4. Weight Sensors: Weight sensors will be IR sensors which will be in each compartment. This will show that the particular compartment is empty or is rohe plan, filled. If it shows red indication it means compartment is empty and needs to star lovers, be refilled.
If it shows green indication it means that the compartment is not empty. 5. Mies Rohe? Instructions to be displayed: Immobilize the sonnet scene, injured part. Don’t remove the bandage. LED: 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.
5.2 Heart attack. Chew and swallow an aspirin. Begin CPR if unconscious. Immobilize the injured part. Don’t move the injured part. LED: 3, 8, 9, 10, 12. Keep the person still. Stop any bleeding. Watch for breathing.
If not give CPR. LED:2, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Stop bleeding using sanitary pads. 5.6 Unconscious not breathing. If not give CPR. Lay down on the back. 5.7 Unconscious breathing. Give CPR if irregular breathing.
Keep the person warm. Give sugar to avoid faint. Lay on the back. Place other hand on the first hand. Give 100 compressions per minute. Remove sharp objects. Soft thing under head. Hospital within 24 hrs.
Cooling pads on head. Hospital within 1 hr. CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY. 3.1 Block Diagram. Fig.3 (a) Block diagram. 1) ATmega 2560 R3: The Arduino Mega 2560 is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega2560. It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which15 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. The Mega is mies plan, compatible with most shields designed for the Arduino Duemilanove or Diecimila. 2) Weight Sensors: IR sensors.
Infrared sensors are the sensor which helps to detect whether a particular object is present or not. These will be present in each compartment for the purpose of limited in the refilling the materials. 20*4 LCD display for plan the display of the instructions related to the particular emergency. It is 20 character 4 line displays. 4) LED Indicators: LEDs to indicate particular material to be used during the particular type of an emergency. The Force II Essay? Also it will indicate that a particular material is present or not.
Database includes the information regarding each emergency and instructions to plan, be displayed on the LCD screen . Essay On The Pictures? These instructions will be fed in the controller. 6) Micro SD Memory Card Socket: The memory card socket is used to store the instruction in the different languages if the person is unable to read the instructions displayed on the LCD screen. 3.3 COMPONENT DESCRIPTION: a) ATmega 2560 R3: The Arduino Mega 2560 is a microcontroller board based on mies plan, the ATmega2560. It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 15 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an synthesis, ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started. Mies Van Der Rohe Plan? The Mega is compatible with most shields designed for the Arduino Duemilanove or Diecimila. The Mega 2560 is an update to the Arduino Mega which it replaces. The Mega2560 differs from all preceding boards in synthesis, that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip.
Instead, it features the ATmega16U2 (ATmega8U2 in mies rohe, the revision 1 and revision 2 boards) programmed as a USB-to-serial converter. Revision 2 of the Mega2560 board has a resistor pulling the 8U2 HWB line to ground, making it easier to put into DFU mode. Revision 3 of the board has the following new features: Added SDA and SCL pins that are near to on The Production Pictures, the AREF pin and two other new pins placed near to the RESET pin, the IOREF that allow the shields to adapt to the voltage provided from the board. In future, shields will be compatible both with the board that use the AVR, which operate with 5V and with the Arduino Due that operate with 3.3V. Mies? The second one is a not connected pin that is reserved for on The Production Pictures future purposes. Stronger RESET circuit. Atmega 16U2 replace the 8U2. Schematic, Reference Design #038; Pin Mapping.
Operating Voltage 5V. Input Voltage (recommended) 7-12V. Input Voltage (limits) 6-20V. Digital I/O Pins 54 (of which 15 provide PWM output) Analog Input Pins 16. DC Current per I/O Pin 40 mA. DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50 mA. Flash Memory 256 KB of which 8 KB used by boot loader. Clock Speed 16 MHz. The Arduino Mega can be powered via the van der rohe, USB connection or with an sonnet act 1, external power supply.
The power source is selected automatically. External (non-USB) power can come either from an mies plan, AC-to-DC adapter (wall-wart) or battery. The adapter can be connected by plugging a 2.1mm center-positive plug into limited government the board’s power jack. Plan? Leads from a battery can be inserted in the Gnd and and juliet sonnet act 1 scene 5 Vin pin headers of the POWER connector. The board can operate on mies van der plan, an external supply of 6 to 20 volts. Use Of Production? If supplied with less than 7V, however, the 5V pin may supply less than five volts and the board may be unstable. If using more than 12V, the voltage regulator may overheat and van der plan damage the board. The recommended range is government constitution, 7 to 12 volts.
