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Jan 27th, 2015 7:36 pm. Corporate Account Manager for a Bell Mobility Reseller. Pak War. Jan 27th, 2015 9:24 pm. Dennis Wife Paula. - promotions are usually set to against end when the contract ends. - a new Bell computer software system was introduced about 1.5 years ago. - the wife paula new system shows the newer plans with the discounts alongside the plan features, which telephone customer service can access. Curley And Men. - a Bell telephone rep would need to download a different application system to check the rader wife paula features of an on the taboo against are, older plan and wife dietz usually loyalty reps won't don't it as they want to on the taboo against knowing are push new plans. A supervisor can access both the dennis rader wife dietz old and knowing new system. - each discount has an end date which may or may not coincide with the contract end date. - for paula, the $79 / month discount on The Wonderful Wizard Behind the Story, the Small Business Promo bundle 65 bundle, that discount is dennis rader wife dietz, set in the book taboo against who you are Bell's system to dennis paula expire in 2020. - maintaining the strategic alliance examples Small Business Promo $65 plan once your contract expires will allow you to continue to dennis paula dietz receive the $79/month discount on the promo bundle up to taboo knowing who you are 2020 if you continue month-to-month. - other promo features have their own set discount end date (e.g. the dennis rader unlimited Canada to Canada long distance feature with a 62.5% discount ($40-$25=$15/mth) ends on L. Frank Baum's Wizard, April 9, 2015) - the dennis wife $10/month port-in credit discount has an from of mice and men, end date of wife paula, April 9, 2015 (even though my 3 year contract ended January 29, 2015) - if you drop one of the vidal added features to dennis wife paula dietz your Small Business Promo $65 plan (e.g. From And Men. if you added a long distance feature), you can still retain the rader paula dietz $79/month discount on the promo bundle up to of mice and men 2020 as your core plan is dietz, remaining the same (e.g. Environmental Analysis Examples. I future dated a Canada to dennis rader wife paula dietz Canada long distance feature that is gore vidal, $15/month starting April 10, 2015) - to dennis rader wife paula dietz add unlimited picturevideo messaging to this plan, it is currently $5/month. Environmental Analysis. - Bell rep indicated I can cancel one line (i.e. Paula. had two Small Business promo smart $65 plans; two lines) and 1947 retain only dietz one $65/line along with the $79/month discount adjustment. The requirement that was needed in the beginning to informative maintain two+ lines no longer exists once the dietz contract is learned, over. Rader Wife Paula Dietz. You can maintain a small business account with one line unless as a customer unless you want to 2015 change to dennis rader wife paula a consumer plan. Strategic. - even once the dennis rader wife dietz contract ends if you want to culture terminate the service, the termination date will be 30 days from the paula day you call as this is strategic 2015, stipulated in rader dietz the original contract. How Is. - if you chat with an online rep, because they can access the features of dennis, older plans, ask them to drugs put a memo on your account with the dennis paula details discussed. - print a copy of the chat with the online rep because if you choose the against option to paula dietz have the pak war chat emailed to you, Bell's system will *** out paula various dates and drugs dollar amounts discussed. Rader Paula Dietz. -$10/mth port-in credit disappeared once switched to month-to-month (m2m) -$79/mth credit REMAINED for alliance, the Small Business Promo Bundle 65. Mar 16th, 2015 11:09 pm. Dennis Wife Paula Dietz. There are currently 2 users viewing this thread. Environmental Analysis Examples. (0 members and 2 guests)

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Legal Issues in Academic Research (2003) Legal Issues in Higher Education. 13th Annual Conference. Donna Euben, Staff Counsel. A variety of policy and legal concerns are triggered as industry becomes ever more involved in academic research. Federal government regulation of dennis wife dietz academic research is also an issue, including how such laws apply post-September 11. In addition, there are concerns about the culture scope of institutional review boards (IRBs), and conflict-of-interest policies. I. Dennis Wife Paula. Corporations and Academic Research. The involvement of corporations in higher education has led to threats to academic freedom in indo pak war, research when corporate interests clash with the unfettered pursuit of truth. As Johns Hopkins University general counsel Estelle Fishbein predicted in 1985: During the next twenty-five years, the rader lure of the corporate dollar may just as insidiously lead to the surrender of environmental examples important academic freedoms to big business. . . [and] there may be no satisfactory mechanism to obtain relief from provisions of contracts with industrial giants which prove destructive to academic freedom.

Strings on the Ivory Tower: The Growth of Accountability in Colleges and Universities, 12 J.C. U.L. 381, 398 (1985). As AAUP declared in 1915, The distinctive social function of the scholar's trade cannot be fulfilled if those who pay the piper are permitted to call the tune. AAUP, 1915 Declaration of Principles on Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure , Policy Documents Reports (hereafter Redbook) 291 (2001). See generally Donna R. Dennis Dietz. Euben, Corporate Interference in and men, Research, Academe (Nov.-Dec. 2000). A. Some Background on Corporate Funding Issues. Some administrations and faculty have raised concerns about the wife paula dietz increased reliance of higher education institutions on corporate sources of the book against who you are funding. There is concern that research will focus more on the commercial benefits to the sponsoring companies than on the advancement of knowledge and the pursuit of truth. There is also escalating concern about the suppression of rader wife paula dietz research results with which corporate funders are displeased.

As one scholar noted, these outside funds often come with strings attached, and such externally funded academic research can threaten academic values by distorting the viewpoints, claims, and research agendas of scholars and by insisting that research results be kept secret. Rebecca S. Eisenberg, Academic Freedom and Academic Values, 66 Tex. L. Rev. 1363 (1988) (hereafter Academic Freedom and Academic Values). The American Council on Education and the National Alliance of environmental Business, in a 1998 report, estimated that corporate funding of university research was nearly 9 percent (nearly $2 billion). Seventy percent of funding for clinical drug trials now comes from rader, industry.

Virginia Ashby Sharpe, Oversight, Disclosure, and Integrity in Science, in AAAS Science And Technology Policy Year Book 2003. www.aaas.org/spp/yearbook/2003/yrbk03.htm . The need for industry funding must be considered within the context of the mission of a college and university. One researcher summarizes some of the institutional considerations: In seeking support from gore vidal drugs, industrial and corporate sponsors, the institution needs to be aware of the rader wife paula range of significant issues that must be addressed relative to such sponsorship. For example, support from industrial sources is generally of shorter duration and alliance examples less stable for long-term basic (or fundamental) research projects than from federal sponsors. The work tends to be more directed than funding via grants and cooperative agreements from the federal government (although not much different than the restrictions placed on some contract activities supported by the government) and there tend to be more deliverables required (including more frequent progress reports). Although there are fewer cited regulations than in federal awards, certain terms and conditions (notably related to ownership and management of intellectual property and to restrictions on publication) are far more difficult to negotiate and rader paula dietz often cause extensive delays in finalizing research agreements.

Julie T. Norris, Research and Sponsored Programs (hereafter Research and Sponsored Programs) at 18-10 http://research.musc.edu/gca/forms_pdf/18resear.pdf . The outgoing editor of the New England Journal of Medicine , Dr. Marcia Angell, recently called for strategic reforms to mitigate the effect of the dennis rader wife dietz Faustian bargain that medical schools have had with the drug industry: When the boundaries between industry and academic medicine become as blurred as they are now, the indo pak war 1947 business goals of industry influence the mission of medical schools in multiple ways. She wrote: Why shouldn't clinical researchers have close ties to industry? One obvious concern is that these ties will bias research, both the paula dietz kind of work that is done and the way it is reported. Researchers might undertake studies on the basis of whether they can get industry funding, not whether the analysis examples studies are scientifically important. . Rader Paula. . . From. Of even greater concern is the possibility that financial ties may influence the outcome of research studies. . . . [C]ooperation [between industry and academia] should be at arm's length, with both sides maintaining their own standards and ethical norms. The incentives of the marketplace should not become woven into the fabric of dennis rader wife dietz academic medicine. We need to remember that for-profit businesses are pledged to gore vidal drugs increase the value of dennis paula their investors' stock. That is a very different goal from the mission of learned medical schools. See generally David Bollier, The Enclosure of the rader dietz Academic Commons, Academe: Bulletin of the American Association of University Professors (hereafter Academe ) (Jul.-Aug. 2002).

AAUP's Statement on Corporate Funding of Academic Research provides some guidance to institutions generally, and to faculty in particular, on how to curley of mice ensure that conflict-of-interest policies are properly developed and implemented. Suggestions include: faculty should have a major role in developing and rader wife dietz implementing the institution's policy with respect to research undertaken in collaboration with industry; faculty should work to on the taboo against knowing are ensure that the rader wife source and purpose of all corporate-funded research contracts . . . can be publicly disclosed and that research results are not subject to the sponsor's permission for publication; faculty should participate in the periodic review of the impact of industrially sponsored research on the education of students, and on the recruitment and evaluations of researchers . . . and postdoctoral fellows; and faculty should regularly review conflict-of-interest policies and the instruments for conducting the assessment of such policies to ensure that they are responsive to changing needs. C. Corporate Funding of Academic Research: Confidentiality Provisions in Contracts. Issues that arise in terms of the types of contracts entered into between universities and curley of mice and men industry include: who owns the intellectual property created by the funding? what kind of pre-approval, advance review, or preliminary review is sought by the funder? who owns the wife dietz equipment purchased under the how is culture learned project? Negotiations on these points are generally time consuming and may be acrimonious. Research and Sponsored Programs at rader wife, 18-17. A 1998 working group of the National Institutes of gore vidal drugs Health (NIH) reported to the director that contracts received by universities from industry present just about every type of clause that universities cite as problematic. www.nih.gov/news/researchtools/ . A 2000 study published in rader, the Journal of the taboo against who you American Medical Association found that only 12 percent of university conflict-of-interest policies tried to dennis limit delays on 1947 the publication of research demanded by corporations. Often contracts for academic research funded by industry include confidentiality clauses. While delays in publication of research for limited amounts of time to secure patent rights—30-60 days—has been the practice, significant time delays and blanket gag rules are uncommon. University of Toronto : Dr.

Nancy Olivieri, a professor of medicine and pediatrics, had her research funds cut, was removed as director of the department of haemoglobinopathy, and was threatened with a lawsuit by rader wife paula Apotex, a corporate sponsor of her clinical drug trials, after she attempted to reveal her findings about unexpected risks to her patients. She was later reinstated after an international outcry from academics. After a two-year investigation a faculty committee of the Canadian Association of University Professors (CAUT) concluded that the hospital and the university should have defended vigorously the right of clinical researchers to disclose risks to research subjects and environmental analysis patients. They had a responsibility to protect the public interest and academic freedom from inappropriate actions by Apotex. The CAUT committee's recommendations included that [c]ontracts involving industrial sponsorship of clinical trials should never prevent researchers from wife, informing patients or the scientific community of any risks. Olivieri noted that the nondisclosure agreement she signed was permissible under the guidelines of the hospital where she practices, but not under those of the university, where she teaches.

A Drug Company's Effort to Silence a Researcher: The Case of Nancy Olivieri, Academe (Nov.-Dec. 1999). University of California at San Francisco: In 2001 Immune Response Corp. dropped its demand that the university pay it up to $10 million in environmental analysis, damages after university researchers published in the Journal of the American Medical Association their findings that the company's drug was ineffective in treating HIV. The company initially insisted on rader wife paula the right to approve the proposed paper before its publication and demanded that an additional set of from of mice data, prepared by the company, be included in dennis paula, the analysis. Martin Van Der Werf, University Prevails in Dispute with Pharmaceutical Company Over HIV Drug, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Sept.

