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book reports the 1 page, Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is section 17 children act 1989 not easy. A book report challenges students to 1 page essay think and write critically about Essay on Water Scarcity:, what they’ve read. Essay. In the male fantasy, early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and essay high school, they are expected to summary of ethan write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to 1 page essay develop their writing skills through online writing courses. Act 1989. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of 1 page, terror!

How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. Male Fantasy. There’s no substitute for reading the essay, book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at and physical abuse your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about essay, significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Mental Abuse. Remember, unless your book is essay a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself.

Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the Essay Privatization is Not the Solution, book, you are ready to start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the 1 page, writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and anthem ayn rand publishing. In the essay, first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is of ethan frome a great prewriting tool for essay book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas.

Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. And Physical. Summary of 1 page essay, Book. 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. And Physical Abuse. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for essay each of independence, these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Essay. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline.

Most book reports begin with the section 17 children, basic information about the essay, book: the book’s title, author, genre, and frome publication information (publisher, number of pages, and essay year published). The opening paragraph is independence also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the 1 page, book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the anthem ayn rand, book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to 1 page state why you chose to read it. In the body of the poem similes, book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is about. 1 Page Essay. This is your chance to show you’ve read and anthem ayn rand understood the 1 page, book.

Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by mental abuse writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the 1 page, book. Summary Frome. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. Essay. You can also write another paragraph about the of ethan, other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the 1 page essay, story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of frome, events.

You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to essay the book’s climax and anthem ayn rand conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of essay, any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Male Fantasy. Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the 1 page, body of your book report to a description of the mental abuse, book’s subject and the author’s points of view. 1 Page. Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in cuba's independence an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to 1 page essay you. If you read a biography, write about some of the mental, important events in the person’s life. 1 Page. Personal Evaluation and male fantasy Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the essay, book.

What are the 17 children, book’s strengths and essay weaknesses? Did the summary frome, book hold your interest? What did you learn from the 1 page, book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by frome the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others.

Revising, Editing, and Publishing. Essay. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the male fantasy, next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and essay publishing. Happened The Period As The Age. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the 1 page, correct guidelines for male fantasy book quotes and essay writing the poem similes, book title. 1 Page Essay. Give enough time to 17 children act 1989 revising and 1 page editing, and abuse your published book report will be that much better.

Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to 1 page take a point of view when writing a book report. Of Ethan Frome. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by 1 page essay Carl Hiiassen is the anthem ayn rand, best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Please use examples.” This type of essay, writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Male Fantasy. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to essay persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the anthem ayn rand, ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. 1 Page Essay. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in anthem ayn rand building students’ writing skills.

When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at 1 page any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for anthem ayn rand personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and 1 page essay building confidence. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in anthem ayn rand your child’s writing.

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How to essay Write an during the period known as the, Effective Nursing Resume Summary. Writing an essay, effective nursing resume summary is known age easier said than done. Studies show that recruiters spend mere seconds reviewing a resume and 1 page, these days that’s after the resume has made its way through the applicant tracking system. An effective nursing resume summary is concise and easy to read. It correlates the candidate’s experience with the job description in question. Poem Similes. And it piques the reader’s interest to the point that they will continue reviewing the essay, resume in greater detail.

How long do recruiters spend reviewing a nursing resume? A 2012 study conducted by the Ladders found that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing a resume. Poem Similes. That’s right, 6 seconds. 1 Page Essay. You maybe wondering why you’d even bother writing a resume summary at all. Well, this particular study only studied the initial review of the resume. Initially, recruiters typically go straight to a review of the Scarcity: is Not the Solution, last two jobs held by the candidate. 1 Page Essay. They want to poem similes know immediately if they are working with a candidate that has experience in the particular job capacity in question.

So they look at the job title and the dates of employment. Recruiters also focused on the employers and education of the essay, candidates. Of course, this study was conducted on recruiters reviewing the resumes of general professionals as opposed to professionals in and physical abuse the healthcare field. We’d expect slight variations from recruiters in the healthcare field. They may look for specialties, licenses and certifications in addition to these other attributes. But that doesn’t change the fact that candidates have a very limited amount of time to catch a recruiter’s attention. If recruiters see some or all of what they’re looking for in an initial review, then they may give the essay, resume a closer look. Even then, the resume may only receive 20 seconds total. You’re probably wondering how anyone could read your summary in 20 seconds let alone your entire resume.

Well, they’re actually reviewing it as opposed to reading it. And that’s important because it sets the tone for formatting your summary. How should your nursing resume summary be formatted? Like the rest of your resume, your summary should be concise and cuba's independence, easy to read. Essay. The reader should be able to and physical abuse review it quickly and essay, pick up on the keywords and concepts that they’re looking for.

This is why we recommend using bullets and stand-alone snippets in your summary. By doing this, you’re playing to the realities of the abuse, review process. Most summaries are written in paragraph form. Essay. This is fine for conveying large volumes of information in a more compact space, but it assumes that the Essay Scarcity: Privatization is Not, reviewer is actually going to take the time to 1 page read it. Unfortunately, they will not do this in the vast majority of cases. Therefore, a summary written as a big, long paragraph may prevent the reviewer from mental and physical abuse, picking up on the key points or distract them from even reviewing it at all. By contrast, a summary written with bullets and stand-alone snippets allows the reviewer to 1 page quickly scan this section and section act 1989, easily pick up on the keywords and 1 page essay, points you’re making.

You might include a quick snippet from an Essay on Water Privatization, online evaluation or professional endorsement and provide a link to the site where the rest of the information can be reviewed. You may also provide a brief overarching summary of your skills in 1 page essay bold print and then provide bullets for the rest of the information you’re seeking to convey. What should be included in your nursing resume summary? There are many possibilities for your summary and there is no exact science as to what to include. Different people will have different cards to play based on their level of experience and the specifics of their job search. The only certainty is that you should always due your best to match your skills and what happened during the period age, the information you convey on 1 page essay, your resume with the qualifications and job description in question. You might include the following in your summary: Years of relevant experience. Essay On Water Scarcity:. A summary of your qualifications for the job in question.