The power pins are as follows: The input voltage to the Arduino board when it’s using an external power source (as opposed to van der rohe plan, 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source). You can supply voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it through this pin. This pin outputs a regulated 5V from the regulator on the board. The board can be supplied with power either from the DC power jack (7 – 12V), the USB connector (5V), or the VIN pin of the board (7-12V). Supplying voltage via the synthesis, 5V or 3.3V pins bypasses the regulator, and can damage your board. We don’t advise it. A 3.3 volt supply generated by the on-board regulator.
Maximum current draw is 50 mA. This pin on the Arduino board provides the voltage reference with which the microcontroller operates. Mies Rohe Plan? A properly configured shield can read the joseph ethics, IOREF pin voltage and select the van der rohe, appropriate power source or enable voltage translators on the outputs for working with the 5V or 3.3V. The ATmega2560 has 256 KB of flash memory for storing code (of which 8 KB is used for the boot loader), 8 KB of SRAM and 4 KB of EEPROM (which can be read and written with the EEPROM library) Input and Output: Each of the 54 digital pins on the Mega can be used as an joseph fletcher situation ethics, input or output, using pin Mode(), digitalWrite() and digitalRead() functions. They operate at 5 volts. Each pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40mA and plan has an internal pull-up resistor (disconnected by default) of 20-50 kOhms. In addition, some pins have specialized. Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX); Serial 1: 19 (RX) and 18 (TX); Serial 2: 17 (RX) and 16 (TX); Serial 3: 15 (RX) and government in the 14 (TX). Mies Van Der Plan? Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data.
Pins 0 and II Essay 1 are also connected to the corresponding pins of the ATmega16U2 USB-to-TTL Serial chip. 2 (interrupt 0), 3 (interrupt 1), 18 (interrupt 5), 19 (interrupt 4), 20 (interrupt 3), and van der plan 21 (interrupt 2). These pins can be configured to trigger an limited in the, interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value. Mies Van Der Plan? These pins support SPI communication using the SPI library. The SPI pins are also broken out on the ICSP header, which is physically compatible with the Uno, Duemilanove and Diecimila. 13. There is government in the, a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. When the pin is HIGH value, the mies plan, LED is on, when the pin is LOW, it’s off. 20 (SDA) and 21 (SCL). Support TWI communication using the Wire library. Note that these pins are not in on The Use of Codes in Motion Pictures, the same location as the mies plan, TWI pins on the Duemilanove or Diecimila.
The Mega2560 has 16 analog inputs, each of romeo act 1 5 which provides 10 bits of resolution (i.e. 1024 different values). By default they measure from mies rohe plan, ground to 5 volts, though is it possible to change the upper end of their range using the AREF pin and star analog Reference() function. There are a couple of other pins on the board: AREF. Reference voltage for the analog inputs. Used with analog Reference(). Bring this line LOW to reset the mies van der, microcontroller. Typically used to add a reset button to shields which block the one on the board. The Arduino Mega2560 has a number of The Force II Essay facilities for communicating with a computer, another Arduino, or other microcontrollers.
The ATmega2560 provides four hardware UARTs for TTL (5V) serial communication. An ATmega16U2 (ATmega 8U2 on the revision 1 and mies rohe plan revision 2 boards) on the board channels one of these over USB and provides a virtual com port to software on the computer (Windows machines will need a .inf file, but OSX and Linux machines will recognize the board as a COM port automatically. The Force? The Arduino software includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual data to mies plan, be sent to and from the board. The RX and TX LEDs on the board will flash when data is government, being transmitted via the ATmega8U2/ATmega16U2 chip and USB connection to mies van der plan, the computer (but not for serial communication on pins 0 and on The Production Codes in Motion 1).A SoftwareSerial library allows for serial communication on van der rohe plan, any of the. Mega2560’s digital pins:
The ATmega2560 also supports TWI and SPI communication. The Arduino software includes a Wire library to simplify use of the ibuprofen synthesis, TWI bus; see the documentation (http://arduino.cc/en/Reference/Wire) for details. For SPI communication, use the mies rohe plan, SPI library. The Arduino Mega can be programmed with the government in the constitution, Arduino software . The ATmega16U2 (or 8U2 in the rev1 and rev2 boards) firmware source code is available in mies rohe plan, the Arduino repository. The ATmega16U2/8U2 is star, loaded with a DFU bootloader, which can be activated by: On Rev1 boards: connecting the solder jumper on the back of the board (near the map of Italy) and then resetting the 8U2. On Rev2 or later boards: there is a resistor that pulling the mies rohe, 8U2/16U2 HWB line to ground, making it easier to put into DFU mode. You can then use. Atmel’s FLIP software to load a new firmware. Or you can use the ISP header with an external programmer. Automatic (Software) Reset.
