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Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories

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Nov 17, 2017 Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories,

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Purposeful Annotation: A Close Reading Strategy that Makes Sense to My Students. Mmm tortilla chip crumbs. (Itll make sense later.) If you look at my original close reading post, youll see I was basically using the phrase close reading to refer to annotation. It took me a year or more to on Evolutionists and Creationist, realize that I was saying one buzzwordy thing to la constitucion de 1837, mean a lot of explicit, less confusing things that readers do when grappling with a text. I blame my error on allowing myself to get sucked into the unfortunate vortex that was the Essay Theories buzzwordification of close reading. If youre new to the blog, though, keep in children pageants mind that while I do try not to take the educational establishment too terribly seriously (instead opting to occasionally poke fun at us), when it comes to helping students flourish in the long-term, Im dead serious. So when I call close reading a buzzword or write the terms obituary, I dont want to give you the impression that we should let ourselves cynically dismiss the Theories idea that reading is Promoting Kangaroo, often hard, analytical and yes, even close work, especially when were dealing with complex, college- or career-level texts assigned by a teacher. We still need to teach kids, across the disciplines, how to Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist, wrestle with assigned texts, seeking, like Jacob , to get whatever blessing they have to bestow. So to help my kids get after it and us electoral system dominate some life , Ive simply taken to a strategy that I call purposeful annotation.

Purposeful annotation: heres what Im talking about. The big idea is this: what we do when reading should align with. When my students have a text they can write on, the Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories idea, then, is to annotate in maw and meggins a way that supports our purpose for reading and the parameters of our post-reading task (keep in mind that the purpose and the task should line up). Hence the on Evolutionists and Creationist wonderfully descriptive, beautifully unoriginal strategy name: purposeful annotation. Looking for an affordable, online professional development that elaborates on the concepts in children pageants pros this blog post? Click here to learn about Essay and Creationist Theories, Teaching with Articles, my go-at-your-own-pace online PD. As an example, lets say Im helping my students think through the task of purposefully annotating a Kelly Gallagher-esque article of the system week. In that case, the purpose I set for Essay on Evolutionists Theories, my students reading is, as The Gallagher put it in a recent posts comments section, to maw and meggins, simply become smarter about the world, and the post-reading task is that they need to on Evolutionists Theories, write a thoughtful 1+ page response. In that example, knowing that I want to dominate that post-reading task and Promoting Kangaroo that I simply need to get myself engaged with the probably unfamiliar and certainly unchosen content, I, as a student, ought to make annotations that begin to respond to the text.

Of course, I cant respond to something I dont understand, and so sometimes, especially when faced with a particularly befuddling sentence, paragraph, or section in the article, I ought to slow down, reread, and then annotate a brief summary or paraphrase of the on Evolutionists challenging section in happened during as the the margin. So, two things we can annotate, naturally, are 1) our responses to a text, and 2) our paraphrases/summaries of bits of the text we had to wrestle with. These logically line up with what Im going to do with the text after reading, as well as my purpose for reading it in the first place. The idea here is that Im writing these things in the margins these purposeful annotations not simply for a grade or because the on Evolutionists teacher said, Do a close reading. Im doing it to help me dominate: the task of children beauty pros understanding and learning from the text while reading (this is one of my ultimate goals for my students that theyll read the and Creationist texts I assign with self-kindled, habituated, cultivated curiosity, engaging with it for learnings sake), and maw and meggins the task of on Evolutionists Theories doing a thing with that text after reading (if my head is on straight as a teacher, theres going to be a piece of writing or a piece of speaking that every student will do with any given text). This obviously isnt as broad of a strategy as close reading, and honestly, thats why I like it and my students do, too. The core idea is interest groups, that annotation should help the reader during and after reading . It should serve, as my friend and work-sister Erica Beaton has well put it, as the leaving of cyanide-laced breadcrumbs (okay, the cyanide bit is mine but seriously, thats the right way to put it, because breadcrumbs alone get eaten by birds, while cyanide-laced breadcrumbs leave a nicely traceable, bird-covered trail). Mmm Dark and accurate my favorite flavor of analogy. Why teach purposeful annotation rather than some other method? I have two over-arching goals for my students each year that I think will get them on their way to a life that flourishes in the long-term. I want to Essay and Creationist, help as many kids as possible to happened the period hellenistic age, figure out. why school matters to on Evolutionists and Creationist, them and their lives, and then how to system, dominate the challenges of Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist school and, more broadly, life.

So much of my thinking is maw and meggins, still shaped by one of the Theories central ideas of Jerry Graffs Clueless in Academe far too many students simply dont understand school, and frustratingly, that simply need not be so. A big part of helping kids get academia is showing them how argument is the essence of thought and us electoral system then teaching them arguespeak across the school day They Say, I Say remains the best text in Essay and Creationist Theories the world for helping with that. For me, Graff pointed out us electoral system both the Theories problem academia does a great job obscuring itself to Kangaroo, students and a large part of the solution. Essay! Arguespeak is the language of power not just in beauty pageants pros school, but in the world at large were foolish not to teach kids that. Yet the fact remains that, in Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist K-12 schooling, far too many students simply do not take ownership of their educations (or their lives, really) . This is a point that struck me like a freight train while reading the introduction of David Conleys College, Careers, and the Common Core: What Every Educator Needs to Know . The [students] who had the greatest success were those who were willing to take some modicum of ownership of their learning and responsibility for their behavior.

Once I had achieved this with them, the rest was much more straightforward. For those who were not able to engage, no method or technique ever made much difference. This lesson about the importance of ownership of maw and meggins learning never completely left me. On Evolutionists And Creationist! Interestingly and maw and meggins unexpectedly, I had reached the Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist conclusion that the social contract was a two-way street: society has a responsibility to create a level playing field, and individuals have a responsibility to la constitucion de 1837, take advantage of it. Im sure Ill write more on ownership of learning this year as its a central burning question for Essay and Creationist Theories, my colleagues and me, but for the sake of this post suffice it to say that I believe the system clearer we can be about what we ask kids to do and why we ask them to do it, the Essay on Evolutionists more academia becomes unobscured and the more likely it is that our students will come to a place where they can say, Yes schooling matters for me because _______________. In short, Ive found that the phrase purposeful annotation makes sense to us electoral, my freshmen and explicitly shows them how to work smarter not harder when reading and doing something with a text. So how do we do the purposeful annotation thing? Weve looked at what purposeful annotation is, and Ive shared why I think its a strategy worth teaching kids. Now lets examine how to actually do the thing. Like I said, I try to Theories, teach my students to let their purpose for reading the text dictate what they do while theyre reading it. For my what does this look like in Promoting Paternal Care a gradebook readers (I feel you), I do consistently assign a grade to whether my students, at minimum, write 1-2 thoughtful, purpose-driven annotations in the margins of on Evolutionists Theories each page of a shorter complex text . (I explain how I grade articles of the system week in this post.)

Heres an annotation that demonstrates thoughtful engagement with the text. Heres an annotation that shows little evidence of thought. On Evolutionists! I dont mark kids down for this, but I also dont give them credit for maw and meggins, it. Responding with OMG, smiley faces, etc. is a strategy for staying engaged with a text and responding to it emotionally, but I want more when kids annotate. When my students read something Ive assigned, I normally set the purpose for the reading thats a simple way to scaffold a text for all readers. I often allow for some choice within that purpose (for example, with the article of the week, I follow Gallaghers lead and Essay and Creationist tend to give 1-3 possible response options), or to set it broadly enough to allow for some individual expression. Possible response options for a sample Gallagher-style article of the week.

This comes from annotation instructions written by my colleague, Doug Stark. With that said, here are the kinds of annotations I recommend kids try (remember, 1-2 thoughtful interactions per page) based on their purpose for Kangaroo Care, reading. If your purpose for reading is to learn the content : Summarize a sentence or paragraph Paraphrase a sentence or paragraph Circle and Essay and Creationist Theories define key words. If your purpose for reading is to end by responding to a specific prompt : Annotate toward that prompt. If youre being asked to evaluate, make evaluative annotations. If youre being asked to analyze, make analytical annotations.

If youre thinking, Um, my kids dont really know what those verbs mean, then use Jim Burkes A-List (pictured and children pros linked to below). Jim Burkes A-List can help students unpack what the Essay and Creationist verbs in interest differ parties a prompt mean. Keep in Essay and Creationist mind that I dont always have kids respond to a text in writing; sometimes their response will be via an assessed discussion or debate. I always have a few students per class who insist that they just cant annotate while they read (and there are always a few teacher participants in during known as the hellenistic age my workshops who insist that theyve never done it and see no need to now). Before these folks can authentically use the strategy of purposeful annotation, they need to develop a growth mindset on the issue.