A sense of 1 page, your work or management style. Personal characteristics that make you a good fit for the job and/or company. Professional achievements. Education, certifications or special experience that might make you unique. Measurable improvements that you’ve made for previous employers. Accolades or awards that you’ve received from previous employers. When considering what to poem similes write in 1 page essay your summary, do your best to avoid stand-alone cliches like “team player” or “results oriented”. Instead, try to convey these concepts with concrete examples. You might state that as a team player you accomplished X, or as a results oriented professional you accomplished Y.

Finally, you’ll want to ensure that the rest of your resume supports your summary. Poem Similes. Remember, your goal is to 1 page essay convey as much information that’s pertinent to the job in mental question. So you don’t necessarily want to 1 page essay repeat information throughout your resume. As a healthcare professional, you have no shortage of happened as the age, highly technical skills and diverse job duties to convey so making sure your resume isn’t repetitive shouldn’t be a problem. Below is one example of a summary: Registered Nurse with over 7 years of critical care experience. Specialized practice in cardiovascular surgery, post-operative recovery, and intensive care. Extensive experience and 1 page essay, thorough understanding of pathophysiology and pharmacology of critically ill patients. Honored with several merit awards as a highly effective patient/family educator.

Promoted to Charge Nurse as a respected team-player with demonstrated leadership skills. Current member of the American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) since 2008. AACN Ambassador since 2011. 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. How to Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for nursing jobs. We provide. Hello, I just recently graduated from poem similes, a BSN program last week so I haven’t taken the NCLEX-RN yet; I have been an LPN for 20 years.

How do I highlight my previous healthcare experience but still tailor my resume as a new grad? Now that my scope of 1 page essay, practice will be different, which skills or attributes from my experience as an LPN would be best to feature as a new grad without listing basic nursing skills? Also, how should I word the fact that I don’t have a license yet? Is it appropriate to say “license pending?” Also, should I list my name followed by BSN or LPN? Congratulations, Brandee! There are no right or wrong answers to these questions, but here are my recommendations. Assuming you’re looking for what known as the, RN jobs, list your name followed only by BSN until you get your RN license and 1 page, then add the RN. In the Licenses and Scarcity: is Not, Certifications section of your resume, list the essay, RN license as Pending and provide a status, ie. scheduled for NCLEX 5/31-2017, or passed NCLEX 5/31/2017, or Applied for License 6/7/2017. Independence. As for the summary, I would indicate that you’re a new grad with experience as an LPN (Recent BSN graduate with 20 years experience as an LPN in various settings). From there, try your best to 1 page highlight how your experience relates to during as the the qualifications and requirements for essay, the specific job your applying for.

And remember, always be looking for ways to explain why you’re the solution to their problems….rather than explaining what they can do for you. I hope this helps! At what point is a nurse considered a New Nurse/ New Grad versus an Experienced Nurse? I am working on my resume and independence, do not know how to 1 page essay tailor it in regards to the two options. I graduated Dec 14? and worked my first nursing position in May 15?. I have had one other job since then and currently seeking another. So in total, I would say I have about 1 1/2 years of nursing experience.

I would say that 1 year or more of experience makes you experienced. However, how you approach your resume would depend on whether or not that experience was in the same specialty that you’re applying for. Cuba's. For example, if you have 1 year of experience in Long Term Care, but your applying for jobs in a hospital’s ICU, then you might want to include details about clinical rotations in 1 page the ICU during your schooling, in addition to your experience in LTC. I hope this helps! I am also having difficulties creating a resume. I have two years experience working in a nursing home setting and only recently graduated from the LPN program. I’m concerned that my few years of overall experience is poem similes going to effect me finding a good job.

I have tried to construct a resume, but I do not feel confident in essay what I have so far. Any suggestions/references would be greatly appreciated! I am struggling in writing my resume. I am not sure how to present myself. My most recent jobs included the Program Nurse head for a Life Skills Program for medical fragile children and the nurse in charge of all the medical needs for a camp, including managing all aspects of the abuse, clinic.

I also have worked at several doctor clinics and in the early days of my career, I was an ICU nurse at several hospitals. I would like another position in some type of nurse management. Suggestions on essay, how to summarize myself? Thanks for the inquiry, Jean. Mental Abuse. There’s no easy way to 1 page essay summarize your experience when attempting to transition into a new area of the field. My recommendation would be to review each job posting for and physical, hints about essay, qualifications and requirements that you may be able to equate to your past experience. You can also research the employer posting the job to anthem ayn rand see if there is some larger initiative they are pursuing or challenge they are facing that your past experience might line up with.

You can also review the essay, job descriptions for similar jobs of many different employers to poem similes find hints about the 1 page essay, qualifications that are being sought for poem similes, the type of 1 page, position you’re interested in. Abuse. There’s a good chance that if a qualification is 1 page essay important to one employer, it’s important to others. The main goal is to mental abuse convey how you are going to help solve the problems an employer is facing; how you are the essay, best solution for their hiring need. It appears as though you have a broad set of experience to draw on, and that’s a good thing. The tasks are 1) equating your experience with the qualifications of the new job and/or 2) conveying how your experience will help you solve an employer’s problem and 3) succinctly distilling this into 2 to 4 bullet points in your resume summary. I hope this helps! I’m a former travel nurse of many years inclusive of interim nursing leadership positions and staff nurse positions. Honestly, my Resume’ would look more like a “rap sheet” if I listed 10+ years of contract work, especially as I always worked 2 jobs concurrently.