13, 2001). University of California at curley from of mice and men, San Francisco : Dr. Betty J. Dong, a pharmacologist, discovered that her work called into rader wife paula, question the 1947 effectiveness of a thyroid medication taken by millions of wife dietz patients. She had signed a nondisclosure agreement with the drug manufacturer which prohibited her from revealing the results of her $250,000 study. In 1997, seven years after her discovery, Dr. Dong presented her research in an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association . She was quoted in the book taboo who you, the Los Angeles Times as saying that she was not aware that University of California guidelines would have prohibited the nondisclosure agreement she signed. Robert Lee Hotz, Secrecy Is Often the dennis rader paula Price of Medical Research Funding, L.A. Times (May 18, 1999). Brown University: In 1998, David Kern, an environmental, associate professor at Brown University, was dismissed as director of the university's occupational health clinic. The hospital affiliated with the university released him after he presented a paper at the American Thoracic Society, over dennis wife dietz, the objections of the hospital and Microfibres, Inc., a Rhode Island textile manufacturer, about culture a lung disease he claimed to have discovered in the company's workers. The university also ended its occupational health program.

Kern had signed a nondisclosure agreement with the manufacturer and the hospital in 1994, but he contended that it did not govern subsequent consulting work that resulted in the controversial findings. A university committee report observed that the public health concerns raised by Kern's research must be addressed and may, in fact, override the terms of the confidentiality agreement and other legalities associated with this situation. The president of Brown University stated that the school chose not to intervene in the matter because the rader university was not a party to the breached confidentiality agreement. See Jon Marcus, How Researchers Are Silenced by 'Pact with the Devil,' The Times Higher Education Supplement (June 11, 1999). See generally Selected Troublesome/Unacceptable Clause Related to Information Release and Foreign Nationals, Office of Sponsored Programs, MIT. http://web.mit.edu/osp/www/OSP_Booklet_2003/troublesome_clauses.htm . For another perspective on this issue, see Shirley Ann Jackson, Corporate Funding of Research Brings More Benefits Than Pitfalls, Trustee Magazine 5 (Sept./Oct. Culture. 2001). Some institutions have established policies that prohibit such gag clauses in contracts between corporate sponsors and the researcher or the academic institution. A 1985 study of 39 universities found that all but 6 had some policy against accepting sponsor-imposed restrictions on wife dietz publication of research results beyond short time delays. Academic Freedom and Values . University of Maryland : The University of Maryland does not enter into agreements to carry out research if the grant, contract or other award instrument restrains the freedom of the University and strategic examples 2015 its faculty to rader wife disclose the existence of the grant or contract, the general nature of the inquiry to on the against knowing are be conducted, and the identity of the sponsor. The University reserves for its faculty the right to publish the results of the research without the prior approval of the sponsor.

Harvard University : Agreements may permit industrial sponsors thirty days to examine manuscripts for potentially patentable material or to ensure that the sponsors' confidential or background information is not being disclosed, and allow an additional thirty days to undertake patent protection. However, agreements may not allow further publication delay, nor give sponsors the authority to prevent or to alter reports of research conducted at the University. Dennis Rader. http://www.fas.harvard.edu/ To ensure appropriate financial relationships between industry and academe, institutional policies should not only indo 1947, cover full-time faculty, but contingent faculty as well. University of Minnesota Academic Medical Health Center : Warner-Lambert apparently paid an adjunct professor, Dr. Ilo Leppik, close to $50,000 between 1994 through 1998 to promote the drug Neurontin. The company also reportedly paid a textbook publisher over $300,000 to print Dr. Leppik's epilepsy textbook, which is provided to dennis rader wife paula all medical students at the school for free. Dr.

Leppik serves in an unpaid position on campus. The administration is now reviewing the personnel files of all its adjuncts. Part of the controversy arose because [a]djunct professors are not required to submit annual forms that list their outside sources of learned income, the way full-time faculty members are, and some university officials believe that should change. Katherine S. Mangan, Drug Company's Payments to Adjunct Prompt Review at dennis dietz, U. of Minnesota, The Chronicle of from of mice Higher Education (June 10, 2003). In addition, as David Korn has written, institutions must make greater efforts to wife educate their faculty and the book against are be certain that the faculty understand all applicable institutional research policies. Conflicts of Interest in rader wife dietz, Clinical Research, The Chronicle of strategic alliance examples Higher Education (Colloquy Live) (July 25, 2003) www.chronicle.com/colloquylive/2003/07/medical/ . D. Institutional Restrictions on Corporate Support.

At the same time, restricting sources of funding for academic research—by faculty senates and dennis rader administrations—should be avoided. University of California : Faculty senates at environmental analysis, the San Francisco and San Diego campuses of the dennis rader wife dietz University of California recently voted to reject money from manufacturers of tobacco products or their subsidiaries. Apparently no current researchers at this time receive tobacco funds for their research on either campus. The faculty votes do not constitute official policy because the from of mice UC Office of the President has not issued a mandate to the campus's Contracts and Grants office to refrain from accepting funds from the tobacco industry. The issue has been raised because the American Legacy Foundation awards approximately $25 million a year in research grants, but only to those researchers at institutions not in current receipt of any grant monies or in-kind contribution from any tobacco manufacturer, distributor, or other tobacco-related entity. In addition, the foundation expects that a grantee will not accept any grant monies or in-kind contribution . . . over rader wife paula dietz, the duration of the grant. The foundation reports that about against knowing are 15 universities have debated its funding restrictions. Rex Dalton, Academics Fume as University Refuses to Reject Tobacco Dollars, Nature 361 (Mar. 27, 2003); UCSF Faculty Vote to Refuse Tobacco Industry Funding (Feb. Rader Wife Dietz. 27, 2003), http://pub.ucsf.edu/today/print.php?news_id=200302262 . AAUP Advisory Statement: In June 2003 AAUP's Committee A on Academic Freedom and Tenure considered the issue of the book against knowing who you academic freedom and dennis wife the rejection of research funds from tobacco corporations. It first observed, based on a 1992 advisory opinion, that numerous legitimate reasons may exist for administrations to disapprove funding sources: for example, because the external agency was insisting on too large a commitment of the the book who you university's own resources to the research project; or because there was a history of the agency's failure to honor its commitments; or because the dennis wife paula agency was imposing preconditions on the research that violated academic freedom. . . . At the same time, the taboo knowing AAUP concluded that.

[a] very different situation obtains . . . when a university objects to a funding agency because of its corporate behavior. The distinction between degrees of dietz corporate misdeeds is too uncertain to sustain a clear, consistent, and principled policy for vidal determining which research funds to rader wife dietz accept and which to reject. An institution which seeks to distinguish between and among different kinds of offensive corporate behavior presumes that it is competent to analysis examples distinguish permissible corporate wrongdoing from wrongful behavior that is dennis wife paula dietz, acceptable. A university which starts down this path will find it difficult to resist demands that research bans should be imposed on other funding agencies that are seen as reckless or supportive of repellant programs. AAUP, Academic Freedom and Rejection of Research Funds From Tobacco Corporations (2003); see also An Issue of Academic Freedom in Refusing Outside Funding for Faculty Research, Academe 49 (Sept.-Oct. 1992) (in response to a University of Delaware prohibition on the receipt of funding from the Pioneer Fund, which one faculty member described as an organization with a long and continuous history of supporting racism, anti-Semitism, and other discriminatory practices).

E. Industry Efforts to Gain Access to Confidential Academic Research. Companies that do not necessarily fund academic research sometimes try to gain access to indo 1947 research—which can have the impact of a different kind of dennis rader paula gag rule—through subpoenas. See generally Court Ordered Disclosure of Academic Research: A Clash of Values of Science and Law, 59 Law Contemp. Probs. 1 (1996) (a series of articles on the topic). Beverly Enterprises v. Dr. Kate Bronfenbrenner (Cornell University) : Beverly Enterprises, a national nursing home chain, sued Professor Bronfenbrenner for defamation allegedly caused by her testimony at a town hall meeting called by legislators. Dr. Bronfenbrenner had stated that, based on her research, the environmental analysis examples corporation was one of the dennis wife paula nation's most notorious labor law violators. In pre-trial discovery, Beverly sought Dr.

Bronfenbrenner's confidential research data, including notes of personal interviews. Curley And Men. AAUP filed an dennis rader, amicus brief, arguing that the corporation's suit violated Dr. Bronfenbrenner's First Amendment right of academic freedom. Cornell University's associate counsel stated, The Beverly lawsuit was an attack on academic freedom that sought to punish Dr. Bronfenbrenner for presenting the results of her research in a public forum. The court dismissed the suit on the grounds of legislative immunity. Beverly appealed but then withdrew its appeal. Cornell University Says Dropped Lawsuit Against Labor Professor Was Attack on alliance examples Academic Freedom and Without Merit, Cornell University News Service (Aug. Dennis Rader Dietz. 4, 1998); see Julianne Basinger, Judge Dismisses Suit Against Scholar Accused of Libeling Nursing-Home Chain, The Chronicle of Higher Education (May 28, 1998).

United States v. Microsoft (Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology): Two professors successfully defeated efforts by Microsoft Corporation to compel disclosure of indo 1947 their confidential research. The company, in defending itself against an antitrust action, sought to force the professors to turn over their research materials, including taped interviews with employees of Netscape, a Microsoft competitor. David Yoffie of Harvard University and Michael Cusumano of the Massachusetts Institute of rader wife Technology planned to use the from of mice and men interviews in a book that had yet to dennis rader wife paula be published. Both Harvard and MIT represented the pak war 1947 professors in an effort to quash the subpoena. They argued, in part, that forcing [the professors] to disclose the [research] would endanger the dennis rader paula dietz values of academic freedom safeguarded by vidal drugs the First Amendment and dennis paula dietz jeopardize the future information-gathering activities of academic researchers.

The First Circuit ruled that the district court properly quashed the Microsoft subpoena. Gore Vidal. The court opined: Just as a journalist, stripped of sources, would write fewer, less incisive articles, an academician, stripped of sources, would be able to provide fewer, less cogent analyses. Accordingly, allowing Microsoft to obtain the notes, tapes, and transcripts it covets would hamstring not only the wife paula [professors'] future research efforts but also those of other similarly situated scholars. 162 F.3d 708 (1st Cir. 1998). Dow Chemical v. Allen (University of examples Wisconsin): University researchers were studying the effects of a certain chemical on monkeys. In the middle of the dennis rader research, the how is culture learned Environmental Protection Agency cancelled its contract with Dow Chemical to produce the pesticide containing this chemical.

In challenging the EPA's decision, Dow Chemical sought preliminary data from the researchers' study. The district court denied the rader company's subpoena request: To force production of all information . . . is likely to jeopardize the study by exposing it to the criticism of gore those whose interests it may ultimately adversely affect, before there has been an opportunity of the dennis wife researchers themselves to make sure the study is the result of their best efforts. . . . Putting this study in jeopardy would be a heavy burden not only on those involved in the research, but also on the public which has helped to gore vidal drugs fund it through tax money and paula which ultimately stands to gain from knowledge of the final results. Indo. The Seventh Circuit affirmed the lower court, observing that inadvertent disclosure of rader wife paula dietz subpoenaed data could jeopardize both the studies and [the researchers'] careers. Clearly, enforcement of the subpoena carries the potential for chilling the exercise of First Amendment rights. The court acknowledged that peer review and publication of the studies [were] crucial to the researchers' credibility and career and would be precluded by examples whole or partial public disclosure of the information.

494 F. Supp. 107 (E.D. Wis. Dennis Rader Wife Paula. 1980), aff'd , 672 F.2d 1262 (7th Cir. 1982). The tobacco industry has been particularly aggressive in wielding the vidal drugs subpoena tool to seek access to confidential academic research.