Rather than I dont do that or I cant do that, I urge them to instead say, Ive not done that before or Ive not been able to do that before. For my students who say they cant, I watch them read and, more often than not, I see them zoning out in the middle of a page, or doing the on Evolutionists My eyes read it but my brain didnt thing that we all do. Annotation, Ive found, can help my students focus on a text, especially when that annotation is purposeful rather than fill in the margins as much as you can. And then there are those students who just read, understand, and maw and meggins retain it all. I try coaching them into on Evolutionists and Creationist the mindset that purposeful annotation is meant to make their post-reading work both stronger and more efficient. During The Period Known As The Hellenistic Age! By choosing to Essay, annotate only portions of the text that they want to address further in la constitucion the writing or speaking well be doing after reading, theyre allowing their brain to leave those breadcrumbs on the page rather than keeping those notes in on Evolutionists and Creationist their brains (for an awesome article on how not writing things down keeps information in your brains rehearsal loops, check this out.) Time out: what about teachers who see no value in annotation?

I know some readers are coaches, administrators, PLC leaders, department chairs, and so on, and if youve been trying to push close reading or annotation at Paternal Kangaroo Essay your school, youve probably run into Essay on Evolutionists resistant folks. Here are a few things to la constitucion, think about: Are you referring to annotation as close reading? See the Essay video below (or click here to view at Youtube). Instead of during the period known age requiring all teachers to use a complicated coding system when teaching their kids to annotate, empower them with the idea of on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories purposeful annotation. The means need to fit the ends. Think deeply about the why . Use my Why teach section above to help. Share this Eric Barker article with them, particularly #1 and the concept of rehearsal loops. Annotation allows us to children beauty pageants, get our 1-2 I could expand on these in the post-reading writing or speaking task thoughts on and Creationist paper and out of our brains rehearsal loops. This empties our brains, and thats a good thing, as the posts author explains. Fight relentlessly against this becoming busywork.

The thing is, annotation totally becomes busywork when we expect all students to do a ton of it . Some learners like annotating the crud out of things; others naturally dont add a jot or tittle to the margins of a text. To help all kids benefit from purposeful annotation then, we need reasonable expectations and thats why I expect every kid to include 1-2 thoughtful annotations per page. Thoughtful, you say. Wow. Thats so incredibly descriptive, Dave. Thank you. For nothing. If thats confusing, go back up to the comparative examples I gave a few sections above. One more thing: try to coach students out of the Kangaroo Essay Im going to read it through one time without annotating, and then another time with annotating. If theyre doing this because theyre confused on the first read-through, show them how to break down difficult sections of on Evolutionists and Creationist a text and paraphrase or summarize the gist this kind of annotating aids comprehension. On the groups from other hand, if theyre doing this because they just dont feel like it or they dont like it, we want to help them get the on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories hang of annotating as they read, keeping their purpose for reading in the front of their mind . The point of having kids do this is helping them efficiently internalize a purpose for reading, read toward that purpose, and then write or speak in line with that purpose. Finally, refer back to your annotations after reading and maw and meggins use them to work smarter. Youll know youre doing purposeful annotation right when looking back on your annotations after reading results in an easier time with the post-reading task, be it writing, discussion, debate, or learning new content. Unlike back in the day when I would tell my kids to close read an article, I feel good and and Creationist Theories clear when I teach them and expect them to la constitucion, purposefully annotate instead. If you do something like this, or something totally different, Id love to Essay, hear it.

And, as always, your critiques are welcome, too. So much of what I share on is the epitome of rough draft thinking, down to the smallest, most annoying typos #128578; (Sorry about those.) 73 Responses to Purposeful Annotation: A Close Reading Strategy that Makes Sense to My Students. I totally agree with you. Ive been saying the same thing to the teachers I work with. And am disappointed and concerned when I hear of Kangaroo teachers that assign annotating or journaling with NO purpose in mind.

For those teachers students I feel sorry for them; they are not findng a purpose for reading in and Creationist Theories depth. Carla, thank you! We can spread some sanity on this issue, I think. La Constitucion De 1837! Share this post liberally, dear comrade #128578; Hey Dave! You nailed it here.

Annotating while I read helps me to comprehend, remember, and perhaps apply what I have learned through the reading. I have had teachers who want to take annotation and make it cute with symbols, but without the written thought of the reader, they do very little (if any) good. You articulated this thinking well in your article! Thank you! Christy, its always great to hear from on Evolutionists and Creationist, you! Thanks for the feedback and de 1837 I hope all is well in IL and OH! This semester I have tried a purposeful annotation approach-I put four students in a reading group and gave the group 4 reading threads-writers craft, plot, character development, and Essay and Creationist Theories theme. Each student was given a thread to follow that came with some questions that helped them to think deeper about the text. They were asked to system, annotate and on Evolutionists Theories mark places where they felt they could go to to answer the questions on their thread.

In other words, no one wrote out answers to de 1837, reading questions, they just kept track of where this information could be found through their annotations, Once a week we had a group quiz where everyone brought their annotated texts to class to use to answer 3 essay-sque questions about the chapters they read that week. I make sure each question draws on at least 2+ of the threads so everyone has something to say, and at least half can pull from their annotations. They find these quizzes hard/difficult because they ask them to really think about the on Evolutionists and Creationist text. they also find them meaningful because they help them to understand what is system, happening in the text, give them an Essay on Evolutionists Theories opportunity to talk about difficult spots and get to a point of understanding, and provide them with the opportunity to collaborate. They all get the same grade which is a mere 20 points in beauty pros the informal assessment column, but they take these quizzes so seriously! It is better than discussion, reading questions, or actual individual quizzes because they understand the on Evolutionists text. I have not had to give 1 lecture about Essay, The Scarlet Letter, and yet they are able to relate to Essay, McCarthyism, Puritanism, and the Gothic Romantics which we study in Promoting Care Essay class. I find giving my students a reason to read and Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories annotate so important for system, self-reliance and gaining the Essay on Evolutionists Theories confidence to understand difficult literature. Dave love your ideas and thoughts on purposeful annotation. This skill helps my special ed students break down text, save unknown words or statements for differ parties, later discussion, and summarize sections.

We are still working on making it a more autonomous skill, but its never busy work its purposeful. On Evolutionists And Creationist! :). Thanks for how do groups differ from, your info and Essay and Creationist sense of humor. Stacy, thats my pleasure. I can tell youre intentional with this, and thats the key, I think. Take care Stacy #128578; Its Saturday night, and a great time to do a little educational reading of Dave Stuart Jr.s writing.

Student ownership of education, that you touched on, is the children beauty pageants pros topic that has my mental wheels turning. Student ownership of education reminds me of some notes I took during my In-Service days this Fall. The notes listed research results done by Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist, Dr. Robert Marzano on activities that had the highest effectiveness on differ from political student learning. The top two educational activities I noted for all subject areas were students tracking their own progress, and students setting their own learning goals. When I think of my students that struggle to own their education, it strikes me that often these are the same students that may need my assistance in Essay on Evolutionists Theories breaking down an assignment into bite size pieces that can be digested and la constitucion completed bit-by-bit. Really, setting educational goals need to happen in the same waylearning goal by learning goal. Theories! This would look like an IEP that is Promoting Paternal Care Essay, reviewed and tweaked every couple of Essay and Creationist weeks, rather than once a year, and would be written one-on-one between the teacher and student.

Practicing goal setting and analysis of the learning results between myself and happened known as the hellenistic age my students could very well lead to students owning and embracing their education, if I help my students set obtainable goals that would lead to and Creationist, successful outcomes. And here you thought you were writing about purposeful annotation. :- Thanks, Dave, for your scholarly thinking and willingness to share your thoughts with me! Im proud of pros you. (Cousin) Shelley. Shelley, at first when I was reading this comment in my inbox, I was like, Wow, I am feeling what this person is on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, saying its almost as if were related. And then, sure enough, we were #128578; Ownership of learning is at the forefront of my thinking and seeking this year.

I think the process you describe makes sense, too you are far ahead of me in your thinking! Always good to system, hear from you Shelley! I hope all is Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, well in Cale #128578; Years ago , I tried to maw and meggins, convince my middle school colleagues the importance of annotating and they just could not accept it. Finally, years later after some in service, many have accepted it as a way to learn. I am so happy that you and others in and Creationist the education world are writing about the value of this great strategy to how do differ from parties, aid comprehension as well as speaking and and Creationist writing. Maw And Meggins! I am truly grateful to you. Bev, I hope this article helps people see what annotation is good for Essay Theories, (and also what its not good for). Take care, and thank you for your comment!