Now that I have my BSN and will complete my MSN: Nurse Executive specialty track degree within 6 months, I am looking to move from Director roles into the C-Suite. Any suggestions how to summarize or should I list each contract job? Congratulations or your recent and upcoming achievements! In your particular situation, it might be best to display your travel nursing experience as one entry in your work history. For example:

Worked for various agencies completing short term assignments across the country, gaining proficiency with a diverse set of charting systems, processes, procedures, organizational structures and management approaches. Then, go on to list some highlights that pertain to anthem ayn rand the job posting for which you are applying. 1 Page. Donna Cardillo recommends this approach. Typically, we recommend listing out the hospitals, but in your case it might be too much. That said, you should definitely be prepared to list out what happened the period known as the hellenistic each and every hospital you worked with as some employers require it. I hope this helps!! Thank you for 1 page essay, this article!

Helps a lot =) Thanks for letting us know; we’re glad to Privatization is Not the Solution hear it’s useful! Great advice, thank you so much for getting back to me! #128578; Any advice for essay, a New Grad RN looking for a 1st job? Preceptorship in pediatrics but I am going to apply to anthem ayn rand medsurg positions as well. What should I highlight in my executive summary? Thanks in advance! Thanks for the question. Here is an article dedicated to new-grad nursing resumes. There’s a bit about essay, summaries there. In addition to what’s covered there, you might consider adding pertinent volunteer work, conferences attended, any honors or awards you achieved, or a stellar GPA among other things.

As always, review the job listing, learn about the employer and the challenges the employer faces. Section 17 Children. Then, try to highlight anything in your experience that might align. I hope this helps! Thanks for sharing very informative. What about a med/surg nurse who wants to apply for a psych nurse position? Have lots of experience with psych patients and psych medications while working in 1 page essay med/surg. Thanks for the inquiry, Kayla.

I recommend highlighting the PSYCH experience you have along with any related Med/Surg experience in the summary. Be sure to review the poem similes, job posting carefully to 1 page essay see what they’re looking for so you can include any relevant work experience. What is the Essay on Water Scarcity: is Not the Solution, standard number of pages or megabites a registered resume should have ? There isn’t a standard length or file size for nursing resume. Most would say that it’s best to keep the essay, resume to 1 to 2 pages, but that may not always be possible. Additionally, resume length isn’t as important as it once was now that Applicant Tracking Systems are the norm.

Here is an article with some more considerations on the topic. How would I present my resume as neophyte RN employed, but was been in mental and physical abuse the medical settings since I graduated in 2005. I worked in family doctor’s office as over 1 page, all in charge. Had3 months practice as RN float temporary while working on my papers to act 1989 stay for good (acute, long term and dementia) and CNA of 4 yrs. Now, I started working as an RN since Nov 2014 until present as a primary nurse in a long term care. I really want to be a dialysis nurse. I had my 800 hours clinical hours wayback in 2006. My apologies, Luz, but I’m a little unclear as to your situation and primary goal. If you’re interested in 1 page becoming a dialysis nurse, then you might want to look into the major dialysis services, Fresenius and DaVita, as potential employers.

They will sometimes hire candidates with limited experience and many aspects of your long-term-care experience might be attractive to them. I hope this helps! I have a question- thank you. I would like to become a dialysis nurse however, I have no experience in that area I have worked in cardiac telemetry and cuba's, psyche. I did do peritoneal dialysis on the cardiac medical unit which I will include in my job description. Essay. Please advise how to anthem ayn rand open the door into a new arena of nursing. Thank you so very kindly, El. Towne. Thanks for essay, the question!

Most Dialysis positions require experience in an acute care setting, which you have, so that’s a great start. You also have some relative experience in the field. You might consider obtaining a Certified Nephrology Nurse certification as many employers prefer candidates with that certification. Essay On Water Scarcity: Privatization. Next, you might consider inquiring with the larger private Dialysis services, Davita and Fresenius. The ratings for these employers on 1 page essay, Glass Door and Indeed are just so-so, but they might be a great way to 17 children get 1 to 2 years of experience in the specialty before searching for 1 page, a more desirable hospital based position.

The private Dialysis operators tend to a bit more welcoming to candidates without experience. Essay On Water The Solution. That said, the job market for RNs is very hot in 2016, so your chances should be better with all employers. I hope this helps! What about for a second career new nurse? I have over seven years of experience in the communications field with three years of essay, supervisory experience. I recently graduated with my BSN and passed the NCLEX. My nursing experience is limited to my clinical experience and some volunteer work. I am struggling how to relate my past experience with nursing to poem similes make me stand out in my Summary. Yes, it’s difficult to relate experiences in other industries to nursing because employers are typically seeking candidates with experience in the technical aspects of 1 page, nursing.

That said, you can certainly highlight the general aspects of your former career. Your promotion, leadership, team-work and poem similes, other aspects are all good qualifications to address in your summary. Also, here is an article on new-grad nursing resumes that might be helpful. I hope this information helps! What would you write as a nursing student looking to essay start applying for jobs? I have no experience other than what my clinicals have offered me.

I wont be taking my boards for about 5 months still. Set to graduate in December (3 more months. How would you suggest is the best way to present that as a RN, I simultaneously held the titles of ADON, Wound Nurse, and Charge Nurse at cuba's independence my most recent employer? Initially I was hired as a Charge Nurse, then I was promoted to ADON but I still had to work as a Charge Nurse 3 of my 5 scheduled days so I functioned in essay the role of ADON only on Monday and Tuesday. Later it was determined there was a definite need for consistent and routine wound monitoring, so I evolved into anthem ayn rand the Wound Nurse for 1 page, the facility. Abuse. Working with physicians I developed new protocols for essay, wound assessment, treatment, and management and every Monday I functioned in the role of Wound Nurse. Is it best to happened the period known as the break each job into 1 page its own summary and bullet list?

I’m in over my head trying to poem similes figure out the best way to present myself in a resume now, including the profile. Thanks for the inquiry. This is a great problem to have for 1 page essay, your nursing resume! I agree it’s difficult to manage though. Typically, when people have multiple roles with the same employer, they’re not simultaneous so they can be listed separately according the anthem ayn rand, time-frame they were performed. In this case, I think it would be best to do as you suggest and essay, break each into it’s own summary and happened hellenistic, bullet list. The reason is that these are all very different roles. Something like below: Employer information (location, details, etc.)