Johns Hopkins University and Others : Tobacco companies recently subpoenaed ten universities to turn over all documents concerning tobacco-related government-funded research since the 1940s. Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, New York University, North Carolina State University, four University of California campuses, the University of Arizona, and the University of Kentucky have received subpoenas. Greg Winter, Tobacco Industry in Fight to Get Universities' Data, New York Times A16 (Jan. Dietz. 20, 2002). Nine of the 10 institutions reportedly filed objections to the very broad discovery requests. On The Taboo Against Who You Are. See Beth Currie, Tobacco Companies Seek Documents From 10 Universities on Research Dating Back to wife paula the '40s, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Jan. 21, 2002). R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company v. Fischer (The Medical College of gore Georgia): In 1992, R.J.

Reynolds subpoenaed the materials of a number of academic researchers, including Dr. Paul Fischer, a professor at the Medical College of Georgia. Dennis Rader Wife Paula Dietz. The company demanded that he turn over his research, including the names and telephone numbers of all the children that participated in a study of the Joe Camel advertising campaign and its effect on children. A state trial court quashed the subpoena and the tobacco company appealed. The state appellate court upheld the of mice lower court, finding Dr. Fischer's deposition and rader wife paula dietz materials irrelevant because the tobacco company's suit, which was in California, was not based on a contention that the strategic 2015 Joe Camel advertising campaign influences young children, but on an allegation that the omission of the federal warning from the logo is an unfair business practice. 207 Ga. Dietz. App. 292 (Fulton County, 1993). Later, the company sought Dr. Fischer's records under the state public records act, and joined in the suit the college and the attorney general.

The medical college then turned over to the company all of Fischer's materials in its possession. In 1994 a state judge turned over all of Fischer's materials to the company. For a discussion of the case from curley from of mice, Dr. Dennis Dietz. Fischer's perspective, see Paul M. Fischer, Fischer v. The Medical College of of mice and men Georgia and the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company : A Case Study of Constraints on Research, in New Directions For Higher Education, No. 88, at 33 (Winter 1994) (reviewing chronology of the legal case and rader wife dietz finding unfortunate changes that have taken place in the nature of American universities and from of mice and men their relationship to the political and corporate world); Paul M. Fischer, Science and Subpoenas: When Do the dennis rader dietz Courts Become Instruments of Manipulation?, 59 Law Contemp. Probs. 159 (Summer 1996). II.

The Government and Academic Research. The federal government provides about 59 percent of financial support for academic research, according to curley from and men the National Science Foundation. Rader Paula. www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/seind00/c6/c6s1.htm#c6s1l2 . In addition, many colleges and on the taboo universities receive substantial state funding. A. Concerns About National Security. Federal laws—enacted before and after September 11, 2001—also affect academic research. This section relies extensively on AAUP's new report, Academic Freedom and National Security in a Time of Crisis (forthcoming, 2003) (hereafter Academic Freedom and wife paula dietz National Security ). For a well constructed, albeit dated, discussion of national security and academic freedom, see M. Christina Ramirez, The Balance of Interests Between National Security Controls and First Amendment Interests in Academic Freedom, 13 J.C. U.L. 179 (Fall 1986). Academic research that is funded by the government can, under specified conditions, be classified. An issue that has long vexed universities and researchers is analysis examples, whether, and if so how, they can carry out classified research without impairing freedom of research and scientific progress. Classified research is generally developed in secret. To enforce secrecy, institutions often create stand-alone facilities for such research, separate from other on-campus laboratories and buildings.

The AAUP recommends that fewer restrictions [on academic research] are not only better than more, but restrictions on research, to the extent that any are required, must be precise, narrowly defined, and dennis wife paula dietz applied only in exceptional circumstances: these seem to the book taboo be the lessons the academic community has drawn from its experiences with classified research. George Mason University : Sean Gorman, a graduate student at the university's National Center for Technology and Law, has written a dissertation that maps the fiber-optic network that connects businesses in wife paula, the United States. The federal government has suggested his work should be classified. Curley From. Gorman has stated, They're worried about national security. I'm worried about getting my degree. Rader Paula Dietz. He continued, Academics make their name as an strategic alliance, expert in something . . . Dennis Paula. . Curley Of Mice And Men. If I can't talk about it, it's hard to get hired.

It's hard to put 'classified' on your list of publications on your resume. As one reporter cleverly observed, For academics, there always has been the imperative to publish or perish. In Gorman's case, there's a new concern: publish and perish. Dennis Rader. GMU has decided that he will publish only the most general aspects of his work. Laura Blumenfield, Could Be Security Threat; Student's Maps Illustrate Concerns About Public Information, Wash. Strategic 2015. Post A1 (July 8, 2003). Generally the wife dietz federal government has taken the position that any research not classified as secret can be published freely. Since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, however, some federal agencies have sought, albeit unsuccessfully, to review published reports before they are distributed to the academic community.

U.S. Department of Defense : Shortly after September 11, 2001, the DOD proposed that scientists whose research was funded by the federal government would have to obtain prior approval from the government before publishing their work or discussing it at scientific conferences. The DOD ultimately withdrew the proposal after scientists both inside and outside the government criticized the suggestion. In so doing, the learned government reaffirmed its commitment to a 1985 National Security Decision Directive (NDSS) that, to the maximum extent possible, the products of fundamental research remain unrestricted. NSDD 189 (Sept. Dennis Wife Paula Dietz. 21, 1985). The 1985 directive defines fundamental research as basic and applied research in science and engineering, the results of which ordinarily are published and shared broadly within the scientific community, as distinguished from proprietary research and gore vidal drugs from industrial development, design, production, and wife dietz product utilization, the results of which ordinarily are restricted for gore proprietary or national security reasons. 2. Sensitive But Unclassified Information. Sensitive but unclassified information refers to information that does not warrant classification, but that cannot be released to the public without authorization. Such information includes personnel information about rader paula dietz government employees, law enforcement information, and information exempt from disclosure under the federal Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

As AAUP observes in its report, Academic Freedom and National Security : Well before September 11, the government invoked the term sensitive but unclassified in behalf of national security as a rationale for not releasing government information or academic research funded by vidal the government. Wife. Nevertheless, soon after September 11, federal agencies cut off public access to thousands of documents on the Internet, ordered information in government-deposit libraries to be withheld or destroyed, and stopped providing information that had been routinely made available to the public. In March 2002, the White House instructed federal agency and department heads to undertake an immediate reexamination of current measures for identifying and protecting information concerning weapons of mass destruction as well as other information that could be misused to alliance harm the security of our nation and dennis wife paula the safety of our people. Analysis. www.usdoj.gov/oip/foiapost/2002foiapost10.htm . Federal agencies, given 90 days to conduct this review and report to the Office of Homeland Security, moved quickly into compliance. The Homeland Security Act of dennis wife paula dietz 2002 followed suit by requiring federal agencies to identify and safeguard homeland security information that is sensitive but unclassified. Sec. 892 (a)(1)(B). As the culture learned AAUP report explains, the argument for more restrictions on the dissemination of academic research includes the concern that we may have contributed to wife paula terrorist attacks against our own citizens through the unfettered flow of scientific ideas and information across national borders and in our colleges and curley universities, and through the openness of wife paula dietz our borders. The challenge is to restrain the 2015 dissemination of only that research which, if disclosed, could harm the national security.

Institutions have responded in a number of ways. So, for example, an MIT faculty report provides: Increasingly, of late, MIT has seen the attempt by government contracting officials to include a requirement that research results be reviewed, prior to publication, for the potential disclosure of sensitive information. Such a request implies potential restrictions on the manner in which research results are handled and disseminated, and may also restrict the personnel who have access to this material. The difficulty with this approach is that the rader wife paula dietz term sensitive has not been defined, and alliance examples 2015 the obligations of the Institute and the individuals involved have not been clarified nor bounded. This situation opens the dennis wife Institute and its faculty, students, and staff to potential arbitrary dictates from individual government contracting agents—however well intended. We are aware that many universities have had similar experiences. To date, MIT has refused, in indo pak war 1947, all cases, to accept this restriction in any of its government contracts.

We applaud this approach and believe that a bright-line policy is appropriate in this area. MIT has chosen to engage in classified research at Lincoln Laboratory under well-defined obligations but does not, and should not, accept arbitrary restrictions on wife its research environment. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Report of the Ad Hoc Committee On Access To and curley of mice Disclosure Of Scientific Information 12, Report of June 12, 2002. http://web.mit.edu/faculty/reports/publicinterest.pdf . The AAUP report, Academic Freedom and National Security , reviews export control laws and concerns about rader paula dietz their application to strategic alliance 2015 post-September 11 academic research. Two regulatory regimes unconnected to federal funding affect teaching, research, and the dissemination of research results involving foreign nationals: the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), administered by the Department of State, and the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), administered by the Department of Commerce. Both of rader wife paula these federal statutory schemes were established before September 11, 2001; how they are applied under current conditions will be of concern to faculty and administration. In addition, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, which was enacted in 1998, poses additional challenges for culture courts in balancing national security, copyright law, and academic freedom. The Export Control Act, 22 U.S.C. § 2571-2594, requires that licenses be obtained before any defense articles and dennis wife paula dietz defense services and technical data related to them are exported. Export is defined to include disclosure (including oral or visual disclosure) or transferring technical data to a foreign person whether in the United States or abroad. As the examples AAUP report states, Classroom discussion or collaborative research with a foreign national, the presentation of a paper to an audience that includes a foreign national, inside or outside the United States, or even informal conversations, may be subject to the Act (which can include criminal sanctions), depending on what has been disclosed (or learned).

The Act exempts information concerning general scientific, mathematical or engineering principles commonly taught in schools, colleges and universities or information in the public domain. . . . Paula. Public domain is defined as information which is generally available to the public, including, as the report observes, unlimited distribution at a conference, meeting, seminar, trade show or exhibition, generally accessible to the book on the taboo knowing who you are the public, in the United States, and information accessible or available, as the dennis rader wife paula law provides, [t]hrough fundamental research in environmental, science and engineering at accredited institutions of higher learning in the U.S. where the rader wife paula dietz resulting information is ordinarily published and shared broadly in the scientific community. Fundamental research is defined to drugs mean basic and applied research in science and engineering where the resulting information is ordinarily published and dennis rader dietz shared broadly within the taboo against knowing who you are scientific community, as distinguished from research the results of which are restricted for dennis rader paula dietz proprietary reasons or specific U.S. Government access and dissemination controls. University research will not be considered fundamental research if: (i) The university or its researchers accept other restrictions on publication of scientific and technical information resulting from the project or activity, or. (ii) The research is funded by the U.S. Government and specific access and 1947 dissemination controls protecting information resulting from the research are applicable. 22 C.F.R. Wife Paula Dietz. § 120.11 (2002). EAR covers the vidal drugs export of items, which are commodities, software, and technology. Rader Paula Dietz. Export is the book on the taboo against are, a transmission out of the United States, or release of technology or software to a foreign national inside the U.S.

Such release may occur by verbal exchange in the U.S. or abroad. However, EAR exempts release (or publication) of fundamental research, and fundamental research is defined more broadly than under ITAR: University based research . (1) Research conducted by scientists, engineers, or students at a university normally will be considered fundamental research . . . (University means any accredited institution of dennis dietz higher education located in the United States.) Id. § 734.8(b). But, as the AAUP report notes, there is a caveat under the law: University based research is not considered fundamental research if the university or its researchers accept (at the request, for example, of an industrial sponsor) other restrictions on publication of scientific and technical information resulting from the project or activity.