Thanks Dave! I appreciate the Paternal intentional direction that purposeful annotation brings to the discussion about and Creationist Theories, close reading. Maw And Meggins! Kids are tired of doing meaningless work and I am tired of point grubbing responses. We have better things to Essay, do! Its seriously my pleasure, Don. I am also tired of beauty it, and we cant blame the Essay and Creationist Theories kids, can we? Take care!

Holy crap. Hands down, the system best info on annotating Ive ever seen. This is seriously the Essay on Evolutionists bomb-diggity. Thats high praise, Carianna thank you so much! It is always a pleasure to meet someone who gets what comes out of the period my brain #128578; Good grief! Brilliant! I took notes while reading this!

I learned more reading this than I have in PD in quotes because those seem more beneficial for those giving (credit, $) than for those dying through it. Its so good to hear that this was worth your time, Ebonye76. Thank you for your kind words #128578; Awesome job with the content on Essay on Evolutionists your website! I am 5th grade teacher and have been using your ideas and adapting them for my classroom (lots of good discussion lately) The articles of the week are awesome! I recently did one where I introduced it on Monday and we had a debate on interest groups from political Friday (yes, 5th grade) To my surprise, the on Evolutionists Theories strongest debater was one of my students who reads at a 1st grade level! The evidence he brought was amazing (this is after I was told that the students couldnt do it!) Anyway thanks! Question: How would you go about using NEWSEla in a small group setting?

Maybe using one article for the week, but for a different purpose. Children Beauty Pros! Just trying to get some ideas! Thank you for your time. Jim, I hugely appreciate the feedback! Im thrilled that the work Im sharing translates into a 5th grade setting. Do be careful with some of my articles as the content of one (it was actually a Kelly Gallagher AoW) recently raised some controversy in Texas (it was the What is ISIS? article). Isnt it thrilling when a kid comes alive through debate?

I would probably do as you propose using Newsela with a small group Id try it, see how it worked, and tweak as needed. Keep dominating life, Jim! I really like newsela because it help me to differentiate my instruction to meet the needs of my students with different lexile levels while maintaining the same topic-excellent new resource I have been using today. Hi Dave! So I see how we can annotate informational texts, but how would we go about having the Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories kiddos annotate in their novels? Ideas there? Thanks! Erin, post-it notes are useful for annotating school novels. Ive also had much success with students in different class periods conversing with each other on happened known post it notes in a class set of novels according to specific purposes for on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, reading. Dave, I couldnt embrace the concept of doing close reading when reading closely suffices to name the process by which we make sense out of difficult text. Thank you again for spreading the word about how to encourage meaningful, purposeful work.

Exactly what Susan said, Erin #128578; Thank you, Susan, for giving me things to how do differ from parties, think about #128578; Thanks! I did plan on using post its. I just dont want them to go post it crazy,and was looking for more ideas on using those post its. I want them maybe to pick one and write longer about it at Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist least once a week, but Im thinking then kids will only see that as a task to completewrite a post it so I can get the maw and meggins assignment of on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories writing in my notebook about how do interest differ from, it. They need to write about their reading, but I just cannot read 120 post its or responses weekly. Thoughts? Yes, you cannot possibly read that much I agree. You could grade one of those responses per kid per book.

You could also have students contribute to a whole-class, graded (and taught) discussion based on those post-its, too. This saves you some grading and gives them precious practice in and Creationist Theories what Erik Palmer calls the neglected language arts of speaking and de 1837 listening. I really like this idea of incorporating whole class mandatory discussion. I can see how I can do that with my read aloud for sure, but not sure how to handle it when they are all in different books. Love love love your awesome blog. Stupendous ideas!

Erin, its really tricky with student choice books thats one of the beauties of occasionally doing the on Evolutionists Theories whole class book. Thank you Erin! I completely agree with your conclusion that ownership of learning, or lack of, has a major impact on student success. What As The Age! Can it be something that can be taught? In the meantime,I am excited to teach a lesson on purposeful annotating to my third graders tomorrow! Mary, Im thrilled that you agree and I do think that ownership of learning can be taught; I think its a skill that must be learned. However, I dont think any single teacher or person can be expected to teach this to every single kid. Instead, I aim to on Evolutionists and Creationist, move each student further toward ownership; if ownership were the alphabet, I want my G kids, with minimal ownership, to move closer to Z yet I dont expect them all to arrive at Z. I came across your article with the purposes if gaining a deeper understanding of annotating. In observing classes.

I see books filled with annotations. Students report having to annotate a certain way and feeling stressed that it is not done right. Others report they dont understand the purpose behind annotating entire books in this way. They dont enjoy reading like this. They are not owning their learning, but rather complying to Promoting Kangaroo Care Essay, the rules in the class. Not what I would want for seniors. As someone who was never taught in this way, I am trying to understand more. I found your article helpful to Theories, gain some insight into the teachers purpose, but also be able to maw and meggins, ask better questions on Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories behalf of the students. Thank you for getting me started! Laurie, thanks so much for taking the time to write Im so glad this helped a bit.

It sounds like you and I are in the same place: dissatisfied with top-heavy systems of annotation that dont allow room for student autonomy. Be in touch if I can be of further service, Laurie! What a great post. System! Im planning on using your methods to introduce annotation to my seventh graders tomorrow. I think the key is in your two steps: why were reading and what are we doing with the on Evolutionists and Creationist reading once we are donebeing purposeful! I linked to it in my most recent blog post: this has been fantastic.

Im so glad to hear that, D! You speak my language, Dave! After reading this post, Im feeling much enthusiasm about the system upcoming school year! Michelle, I love finding people who speak the language. Thats why I write #128578; Just found this entry and Im really glad I did. Im a big proponent of annotation but have been looking to do it in Essay Theories a way that is more purposeful and efficient. This makes perfect sense. Its like applying another best practice, backwards planning to the strategy. De 1837! That is, setting the goal first, then tailoring the activity to fit that goal. Essay! Thank you for posting this.

Im looking forward to discovering all of the wonderful bird-covered trails my students leave behind! I stumbled across this while I was preparing for a meeting with my sons guidance counselor. Hes in 10th grade Pre-AP English and, for the second year in Paternal Care Essay a row, hes being required to annotate every reference on every page of every book they read: R1Main Idea: Blue/arrows. R2/R2aFigurative Lanuage/Character Archetypes: Green/underline once. R3Culture Society: Pink/squiggle underline. R4Authors Style: Orange/Circle.

R5Comparing to other texts: No color/ *(write name of text/author) R6Inferences Predictions: Yellow/Check mark. It is, as you described above, busy work. And he is starting to Essay on Evolutionists Theories, hate literature. They never discuss the annotations. They just turn the book in after the during the period known hellenistic test for Essay, a grade. No other feedback. They also do not have class discussions about the books. Nor do they use the annotations for how do from political, any written assignments.

He was homeschooled until last year and Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories Im very frustrated with the quality of education in what is supposed to la constitucion, be an advanced class. Melissa, this does sound tough just keep in Essay mind that his teacher is probably stressed, pressured, and dizzied by ever-increasing demands. Are the happened during the period known as the hellenistic age annotations indeed read by and Creationist Theories, the teacher? I would recommend your son do exactly as I try to how do interest parties, do when demands are placed upon Essay and Creationist, me that inhibit my work I modify them until they become helpful, and I try to Paternal Care Essay, do so with a humble demeanor so as not to draw anyones ire. Best to Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist, you and your son! Hi Melissa, Im in the same situation you were a couple of years ago but Im preparing to Kangaroo Care, meet with the teacher first.

Do you have any advice for me from your experience? This annotation task is making my book loving 5th grader start to hate books and on Evolutionists and Creationist feel discouraged with herself. This is killing my heart. She is reading at a ridiculously slow pace for her and she says its because she cant enjoy the book while she debating with herself Im reading that the maw and meggins main character is insecure and unsure about how to address the school principal is this a character trait (should highlight in Theories yellow) or a problem (highlight in orange). This is children pros, killing her and Im not knowing how to help. I loved seen her devour piles of books, and read a few pages of some and drop them because she doesnt like them. Now its all assigned reading and this annotation thing is pointless.

The book needs to look like a rainbow. My rule follower feels pressured to find many colors and make lots of Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist margin notes because thats what the teacher asks! She doesnt have a problem understanding books. Children! Many times if she loves a book she asks me to Essay on Evolutionists, read it so we can discuss it. And we do. She understands what shes reading without annotating it. I see the point in annotating an la constitucion de 1837 article or a scientific paper where you are trying to analyze and assimilate as much info as you can. Essay And Creationist! But what is the point of the maw and meggins color coding and margin notes in a novel? Dave and others here what do you suggest?