Job Title: Charge RN, ADON, Wound Care Nurse. Hired as a Charge RN, I was promoted to ADON and 1 page essay, also accepted a role as the Wound Care Nurse for the facility. Charge RN: Start Date-End Date. Wound Care Nurse: Start Date-End Date. I think something like that works well in anthem ayn rand this case. Essay. It might take up quite a bit of poem similes, space, but you’ve accomplished a lot! As always, be sure to tailor your resume to the position applied for and highlight quantifiable and tangible achievements where possible.

As for essay, your resume summary, I think it’s best say something like, “X years experience as Charge Nurse, X years experience as an ADON, and X years as a Wound Care Nurse.” And/or, “Leadership and teamwork skills recognized by current employer with promotions and special assignments.” Remember, the anthem ayn rand, summary itself is just that, a quick summary designed to essay pique interest and get the reader to spend more time reviewing the rest of the resume and the actual accomplishments. It’s also an excellent opportunity to match your qualifications with the required qualifications for the job. So, if the job is looking for X years experience as an ADON, then you might say, “Over X years experience as an ADON.” I hope this information helps and please let me know if you have further questions or concerns. When listed awards won with previous employers, is it alright to add awards you were nominated for but did not receive? Great Question!

Like many things related to resumes, you will find some people who say yes and others who say no. I would say that it depends on Scarcity: Privatization is Not, how well you can quantify the nomination. 1 Page Essay. For example: One of poem similes, five Staff Nurses out of 160 to 1 page essay be nominated for the X Award. Quantifying it this way, indicates that it was an honor just to be nominated. If you’re able to do this, or something like it, then adding the nomination to Essay on Water your resume could be useful. 1 Page Essay. I hope this helps!! Thank you. And Physical Abuse. Two more questions, after my name is appropriate to include credentials or no?

I have seen differing opinions. My university awards a BS not a BSN, so my credentials will be BS, RN. Will this throw recruiters off since most are looking specifically for 1 page essay, a BSN or will the supporting information under education provide enough information? That’s a tough one. Cuba's Independence. I’m not sure that I have seen a BS instead of a BSN. 1 Page. To be honest, I don’t think recruiters are that picky, so it should be fine to include your credentials as BS, RN. The vast majority of recruiters are more concerned with making sure you have the required work experience. That said, if you’re a new grad, it shouldn’t matter either. Like you’ve already noticed though, there are many different opinions on resumes.

I typically encourage people to include the credentials after their name and anthem ayn rand, I think your situation is essay no different.

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The Political Life is no Life at All. If you ask Greg Combet whether he misses his old political life, you get a slightly rueful response. ‘At times I miss it,’ he says. ‘But if I get carried away, I just remember what it was like. I just force myself to think that right about now, on essay a Sunday afternoon, I’d be driving in a Comcar to Sydney from Newcastle, then I’d be on a flight to Canberra, then another car to the supermarket, get to my flat in the dark, then get through the folders of cabinet documents.’ Combet was no small loss for Labor politics. Poem Similes? Anointed by Bob Hawke as the party’s next-generation leadership prospect, Combet shocked a good many people by calling time on his political career as the 1 page, ALP tore itself apart in the Rudd–Gillard civil war. The then climate change minister, who had endured the arduous task of implementing a carbon price in the first minority federal parliament since the Second World War, was battling health problems. In his life outside politics, his sister was managing the challenges associated with their ageing parents, solo, and that gnawed at his conscience.

He was emotionally and physically exhausted. Health problems were manifesting. He needed proper sleep, a healthy diet, time to exercise and time to seek proper medical attention when he needed it. The Period As The Hellenistic? ‘I found it virtually impossible to do that as a cabinet minister,’ Combet says. And there was the accumulated stress of trying to function in an environment of permanent, grinding hostility, with Tony Abbott lunging daily across the dispatch box, and Labor colleagues indulging in hand-to-hand combat in the leadership fight. 1 Page? Burnout doesn’t begin to describe Combet’s experience. ‘I had come to politics from independence, trade unions, where politics is obviously played hard as well, but there was a real binding sense of purpose in the trade union movement,’ Combet says. ‘Even though you might not be factional allies, you might have your policy differences, people did pull together.’ That collegiate culture was replicated in 1 page, Canberra when he arrived in 2007, where the newly elected Labor government could hardly contain its ambition after being returned to during the period as the age, the government benches after 11 years in exile. 1 Page? But then things started to drift in 2008 and 2009. ‘After the the period known age, leadership change in 2010, our show was profoundly divided.’

‘Leadership instability changes the atmospherics and essay, the collective sense of purpose very profoundly. And Physical? You wonder whether you can speak honestly to someone or not. The culture deteriorated in the Labor caucus. I had several friends that I could rely on and be open with, but we were all busy, and I found myself becoming increasingly isolated. 1 Page? I spent many hours inside my own office, working, obviously, but really isolated personally. Many of my colleagues would have been the same. It generated a really toxic environment.’

Combet isn’t telling this story to ‘sing a sad song’, as he puts it. He’s speaking about the destructive effects of contemporary political culture because I’ve pressed him to talk about it. And Physical? I’ve pressed him to speak because many of his colleagues still in the parliament feel they can’t speak, at least not on the record, about how punishing contemporary political life is, and the toll it takes, because other members of the tribe will banish them for weakness, and the voters will respond with derision. Australian politics has a secret it can’t talk about. The culture is unhealthy. 1 Page? The demands of mental and physical, parliamentary life are unrelenting. 1 Page? Thinking participants inside the act 1989, system are starting to feel, after ten years of leadership instability, bitter partisanship and take-no-prisoners hyperactivity, that politics has become not only unsustainable as a vocation, but hostile territory for human beings. While good people continue to put their heads down and do their best to make a positive contribution to democracy, the environment parliamentarians work in is a pressure cooker, the tone of 1 page, national affairs is reflexively hostile, trolling and 17 children, takedowns set the essay, tone of the day, and protagonists are being rewarded for their efficiency at treachery rather than the substance of their contributions. Earlier this year I wrote a weekend column positing this hostile-for-humans thesis for Guardian Australia , and I was intrigued by the response. Politicians from independence, across the spectrum expressed relief that someone was talking about it. One MP sent me a text shortly after the piece was published that summarised the tenor of the essay, feedback. ‘I liked your questioning about politics as hospitable to humans.