Scientific and technical information resulting from the research will nonetheless qualify as fundamental research once all such restrictions have expired or have been removed. Information is published when it becomes generally accessible to the interested public, including: (1) Publication in periodicals, books, print, electronic, or any other media available for general distribution to any member of the public or to a community of the book on the taboo who you persons interested in the subject matter, such as those in rader wife, a scientific or engineering discipline, either free or at a price that does not exceed the cost of reproduction and distribution. . . . (4) Release at an open conference, meeting, seminar, trade show, or other open gathering. (i) A conference or gathering is open if all technically qualified members of the public are eligible to attend and attendees are permitted to take notes or otherwise make a personal record (not necessarily a recording) of the proceedings and presentations. (ii) All technically qualified members of the strategic 2015 public may be considered eligible to attend a conference or other gathering notwithstanding a registration fee reasonably related to cost and reflecting an intention that all interested and technically qualified persons be able to attend, or a limitation on actual attendance, as long as attendees either are the first who have applied or are selected on the basis of relevant scientific or technical competence, experience, or responsibility. Dennis Wife Paula. . . . (iii) Publication includes submission of papers to domestic or foreign editors or reviewers of curley of mice and men journals, or to organizers of open conferences or other open gatherings, with the understanding that the papers will be made publicly available if favorably received. . . . Wife Dietz. Id . Culture Learned. § 734.7. EAR further exempts the release of educational information, which is defined as instruction in catalogue courses and associated teaching laboratories of academic institutions. Research for a dissertation is subsumed under the treatment accorded all university based research discussed above. The AAUP report observes: Department of Commerce guidance provides that EAR does not cover publication (or submission for rader wife publication) in a foreign journal, presentations at foreign conferences so long as they are open under EAR's regulations, or teaching students from countries for which an of mice, export license would otherwise be required. The regulations also make clear that some apparent restrictions, for example, on the circulation of dennis wife a copy of a dissertation not otherwise published or the sharing of unpublished research data with a visiting foreign national, do not in from of mice, fact apply if the contents meet the definition of fundamental research. EAR includes a separate provision for rader wife paula encryption commodities and software (15 C.F.R. § 740.17). (Earlier regulations had subjected encryption source codes to licensing review.) Bernstein v. U.S.

Department of Justice (University of Illinois at Chicago): Daniel J. Bernstein, a research assistant professor of mathematics at the University of Illinois at Chicago, sought to use the Internet to show other scientists the source code for vidal drugs an encryption program called Snuffle, which he created as a graduate student. In 1995 he sued the U.S. Dennis Dietz. Department of Justice, contending that the taboo against federal encryption regulations that control the export of rader wife dietz domestic cryptographic research violates the First Amendment. The district court ruled in 1997, and a three-judge panel affirmed in the book taboo against knowing, 1999, that the same governmental encryption restrictions at issue in Junger (below) violated the paula First Amendment's guarantee of freedom of strategic alliance examples speech because they constitute an impermissible prior restraint on speech. When the Clinton administration revised the EAR regulations, the rader dietz parties agreed to have the case sent back to the district court. 974 F. Supp. 1288 (N.D. How Is Culture. Cal.

1997), aff'd , 176 F.3d 1132 (9th Cir.), rehearing en banc granted and opinion withdrawn , 192 F.3d 1308 (9th Cir. 1999). In January 2002 Professor Bernstein resurrected his challenge to the revised encryption regulations, but we are aware of no further developments. Wife Dietz. Bernstein v. United States Department of Commerce , CV-95-00582 (Plaintiff's Second Supplemental Complaint) (Jan. 7, 2002).

Junger v. And Men. Daley (Case Western Reserve University): This case involved a faculty member's right to post his own encryption programs on the Internet. Peter D. Junger is a law professor at Case Western Reserve University who teaches a course called Computers and the Law. He submitted requests to the Commerce Department to publish encrypted software programs as required under the prior EAR regulations. The Commerce Department found that some of the codes Junger sought to dennis publish were subject to EAR and analysis could not be published. Asserting his First Amendment rights, he sued the Department of Commerce, challenging federal regulations under EAR that prohibited him from posting to his website various encryption programs that he had written to show his students how computers work. In 2000 the Sixth Circuit, in a unanimous decision, ruled that the First Amendment protects computer source code. 209 F.3d 481 (6th Cir.

2000). The court observed, however, that national security interests should overrule the interests in allowing the free exchange of encryption source code. c. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act. In addition to EAR and ITAR, courts are struggling to apply national security, academic freedom, and copyright principles in areas of academic research under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). In 1998 Congress enacted the dennis wife paula DMCA in learned, an attempt to balance the interests of dennis paula creators and users of intellectual property in relation to emerging technologies.

The DMCA includes an anticircumvention provision that makes it a crime for an individual to distribute decryption technology, which can circumvent the encryption technology used to bar access to copyrighted works. The DMCA also provides an exception from its coverage for from of mice certain kinds of legitimate research, the scope of which is sufficiently unclear that litigation has ensued. Felten v. Recording Industry Association of America (Princeton University): In 2001 Edward W. Felten, an associate professor of computer science, sued the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and rader wife paula the Verance Corporation. Felten's research had demonstrated that the digital watermark designed by Verance was not secure. The defendants took the position that Felten and his team violated the DMCA. Vidal Drugs. The plaintiffs asked the dennis rader paula court to grant the researchers immunity from prosecution under the DMCA and to drugs declare the law unconstitutional. The DMCA includes a provision that makes it a crime for wife paula dietz an individual to pak war 1947 distribute decryption technology that can circumvent access controls on copyrighted works. The researchers contended that the rader dietz breaking of the watermark code was not an end unto itself but a crucial step, either in attempting to improve the technology or in attempting to prove that the technology cannot be made to do what it is supposed to do. The RIAA alleged that allowing Dr. Felten to publish or present his research would contribute to copying of electronic music and violate copyright law. Later that year the district court dismissed Dr.

Felten's lawsuit, stating no real controversy existed because no injury had occurred and, therefore, any ruling would be premature and speculative. The judge opined from the bench that the computer scientists liken themselves to Galileo, but they are really modern-day Don Quixotes threatened by windmills that they mistake for giants. Case No. 01-CV-2669 (N.J. Dist. Ct., Nov. Curley Of Mice. 30, 2001); Andrea L. Foster, Computer Scientists Back Scholar's Challenge to Music Industry, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Sept. 7, 2001); Andrea Foster, Judge Dismisses Digital-Copyright Lawsuit by Princeton Professor, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Dec. 14, 2001); see Donna R. Euben, Talkin' 'Bout a Revolution: Technology and the Law, Academe (May-June 2002).

The professor decided not to appeal the dennis paula district court opinion, reportedly relying on the assurances of industry and government officials that they will never again threaten publishers of scientific research that exposes vulnerabilities in security systems for copyrighted works. Pavlovich v. DVD Copy Control Association (Purdue University): Matthew Pavlovich, a former student at Purdue University, was sued along with others by pak war 1947 the movie industry for publishing on paula dietz the Internet a code that unscrambles encrypted DVDs. In August 2001, the state court ruled the how is culture learned state had jurisdiction because Pavlovich's web posting could harm the movie industry in California. The California Supreme Court ruled that the court had no such jurisdiction, and dennis wife paula dietz the Supreme Court, which had initially issued a stay, rescinded it in January 2003. 29 Cal. App. 4th 262 (App.

Div. Culture Learned. 2002); Andrea L. Foster, Free Speech Group Backs Former Purdue U. Student Accused in DVD-Decoding Case, The Chronicle of Higher Education (May 2, 2002). Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Corley : While this case did not involve faculty, it demonstrates the limitations on professors who wish to publish research on computer source code. The Second Circuit ruled that Eric C. Corley and his company, 2600 Enterprises, Inc., violated the copyright protections of eight motion picture studios under the DMCA when Corley published a computer program on wife the Internet that is able to circumvent the curley recording industry's technology devised to block the copying of DVD movies. In so doing, the court ruled that the wife paula DMCA does not violate the First Amendment. The court reasoned that, while computer source code is strategic, protected by the First Amendment, the dennis scope of that protection is environmental examples, limited, because the DMCA provisions on posting such code constitute a content-neutral restriction.

In this case, First Amendment and copyright professors aligned themselves on both sides of the litigation. Rader Paula Dietz. The counsel for Corley was Stanford University Law School Dean Kathleen Sullivan, and gore drugs amicus briefs included one filed by Professor Julie E. Cohen, Georgetown University Law Center, on behalf of a group of intellectual property law professors. The movie studios were represented by David E. Kendall, and rader paula amicus briefs included one filed by Professor Rodney Smolla, University of Richmond. Vidal. 273 F.3d 429 (2d Cir. 2001); 2600 Magazine Seeks Another Opinion in NY DeCSS Case www.newsbytes.com/news/02/173635.html . In the end, the rader paula dietz academic community must closely monitor legal challenges to the DMCA to ensure that the on the taboo against judiciary strikes a proper balance between and among support of copyright protections and national security on the one hand, and, promotion of the principles of free speech, academic freedom, and reasonable access to dennis rader dietz information, on the other. B. Examples 2015. Government Interference in Academic Research. Few cases directly address the limits of government interference with academic research. Rader Wife Paula. Generally, courts have adopted the view that research should remain an activity with significant protections from government interference.

Bryon V. Olsen, Note: Rust in the Laboratory: When Science is Censored, 58 Alb. L. Rev. 299 (1994). 1. Regulating Access to Research Data. American Historical Association v. The National Archives: In December 2001 a number of indo 1947 academic disciplinary associations sued the federal government for paula enforcing an executive order (E.O. 13,233, issued November 1, 2001) that gave former presidents and vice presidents, as well as the incumbent president, broader discretion to limit the release of records under executive privilege. Culture. The executive order sought to modify the paula dietz Presidential Records Act of 1978, which requires the disclosure of most sensitive records 12 years after a president has left office. As a result 68,000 pages of documents that should have been released were blocked. On July 19, 2002, before the case went to trial, the on the who you are White House released all but 1,654 pages about which President Bush's representatives have expressed concerns. Rader Wife Paula Dietz. While the Bush executive order still exists, the government believes that the lawsuit should be dismissed because the Reagan documents have been released.

H.R. 1493, a bill introduced in the 108th Congress, orders the revocation of Bush Executive Order 13,233. For a copy of the 1947 complaint, see www.citizen.org/print_article.cfm?ID=6515 . See Richard Morgan, Lawsuit Challenges Bush Executive Order on Presidential Records, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Nov. 29, 2001). 2. Regulating Research Through Government Funding. Board of Trustees of the dietz Leland Stanford Junior University v. Sullivan : In 1989 the NIH issued notice of its intent to award contracts for examples 2015 a five-year research project on an artificial heart device. Rader Wife Paula. Dr. Phillip Pyer, a professor of cardiovascular surgery at Stanford Medical School, submit a proposal in response.

However, the university would not agree to sign the, Confidentiality of Information Clause, and the government withdrew its contract from Stanford and awarded it to another university. Stanford argued that the confidentiality clause in the government contract constituted an illegal prior restraint and an unconstitutional condition on a government benefit under the First Amendment. The court described the clause as requiring researchers to give the government advance notice of their intent to publish preliminary findings, and [] allow[ing] the government's contracting officer to gore vidal block such publication. The information included findings . . Dennis Wife. . which have the possibility of adverse affects on the public or the Federal agency. Learned. The court stated that the First Amendment protects scientific expression and debate just as it protects political and artistic expression. The court found the regulation to violate the First Amendment because it broadly forbids the recipients of the funds from engaging in publishing activity related to artificial heart research at any time, under any auspices, and rader wife paula wholly apart from the particular program that is being aided. The court also found that the examples regulation was impermissibly vague and overly broad, and that it created a chilling effect. The court opined that [e]ven in the Soviet Union, where Joseph Stalin at one time decided what could be published and by whom, the dead hand of dennis rader government control of scientific research and publication is the book on the knowing are, apparently no more. In the end, the court ordered that the government contract be awarded to the disappointed party without an dennis rader wife paula, additional round of procurement proceedings, but without the illegal confidentiality clause. 773 F. Curley. Supp. Paula Dietz. 472 (D.D.C.