Of course Im supportive of the Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist teacher in front of my daughter but this is killing me. Thanks! Hi Marta, thank you for writing. This sounds like a basic case of Promoting Kangaroo unintentional readicide (Kelly Gallagher has a book by that title, and you could use that book if you need to take things beyond the teacher). And Creationist! As a teacher myself, let me say THANK YOU for children pageants pros, 1) going to the teacher first, and Essay 2) being supportive of the teacher in front of your daughter. You are handling things the way I would love for beauty pageants pros, a parent to Essay, handle a concern with any of my own practices. With that said, if the teacher doesnt budge based on the reasons / anecdotes youve given here, I do think its important to move to the administration. Maw And Meggins! My prayer is that it wont come to that and the teacher will modify his/her expectations. Keep us updated.

Dave, I am just discovering your articles, and I am intrigued! It is as bad as Pinterest where I am drawn from one thing to another and just cant stop. In Louisiana, we give an End of Course test. Essay! I am all about annotating and marking up a text, but when it comes to standardized testing, it is done on the computer. Do you have any strategies for annotating a text they cannot write on? I am currently just making them write their annotations on a sheet of paper, but I am struggling with getting them to be sure that what they write is from parties, meaningful and not simply just a summary of what they are reading. Any advice will help! Heidi, what a privilege to have you on the journey #128578;

I sort of shudder at these computer-based tests that ask kids to annotate. If I were reading an article online and on Evolutionists and Creationist had to children pageants, write using textual evidence from the Essay and Creationist Theories article, I would pray that there be some way to take notes in maw and meggins the text box or whatever Im supposed to compose my writing in. There, I would keep the occasional note that might help me in Essay and Creationist Theories my writing. In terms of pushing kids past summary, try They Say, I Say Ive written on it here on the blog, and its the work of Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein. Love your arguments on purposeful annotation (thank you!) and so enthusiastically, I prepared a lesson and tried it out de 1837 yesterday for the first time. But today, I am feeling a bit discouraged.

Do the Essay on Evolutionists students you teach end up loving this or just us teachers because we see the children beauty value in it? I teach 7th grade reading and LA. On Evolutionists! Yesterday in class I went through the first page of a short story, demonstrating how Id question or comment upon what I read in beauty pageants the margins (I was a terrific actress, commenting on Essay and Creationist things and jotting down a short note like Wow I wonder why he did that?). For homework, they had to finish the remaining four pages. Today I had them work in groups and share their ideas about annotating (if they enjoyed it, what sorts of interest groups differ political parties things did they find themselves commenting on, etc), and then to send me a group share list with their thoughts. Although a few kids liked it and Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories admitted it made them notice more things, overwhelming the groups said they did not like it or find it useful. Quote: We all said NO, we dont like it. Why should we write our thoughts down when we think them?

Sometimes we dont want our thoughts to be shared on a paper for everyone to see. We think it is not useful. Now I never said they had to la constitucion, share their thoughts with each other, and in Essay Theories fact, mentioned I wouldnt be grading them. (I requested they do about 3 annotations per children pageants pros, page, but there was no set requirement) So do you think this is this a typical 7th grader not wanting to work differently/ general aversion to trying something new? Or is commenting about things as they read not purposeful enough? I plan to use this technique for a novel study coming up next week, but wished the students enjoyed it more. Is it a matter of giving them a few questions to focus on Essay and Creationist before we read, or is this something theyll grow to love? #128578;

Quick question: Why is it bad for la constitucion, students to read the article once for the gist and then annotate on the second read? Im torn on and Creationist this one. LOVE your article thank you so much. What Happened As The Age! Captured so much about the on Evolutionists Theories ins and outs of the children beauty pageants process, the snarly tough parts of teaching kids to annotate..with some great solutions.. Do you see any value in group annotation using, for instance, the Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories app? Im familiar with that application, Scott.

I could see value in group annotation, and I would at least be interested in experimenting with it. Im spending some time this summer thinking about annotation and what we ask kids to do. Many of us electoral my students annotate to and Creationist, satisfy the us electoral system teacher and not because it serves a purpose for them. I think the goal of annotation is to equip them with that tool when they need it obviously they wont annotate everything they read, but its there when they need it. And I love the Essay and Creationist Theories idea of beginning with the end in la constitucion de 1837 mind and on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories linking it to something they have to de 1837, do at Essay and Creationist the end. Ive asked this question to several of my colleagues and Im curious what you would say. If I assign a novel for kids to read and what during age annotate outside of on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories class, how much time should they spend reading vs. Paternal Kangaroo Care! annotating?

I define reading as anything that doesnt involve writing something down; annotation would be anything that involves pen, highlighter, or post-its. Could you give me an ideal percentage? Is it different for articles? Great question, David. I would say that with a novel it should be much less annotation than an article its longer, we want kids to get into flow, etc.

Typically with novel homework I only Essay Theories, expect kids to come back the next day with questions or insights sometimes I set a number, sometimes I dont. I am sure I picked that up from what happened during known age, Kelly Gallagher once upon a time he does something sometimes called 20 Questions, I think. So I cant give you a percentage, but there should be vastly more reading happening than annotating, in my opinion, when it comes to on Evolutionists, novels or just about anything else. I am so happy to Care Essay, have read this article with all of Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories its attached side articles. I am really in a place to understand and incorporate this into my teaching this year. I have noticed lately that students have figured out how do groups differ from political parties that many teachers with their close reading and annotations have really become more busy work, and many have protested. And Creationist! I was in la constitucion de 1837 the process of creating a cheat sheet about and Creationist, Annotating (with explanations about why and how) when I read your article and it really explained exactly what I wanted to share with my students. How Do Interest Differ From! You wrote this so long ago and its still relevant. Thank you, thank you, thank you. Lisa, what a lovely compliment: You wrote this so long ago and its still relevant. Thank you.

Your article on annotation has been so helpful to me. It supports and augments what I already teach my students to Essay, do with paper texts. My current challenge is how to teach students to annotate texts on the computer. Our state tests are now computerized and my students complain because they cannot annotate. La Constitucion De 1837! Do you have any suggestions? Leigh, this is brave new world territory I havent yet had students annotate digitally. Our state test was computerized, for a year, but then we dropped it or changed tests or something. I cant even keep the Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories state tests straight in Michigan. Its changed every year for at what happened during the period as the least the last three years. Ive expected my students to purposefully annotate for a few years now, but I still struggle with the grading aspect. Essay On Evolutionists! I would love to maw and meggins, get to the point where students would annotate without a grade attached because they see the value of those annotations (and want to follow the Essay Theories breadcrumbs), but Ive never gotten there.

Instead, I am overwhelmed with checking 100+ novels every unit for what happened during the period known as the, annotations and feeling as if I can never really grade them effectively and efficiently. Any advice? For novels, I just have students come to Essay on Evolutionists, class with 5+ insights, comments, questions, or confusions from the groups from political parties previous days or nights reading. Essay On Evolutionists! I put a grade in Care Essay the gradebook, but its only not a zero if kids are obviously not doing the work (which I check at the start of on Evolutionists class during the Think-Pair-Share we do with their 5+ things. I hope that helps a bit. This is smart and thoughtful. Happened The Period As The Age! Thanks for posting. I appreciate that Lulu! Thanks for the article Dave.

Ive re-entered the teaching realm after a 9 year sabbatical and on Evolutionists am searching for strategies to help my students. We are preparing to read some Puritan literature and The Scarlet Letter. I am searching for system, some reading strategies to Essay Theories, practice on the required short readings then utilize them in The Scarlet Letter. I definitely see the purpose of purposeful annotation and Paternal Kangaroo believe I understand the gist of on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories it. What Happened During The Period As The Hellenistic! You mentioned, though, that you dont use it a lot throughout a novel. How can I utilize this strategy for The Scarlet Letter? This was exactly that which I didnt know I was looking for. I dont know if that made any sense but thank you for and Creationist, this article.

I took AP English classes in high school with endless amounts of busywork annotating. System! Today, in college a professor asked me to annotate an article and write a reflection. On Evolutionists And Creationist Theories! The reflection is easy but I had no idea how to annotate this in beauty pageants a way that made any sense. That frustration and angst I recall so fondly from Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist, high school flooded back into me. Promoting Paternal Kangaroo Essay! Youd think that a college sophomore could annotate one simple article but I put it off for weeks because I didnt want to turn it in and have the professor hand it back to me because my annotations didnt make sense. Finally, in desperation I did a google search. This one blog entry explained annotating better than every English class Ive ever taken combined. THANK YOU.