I guess we have to continue to act as though it is.’ The column was triggered by Essay on Water is Not the Solution, a conversation I had with a senior member of the 1 page, government over the summer break. During this conversation, this person observed his vocation was becoming unsustainable for normal people. By normal people, he meant balanced people. If balanced people could no longer cop the life, the profession would shrink back to representation by a very narrow type of section 17 children act 1989, personality—people who live for the brawls and the knockouts, and essay, can’t function without the constant affirmation of being a public figure. We would end up with representation by ideologues, adrenalin junkies and preening show ponies, posturing for a media chorus as unhinged as the poem similes, political class.

This isn’t just some abstract first-world problem. Politics is fundamentally a people business, and we need good people, talented people, people of ideas and values and commitment to 1 page essay, keep volunteering for public life. Act 1989? The health of our democracy depends on it. And right now good people are burning out and ending their political careers early, not because they lack commitment but because the rigours and demands have increased exponentially, particularly over the past decade. From my vantage point in the system, but also outside it, I can feel the strain in 1 page, it, which is stretched the tightest it has been in my 20 years of ringside observation. So we need to find voices prepared to tell the truth about contemporary politics. I decided that if most people inside the system couldn’t speak candidly, then I would do what big corporations do when they fear they are losing good people: I’d conduct some exit interviews, and poem similes, share the impressions. If good people can’t sustain themselves in public life because it is just too punishing and zero sum—if the opportunity cost of the life of public service is just too high, if a life in politics just doesn’t feel worth the personal sacrifices that are made—then we have a serious problem. The consequences of that really are too dire to contemplate. If pain persists, see a medical professional.

The maxim is 1 page, no different in independence, Parliament House, although it is convenient if you don’t have to leave the building. Mal Washer was a Western Australian GP who threw in the medical practice for politics in 1998. From the day he arrived in Canberra to represent the seat of Moore for the Liberal Party until he left political life in August 2013, Washer’s parliamentary office was a hub for colleagues needing a bit of 1 page essay, TLC. In between attending to hectic parliamentary business, Washer took blood pressures, temperature readings, wrote scripts and heard confessions. The ministering to colleagues and the regular corridor chiding about rugging up in the winter was added community service. During his time in Canberra, Washer saw too much fatigue, too much depression. Colleagues from Western Australia did it particularly tough, often not returning home on weekends during parliamentary sittings because there was no time to get home if there was committee work to section, do or meetings to prepare for. ‘The hours in parliament were just far too long,’ Washer says. ‘Half the time people were too tired to be concentrating on 1 page the votes and proceedings, and Essay Privatization is Not, compounding that—booze.’ The sitting days in 1 page essay, Canberra are long and the commitments arduous. MPs and their staff are up in the dark, and they are lucky to be home before Lateline . Washer campaigned so vigorously against the sitting hours that he won agreement from John Howard in 2002 to wind them back. With the act 1989, working life of the parliament intensifying in 2010, he went public again with his concerns about the health impact on his colleagues.

‘Politics is an emotionally taxing job if you are dinkum about it. It’s an essay emotionally trying business. There’s a lot of depression in Canberra—that is very, very common,’ he says. ‘So what we are looking at what during the period known as the hellenistic, is a tough gig, compounded by alcohol and long hours. You could exercise, but you had to be a bit bloody driven to get up in the early hours, or you might try and go to the gym later in the day, but there’d be divisions, and essay, the phone. It was hard to take that time during working hours.’ I ask Combet to quantify his workload as a cabinet minister so that people outside politics have some conception of section 17 children act 1989, what is required. As he was contemplating leaving politics, he went back through his diary to try to get a sense of his recent history. 1 Page Essay? ‘In my final year in parliament, I averaged two days a month at Essay on Water Privatization is Not, home,’ he says. Parliament sits for half a year in Canberra. If you are in state politics, you can go home at 1 page, night.

Federal parliamentarians spend the lion’s share of their time away from home—in Canberra, or travelling around the country for parliamentary business. For senior players, holidays are brief. Often people are no sooner on holidays, promising their kids and partners their total attention, than the and physical abuse, phone rings. A crisis has arisen, they are required back in Canberra. They worry about the impact on essay their most intimate relationships. ‘I had the responsibility of implementing the carbon price,’ Combet says. ‘I travelled, I did town hall meetings, I did fundraisers and supported other members in marginal seats.

That’s all part of your legitimate responsibilities and if you are serious about doing it, that’s what the mental, job requires of you. 1 Page? But obviously that’s not a healthy way to poem similes, live.’ I ask him when he got time to 1 page, reflect, when he got time to happened during known as the, think. The answer is mildly terrifying. ‘In the lifestyle of a cabinet minister, there is barely time to essay, consider public policy issues properly,’ Combet says. Essay Scarcity:? ‘You’ve got your parliamentary responsibilities, your responsibilities as a local member, your portfolio responsibilities, your responsibilities to your political party and to the caucus. On top of 1 page essay, that, you’ve got the media, you’ve got to contribute to discussions in Cabinet, contributing to broader discussions in the government—look, I could just drone on cuba's and on.’ He says technology has changed the speed at 1 page essay, which politics is practised. ‘With technology, and social media, the issues just move now with enormous dynamism. In years gone by, 20 or 30 years ago, issues could be considered more thoroughly. One issue could keep coming back to Cabinet on a regular basis. Now everything needs to be determined more efficiently.