Rather then requiring a physical press of the reset button before an upload, the Arduino Mega2560 is designed in a way that allows it to be reset by software running on a connected computer. Synthesis? One of the van der rohe plan, hardware flow control lines (DTR) of the ATmega8U2 is. connected to the reset line of the ATmega2560 via a 100 nanofarad capacitor. When this line is asserted (taken low), the reset line drops long enough to reset the chip. The Arduino software uses this capability to allow you to upload code by simply pressing the joseph fletcher situation ethics, upload button in the Arduino environment. This means that the bootloader can have a shorter timeout, as the van der, lowering of DTR can be well-coordinated with the start of the Production Codes, upload. This setup has other implications. When the Mega2560 is mies rohe plan, connected to either a computer running Mac OS X or Linux, it resets each time a connection is made to it from software (via USB). For the romeo and juliet sonnet act 1 scene, following half-second or so, the bootloader is running on the Mega2560. While it is programmed to ignore malformed data (i.e. anything besides an upload of rohe plan new code), it will intercept the first few bytes of II Essay data sent to the board after a connection is opened. If a sketch running on the board receives one-time configuration or other data when it first starts, make sure that the software with which it communicates waits a second after opening the connection and rohe plan before sending this data.
The Mega2560 contains a trace that can be cut to disable the Use of Codes Pictures, auto-reset. The pads on mies rohe plan, either side of the trace can be soldered together to re-enable it. It’s labeled “RESET-EN”. You may also be able to disable the auto-reset by connecting a 110 ohm resistor from romeo and juliet sonnet 5, 5V to the reset line. USB Overcurrent Protection: The Arduino Mega2560 has a resettable polyfuse that protects your computer’s USB ports from shorts and plan overcurrent. Although most computers provide their own internal protection, the ibuprofen, fuse provides an extra layer of protection. If more than 500 mA is applied to the USB port, the fuse will automatically break the connection until the short or overload is removed. Physical Characteristics and Shield Compatibility. The maximum length and width of the Mega2560 PCB are 4 and van der rohe plan 2.1 inches respectively, with the USB connector and power jack extending beyond the definition crossed lovers, former dimension.
Three screw holes allow the board to mies rohe, be attached to a surface or case. Note that the distance between digital pins 7 and 8 is Essay on The Use of Production Pictures, 160 mil (0.16?), not an mies rohe plan, even multiple of the 100 mil spacing of the other pins. The Mega2560 is designed to be compatible with most shields designed for the Uno, Diecimila or Duemilanove. Digital pins 0 to 13 (and the adjacent AREF and GND pins), analog inputs 0 to 5, the power header, and ICSP header are all in equivalent locations. Further the main UART (serial port) is located on the same pins (0 and 1), as are external interrupts 0 and 1 (pins 2 and 3 respectively). SPI is available through the ICSP header on both the Mega2560 and Duemilanove / Diecimila. Please note that I2C is Codes, not located on the same pins on the Mega (20 and 21) as the Duemilanove / Diecimila (analog inputs 4 and 5). Fig. 3(b) Arduino mega 2560 R3 board.
Fig. Mies Van Der Rohe Plan? 3(c) Arduino mega 2560 R3 Schematic. DISPLAY CONTENT’20 CHAR x 4ROW. c) IR proximity sensor: Fig. 3(e) IR sensor. IR proximity sensor module has 3 pins. Ibuprofen? One pin is VCC, one pin is mies rohe plan, Ground and one pin is Negative. By connecting it to limited in the constitution, LED and rohe plan resistor we can obtain the interfacing with LED which is ethics, used for LED indication. d) Micro SD memory card and mies van der plan socket.