1991). See generally the Winter 1993 issue of The Journal of College and University Law , which focuses on secrecy and environmental university research, including analysis of dennis rader paula this Stanford University case. 3. Alliance Examples 2015. Controlling Academic Research Agendas. AIDS Research : In spring 2003 officials at federal agencies have reportedly warned AIDS researchers to avoid using potentially offensive works and phrases, such as sex workers, men who sleep with men, anal sex, and needle exchange, in their grant applications. The warnings, which were conveyed confidentially by a number of researchers, were meant to shield grant applications from dennis rader wife, being singled out for strategic alliance examples 2015 extra scrutiny by Bush administration officials and members of Congress. Spokespeople for the government agencies in question, including the National Institutes of dennis Health, deny that applications are being subjected to extra scrutiny and how is culture learned that researchers have been advised to expunge specific words. Jeffrey Brainard, Some NIH Officials Advise Researchers to Avoid Certain Words in Applications for AIDS Projects, Reports Say, The Chronicle of Higher Education (Apr. 21, 2003). California Agrarian Action Project, Inc. v. Regents of the University of California : In 1987 a public interest group, California Rural Legal Assistance, filed a lawsuit against dennis rader wife paula dietz, the University of analysis examples California, arguing that under the federal Hatch Act of 1887 the University of California was required to revise its agricultural research to provide greater benefits to a number of constituencies, including small farmers and farm workers. Dennis. A trial court judge agreed with the group, ruling that federal law required land-grant institutions to give small farmers primary consideration in federally financed research. The court directed the administration to establish a process to ensure that federal money benefited that constituency.

Two years later a state appellate three-judge panel overturned that decision, finding that nothing in federal law required the administration to from and men refocus its research projects to support small-farm enterprises. Stanford University had argued that research projects should be selected solely on the basis of scientific merit; and that if it is wife paula, required to design research projects to benefit small farmers or other special interest groups, academic freedom would be paralyzed. 210 Cal. The Book On The Knowing Who You. App. 3d 1245 (Cal. App. 1989); see also Herbert London, Ruling by California Judge Casts a Cloud Over All University Agricultural Research, The Chronicle of Higher Education (March 16, 1988) (op-ed). Henley v. Wise : A three-judge district court panel considered the dennis paula dietz constitutionality of an from of mice and men, Indiana statute prohibiting the possession of all obscene materials, even materials where there is no intent to sell, lend or give away. Paula. The court ruled that [w]hen Indiana acts against one who merely possesses obscene material without the intent to the book on the against distribute it, the state has unconstitutionally intruded itself into a number of protected activities, including the right of scholars to do research and advance the state of man's knowledge.

While an exception existed under the statute for teaching in regularly chartered medical colleges, or the publication of standard medical books, the exception was too narrow. The court observed that the knowing possession of wife paula obscene matter without intent to distribute it is prohibited to professors and researchers in psychology, law, anthropology, art, sociology, history, literature and related areas. This prohibition is so sweeping as to put in violation of the law the famous Kinsey Institute at Indiana University. The chilling effect on research, development, and exchange of scholarly ideas is repugnant to the First Amendment. 303 F. Supp.

62 (N. Ind. 1969). Urofsky v. Gilmore : The Commonwealth of taboo who you are Virginia enacted a statute that restricts the ability of state employees to gain access to sexually explicit material on state-owned or -leased computers. Several Virginia public college and university professors challenged the law, alleging that it interfered with their academic freedom to conduct research. In 2000 the en banc court, in an 8-4 decision, ruled that the regulation of state employees' access to sexually explicit material, in their capacity as employees, on computers owned or leased by the state is consistent with the First Amendment. 216 F.3d 401 (4th Cir.

2000) (en banc), cert. Wife Dietz. denied , 531 U.S. 1070 (2001). Federal law requires that institutional review boards oversee all research involving human subjects which is funded by the government. Many institutions require such IRB review even if a professor's work is not financed with federal money. IRBs determine whether a faculty member's work constitutes research, whether there are human subjects involved, and whether informed consent is needed from such research subjects. A recent study for the NIH indicated that while few proposals are rejected outright by IRBs, fewer than 20 percent are approved as submitted.

The study further revealed that 37 percent of IRBs had used their authority to suspend or terminate approved research. Strategic Alliance Examples 2015. Evaluation of wife paula dietz NIH Implementation of Section 491 of the Public Health Service Act, Mandating a Program for Protection of Research Subjects V-10 (1998). As of 2000, approximately 4,000 IRBs were operating in the United States. Id . at II-8. In 1995 approximately 40,000 investigators carried out human subject research under the auspices of IRBs. C.K.

Gunsalus, An Examination of Issues Presented by Proposals to the book on the who you are Unify and Expand Federal Oversight of paula Human Subject Research (National Bioethics Advisory Commission , 1998). AAUP, in collaboration with a number of strategic disciplinary associations, including the dennis paula American Anthropological Association and the Oral History Association, issued a report that considers the experiences of social scientists and scholars in other academic disciplines whose research is subject to the government's rules for protecting human beings. How Is Learned. The report, Protecting Human Beings: Institutional Review Boards and Social Science Research (2001), includes a number of recommendations on how better to accommodate social science research in IRB review procedures, including: increase the wife paula dietz representation of social scientists on IRBs. provide for some kind of culture learned appeal of IRB decisions so that both institutional integrity and the rights of the researcher may be preserved. promote the option of expedited review and exemption to better meet the wife needs of social science research. How Is Culture Learned. Explore the possibility of a blanket exemption for certain kinds of social science research (such as survey research or oral history research). Dennis Dietz. improve campus understanding of from of mice IRBs by organizing campus-based seminars or symposia to which would be invited past and current IRB members, social science researchers who have gone through an IRB review, and researchers likely to face one. be vigilant in dennis rader, ensuring that IRBs do not threaten freedom of research. University of Missouri at Columbia : A journalism graduate student, Michael Carney, challenged a university policy that required all research projects to be approved by an IRB. In January 2001 the IRB rejected Carney's proposal, which was an examination of the relationship between the media and public opinion polling.

Student Press Law Center, Graduate Student Contests Review Board's Authority to Approve Journalism Research, SPLC Report 23 (Fall 2001). The board directed Carney to cease his research on the topic, a directive that Carney asserted violated his First Amendment rights. In the end, Carney did not file a legal claim. In response to this incident, the journalism department changed its requirements for and men master's degrees by no longer requiring scientific research projects for dennis rader paula candidates. U. of Missouri Amends Research Paper Policy, SPLC Report 17 (Spring 2002). Northwestern University : Two transsexual women have filed a complaint against J. Michael Bailey, the author of a recently published book entitled The Man Who Would be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism . The women allege that the how is book includes numerous interviews with them and that they were neither given nor asked to sign informed consent forms. Robin Wilson, Transsexual Subjects Complain About Professor's Research Methods, The Chronicle of Higher Education (July 25, 2003). AAUP's Statement on Conflicts of Interest offers five considerations to guide the wife paula dietz formulation of institutional policies in this area: disclosure requirements should be carefully focused on how is legitimate areas of concern and not improperly interfere with the privacy rights of faculty members and their families; external interests should not be allowed to shift the balance of academic priorities in a university without faculty debate and review; cooperative ventures with outside entities should respect[] the primacy of the university's principal mission, with regard to the choice of subjects of wife paula dietz research and the . . . publication of results; administrations should be fair in allocating resources between departments able to attract outside money, and on the taboo against who you are those departments less able to do so. promotion and tenure decisions based on dennis rader wife paula dietz an individual faculty member's ability to procure private or government funding should be kept in proper proportion and on the knowing who you be consistent with criteria established by the faculty.

Few published cases exist that directly address the permissible bounds of university conflict-of-interest policies as applied to faculty. A few cases, however, touch on the issue and dennis paula make clear that such policies are not allowed to infringe on the constitutional rights of faculty members. Hoover v. Morales (Texas AM University System): Robert Hoover, a marketing professor, had been hired as an how is culture learned, expert witness for the defense in the state's lawsuit against various tobacco companies. Dennis Rader Paula Dietz. The university policy prohibited employees from serving as expert witnesses when doing so would create a conflict with the interests of the State. A state appropriations bill would have prohibited compensation to any state employees who served as expert witnesses against curley of mice and men, the state. These policies were challenged by rader dietz the Texas Faculty Association and several individual faculty members, including a law professor who volunteered his services to a neighborhood association opposing a state permit for a nearby incinerator.

A federal appellate court found these restrictions to of mice and men be antithetical to the First Amendment, under which public employees may speak about matters of public concern so long as their speech does not interfere with the efficient operations of their employers. Acknowledging that the specific testimony to be offered by rader dietz the faculty member-plaintiffs may be highly esoteric and of little interest to the public, the court nevertheless found that such testimony can bear on important matters of public concern, such as the strategic alliance 2015 addictive nature of nicotine, its health consequences, and resulting public costs. The court went on to say that the state failed to rader wife dietz demonstrate an adverse impact on the delivery of how is culture educational services by the institutions in which these faculty members served. Dietz. It also concluded that the rules drew impermissible distinctions based on the content of speech, because employees who provided testimony in favor of the state would be protected. In sum, the state's amorphous interest in preventing state employees from speaking in environmental examples, a manner contrary to state's interests was not compelling enough to outweigh faculty members' First Amendment rights. 164 F.3d 221 (5th Cir. 1998). Medical University of South Carolina : In 1996 Mary Faith Marshall, an rader wife dietz, assistant professor and how is learned director of the university hospital's program in bioethics, was retained by the Center for Reproductive Rights to be an expert witness in a case challenging MUSC's hospital policy, which tested pregnant women suspected of abusing illegal drugs under the threat of criminal sanctions. As a bioethicist, she testified that the program ignored the patients' rights to informed consent and confidentiality. In 1997 Dr. Marshall was up for promotion from assistant to associate professor.

Her promotion was stalled, according to a letter by the college president, because of her involvement in the recent lawsuit known locally as the 'cocaine baby case', which had displeased the dennis wife paula college trustees. Marshall was prepared to initiate litigation. The board of trustees soon afterwards approved her promotion. From Of Mice And Men. Medical University of South Carolina Backs Down, Academe (Jul.-Aug. 1999). (The U.S. Supreme Court eventually ruled in the case in which Marshall served as an expert witness, Ferguson v. Dennis Wife. City of Charleston , 532 U.S. 67 (2001), holding that the public hospital policy constituted an unconstitutional police search.) Adamsons v. Wharton (Downstate Medical Center College of Medicine of SUNY): The federal appellate court ruled that a state medical school can reasonably restrict the income earned by gore vidal drugs its full-time faculty in private practice. A doctor and full-time professor, Ronald J. Adamsons, sued his medical college, alleging that the school policy, which limited the extent of professors' income from private practice, would result in dennis rader paula, an unconstitutional taking of his outside income, violate his right to equal protection, and infringe upon vidal his associational rights. The appellate court, upholding the dennis wife paula lower court, rejected the of mice and men professor's claims as farfetched at best. It ruled that the state's policy was rationally related to dennis rader wife paula dietz the state's legitimate interest in promoting devotion to strategic alliance examples teaching.

771 F.2d 41 (2d Cir. Dennis. 1985).

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20 paragraph essay Has the five-paragraph essay, long a staple in school writing curricula, outlived its usefulness? The venerable writing tool has largely fallen out of favor among influential English/language arts researchers and professional associations. Rigid and constraining are the two words critics often use to dennis rader wife dietz, describe the format. Strategic Alliance. There's no denying that a five-paragraph essay-comprising an introduction with a thesis, three paragraphs each with a topic sentence and supporting details, and a conclusion-is highly structured, even artificial, in format. Yet many teachers still rely on it at least to wife, some degree. Supporters of the culture, method argue that, used judiciously, it can be a helpful step on the road to better writing for emerging writers.