Things get easily reported in poem similes, the media, you have to react to them. All of the circumstances mitigate against carefully considered long-term public policy.’ I ask him how he managed to keep it together in that environment. ‘Frankly, I found that quite frustrating. I’m sure many people in politics do.’ Greens leader Richard Di Natale is one of the 1 page essay, current crop of and physical abuse, parliamentarians prepared to stick his neck out and essay, say publicly that Australian politics has a life-balance problem. ‘It is cuba's independence, a life that takes a toll on the family. Essay? The toughest thing in this job by a million miles is being away from my kids and section 17 children, my wife, and obviously the long hours you have to put into it.’ He says parliamentarians would benefit in practical ways if they could get away and 1 page essay, break the yoke of their constantly updating smart phones. He says politicians need to hear voices outside the process to make good decisions. ‘I think you have much better perspective when you are a bit more connected to your family and your community. ‘I know that after a bit of section 17 children, a break, I come back to Canberra fresher.

I’ve got a healthier perspective on life,’ the Greens leader says. ‘All the little stuff here doesn’t get to me in the way that it might once I’ve come through back-to-back sitting weeks doing two 80-hour weeks.’ I ask him whether he thinks the Australian Parliament has made worse decisions since the whole system seemed to burst into hyper thrust in the mid to late 2000s—around the 1 page, time John Howard was losing his grip on power. ‘Are we making worse decisions? Absolutely,’ Di Natale says. ‘We’ve got a political class here in Canberra disconnected from the real world, because this is independence, a job that many people from the real world wouldn’t do.’ Washer these days is safely out of politics, although he would have had not a moment’s hesitation about speaking his mind while he was still prowling the essay, corridors. I’ve come to him because of his special insight into what the period known age, the peculiarities of 1 page, parliamentary life.

He is, quite literally, a clinical observer of the mental and physical, effects of this very specific form of 1 page essay, occupational stress on people. He keeps in and physical abuse, touch with friends and colleagues back in Canberra, and worries about what they say to him and what he sees. 1 Page Essay? It’s always been bad, he says, the 17 children, parliamentary work culture, but it’s worse now. The former Liberal MP says the leadership instability in the major parties over the past decade has been utterly corrosive to the culture and has deprived parliamentarians of structural sources of support and safety. An extra layer of essay, emotional stress has been added.

The tranquillity of the party room has been lost. ‘It’s basically on a knife edge on both sides of politics,’ Washer says. ‘Everything is more physically and emotionally draining. I think it has gotten worse in recent years. I think politics has become even more partisan.’ When the general aggression levels are dialled up, there are predictable human responses, fight or flight. 17 Children Act 1989? ‘When you put people on a knife edge, they become more territorial and 1 page, more paranoid. We went through periods where it was really tense, those dreadful periods where we had the Rudd–Gillard leadership challenges, and our leadership challenges. That really made it a much more difficult atmosphere,’ Washer says. ‘You have a party room divided, so there is no sanctuary there. That made life much more difficult for people, the leadership instability. It eats right into your sanctuary when people who are supposed to be helping you become consumed by infighting.’ He says once Tony Abbott returned to cuba's, the Liberal leadership, he felt unmoored. ‘I was a Turnbull supporter, but I don’t dislike Tony, he’s a decent guy, just bloody conservative. But the atmosphere changed. That attacking style of politics, it’s just not my cup of 1 page, tea.’

Washer was a prominent party moderate, whose stint in Canberra was characterised by a streak of independence, and a desire to build coalitions to navigate sensitive issues through the parliament. I first encountered him during the stem cell debate in 2006, where he pursued a private member’s bill to allow the anthem ayn rand, creation of cloned embryos for stem cell research, and got the numbers across parties to get the bill passed. As part of a cross-party population development group, Washer campaigned to remove the ban on abortion advice funded by foreign aid. Washer also opposed Abbott when, as health minister, he wanted to retain power over the importation of RU486. Whether you agree with those specific policies or not, that capacity for building coalitions, that desire to prioritise landing an outcome before tribalism is 1 page essay, a quality voters respect. Washer says despite his natural inclination to work across the cuba's, aisle, he had no issue with conflict being the 1 page, stuff of politics. He says he was entirely up to facing off against political opponents for act 1989 productive ends. But when there’s no sanctuary, and no respite from the aggression, people start to lose the plot. ‘When you can’t sit down with your own mob, it’s very bloody difficult. I’m a negotiator, not an 1 page attacker, I think in on Water Scarcity:, politics you’ve got to cut a deal.’ He said people ‘who wanted to negotiate something sensible’ faced a kind of essay, tribal banishment during the major-party civil war period in Canberra. It became partisan conflict or bust. ‘I found people like me just didn’t fit in.’

Mat Jose says when he worked for Kevin Rudd the only noticeable difference between a weekday and a weekend was that on weekends he wore jeans to poem similes, the office. Jose spent 18 years behind the 1 page essay, scenes in political offices, in state and federal politics, before packing his Canberra life into his car late last year and driving south to Queenscliff, where he and his wife now own a bookshop. Everybody works hard in anthem ayn rand, Australia. Essay? But political staff serving senior politicians set new benchmarks in how much is required of a person in any given 24 hours. Political offices are like fiefdoms.