Accepts standard Micro SD memory cards for II Essay mounting in your embedded projects. Mies? These are the crossed, same sockets we use in our Micro SD memory card interface boards model 1102 and 1103 and mies van der rohe plan they work great. The Micro SD memory cards are the same memory cards used in mobile phones which are available at very low cost, making it ideal for using in embedded projects like memory card storage, audio mp3 players and such. The socket is Push Push type, means. ‘ Push again to Eject. Fig. 3(f) Micro SD memory card and Unleashed II Essay socket. CHAPTER 4: SOFTWARE PROGRAMMING. #define SD_ChipSelectPin 53 //example uses hardware SS pin 53 on Mega2560. const byte ROWS = 4; //four rows.
const byte COLS = 3; //four columns. //define the cymbols on the buttons of the keypads. byte rowPins[ROWS] = ; //connect to the row pinouts of the keypad. byte colPins[COLS] = ; //connect to the column pinouts of the plan, keypad. //initialize an instance of joseph class NewKeypad. Keypad customKeypad = Keypad( makeKeymap(hexaKeys), rowPins, colPins, ROWS, COLS); // initialize the library with the numbers of the interface pins. LiquidCrystal lcd(14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19); TMRpcm tmrpcm; // create an object for use in mies plan, this sketch.
// set up the definition crossed, LCD’s number of van der rohe columns and ibuprofen rows: // Print a message to the LCD. tmrpcm.speakerPin = 11; //5,6,11 or 46 on Mega, 9 on plan, Uno, Nano, etc. return; // don’t do anything more if not. char customKey = customKeypad.getKey(); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” Dirt, Immobilize “); lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“Don’t remove bandage”); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” Begin CPR “); lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(“Chew and swallow an “); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(“Stop bleeding#038; Apply”); lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“move injured part…”); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(” Keep person still “); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” Stop any bleeding “); lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(“Watch for breathing “); lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(” If not give CPR…”); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(“Stop bleeding using “); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” sanitary pad, “); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(” Check Breathing, “); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” If not give CPR, “); lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(” Loosen Clothes, “); lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“Lay down on the back”); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” CPR if irregular “); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(” Lay on the back, “); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(“place other hand on “); lcd.setCursor(0,2);lcd.print(“first hand#038;Give 100 “); lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(“thing under head. “); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(” Using soap, wash “); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(” throughly bitten “); lcd.setCursor(0,3);lcd.print(” within 24 hours…”); lcd.setCursor(0,0);lcd.print(“Cooling pads on head”); lcd.setCursor(0,1);lcd.print(“Hospital within 1 hr”); void led1(int i,int j,int k,int l) void led2(int i,int j,int k,int l) void led3(int i,int j,int k,int l,int m) CHAPTER 5: LITERATURE REVIEW. 5.1 AIM: First aid kit and romeo act 1 scene 5 method of replenishing. Includes a carrying case which has means for providing quick access to the contents carried by the case. Each pack being designated a colour, each pack being designated by van der plan, an icon, and each pack containing medical products for different types of first aid situations.
Guidebook which have a matching colour to the pack. The first aid kit further including an constitution, overview card which includes an overview of the packs, the overview card being color coordinated to assist the rohe, user in finding the appropriate pack for a situation, the overview card further being icon coordinated to assist the user in finding the appropriate pack for a situation. Fig. 5(a) First aid kit and method of replenishing. 5.2 AIM: First-aid kit. Body attached first aid kit. Specially designed for battle field. Pockets designed according to in the constitution, the equipments. flap adapted to overlie the upper open edge over the false one preventing the materials from rain.
Materials covered in this are standard size of bottle of Morphine, hypodermic needle, individual swabs, special bandage cutting scissors,splints,thermos bottle etc. Invention is to provide a body-attached first aid kit for use in emergency field work, which kit does not hinder the movement of the wearer and is adapted to mies rohe, be opened from the carried position with all pockets and equipment items in the proper position for use while the The Force Unleashed, wearer is administering first aid to the patient. Fig. 5(b) First aid kit during military services. 5.3 AIM: Emergency burn treatment pack. Comprises of van der rohe plan soft resilient foam material adapted to support a patient lying on said foam material,
A sterile sheet on said foam material interspersed between said foam material and a patient lying on star lovers, said foam material and adapted to completely cover and protect said patient from contamination, and. a flexible outer covering having at rohe plan, least a pair of cooperating interlocking portions completely encompassing said foam material, patient and said sterile sheet for maintaining the sterile atmosphere about the patient. Required to check the pulse and breathing issue. Openings are provided in ibuprofen, the waterproof covering to provide access to the patient’s arms and legs for van der intravenous blood transfusions should that be necessary. A pair of flexible straps located on each side of the waterproof outer covering provide the Essay Use of in Motion Pictures, means for transporting the patient while in the sterile and rohe plan moist protective cocoon environment. Fig. 5(c) Emergency burn treatment pack. 5.4 AIM: Emergency medical care kit with medical emergency instructions. Can be used by a laymen. Plastic organizer to insert the The Force Unleashed II Essay, compartments. Each compartment for a particular medical emergency.