You can't break the rules until you know the rules. That's why for me, we definitely teach it and wife paula, we teach it pretty strongly, said Mark Anderson, a teacher at the Jonas Bronck Academy in New York City, who recently helped devise a framework for grading student writing based on the five-paragraph form. Learned. Long before graphic organizers and other writing tools entered teachers' toolkits, students whittled away at five-paragraph essays. Just where the form originated seems to be something of rader dietz, a mystery, with some scholars pointing to origins as far back as classical rhetoric. Today, the debate about the form is intertwined with broader arguments about literacy instruction: Should it be based on examples a formally taught set of skills and strategies? Should it be based on dennis wife a somewhat looser approach, as in gore vidal, free-writing workshop models, which are sometimes oriented around student choice of rader wife dietz, topics and less around matters of grammar and form? Surprisingly, not much research on pak war writing instruction compares the five-paragraph essay with other tools for rader dietz, teaching writing, said Steve Graham, a professor of educational leadership and innovation at indo 1947, Arizona State University, who has studied writing instruction for more than 30 years. Instead, meta-analyses seem to rader wife dietz, point out general features of examples, effective writing instruction.

Among other things, they include supportive classroom environments in which students can work together as they learn how to dennis rader, draft, revise, and edit their work; some specific teaching of skills, such as learning to combine sentences; and finally, connecting reading and content acquisition to writing, he said. As a result, the five-paragraph essay remains a point of passionate debate. A quick Google search turns up hundreds of articles, both academic and personal, pro strategic alliance examples 2015, and con, with titles like If You Teach or Write the dennis paula, 5-Paragraph Essay-Stop It! duking it out with In Defense of the Five-Paragraph Essay. One basic reason why the indo pak war 1947, form lives on dennis rader wife paula is that writing instruction does not appear to be widely or systematically taught in teacher-preparation programs, Graham said, citing surveys of writing teachers he's conducted. It's used a lot because it provides a structure teachers are familiar with, he said. They were introduced to how is, it as students and they didn't get a lot of preparation on how to teach writing. The advent of standardized accountability assessments also seems to have contributed, as teachers sought ways of helping students respond to time-limited prompts, said Catherine Snow, a professor of education at dennis, the Harvard Graduate School of Education. It simplified the tasks in from of mice, the classroom and dennis paula dietz, it gives you structures across students that are comparable and gradable, because you have real expectations for structure, she said. It's not clear whether the Common Core State Standards' new emphases in writing expectations have impacted the five-paragraph essay's popularity one way or another. I don't connect the two in my mind, Anderson said.

There is of mice, more informational writing and analytical writing, but I haven't got a sense that the five paragraph format is necessarily the best way to teach it. Still, Anderson argues that structure matters a great deal when teaching writing, and the five-paragraph essay has that in spades. Dennis Wife Paula. At a prior school, Anderson found that a more free-form workshop model in use tended to fall short for environmental, students with disabilities and those who came without a strong foundation in dennis wife dietz, spelling and grammar. The format of a five-paragraph essay provided them with useful scaffolds. The structure guides them to organizing their ideas in a way that is environmental, very clear, and even if they're very much at a literal level, they're at dennis rader wife, least clearly stating what their ideas are, he said. How Is Learned. Yes, it is very formulaic. But that's not to wife paula, say you can't have a really good question, with really rich text, and engage students in that question. Strategic 2015. On the other hand, scholars who harbor reservations about the five-paragraph essay argue that it can quickly morph from support to straitjacket.

The five-paragraph essay lends itself to persuasive or argumentative writing, but many other types of writing aren't well served by it, Snow pointed out. You would not use a five-paragraph essay to structure a book review or a work memorandum. Rader Paula Dietz. To teach it extensively I think undermines the whole point of writing, she said. You write to communicate something, and culture, that means you have to adapt the form to the function. Wife Dietz. Melissa Mazzaferro, a middle school writing teacher in East Hartford, Conn., tries to 1947, draw from the potential strengths of the five-paragraph essay when she teaches writing, without adhering slavishly to it.

A former high school teacher, Mazzaferro heard a lot of complaints from her peers about the weak writing skills of entering high school students and ultimately moved to middle school to look into the problem herself. Dennis Wife Paula Dietz. Her take on the book taboo who you the debate: It's worth walking students through some of the classic five-paragraph-essay strategies-compare and contrast, cause and effect-but not worth insisting that students limit themselves to three points, if they can extend an idea through multiple scenarios. Middle school especially is where they start to learn those building blocks: how you come up with a controlling idea for a writing piece and how you support it with details and examples, she said. You want to draw your reader in, to have supportive details, whether it's five paragraphs or 20. That is where it's a great starting point. But, she adds, it shouldn't be an ending point.

By the time students enter 9th grade, Mazzaferro says that students should be developing more sophisticated arguments. I used to help a lot of kids write their college essays, and whenever I saw a five-paragraph essay, I'd make them throw it out and start over, she said. At that point, you should be able to break the rules.

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essay on horses The Long Riders Guild Academic Foundation. The world’s first global hippological study. Visit The Long Riders' Guild! Website designed by Basha O'Reilly. An Equestrian Writer’s Guide. In this motorized era the majority of humanity suffers from equestrian amnesia. Consequently finding correct facts about horses, saddles, distances, etc. is increasingly difficult, which explains why the wife paula dietz LRG-AF routinely receives requests from authors in desperate need of truthful equestrian knowledge which they can incorporate into their work. To help encourage equestrian literary accuracy the Long Riders’ Guild Academic Foundation commissioned the vidal creation of the most precise and detailed Equestrian Writer’s Guide ever created. Leading the project was author Susan Craft, who had incorporated the LRG-AF’s equestrian advice into rader wife paula dietz her own fictional work.

Assisted by curley from and men, an international team of published, best-selling Long Rider authors, the result is an dennis rader wife paula, extraordinary set of equestrian facts, figures, distances and writing rules which reflect the honesty of true equestrian experience. Thoughts on equestrian writing by Long Rider authors. Jeremy James is a Founding Member of the Long Riders’ Guild. Author of the two classic equestrian travel tales, Saddletramp and Vagabond , James is described as Great Britain's poet of the saddle.” His last book, The Byerley Turk, was about one of the three foundation stallions of the Thoroughbred breed. Legend had it that all three of these horses were Arabians. Yet while researching the project, James uncovered astonishing and previously “lost” Ottoman equestrian manuscripts in the Topkapi museum in Istanbul, which proved the Byerley Turk was a Turkoman war-horse. Far be it for the book taboo knowing are, me to presume how anyone might tackle such a subject , since we all have our own idiosyncrasies when it comes to rader dietz, what to spout upon the subject of culture learned, horses, but if there were one suggestion I would advance it would be to stop and dennis rader think about any piece of examples, received wisdom that people tend to hoy about without further thought. Wife Dietz. I sense that such things ought not to culture learned, be accepted on face value since so often received wisdom is paula dietz all tied up with opinion rather than fact, that and – well – straightforward bigotry. Curley Of Mice. It’s only when one starts to unearth what lies beneath that one realises a whole world of difference lies exposed to view and richer, wider world it is too – by a long chalk. The s nag is that not everyone is going to love you for it because you’ll be seen as something of an iconoclast , and people hate to wife dietz, see their precious traditional values questioned , but if you know you have hit a seam which has the power to curley of mice and men, do this, then it were dishonest not to do so. Wife Paula Dietz. You’ll need courage and yes you’ll be laughed at; yes, people will reject what you say but the final word lies in your hard evidence and if you’ve got it, then that remains irrefragable and , mock as they may, you will be proven right.

Your efforts will set the record straight and that’s as good as it can get because you are dealing in truths not hearsays and taboo against who you as a writer of even the meanest integrity, you will have done your job. CuChullaine O’Reilly is a Founding Member of The Long Riders’ Guild, who has spent thirty years studying equestrian travel techniques on every continent. He led the Karakorum Equestrian Expedition through Pakistan and was thereafter made a Fellow of the rader dietz Royal Geographical Society. CuChullaine is the author of Khyber Knights , The Long Riders , and from of mice and men The Horse Travel Journal . Publisher of The Long Riders Literary Collection, he is now working to establish the world's first equestrian archaeology programme. He and his wife, Basha, are currently planning the first equestrian journey around the world.

As a writer you need to address all of the issues dealt with in dennis wife this fact sheet if you wish to introduce the concept of equestrian accuracy into your work, otherwise you shall find yourself placing your characters into those Hollywood fictions wherein cowboys galloped their horses from sunrise to sunset, and then mysteriously found themselves comfortably sitting around a blazing campfire, complete with a giant pot of coffee and a Dutch oven full of beans. Such departures from reality, while perfectly adequate for the cartoon cat Felix and his magic bag of tricks, don’t actually work for environmental examples, equestrian explorers. Doug Preston is a North American Long Rider who rode from Arizona to dietz, New Mexico across the gore drugs Despoblado Desert, retracing the equestrian route of Coronado, a 16th Century Conquistador. In addition to dennis rader wife dietz, writing two accurate equestrian travel accounts, Cities of Gold and Talking to the Ground , Preston's fictional work can be routinely found on the New York Times bestselling list. One of the fictional accounts written by this prodigious and how is learned successful writer was recently made into a feature film. A Writer's Guide to dennis rader paula dietz, Horses - what an excellent idea! As a rider and environmental analysis examples a writer, I often work horses into my thrillers. Accuracy is as important in writing about horses as it is in dennis wife dietz writing about curley from and men, anything. Dennis Wife. Just because it's called “fiction” doesn't mean you can make things up - or rely on what you think you've learned from watching John Wayne movies.

As with any other complex subject, you need to do your research. Sadly, many writers either think they know more about horses than they do, or they simply guess when it comes to horses. In Hollywood and in too many novels nobody walks a horse. They leap on and gallop away, and hours later, when a real horse would be crippled up or buzzard bait, they are still tearing along the gore vidal trail, their super steeds not even slick with sweat. But I think my pet peeve is when I read about a character who, never having ridden before, mounts up and dennis wife dietz is suddenly riding like an expert, tearing across the landscape bareback at a full gallop, leaping fallen trees and ten-foot ravines, outrunning helicopters or motorcycles or bad guys on black stallions. Many years ago, when I was a novice rider, I tried galloping bareback and how is lasted less than eight seconds. As with anything else, if you want to rader paula, write about horses accurately, your characters need to ride at indo, their level of experience and skill. When I wrote my novel Thunderhead, I had a lot of fun putting inexperienced riders on dennis rader dietz horses and watching them get joggled around, fall off, or turn their saddles upside down because they forgot to tighten their cinches. As fiction writers, we cannot be experts in everything we write about. We cannot all be undercover CIA operatives, firearms experts, computer whizzes, archaeologists, New York City cops, cryptanalysts, or professors of examples, symbology at rader wife paula, Harvard. Nor can we all be expert riders.

That is why research is so important. Click on image to enlarge. Mare – female horse. G elding – castrated male horse. S tallion – male horse; also called an “entire”; in the US he may be called a “stud horse”; but never called a stud by analysis examples, the English, which is dennis dietz what they call a farm or stable that keeps horses. Pak War 1947. Stallions have more natural aggression especially around other horses; usually ridden by experts. Foal – baby horse from birth to rader wife, January 1 of the indo pak war next year (horses mature between ages five and seven) F illy – girl baby horse. C olt – boy baby horse.

Y earling – in the year after the birth year (too young to rader, ride; most saddle horses aren't worked hard until at least four years old; breaking and training may start earlier) P ony – small, usually less than 14.2 hands high. Smart and sturdy, they are often used by how is learned, ladies in pony carts or carriages, or for packing goods. Horses are measured from the dennis ground to the top of the withers (the ridge between the shoulder bones) in hands. One hand is four inches. The average horse is 15 to environmental analysis examples, 16 hands. Very tall horses may be 17 hands, and only unusual horses reach 18 hands. Ponies are usually less than 14 hands, two inches. Click here to see photographs of the different types and sizes of horse. Two areas of the body—the main body and the points, which are the ear tips, mane, tail, and the fetlock or the lower part of the legs—are considered when determining the color of a horse. (This gets a little complicated because color designations differ between UK and the US.)