The lives of staff are hostage to the demands of the boss. When adversity strikes for the boss, political staff have referred nightmares. I’ve come to Jose for a couple of reasons. The main reason is his span of service covers the period when Australian politics increased its operating tempo. What Happened The Period Hellenistic? His insight is essay, extremely useful, because he was inside the belly of the beast and served three federal Labor leaders during the acceleration: Kim Beazley, Kevin Rudd and Julia Gillard. The other reason I’ve come to mental and physical, him is because you will have never heard of him. Essay? In an era where backroom staff have become lured by a cult of celebrity, are building their own profiles, and have taken to settling political scores on live television, Jose, who is softly spoken, considered and low key, has never aspired to be a protagonist. We start by on Water Privatization is Not, reflecting on the shift from Beazley to Rudd in 2006. Jose says part of the shift that happened in politics in the late 2000s was technological: the impact of social media, the intensification of the media cycle, and the accompanying rise of 1 page, ‘campaign journalism’—which he says is a toxic and corrosive feature of national affairs. But a significant part of the story is Rudd, and poem similes, the step change he imposed on the political system when he resolved to take the opposition leadership from Beazley, and then when he set himself the 1 page, ambition of becoming prime minister, all within the space of a year. Two things happened as a consequence.

Rudd changed the conception of opposition leader from the Essay on Water Privatization, traditional idea of essay, being reactive—responding to the agenda of the government—to being the pacesetter. When that happened, the pace of Australian politics accelerated, and that change has proved permanent. But Jose says the caricature of Rudd, the manic 24/7 leader, doesn’t really reflect the more complex reality of what went on on Water Scarcity: Privatization is Not at that time. Essay? Rudd operated in the way he did, Jose says, because he had very little choice. ‘Rudd came to the job very late in the piece, he came from the Essay on Water Scarcity: is Not the Solution, foreign affairs portfolio, he had to introduce himself to the population, and differentiate himself from Beazley,’ Jose says. ‘He had to explain why he should become prime minister.’ ‘Kevin did pursue a lot of issues at 1 page essay, the same time. He did attempt, probably successfully, to grab the policy and political initiative from John Howard, so Howard was responding to him. Rudd had that different approach: he forced Howard to respond to him. He did that successfully, but that increased the tempo of politics in my view.’ Executing a permanent change in the tenor and tempo of poem similes, Australian politics was quite the undertaking. ‘That required a hell of a lot of essay, work by abuse, Rudd, but also a hell of essay, a lot of work by the people around him.’

When Labor won the election in 2007, and came into during age, government, Rudd’s policy commitments had to be converted into action or programs. The new government encountered an expectations gap. Jose says the Canberra bureaucracy, shaped by the operational requirements of the Howard era, could not keep pace with the demands of the new prime minister. ‘Rudd’s style was he expected work to be done overnight. If he was dealing with a problem during the day, and he wanted a brief, or some options or recommendations, he’d want them ready in the morning. That’s not the way the bureaucracy works. It was certainly not the way the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet worked under Howard.

Howard had been in power for over a decade. The prime minister, the prime minister’s office and the department were very comfortable with each other, and had long settled into essay, a particular way of working. Rudd upturned that way of working.’ Because the department could not keep pace, ‘some work that would have previously been done in the period known as the, the bureaucracy started to be done in the PMO’. Pulling work into the prime ministerial office had impacts on decision-making, and the punishing workload led to increased turnover of 1 page essay, staff. At the time, the departures from the mental and physical, Rudd office were written up as personality conflicts—the foot soldiers couldn’t cope with the histrionics of the general. 1 Page? Jose says this isn’t accurate.

The truth was more prosaic. ‘It was an extraordinarily demanding work environment, and as the age, it didn’t leave space for essay anything other than work,’ he says. ‘People I worked with made decisions to see their family and have some semblance of mental, a life. These are some of the hardest-working people I’ve ever worked with. It wasn’t a question of a lack of a work ethic. It was the gruelling environment that existed.’

I ask Jose what the tearing hurry was, given the courtship of the public had been executed successfully. Rudd was prime minister, so why the essay, permanent campaign? ‘I would feel this way because I’m a progressive, but Labor governments want to change things,’ he says. ‘Labor governments in the main don’t have a negative agenda, focusing on undoing things of their predecessors, they have a creative agenda. ‘Doing things is harder and it requires more work. Cuba's Independence? Labor had been out of 1 page, office for a decade, Rudd had a substantial program, he got a mandate and he wanted to poem similes, get on with those things.’ Jose left the Rudd office before he lost the leadership in 2010, but returned to work for Julia Gillard. He says the Gillard period was gruelling in a.

Australia’s first female prime minister was the first leader to govern in minority since the Second World War. Labor’s precarious position in the parliament imposed enormous pressure on the leader, on her staff and on the government as a whole. Jose says again, the bureaucracy was encountering new territory, so there wasn’t the 1 page, support the government needed. He also found the poisonous atmosphere of the Gillard period hard to what during known as the age, process. ‘When you do these jobs, when you come to work in the PMO every day, you can’t do it unless you are absolutely committed to 1 page essay, it, unless it consumes almost every waking minute. When things are going badly for your boss, things are going badly for poem similes you.

I can tell you how I felt. I found a lot of the attacks on Julia, her way of essay, speaking, the mental and physical, way she dressed, criticism of her basically for being a woman—disgusting, debilitating, depressing. It was inexplicable to essay, me.’ Jose dealt with the daily preparation for cuba's independence the rolling controversy triggered by Gillard’s role in 1 page, setting up a fund for the AWU’s workplace reform association in the early 1990s. The slush fund story ground on relentlessly for months. 17 Children? The experience he describes is akin to living in a state of siege. ‘It still makes me upset because the essay, demands that were placed on her for the recol-lection of memory, to account for a relationship, were demands that had never been placed on poem similes a political leader before. Not ever. I think her gender explains why she was asked to do those things.

I didn’t understand it then and I don’t understand it now. Julia was remarkably strong, remarkably stoic, but her office, senior staff, her media office in particular, were working on those issues at the expense of doing positive things.’ As he walked through the 1 page essay, PMO each day to gather the cuba's independence, necessary material and essay, speak to colleagues, he would have to traverse the round lounge in the suite, which became a source of stress. ‘You can’t get through the and physical, PMO without walking through the round lounge where all the papers are spread out. I could not be unaffected by 1 page, day after day, walking through that round lounge and seeing the front-page attacks, day after day after day. Poem Similes? None of that had anything to do with the job she was doing as prime minister.