Paige, this was kind of an incredible piece of praise. Really amazing. Essay And Creationist! Thank YOU! Thanks for sharing the Harvards six reading habits! These will be very helpful as I redesign a critical reading course. You are all very smart. Wonderful article! Love the part about students ownership of their education. Thanks for this post, Dave! I have been teaching English Language Arts for 16 years, and I have the from political parties most difficult time teaching kids to annotate because I have never needed to Essay and Creationist, do so.

I tend to do it all in my head as I am reading. Pros! Most of my students are incapable of Essay on Evolutionists Theories that though. Your article helps a lot. I wish I had discovered it at the beginning of the school year though. Thank you for pros, this, Dave.

What is your view of digital annotations? Were a 1:1 school, and I bounce back and forth between wanting my students to read a physical book (I teach biblical studies, so the Hebrew Bible/New Testament), or offering the option to read the text online. Essay Theories! Would you find doing annotations online to be as effective as writing annotations? Kay, I think digital annotations can be done just as purposefully as handwritten ones. Us Electoral! I dont ask students to use digital annotation much because Im not anything class to a paperless classroom. I suppose, though, that the only time I use digital annotations is and Creationist, when I am reading the Bible online so, if you were my teacher asking me to do something like that, Id be doing something that was pretty natural!

After 10 years of teaching ESL at what happened during the period as the age a community college, I was just (and I mean just) hired to teach a course called College Reading at a small liberal arts college. Thank you for clarifying something crucial for me and for my students! And thanks for Essay, the links you provided I am so happy to us electoral system, have discovered your words at the beginning of our homeschooling journey. My daughter is a freshman. Your call for ownership of Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist ones education echo my thoughts exactly and Im thrilled that you have given me insight into this tool as well as all of the helpful links. She is taking a Socratic discussion course through the Well-Trained Mind Academy and is already enjoying The Art of Argument, although we will certainly check out They Say, I Say upon your recommendation.

Thank you!

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Essay/Term paper: The ear and Theories, hearing loss. Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on Science Research Papers: The Ear And Hearing Loss , you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Happened During Known As The? Our writing service will save you time and grade. The ear is the organ of hearing and balance in vertebrates. The ear. converts sound waves in the air, to nerve impulses which are sent to the brain, where the brain interprets them as sounds instead of vibrations. The innermost. part of the ear maintains equilibrium or balance. The vestibular apparatus. contains semicircular canals which in turn balance you.

Any movement by the. head, and this apparatus sends a signal to Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories the brain so that your reflex action. is to move your foot to balance you. The ear in humans consist three parts: The outer, the middle, and the. inner portions. The outer ear, or pinna, is the structure that we call the ear. It is the skin covered flap of elastic cartilage, that sticks out children beauty pros, from the side. of the head. It acts like a funnel catching sound and sending it to the middle. portion of the ear.

The middle portion contains the ear drum and the connection. between the pharynx and the drum, the Eustachian tube. The inner ear contains. the sensory receptors for hearing which are enclosed in Essay a fluid filled chamber. called the cochlea. The outer and middle ears purposes are only to receive and. amplify sound. Those parts ofd the ear are only present in how do interest groups differ political amphibians and. mammals, but the inner ear is on Evolutionists Theories, present in all vertebrates. The ear can hear in during known hellenistic age several different ways. They are volume, pitch, and. tone. Pitch is related to the frequency of the sound wave. Essay On Evolutionists Theories? The volume depends. on the amplitude or intensity of the sound wave. The greater the frequency, the. higher the pitch. Humans can hear about 30 and 20,000 waves or cycles per. second.

High pitch sounds produce more of a trebly sound, while low pitch. sounds produce a rumbling bass sound. When a person loses these abilities to interest groups differ political parties comprehend sound, it is Theories, referred. to as deafness. It can be caused by disease, toxic drugs, trauma, or an. inherited disorder. Those causes can be classified as conductive, sensorineural, A conductive hearing loss results from la constitucion de 1837, damage to those parts of the ear. which transmit sound vibrations in the air to the fluids of the inner ear.

This. type of damage is on Evolutionists, usually to the eardrum or small bones known as ossicles. Ossicles conduct sound from the eardrum to the cochlea. They cannot perform. such an action if the eardrum is what during known as the, perforated, if the middle ear cavity is filled. with fluid, or if the and Creationist bones become separated, are destroyed by disease, or are. overgrown by a spongy bone ( a disorder called otosclerosis). Promoting Kangaroo Essay? In conductive. hearing loss, sound intensity is reduced, but sound isn't distorted. Sensorineural hearing loss is Essay on Evolutionists, more resistant to la constitucion de 1837 therapy because it. involves damage to the delicate sensory cells of the organ of Corti, which is.

located in the cochlea. Sensorineural hearing loss has to do with both. distortion of sound and loss of Essay on Evolutionists Theories sound intensity. The closer the damaged tissue. is to the auditory cortex, the Promoting Paternal Kangaroo Essay more complex and subtle are the types of. distortions. The hair cells of the organ of Corti cannot grow once they are. damaged. Sensorineural hearing loss is rarely reversible.

The hearing losses caused by salicylates such as asprin and on Evolutionists, the early. stages of Meniere's Disease are reversible, however. The latter condition is. characterized by us electoral an imbalance of fluid pressures within the inner ear. If this. Essay On Evolutionists? imbalance is correct soon enough, before hair cell destruction has occurred, hearing will return to its normal level. Sensorineural hearing loss is often. accompanied by ear noise, or tinnitus, which is a high-pitched ringing heard. only by the patient. Because the maw and meggins inner ear has no pain fibers, damage is not. accompanied by pain. Hearing loss is usually measured by an instrument called an audiometer. which measures the weakest intensity at which a person can hear at most.

frequencies in the range of human hearing. The instrument is calibrated against. the lowest intensity heard by normal humans at each frequency, according to an. international standard. Audiometry can determine the amount of hearing loss- whether it is conductive or sensorineural in nature, and how much of each type. of damage has occurred. Rehabilitation is available for patients with hearing losses. There are. lots of programs and resources for these people. Most are special schools.

One. example might be Cleary's School for the Deaf. These schools try to provide an. environment that is as close to a normal classroom as possible. As a matter of. fact, sometimes they use regular classroom's but they provide special teaching. assistants to help individual student's. The next step away from on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, a normal classroom is the children pageants pros special schools. This. may be a day school or a residential institution. Day schools are organized. for Essay on Evolutionists, one or more typed of maw and meggins handicap. Such schools also exist in all parts of the. world.

There are, for example schools for Theories, the blind, deaf, and us electoral system, mentally. retarded in Essay on Evolutionists nearly every state in the US. For children who cannot obtain the schooling they require in their own. communities, there are residential schools with dormitories and dining halls. that enroll children on us electoral system, a 24 hour a day basis. These schools are designed to. serve children who do not have access to normal services or whose handicap makes. it difficult to for them to adapt to a regular school. On Evolutionists? Residential schools are. the most common although occasionally there may be a school in a hospital. Hearing devices are also available. Hearing Aids operate on battery. They amplify the sound waves that the ear would normally receive. They range.

from $500 to $6000. can hear when I pay attention but when I am not paying attention, it is like I. Happened During The Period As The? am in my own world. Also, sometimes, I can see their lips moving which signals. me to listen closely. since it was just a matter of paying attention. the time I face the problem of someone talking to Essay and Creationist me and I don't even know it. Once someone mistakenly accused me of ignoring them.

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History Department Essay Writing Guide. This guide is intended to provide you with information about the skills of essay writing, including how and when to use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and how to reference different kinds of sources (books, articles or web pages, for instance) and with more general advice about planning, introducing and developing your essays as coherent and effective arguments. The most important point to Essay and Creationist Theories, remember in working through this guide is maw and meggins, that writing good essays and communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and build. One of the most important skills developed in an Arts degree is the ability to communicate your ideas in writing clearly and effectively. This involves numerous other skills, including the ability to summarise and paraphrase the work of other writers, the development of arguments and conclusions, and the effective use of evidence to support a case. Essay writing in History is particularly aimed at helping you progressively develop your skills in Essay research, analysing different forms of source material, using different kinds of evidence, and writing strong, critical and clear arguments. Maw And Meggins. In most History subjects, you will be asked to produce different kinds of writing. On Evolutionists And Creationist Theories. Short tutorial and document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of Promoting, view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the content covered in particular subjects.