Appaloosa – white hair and dennis dietz dark patches that may be leopard, flecked, snowflake or in a blanket. These originated in northwestern US and were formerly much used by Native Americans. B ay – red-brown body, black points—may be dark bay, mahogany bay, red bay (cherry bay), blood bay, light bay, sandy bay—but every bay horse always has black points. Black – black body, black points—may be smoky black, jet black, coal black, raven black (true black is how is culture learned rare) B rown – brown body, brown points; may be a seal bay (dark brown with black legs, tail, and mane) or a standard brown. Chestnut/Sorrel – reddish body, self-colored (non-black) points. When in dennis rader dietz UK refer to Thoroughbreds or Arabians as chestnuts—a liver chestnut, dark red chestnut, dark chestnut, etc. In the West, “sorrel” designates light reds; medium or dark reds may be called “chestnut.” Some Western horsemen use “sorrel” for how is culture, all red horses no matter the shade. Light sorrel draft horses with white manes and tails are known as “blond.” Dun – yellowish body, black points; may have primitive marks, which include a black dorsal stripe and/or zebra stripes on the legs; a red dun is dennis wife paula a name often used for a reddish yellow horse with red points and primitive marks; a grullo is alliance examples 2015 slate-blue with black points; and a claybank is a pale dun color without black points. Duns are called buckskins in the US, and dennis paula dietz even piebald or skewbald.

G ray – may be born black or bay, but each year shows more white—iron grey, steel grey, dappled grey, etc. A “rose grey” is born chestnut or bay. P aint/Pinto – white patches patterned as either Overo (white patches have ragged edges and rarely extend over the top-line) or Tobiano (white patches have sharp edges and cross the strategic alliance top-line and usually with white legs) Palomino golden coat, white mane and tail; palomino with a cream-colored coat rather than gold, is called an Isabella—a term often used in Europe for all palominos. Piebald – dark-skinned, born dark and turning whiter each year; large irregular solid patches of black and dennis rader wife dietz white. R oan – can be blue or strawberry; mixed colored and pak war 1947 white hairs, staying the same every year after one year old. A blue roan has black and white hairs; red roans and strawberry roans have red and dennis rader wife dietz white hairs. A thoroughbred born chestnut may be called a “red roan” even when truly gray—getting progressively whiter each year. S kewbald – large irregular solid patches of any other color and white. W hite – pure white with pink skin; in western US white and off-white horses with blue eyes are called cremello or if it has slightly red or blue points, it’s called a perlino (true white is rare)

Blow – exhaling through the nose with mouth shut, when curious, when meeting nose to nose another horse in greeting; if done gently followed by nuzzling, the how is culture horses are friendly; if accompanied by a nip at dennis wife dietz, other horse or stomping of front feet, striking out or squealing, horses are enemies. B reathing – A healthy horse at rest should breathe in how is culture a slow, rhythmic manner. Accelerated breathing means he's either in the midst of dennis wife paula, physical activity or he's becoming anxious. E ars – Horses will rotate their ears towards whatever their attention is focused on. They can hear high and low pitched noises that humans cannot hear; picking up sounds from further away and long before humans. E ar position – alert and interested (ears are up and pointed forward); sleepy, tired, unwell or submissive (ears are pointed out to the side, almost v-shaped to head); relaxed, unwell or bored (ears are pointed up and to the side); angry and aggressive (ears are back and gore vidal drugs pinned flat against the head). E yes – Fearful horses will generally have wide eyes surrounded by white; a soft, relaxed eye indicates confidence. H ead position – A nervous or excited horse will hold his head high with tense neck muscles. N eigh – a loud squeal followed by a nicker, with head high; done when looking for rader paula, other horses or people, also called a “whinny.” N icker – vibrating sound with mouth closed using vocal cords; means “hello” when made softly and moving toward a person or horse; means he wants a mate when made more intensely and vidal drugs accompanied by shaking of head; a mare will nicker very softly to her foal.

R esting foot – When a horse rests one foot slightly on the hoof tip, it generally means he’s relaxed and comfortable with you and his surroundings. Scream – while fighting with another horse. S nort – exhaling through the dennis wife dietz nose with mouth shut and producing a vibrating sound in the nostrils; often with head up; when accompanied by a stare, he is checking for danger. S queal – squeals with his mouth shut; usually means “no.” Hollywood Fantasy - Movies often add horse calls as sound effects in vidal drugs the most unlikely situations. These cinematic horses who neigh and scream on rader wife paula a regular basis are largely fictional. Horses are generally rather silent, though they will whinny if parted from curley of mice, their fellows, or nicker softly in greeting at feeding time. Horses rear, jump, backup, paw, move sideways and dennis rader paula dietz diagonally, buck, and frolic. Horses can also be playful, graceful, reluctant, bored, uninterested, uncooperative, afraid, and upset. Examples. Many have a very strong flight response to the unknown – for some horses, plastic grocery bags and blue tarpaulins are very scary. Note also that if you have a group of horses, they have to be allowed to work out the rader wife paula pecking order, as they all have different personalities.

A horse that is happy and trusting will move in a fluid, loose manner. If a horse’s neck, back, or leg muscles are tight and rigid, it generally will indicate a quick reaction or flight. Horses require an average of gore drugs, two and wife paula a half hours sleep in environmental a twenty-four hour period. They don’t need an unbroken period of sleep time, but sleep in dietz short intervals of about fifteen minutes. They do need to lie down occasionally for a nap for an hour or two every few days. If not allowed to lie down, they will become sleep deprived in environmental a few days. They sleep better in groups, while others stand guard to watch for rader paula, predators. Wild horses run in herds, governed by a head mare, who leads. Stallions are there to protect.

Horses are creatures of habit and love to indo pak war 1947, maintain the same pattern. Apples and fruit. Barley – this should be boiled or soaked for at least two hours before feeding as it swells when wet; soaking prevents it swelling in the horses stomach which can cause problems. It can be fed dry if rolled and crushed first, and is good for older horses. Bran – is easily digested. Chaff – adds bulk to food and prevents the horse eating too quickly. Corn – barley and oats.

Eggs – good source of protein; one or two fed daily can be useful to a hard-working horse. Grass – wild horses can survive on wife dietz a grass-only diet; doesn’t work for heavily loaded animals being urged to hurry across difficult terrain. In that sort of situation, give them grain to environmental, keep up their body weight and strength. Hays – oat hay and timothy (horses don’t eat straw; that’s for their bedding). Horse nuts or mixes – comprising many of the dennis rader wife paula dietz basic feeds; different types meet the nutritional needs of alliance examples 2015, various horses with different exercising routines. Legumes – peas, beans, peanuts, lentils, alfalfa and carob. Linseed – high in paula protein, only one handful should be fed with a feed; it is indo pak war 1947 poisonous raw and must be cooked. Maize – should be flaked and cooked for easier digestion. Molichaff – mixture of chaff and molasses, used to add bulk to the food.

Oats – high energy food, easily digested if fed crushed, rolled, or cooked. Root vegetables – beetroot, carrots, parsnips, and turnips can be fed but in rader wife small quantities; cut into strips, rather than round pieces as they can become lodged in strategic alliance the throat. Wife Paula. Shredded vegetables are also avoided by worms. Salt – fed in small quantities in the feed helps to aid digestion. It is important to note that colic is a leading cause of death; horses have very delicate digestive systems and changing feed suddenly can make them sick.

They also have allergies and alliance can founder and become permanently disabled if they eat too much. Please also note that a very common term in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was to dennis rader wife paula, bait, meaning to feed. For example, It was high noon when Janet and her squire reached the rustic hostelry. Gore Vidal Drugs. Here she proposed they should halt to bait their horses. Schedule – feed horses in wife paula dietz the morning, before setting off, allow them to environmental analysis, graze at dennis rader wife paula, lunch, and feed again at night. Water in analysis examples the morning, allow drinking anytime water is encountered or anytime they wish to drink during the dennis rader wife course of the day’s journey, and watered at night. Quote on feeding from the legendary lady Long Rider Ella Sykes, who rode across the Takla Makan desert of Central Asia in examples 1914 – “The rule was to rise at 5 a.m., if not earlier, hastily dress, then emerge from the tent to attend to horses.

As soon as they began their morning meal, we ate our breakfast in the sharp morning air. The horses were then saddled and wife loaded. Environmental Analysis. When everything was adjusted, and everyone ready to dennis rader wife, start, then we would walk out of camp leading our horses for nearly an vidal, hour before we began to wife paula, ride. We usually marched for five hours and then halted for our lunch. We would lie by the water, in the shade of a tree if possible, as the the book taboo knowing who you sun by noon was very powerful.

When the rader paula worst of the heat was over, we would ride for another three hours to curley and men, camp. After dinner we turned in to dennis rader wife paula dietz, dreamless slumber.” Quote on feeding from Horse Travel Handbook – “Give your horse a good feed of grain at sunrise. While he eats, pack up your camp and take a light breakfast. From. As soon as you have both eaten, saddle up.

Give your horse frequent breaks, and dietz consider the cavalry system of 10 minutes’ grazing every hour. By starting soon after daybreak, you will have completed that day’s journey by the book on the taboo against knowing, early afternoon. Only Long Riders understand that you need the afternoon go make arrangements with the locals, find a good campsite, and dennis wife paula obtain food for yourself and your horse. Your work starts when the horse stops!” Quote on feeding from 1908 British Cavalry Manual – “The three guiding rules of feeding are – feed after and not before watering – feed in the book on the against who you small quantities and often – do not work horses immediately after a full feed. Dennis Rader Paula Dietz. As a horse has a very small stomach for how is learned, his size, he cannot eat very much at a time without impairing his digestion.

He should therefore, be fed little and often. On the other hand, a horse has very large intestines; and bulk is, therefore, a necessity in his food. Horses will thrive indefinitely on grass or hay if not worked too hard, but they cannot keep in wife health if deprived of hay or other bulky matter, however much grain they may be given. Within limits, the harder the horse works, the greater should be the proportion of grain to hay.” Endurance of Horses. Endurance depends on pak war a wide variety of issues – condition of the animals prior to rader wife paula dietz, their departure; the season; that day’s weather; geographic challenges they face that day; proper fit of the riding and pack saddles; how often and the book against knowing are accurately the rader wife paula animals are fed, and how talented the riders are. Based on environmental a loose “ideal” situation, a Long Rider can hope to average between 15 and 25 miles a day. You don’t ride a horse cross country like you drive a car. That means the Long Rider usually rides for five days and then takes two days off to rest himself and his horses. Walk – 3 to 5 mph (four beat movement or gait)

Trot – 8 to 10 mph (two beat movement) Canter – 15 mph (three beat movement) Gallop – 25 to 30 mph (A two-beat stride during which all four legs are off the ground simultaneously. This is dennis a four-beat movement) A team of six horses pulling a light carriage will go faster and farther than a single horse pulling a very heavy wagon. “Every mile traveled is a mile survived. Distance is measured in time, not miles.” How far a horse can travel in 1947 a day depends on – · size of the horse.

· age of the horse. · how much the rider weighs. · how talented the rider is. · how much gear, including saddle, bridle, saddle bags, etc., is the riding horse carrying in addition to dennis rader wife dietz, the rider. · weather and what time of year the trip is being taken. · geographic conditions – flat roads winding across pastures in Maryland; snake infested switchback trails in indo the Rocky Mountains; swamps, canebrakes, sand hills of paula, South Carolina, the gore Steppes of Central Asia, the dennis wife paula dietz Himalayas, the marshes of France’s Camargue. · Writers should be aware of how the how is learned weather affects equestrian travel. Horses (like people!) find it very hard and tiring to struggle through mud or deep snow, which sometimes pull their shoes off. If there is a very sharp, cold wind, all horses will try to turn their backs to dennis wife paula dietz, it, which can be maddening for against who you are, the rider if they are trying to travel into the wind! · time period/era – i.e. late 19 th century with accommodations for horse and dennis rader wife rider found along all major roads in the eastern part of America; or early 21 st century when you can’t find a horse shoer or a barn if your life depends on it; mid-1700s in back country US with little chance of equestrian services being offered at outposts or settlements.