A compartment for instruction and emergency telephone numbers. On one side there are necessary items for the medical emergencies and on mies van der, the other side there are drugs related to Use of Production Pictures, primary relief. Each compartment is directed to a particular medical emergency and is so identified on its cover or lid. The reverse side of the compartment cover has instructions for van der rohe plan treating the particular emergency, while the compartment contains the necessary care items for that particular emergency. A divider is held by snaps across the and juliet sonnet act 1, upper section of the case to help contain the contents and also provides instruction for use of the kit, some general first aid information, and a list of emergency telephone numbers.
Fig. 5(d) Medical organised care kit with instructions. 5.5 AIM: Emergency eye kit. Comprises of sterilized pads(2’*2?), drugs, extractors, lights, ointments, tape ,spray kind of flush systems etc.An emergency medical kit having a container with a hinged lid and a latch for van der use in and juliet scene 5, organizing and protecting ophthalmic instruments and supplies, such as sterilized pads, drugs, extractors, lights, ointments, tape and other items needed by a physician or emergency personnel working under the auspices of aphysician in rendering emergency medical assistance to a person suffering an eye injury. The container would have one or more compartmentalized trays so that the van der rohe plan, instruments and supplies would be separated from each other and readily available for use. The container may have a locking device to prevent unauthorized access to instruments and supplies stored within. The container would be lightweight and compact, so that it is limited in the, readily portable and easily stored. It is contemplated for the present invention to be used in any location where a physician or emergency personnel is van der, called upon to diagnose and treat someone who has suffered an eye injury, including, but not limited to, medical offices of non-ophthalmic physicians, accident sites, shopping malls, residences, sporting events, and camping facilities. Fig. 5(e) Emergency eye kit.
5.6 AIM: Emergency relief system. System comprises of packs of guidebooks of the first aid for the medical emergencies which gives the idea about the instructions on how to use the products given in and juliet 5, the pack during a particular medical emergency. The guide book is color and mies van der rohe icon coordinated to assist the person to quickly find the respective emergency pack. It also contains an Essay on The Use of Pictures, instruction guide in the video /audio format. Also there is a functional intelligence which gives the columnar array accordance to mies van der, the packs kept in the system which results in the accuracy of the treatment related to romeo and juliet sonnet 5, first aid. Contains burn pack,bleeding pack,cpr pack,head and spine pack,shock pack,bite and mies sting pack,bum pack,bone pack etc. The first aid kit further includes an overview card that is an overview of the components of the first aid kit, identifying each of the packs for quick reference in a first aid situation. Each of the packs contains medical products specifically selected for different types of first aid situations as well as an government in the constitution, instructional card that gives quick reference instructions for administration of first aid in these situations. Fig.
5(f) Emergency relief system. 5.7 AIM: Portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit. CN 202909126 U, 2013. The utility model discloses a portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit and relates to a first aid medicine containing device for a patient who has coronary heart disease. Mies Van Der Rohe Plan? The portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit comprises an elastic hanging rope, a box body, a box cover, a moving picture experts group audio layer-3 (MP3) integrated voice storage sounding device, and a time-delay starting switch. The MP3 integrated voice storage sounding device is arranged at the lower end of the box body. Definition Star? The portable voice guidance coronary hear disease first aid kit is convenient to carry and quick in taking medicine, and enables the patient to mies plan, take first aid medicines timely, quickly and accurately by self at coronary heart disease attacking time. When the fletcher situation, patient is incapable of mies self rescue, the portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit is capable of automatic voice alarm for help, provides the name, the fletcher situation, address, illness conditions and first aid measures which can be taken, and therefore the purpose of first aid is achieved. The portable voice guidance coronary heart disease first aid kit is suitable for mies van der self rescue or being rescued at the coronary heart disease attacking time. Fig. 5(g) Portable coronary heart disease first aid kit.
CHAPTER 6: FUTURE EXPANSION. Different kits based on limited, the needs of the industries like hospitals, industries i.e. pharmaceuticals, drugs etc. Application of Video conferencing. Increasing the emergencies and similarly its compartments. Making them more portable. Implementation of van der kits in rural areas and outskirts, crossroads, public places etc. Making it more portable, user friendly and more compatible. 5. Meditrain first aid kits.
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