Essays provide you with an opportunity to explore a particular issue or theme in on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories more depth. In general, the functions of an essay are: to introduce an argument, or contention, based upon groups differ parties the question or problem you choose to tackle; to on Evolutionists Theories, develop and defend that argument or contention by la constitucion de 1837, discussing and analysing a range of appropriate evidence, and by critically assessing the interpretations of other historians; and to propose conclusions. The best essays have a clear line of argument, and they present a thesis. In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at on Evolutionists, strong, clear conclusions. They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the central problem or issue and what happened the period as the hellenistic, introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument.

There are no simple instructions for good essay writing. As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in Essay and Creationist Theories research, analysis and communication which will not only allow you to write good essays, but to effectively communicate your ideas in other situations as well. The tutors assessment of your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in these different skills. The desired outcomes of essays in third-year subjects include formulating research projects and beauty pageants, acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in their cultural, ideological and epistemological context by showing where they fit into Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist the current state of historical knowledge; and greater awareness of the ongoing debates about the philosophy and practice of de 1837, history. The desired outcomes of essays in second-year subjects include developing skills in the use of Theories, bibliographies and Promoting Paternal Essay, other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and reflection into essays; greater understanding of on Evolutionists and Creationist, documentary criticism and interpretation, and the critical analysis of secondary interpretations by other historians.

The desired outcomes of essays in first-year subjects include: helping you learn to argue your own position against other points of la constitucion, view; development of the conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and footnoting; awareness of the variety of representations of the past; familiarity with the different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to recognise, analyse and Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, summarise an historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for us electoral particular lecturers or tutors. For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to argue is a lot more complicated and on Evolutionists Theories, a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and form your own perspectives on an issue or problem. Any teacher can tell you that some of the best essays they read develop arguments they dont agree with at all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations. Writing is easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to convince of something, a person who wants to de 1837, know about your ideas and perspectives. Your task, however, is not to tell your audience what they think, but to Theories, tell your audience what you think, and give them reasons and children pageants, evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and convincing. 3. Choosing and comprehending the question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and challenging: it is on Evolutionists Theories, easier and much more enjoyable to develop and defend a strong argument on something which interests and intrigues you than on something you find boring or simple. Writing is not the Kangaroo outcome or the Essay and Creationist Theories finished product of learning: it is beauty pageants pros, a vital part of learning. It is a way of sorting out and clarifying your interpretations, trying out your ideas, and discovering new ways of thinking about an issue.

Think about the Essay on Evolutionists Theories question or topic in these ways: what is the problem it suggests? what is the angle, the issue, which makes it interesting? what is my first reaction to the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the contention or interpretation the de 1837 topic suggests? what ideas and issues can I explore by answering this question? is there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of information is the question asking me to use? what themes can I explore? It is also important to look at the question and ask yourself: do I understand what the question or topic is asking me to on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, do? Have I interpreted the question correctly? If you are not sure, or if you want to check that the beauty pageants pros approach you are taking does address the Theories question, talk to interest from political, your tutor. And Creationist Theories. Essay topics are designed to draw on the subject content developed in happened during the period known hellenistic age lectures and tutorials, and on reading you have completed. Reading the works of other historians, such as those suggested in reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue. Historians often disagree on the importance or the meaning of events of evidence, or use different kinds of evidence to challenge and amend prior interpretations.

They will take different approaches to the same question, and suggest different ways of examining an Essay on Evolutionists, issue, be it gender relations in medieval Europe or the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union or the impact of colonial rule in India. What you will see, however, is that all of these writers state a position. They address a problem. What Happened During The Period Hellenistic. They answer a real or implied question. You should trace their strategies for developing arguments and drawing conclusions. As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and read more widely, think about your point of view, your own position in relation to on Evolutionists, other writers, and your own response to a problem. Examine and evaluate the evidence: what conclusions can you draw?

Which interpretations do you think best fit the available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to be new to be original, challenging, and Promoting Paternal Kangaroo Care Essay, convincing. You should argue the case which you think emerges most clearly from the evidence and from your critical review of other historians work. Youve read the books and articles recommended in the handbook or by your tutor. Youve come up with some ideas about how you might approach the question, and youve got a pretty good idea about Essay on Evolutionists, how other historians have interpreted the issues and addressed the topic. Youve collected some evidence from a range of children pageants pros, different sources and youve tried mapping out some preliminary ideas and and Creationist, arguments on paper. Youve looked again at the major themes of the beauty pageants subject and thought about how you might address them in this essay. In order to plan your essay, you now need to come up with an argument, a point of view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion.

Would you agree with the argument that respect for the natural environment is a recent discovery for Essay on Evolutionists Theories residents of Mars? Having read a variety of sources, you should be able to state your thesis (your answer) in a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to the environmental movements of the 1960s, the majority of Martians were more interested in exploiting than respecting the natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the what during known as the hellenistic age natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and Essay on Evolutionists, idealised form. No, it is difficult to draw a simple, general conclusion on this issue, as the evidence suggests that different groups of de 1837, Martians have interpreted and viewed the environment very differently over time, and no clear trend is visible even now. When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on your initial reading and research for the topic. This sentence or two states your case. Essay On Evolutionists And Creationist Theories. Broadly, your essay is the exposition and defence of that case: it shows the reader how, and why, you have arrived at those conclusions.

To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is going to be, and then plan your essay to develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the argument changes and develops in a direction you did not anticipate. Few writers are completely sure of their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the task of differ from parties, writing down and Essay and Creationist Theories, defending the argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and beauty pros, changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another. Often, too, you might need to go back to your sources, read through some of Essay, your notes, or do some further reading to clarify and expand an emerging point. However, the basic thrust and content of your argument or thesis should be clear enough to allow you to how do political, plan the stages of your argument before you begin drafting. Perhaps the single best way of ensuring a successful essay is having a good plan . The plan should lay out your argument, for instance in point form, and you can also use it to indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and Essay and Creationist, supporting arguments. introduction: state the case for no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form explain the thrust of the Promoting Essay argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on previous century to show that respect for environment is always based on historically variable assumptions and preconceptions about beauty, usefulness and worth of nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the natural environment (summarise Smiths theory of idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from Connor and Jones) list and give examples of different idealisations of natural environment in the nineteenth century and show different assumptions about beauty and usefulness behind each one (use examples from Essay on Evolutionists, Green and Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into conflict (use example of what happened during as the hellenistic, forestry in Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the Essay on Evolutionists garden stories); argue that an environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the different interpretations of Green and Red, show why I think Green fits better with the evidence) summarise above points about previous century; what is groups from political parties, respected in the recent past: argue that this is another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories case , and argue that understanding respect for natural environment always means analysing the idealisation of children beauty pros, natural environments.

In the short essays common in first year, your plan is Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, likely to be less complex, and may only have four or five main points. As you progress into second and third year, you are expected to how do groups parties, develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a. Introducing and developing the argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in Essay and Creationist the example above, set out the basic structure of your argument . You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points. If you have decided to adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from a particular time or place, or narrowing the topic to concentrate on a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well. Developing the argument : The example above shows how an argument is then developed towards its conclusion. Promoting Kangaroo Care Essay. Basically, each stage of your argument should be developed and on Evolutionists, defended in turn, by showing your interpretation of the appropriate evidence, by system, critically reviewing the work of Essay and Creationist Theories, other historians, and by using example, case study and explanation. A good way of thinking about this is to imagine that you are building your argument in blocks . Each paragraph is a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Each block is system, introduced and described, and then its place in the whole structure is shown. Block 1: stage of the argument.

On Mars in the 1850s, the beauty of on Evolutionists and Creationist, nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over la constitucion, them, as in Rembrandts Martian Mountains. Essay And Creationist. In her book Environmental Perception on Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in us electoral system the 1850s focused on Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, how nature was being conquered. How Do Interest Differ. However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an idealised nature which was to Essay Theories, be protected from the threats posed by civilisation. Block 2: next stage of the argument. The most crucial changes occurred after the Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the how do interest differ from potentially lucrative returns of mineral exploration and exploitation. Certainly, by the 1880s, most representations of the natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised.

Even mining sites appeared in nature paintings, and on Evolutionists Theories, the work of system, Joseph Smith is a good example of Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist, how even the most intensive forms of exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and introducing the next stage of the argument. By the 1880s, therefore, the system idealised untouched nature of the 1850s had been invaded by humans, and an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and bountiful. Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential. It was important for Martians, Smith argued in 1883, to on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, feel relaxed and comfortable about the past and future of the la constitucion de 1837 Martian environment. Yet representations of an ideal environment as one conquered and populated by humans never completely replaced the older tradition of mourning the degradation of another form of ideal environment, the Essay on Evolutionists Martian garden. Happened During The Period As The Hellenistic Age. This alternative version became popular again in the 1890s. The body of your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to Essay on Evolutionists Theories, develop your case point by the period as the hellenistic, point. Essay On Evolutionists. Each paragraph has a point to make, and occasional summary sentences guide the reader through the argument. 6b.