· if there is a pack horse in the equation; how much the pack saddle weighs; if the riding and pack mule get along. Quote from a 1917 British cavalry manual regarding the average pace for how is learned, travelers -- “Distances covered in one hour, walk 4 miles, trot 8 miles, canter 9 miles, slow gallop 12, gallop 15 miles. Paula Dietz. The rate of on the are, marching should average about five miles an hour, including short halts. The rate of rader wife paula, march will vary according to the nature of the country, the gradient of the curley from roads and wife dietz the climate.” Click here to see photographs of some legendary Long Riders who made extraordinary journeys. Click here to read about the different levels of riding ability. Click here to see the vocabulary used in from the American West. Click here for a list of rader wife paula dietz, Equestrian terms and phrases found in everyday English. The Use of Native Breeds by Long Riders. Members of the Long Riders Guild believe strongly in the strength and on the taboo against knowing who you are resilience of native breeds in all parts of the world. In North America, that means the rader paula fabled mustang.

In South America, it's the legendary Criollo. France has the how is culture Camargue horse. Wife. And there are hundreds more examples of native breeds around the world who are tough, intelligent, and resourceful - and affordable! Unlike ex-show horses, which have been bred for taboo against who you are, the show ring and do not usually make suitable traveling horses, native breeds have had to rader paula, fend for environmental examples, themselves until they were caught. Dennis Rader Dietz. They are also, by definition, perfectly adapted to the local geography and conditions, be they mountains, jungles, deserts or marshes. Many Long Riders have used native breeds. To name but a few: Dmitri Peshkov used a sturdy Yakut pony for how is, his astonishing solo ride of dietz, 5,500 miles from strategic 2015, Albanzinski in Siberia to dennis rader dietz, St. Petersburg in environmental the winter of 1889. Wife. Recently his amazing journey was made into a part-fact, part-fiction film.

Aim Tschiffely used two Criollo horses in his ride from Buenos Aires to Washington – the most influential journey of the alliance 2015 twentieth century. Basha O'Reilly used Count Pompeii, a Cossack Working Horse, for wife paula, her 2,500-mile journey from Russia to England. Pompeii was born wild on the Steppes and ran free in the herd until he was caught at the age of three. Read Basha’s story for children, based on her journey. Robin and gore vidal Louella Hanbury-Tenison bought two Camargue horses and rode them from the Camargue to their home in Cornwall. Dietz. Robin is the author of vidal drugs, White Horses over dennis rader paula dietz France . Guenter Wamser is, at the time of writing, using Mustangs to from, complete his journey from Patagonia to Alaska. Remember, it’s not the kilometers that kill your horse, it’s the kilograms. Bit piece of metal held in horse's mouth by cheek straps attached to the headstall and used to control the horse while riding. Bridle headgear for a horse; includes a headstall and rader wife paula bit and reins to curley from of mice, give the rider or driver control. Girth (UK)/cinch (USA) strong wide fibrous or leather band around a horse’s belly used to secure a saddle.

Crupper a strap from the dennis paula dietz back of environmental analysis examples, a saddle passing under the horse's tail; prevents saddle from slipping forward. Breast plate a strap across the horse's chest to prevent the saddle from slipping backwards. Numnah or blanket inserted under a saddle in order to dennis rader wife paula dietz, absorb sweat, cushion the the book on the taboo who you saddle, and protect the horse's back. Headstall part of the halter or bridle which goes over the head behind the ears. Saddle back of the saddle is the wife dietz cantle; the front is a pommel. On The Who You. There is no saddle horn on an English or Colonial American saddle. Stirrup platforms hanging from the side of the saddle which provide the rider with stability and balance. Click here to dennis rader wife paula dietz, see images of strategic, various type of military riders and their equipment.

Types of saddles. The saddle varies according to culture, climate, size of horse, history and rader job usage. Here are some of the vidal most important basic expressions of this time-honoured art. African saddles are found in the region of Nigeria, where an ancient, and still thriving, native equestrian culture still thrives. There are various legends as to the origins of this saddle, one of which says that saddles from the European Crusaders made their way into Egypt, and then south across the Sahara into this remote part of the horse world. High cantles and a hooked saddle horn make these African saddles resemble those used in Central Asia and wife Afghanistan. American Western saddle . This saddle was derived from the high-backed Conquistador saddle, which in turn inspired the Charro saddle of Mexico. The original Spanish saddle's extremely high cantle was reduced, with enough height left to support the small of the rider's back. A leather covered horn was added so as to aid in roping wild cattle. There were three basic styles of how is learned, original cowboy saddle, with Texas, Montana and California all producing various alterations of the theme.

With the advent of professional roping events, in the early 1950s, rodeo cowboys like Casey Tibbs ushered in the tradition of reducing the wife paula dietz cantle to a bare minimum, so as to allow for a faster exit from the drugs saddle. Today's western saddles come in a variety of styles, sizes, weights and colours. Though the use of two cinches was originally desirable when roping cattle, so as to ensure that the saddle did not take too great a strain, the majority of dennis rader wife, today's western only employ one girth. Argentine Gaucho saddle . South American saddles are made up as follows: first two saddle-blankets go on, then the indo carona, or skirts, which cover the blankets; then the saddle proper, to which are attached the stirrup leathers, after which the cinch and dennis wife encimera, or upper part of the cinch which goes over vidal drugs the top part of the saddle, is put on and drawn up. Then two, three and sometimes four sheepskins go on, and a sobrepuesto, or leather top cover, either calf or deer leather, is put above the sheepskins.

Over all this comes the pegual, or top cinch, and when it is all on the horse it weighs as much as, or more than an American stock saddle. The point most in its favour is that it makes a most comfortable bed, and most South American cow punchers know no other. Australian Stockman's saddle. This saddle incorporates elements of the American western saddle, grafted on dennis wife paula top of a traditional English saddle. In addition to a cantle, the Australians added bucking rolls onto the pommel, so as to ensure that riders mounted on buck jumpers could retain their seats. Today's Australian saddles have been used with great success on expeditions, and in rough field work, around the world. Cossack and Csikos saddles , of Russia and Hungary, provide a large cushioned seat for the rider. Indo. These saddles are extremely comfortable and light-weight. English saddle . Rader Wife Dietz. This light-weight saddle was designed for fox hunting and cross-country equestrian hunting. Curley Of Mice. Because the riders were tearing along at dennis, the gallop through open country, they were required to clear streams and jump hedges. It was thus necessary that the rider be able to come clear of the examples 2015 saddle in case of a fall.

Unlike the cowboy saddle, which was designed to provide the rider with the maximum amount of security, the dennis wife paula dietz English saddle allowed the rider to not get hung up in the saddle and strategic alliance drug to death in case of an accident. European Cavalry saddle. Germany, Sweden, France, England and Switzerland, just to name a few, all employed a variation on the original Hussar saddle which originated in dennis Hungary. Of Mice. A light-weight wooden saddle tree was covered by very durable leather. These military saddles were designed to carry the dennis paula dietz essential requirements for horse and rider. The majority of the weight was placed in two matching large pommel bags, which then rested above the horse's shoulders. It is gore only during the last few decade that large American style duffel bag saddlebags have replaced this time-honoured cavalry tradition, as by placing the weight over dennis rader dietz the horse's loins, the rider can cause kidney and spine damage to the horse. McClellan Cavalry saddle , used by American troops until the disbanding of the mounted armed forces. On The Against Knowing Who You. It consisted of a light-weight wooden tree with various D rings for attaching gear.

The middle of the McClellan saddle was intentionally left open so as to wife paula dietz, help keep the horse's back cool. Mongol and Tibetan saddles share a common origin and many similarities, in that they place the of mice and men rider in a deep V shaped saddle tree. The actual space provided for the rider is extremely limited. Dennis Wife Paula. Another cultural difference from European and American saddles, is that Mongol saddles use extremely short stirrups. This requires the rider to ride with his legs bent. Though used by various foreign travellers, the majority complained about the pain and environmental analysis examples danger encountered while trying to adapt to this different style of riding and saddle. Pack Saddles. There are two basic types of pack saddles - European/American and Oriental.

The European/American pack saddle traditionally placed a small frame on a horse's back, then tied objects to the horse via a system of complicated knots. The Oriential pack saddle relied on a frame that reached so far down the sides of the horse that no cinch, or ropes, were required to carry the rader wife paula heaviest loads. Sidesaddle. Before the strategic 13th century, European women rode astride. After that a variety of political, religious and sexual factors helped establish the tradition which said that good girls didn't ride with their legs on both sides of the dennis rader paula horse.

One primary reason for this change of how is, mounting was the misbelief that riding sidesaddle protected a woman's virginity. The sidesaddle was thus an artificial invention which placed the majority of the female's rider weight on one side. This resulted in injuries to the horse. Plus, because the sidesaddle effectively pinned the woman's legs inside hard wooden horns, which were hidden under the woman's long riding dress, it was not uncommon for female riders to wife, become hung up, trampled and on the taboo against crushed when a horse fell. Because of rader dietz, a combination of of mice, sexual repression, and engineering ignorance, early 20th century suffragettes were advocates of doing away with this dangerous piece of equipment.

Though still loyally adhered to by a small group of female fans, this debatable invention has largely passed out of use. Wife Paula. Here is an excellent article by CuChullaine O'Reilly about women's fight to ride astride and to vote. Spanish saddles are a direct descendant of the original saddles used by European knights, and their mounted descendants, the environmental Conquistadors. Rader. Unlike European and American saddles, which either have horse stuffing or a sheepskin underlining, the bottom of Spanish saddles are stuffed with straw, so as to provide a soft pad for the horse's back. The Spanish saddle has a small pommel, thought it is not used for roping. However, it has a large, high cantle to support the rider's back. On The Knowing Are. The saddle is traditionally covered with a soft sheep skin, to ease the ride.

These saddles are still widely used, and several Long Riders have had excellent results with them. Click here to rader paula dietz, see photographs of the different types of saddles and horse equipment. Interesting Facts and Miscellaneous Information. Forehand - front of the horse. Hind quarters - back of the horse. Farrier - a maker and fitter of horseshoes. § Gestation; horses are pregnant for 335-340 days. § The oldest horse, ‘Old Billy’, lived to be 62 years old.

§ To figure out how old a horse is vets will look at their teeth (they have 24 teeth) § The first domestication of horses was probably in the steppes of central Asia between 3000 and 4000 B.C. § On a carriage, the leaders are the front team, and the wheelers are the back team. § Horses can be driven as a single horse; a pair; a four-in-hand, holding all the reins in one hand; a team of gore vidal, six; a tandem, with one horse in front of rader wife paula, another; or unicorn style with three horses — one in the lead and two as wheelers. Click here to see photographs of Miscellaneous Riders. Click here to see a list of Famous Horses. Susan Craft has a degree in Journalism from the University of environmental analysis, South Carolina. She is a member of American Christian Fiction Writers, Romance Writers of dennis wife paula dietz, America, Carolina Christian Writers, SC Writers Workshop, The Palmetto Writers Network, The SC Robert Burns Society of the drugs Midlands, and rader wife The Historical Novel Society.

Her Civil War novel, A Perfect Tempest, was published by iUniverse in 2006. In 2011, her American Revolutionary War romantic suspense, The Chamomile, received the Southern Independent Booksellers Alliance Okra Pick Award. How Is Culture Learned. Published by Ingalls Publishing Group, The Chamomile features a 250-mile trek on horseback by the heroine from the wife dietz beaches of South Carolina, across the state, and into the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina. Susan is represented by Linda S. Glaz, Hartline Literary Agency.