Using different kinds of evidence. In developing your case, you will need to make decisions about the maw and meggins kinds of sources you will refer to, and Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist, the best ways to use them. Sources can generally be defined into two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at the time by an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and Care Essay, explanations written after the fact by someone analysing the primary or documentary sources) For example, a book containing the collected speeches of Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an analysis of them by a political scientist or historian is Essay and Creationist Theories, a secondary source. During The Period Known As The Hellenistic Age. An article in the Age of 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is a primary source; an Essay on Evolutionists, article in the Age on how do interest groups differ from parties, 30 June 1990 discussing the and Creationist impact of the epidemic on public health policy in Australia is a secondary source. Broadly, the primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by Paternal Kangaroo Care Essay, historians , the subject of Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, your argument, while the secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of how others have analysed and interpreted the Promoting Paternal Care problem or issue at Essay on Evolutionists, hand. The distinction is de 1837, not hard and fast, and there will always be exceptions. For instance, if you are writing an essay about historians representations of race in Britain, the secondary sources of the historians are in and Creationist fact your primary documentary source.

In most essays, you will be expected to critically analyse the interpretations of other historians in this way. In any event, these different types of sources should both be read critically: analysed for their point of view, for the assumptions, ideas and understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. Dont take anything on us electoral, trust: be a critical reader of all kinds of sources and texts , and use your critical analysis of on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, both primary and secondary sources in your essay. You also need to make decisions about how to use evidence: in the form of quotation, or in the form of summarising. It is best to use quotation strategically and sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the point you are trying to make, or which really help you give your reader the flavour of the evidence you are using. If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the Paternal Kangaroo Care stage of the argument you are advancing. Refer to the language, analyse the Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories assumptions or strategies it reveals. In other words, use quotation when the la constitucion de 1837 actual words are the single best way of providing the evidence and developing your case.

If the quotation is less than about thirty words, combine it with your text, as in and Creationist Theories this example where I am quoting the following phrase which is not very long. You must always use quotation marks to indicate the separation between your words and the words of system, someone else. If it is longer than this, you should separate it from the text, and indent it: This is an example of a much longer quote. Essay On Evolutionists And Creationist. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the body of the essay. When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to use quotation marks; as it is already separated, there is no need to indicate that by the use of such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from secondary or scholarly sources.

It is groups from political, better to say what you mean in your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only where the phrase is particularly wonderful or where you need to show precisely how that writer made their point in order to criticise, defend or develop it. In all other cases, it is best to summarise. Write reflective summaries of what others have written, relating those interpretations to your argument. You might find that the example paragraphs on the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of how a writer can use a mix of summary and direct quotation from different kinds of sources to develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and clearly by summarising your main points. And Creationist Theories. It is also possible to raise issues and problems in your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the beauty pageants scope of your essay. Essay On Evolutionists And Creationist. You might reflect on what your interpretation implies for contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the broader implications of your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the role and nature of history itself. Use your conclusion to argue for the significance of your argument and your interpretation. How Do Groups Differ Political. Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by sweeping speculations on the nature of the universe or the human condition is unlikely to be either effective or convincing.

Again, as you develop your skills in formulating, developing and defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to Essay and Creationist, write more reflectively and to use essays to open up these kinds of complex questions. 7. What During Known As The Hellenistic. Writing clearly and effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and with clarity and avoid complex sentence constructions . Use definite, specific and Theories, concrete language. Dont use unnecessary words, and make sure you understand the la constitucion de 1837 words you are using. Writing problems often occur when people try to use very complex language and syntax. A better idea is to establish a simple and clear style first, and then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and means of expression. As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and lengths to add variety. On Evolutionists And Creationist Theories. Short sentences often add emphasis to a particularly important point. Spelling, punctuation and de 1837, grammatical errors detract from an argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of your draft is very important. It is also important to use accurate language, which is Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, one good reason for using non-discriminatory language. For instance, the statement that men adapted themselves to these new conditions should lead any critical reader to ask what women were doing at that time.

It is a reasonable and accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and happened the period known as the hellenistic age, academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language. There are at least five effective ways of improving your writing. Essay. Always read your own work. what is my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to the reader? Take responsibility for critically assessing your own writing . Look at the comments made on your previous essays, and work out beauty pros, whether this one repeats the strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of Theories, your previous work. If you need to, speak to the person who assessed your work, and ask them for what known as the hellenistic more guidance. Reading other writers. As you read, evaluate the styles of different writers. What makes them more or less effective? What is most important to you as a reader, and what makes good writers better to Essay on Evolutionists, read?

Practice. How Do Interest Groups Parties. Like any other set of skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by Essay, yourself and by others. Read your own work out loud . You do not need to comprehend the rules of grammar or the intricacies of Promoting Paternal Kangaroo Care Essay, syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift. Reading your draft out loud is also a good way to add variety and Essay, oomph to your language. If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for redrafting. Let other people read what you write . Us Electoral. It is particularly good to give your essay to someone who is not an expert in the area you are writing about. If it doesnt make sense to them, your argument might need clarification. If they struggle to read it, you might need to edit more carefully. University teachers will not usually be able to read drafts of students work, but there are plenty of and Creationist, other people who can give you feedback. Swap essays with fellow students. Get the people you live with to read them.

Distribute them on buses. 8. Referencing Instructions for Essays. Decisions about beauty, when to cite sources can be difficult. Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to Essay on Evolutionists Theories, develop. The reader should, in us electoral system theory, be able to retrace your steps in gathering evidence for your argument. In other words, you provide citations as a kind of road map that shows readers how you came to these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging. Therefore, you need to provide citations in the following instances: where you directly quote someone elses words; where you are directly summarising someone elses argument and Essay and Creationist Theories, ideas; where you are summarising arguments and ideas derived from a number of sources; to point your readers to the source of information; to translate words or phrase in a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to understand.

In general, you need to provide sources for statements that are problematic or debatable in beauty pageants pros the context of your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to know. Again, the ability to successfully make these judgements is a skill you will develop with practice and experience. If you offer a translation of a word or phrase in a foreign language, the and Creationist Theories basis of your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to know the meaning of the phrase or word already. There is no need to translate coup detat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for instance. The use of citation to refer readers to how do groups from, the work of other writers is occasionally useful, but for the most part, your citations refer only to books, articles and on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, other material you have used directly.

Only cite information that you have actually looked at yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is fine to pros, use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in a book from Theories, a source to system, which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in and Creationist Theories your citation. An example of how to do this is provided in beauty the next section. You can also use citations to clarify specific points, or add a small amount of additional information or supporting evidence. You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of second argument, nor to provide paragraph after paragraph of new information. If it is not important enough to put into the body of the essay, then leave it out. 8b. Numbering and placement of on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, footnote and happened during as the, endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the text. Put these numbers at the end of sentences, if at all possible, and distinguish them from the text either by Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist, superscripting (raising above the line) or placing them in brackets.

If you use material from two different sources in the same sentence, it is often possible to combine the two citations in one footnote, using a semi-colon to separate them. Promoting Paternal. Usually, you will refer to on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, information or material at particular places in a larger work so you will need to show the page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the material is de 1837, located. This text produces the following footnotes: On Mars in the 1850s, the beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandts Martian Mountains. 1 In her book Environmental Perception on Mars , Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on Essay on Evolutionists, how nature was being conquered. 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an idealised nature which was to be kept separate from civilisation. 3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. 68.

2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. 13. 3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23. 8c. Citing different kinds of sources. The following rules should help you through most situations.

The absolute rule is to be consistent. Us Electoral System. Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and is not a good tactic when you are attempting to convince those readers of the accuracy of your interpretations and arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of classical texts like the Bible, the Koran and Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, so on. Us Electoral System. If you are studying subjects in which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the information you need to cite correctly. Please note: Some areas of Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, history, especially those published by European and English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the Promoting Paternal Care conventions set out in the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Associations) Style Guide (available electronically at Theories,, see section 10.2.2). The guide differs to the above in Promoting Kangaroo Care that it adds the publisher to the publication details, and is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and and Creationist, Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp.

54-56. It is Promoting Paternal Kangaroo, now common practice to use full stops only where the abbreviation of the word does not contain the last letter of the word. So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds. Doctor is Dr, but Professor is Theories, Prof.. Also, where an pageants pros, abbreviated title is used very commonly, you do not need to put in full stops: for Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by another author. If you need to refer to how do interest from parties, a quote or to a piece of evidence which you accessed in a secondary or scholarly source rather than the original source, use these examples as a guide: R. G. Menzies, speech in Theories the House of Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. 47. Letter from Lewis Mumford to Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in Alison Ravetz, Remaking the la constitucion Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. 148-9.

The general rule is that if the original source is available, you should go to and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from another writer. Author of Essay Theories, document (first name, last name), name of document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of collection (use italics or underline), place and date of publication, page or pages. John of how do interest from, Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. Essay. 251-2. (Note: trans. is the abbreviation for translated by.)

If your area of history follows the MHRA Style Guide , this item in your bibliography would follow the same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. La Constitucion De 1837. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by J.B. Ross and M.M. Essay On Evolutionists And Creationist. McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp. 251- 2. If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an unpublished paper or a speech or an how do differ, article), use single inverted commas around the name of the Essay and Creationist Theories document. If it was not published and has no title (a letter, for instance), there is no need for any marking. For instance: Friederich Engels, The evils of capitalism, in what happened during age K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp.

23-8. Yves of Narbonne, letter to Gerald of Mallemort, c. 1241, in Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Evans (eds), Heresies of the High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp. 185-7. If you are going to be using documents in archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to Essay and Creationist Theories, normal newspaper writing (news of the period known as the age, events, editorials, and so on), you need only provide the name of the newspaper and the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, refer to a specific article, usually by an invited contributor, or to Paternal Care, a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in a weekly magazine), use the same format as for articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the information to which you are referring. So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. 13. These publication details are always on one of the and Creationist Theories first pages of the book (and usually on the page after the main title page): these details list the publisher and maw and meggins, the place of publication, and give other information, most of which you dont need to provide (though see the note below). It is important to check if this is the first edition of the book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in order to follow your research trail.

If the book is a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the title. Theories. Some further examples: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Mens Bodies , Britain and how do interest political, the Great War, London, 1996, pp. 98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the white male body and the challenge of modernity in America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp.

53-76. Again, for those following the MHRA style of referencing (see above), the publisher is included in the publication details. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. Place of publication is maw and meggins, always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent. Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of and Creationist, book (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, pages to which you are referring. Roger Cooter, War and Modern Medicine, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. E. Zinkhan, Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and maw and meggins, patriot, in D. Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8. Estelle Freedman, Uncontrolled Desires: The Response to on Evolutionists Theories, the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960, in Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and Power: Sexuality in interest groups differ political History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp.

187-99. Please note: for on Evolutionists those following the MHRA Style Guide (see above), and are including the name of the publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example: Eve Salisbury, Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and Pedagogical Violence, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Nederman, and Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 141-55 (p. Groups Differ From Parties. 153). (Here pp. 141-55 indicate the page span of Salisburys contribution to the volume, and the bracketed (p. 153) indicates the specific page reference.)

Articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title of article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by the article, specific page(s) to on Evolutionists and Creationist, which you are referring. Phil Scraton, Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of Truth and Denial of Justice in the Aftermath of the Hillsborough Disaster, Journal of Law and Society , vol. 26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. 275.

Emily K. Abel, Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients, Journal of Womens History , vol. 10, 1998, pp. Interest From Political. 32-52, pp. 34-5. You will find information about volume number on the title page of each journal. Essay. If there is both a volume and an issue number, just the volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). How Do Interest Differ Political. Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, Elections of Abbesses and Notions of Identity in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p. 390).

Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of release. Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996. Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is part of a series, the Essay Theories specific title of the program and the name of the series (use either italics or underline), location of the program, date of the program. Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003.

Golly Gee, Im Interviewing a Famous Person, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. The Reckoning, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the document (if known), name of the document (if relevant), date of the maw and meggins document (if known), at full WWW address, date on which you accessed the page. Social Conditions in Seventeenth-Century France, at, accessed 31 March 2003. Suffragists Picketing the White House, January 1917 (photograph), at, access 17 April 2003. Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at, accessed 16 April 2003. Using Resources From the Internet and WWW. While there are some very useful sites for historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, be as critical and de 1837, careful in your use of Essay on Evolutionists Theories, WWW resources as in your use of any other kind of how do interest groups from political parties, evidence . A good deal of the Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist material on the web is pros, not screened in any way: it is not edited, reviewed by Essay and Creationist Theories, others, or subject to any control.

This is its greatest strength and de 1837, its greatest weakness as a medium, and makes the task of critically assessing and using sources even more important. For the citation, you need to give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in this case, the full web site information. Essay Theories. You also need to maw and meggins, tell your reader when you accessed the page: because web pages are updated, the on Evolutionists Theories information may have changed location or been removed. In fact, it is a good idea to print out a copy of the page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the la constitucion de 1837 information should it subsequently disappear from the web. Citing something for the second time: use of abbreviations and short titles.

Once you have given full information in the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, short titles to refer to the same source again. What will usually suffice is the authors last name and a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the title, as below). Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in the place just described, but it must follow directly from the previous citation. 1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Mens Bodies, Britain and the Great War , London, 1996, pp. 98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, War and Modern Medicine, in maw and meggins W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the Essay on Evolutionists Theories History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. Promoting. 156.

4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp. 126-9. 5 Cooter, War and Modern Medicine, p. 158. In endnote 6, the Essay and Creationist Theories information is contained on the same page as endnote 5, and therefore you do not need to repeat the page number. Again, keep in mind the known principle of giving the Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories reader the amount of information they would need to find the material for themselves. There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the Harvard referencing system.

Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the norms of history referencing when writing history essays. Similarly, history students should use the Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to be aware that in archaeology/ancient history a variety of styles is used: Harvard, Oxford and MHRA. Students in the Centre for Archaeology and la constitucion, Ancient History must be able to use all of them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the types outlined for history and reference them in footnotes. Theories. In the end, it is a matter of communicating your understanding of your evidence in la constitucion de 1837 the style appropriate for Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories your discipline and task. Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure.

9. Forming a bibliography and an annotated bibliography. Your essay should include a bibliography of all sources. If you have used a wide variety of different types of sources, it is helpful to put them into Kangaroo Essay different sections: for Essay instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the historical scholarship (secondary sources). In general, follow the same conventions described above with the exception that authors surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for easier alphabetisation (as in la constitucion the example below). List your sources alphabetically within each section. However, you do not need to include the page numbers for specific information or citations in your bibliography. Films, television and radio shows and Essay Theories, documents from web sites should be included: if there is no author, put them at the front of the list and maw and meggins, order them alphabetically by title. On Evolutionists. Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to provide the dates.

Note: those following the MHRA conventions will include the publishers name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in examples above (e.g. Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)). Contemporary documents and texts. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Interest Parties. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and Essay on Evolutionists Theories, M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977. Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir.

Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. The Reckoning, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Abel, Emily K., Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients, Journal of Womens History, vol. 10, 1998, pp. 32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in America, New York, 2001.

All sources which you have used in order to assist your interpretation of your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an annotated bibliography is required in the unit. Annotation tells the reader what role a particular source played in maw and meggins developing your argument. A statement of two or three sentences is usually ample. For instance: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Mens Bodies, Britain and the Great War, London, 1996. Bourkes argument about the changing meaning of disability provided a very important perspective on the links between wartime and postwar debates over masculine vulnerability. Her interpretation of what shell-shock taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for my argument, as was her discussion of dress reform movements during the Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist 1920s. One of the most important skills in effective communication is formatting and what the period as the age, presenting your work in ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of clarity, fluency and on Evolutionists and Creationist, organisation created by good formatting is how do interest groups from, very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for the eye as well as the mind is an ineffective piece of communication. Some general guidelines: observe the Essay word length, or at least a margin of error of about 10 per how do interest differ political parties, cent: one of the skills of on Evolutionists, writing is to write to la constitucion, a target, and to Theories, tailor your argument to suit the maw and meggins demands of that target. A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in Nazi Germany or criminality in nineteenth-century Australia is Essay on Evolutionists, meant to be a short essay, not a major thesis.

Adapt your case, and us electoral system, the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and convincing within the and Creationist Theories word length; include a word count with your essay. type, print or handwrite the essay on one side of the system paper only, using standard A4 paper, and number each page. For essays of 1500 words or more, it is reasonable for Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories your tutor to interest groups differ from parties, expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is required, because it leaves more room for comments and corrections; leave a 4cm margin on the left hand side, and a 1.5cm margin on Essay on Evolutionists and Creationist Theories, the right, again for la constitucion de 1837 comments and ease of reading. Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in the pigeonholes under the counter of the School of Historical Studies General Office, W604). You must tick all the boxes on on Evolutionists, the reverse side of the cover sheet before signing off under the plagiarism and system, collusion statement on the front of the sheet. ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by Essay on Evolutionists, weight, so go easy on the staples).