It was about a relationship that had ceased 20 years before. Essay? And yet the Australian political system put those issues at the heart of political debate. Poem Similes? I thought that was desperately unfair.’ Given the heavily contested atmosphere that has prevailed in Canberra over 1 page essay the past decade, a whole generation of political staff have been exposed to a dimension of anthem ayn rand, stress that didn’t exist before the onslaught of the coup culture. I ask Jose how he dealt with the personal stress associated with serving during a period like that. Initially, he adopts a stiff upper lip. ‘I just got on with my work.’ Then he chuckles. ‘Maybe I didn’t deal with it.

Maybe I still haven’t dealt with it.’ I persist. ‘Come on. How did you deal with it?’ ‘I don’t know how to answer that question. It’s indulgent of me to think that how I dealt with it mattered. I wasn’t the focus of it. 1 Page Essay? It doesn’t matter how I dealt with it, but it did affect me.’ When Gillard lost the leadership, Jose confesses he felt some relief even though the practical outcome for independence him was a period of unemployment. ‘When it did finally come to an end, there was a sense of relief on that night.’ I ask him to reflect on essay the two periods of mental and physical, serving in the PMO. Essay? ‘I feel a sense of disappointment. Both Kevin and Julia didn’t serve as long as they should have. I think they both would have done much more if the circumstances had been different.

As a staffer, I would have liked to serve a long-term Labor government.’ Jose did another stint as a senior staffer in opposition before parting ways with Canberra in 2016. I ask him how long it took to decompress after assuming his new life in the bookshop. ‘I’m not sure I have, to cuba's, be honest. I enjoy the simple things I have now. I enjoy not having to get up and answer the phone at 5 am to deal with something ahead of a radio or TV interview. I enjoy having a day off. That’s something I’ve never had for as long as I can remember. 1 Page? I enjoy the little things.

I don’t have to keep checking my phone. I can go out to lunch. ‘Is that decompression? I’m not sure. I appreciate aspects of normal life.’ I ask him whether it was worth it, the section, 20 years of 1 page, backroom service. As The Hellenistic? First, the yes. Jose remains a loyal Labor man. ‘I’m incredibly grateful to everyone who employed me, and I hope I repaid that through the 1 page essay, hard work I did.’ And then, ‘I’m not sure, in truth. I don’t think long-term staff work is a great career. Being in it for a long time engenders a lot of cynicism, which is unhealthy. Essay On Water Scarcity: Is Not The Solution? Also, unless you are on a political career path, if you are like me, if you are not interested in those things, your career prospects at the end of a long staffing career can be pretty dire.

People don’t understand what political staff do, there’s not much respect for 1 page essay political staff. You are not sought after.’ I ask him if someone came to independence, him for advice, should they contemplate a career as a political staffer, what would he say to them? ‘If it was someone I really cared about, I’d say do it, but not for as long as I did.’ Greg Combet is now happily established in life after politics, a life that allows time to 1 page essay, think and time to circulate. He has plenty of projects, his health is Essay on Water Scarcity:, better, and his well-being has improved greatly. There is time to consider how we might make our politics better. ‘Now that I’m outside parliament, I’m working, I’m a company director, I meet many different business people. I can’t tell you how many times someone says to me you’d have to be mad to 1 page essay, go into parliament and do that, live that life.’

‘I admire the anthem ayn rand, people who endure it in order to make a contribution, and I’ve actually found that people respect others for 1 page going into parliament. But they see politics as ugly and overly combative. That’s why they don’t want to be involved. Anthem Ayn Rand? They understand how politics would consume your life. And that’s a big problem.’ Richard Di Natale says we have to start thinking about how to improve the life of a parliamentarian, not to coddle the political class, but as a straightforward question of public good. Sensible people are looking at the life and saying there is no way they would want to do that. ‘If we want people to truly represent the interests of the community, then we have to 1 page, get people into this job who come from the community, from a wide variety of backgrounds, who don’t look at being a parliamentarian and say there is no way I would do that job because the hours suck, the media environment is so bloody hostile, you are getting a brutal character assessment minute to minute on social media—all those sorts of things,’ the Greens leader says.

He says the cuba's, difficulties associated with people sustaining themselves in essay, the life ‘does mean we aren’t getting the right sort of cuba's independence, representation, and 1 page, often that gets reflected in the decisions that get made. Look at the 18C debate. That’s a complete disconnect from the real world. Cuba's? Look at the debate around energy, that’s so disconnected from reality. We’ve got a bunch of 1 page, ideologues, professional politicians, some of them come straight out of staffing, there’s a bunch of Institute of Public Affairs lackeys, and ultimately that’s the cuba's, sort of politics you end up with.’ I ask Mal Washer whether he’s worried the political gene pool is 1 page, narrowing because of anthem ayn rand, external perceptions the 1 page, life is impossible. He says political parties need to take the issue very seriously. ‘We need to poem similes, get decent people preselected so we’ve got a balanced type of person in the parliament, and that doesn’t always work with the system we have.’ He says the major parties have ‘tribal’ preselection processes.

Institutional influence trumps community representation. ‘You’d really hope people in 1 page, the parliament would be representative of the Australian public, not just pressure groups, and until we achieve that—well, we are buggered, quite frankly.’ Combet says we need to think more broadly than some of the conventional arguments that are mounted about opening preselections. Cuba's? He’s thinking about more profound structural change in the way we constitute government. He thinks there’s some merit in Australia contemplating the American model, where the political system looks actively to recruit talent from outside the travelators of the major-party system. ‘You can’t change the technology, or the way the 1 page, media operates—but what’s happened is the poem similes, processes of government haven’t changed with the society,’ he says. ‘The demands on individuals have just become greater and 1 page, greater. I’ve started to think that there is a sound case for people of the appropriate experience, knowledge and expertise to be appointed to Cabinet, or the executive, from outside the parliament for example, which is possible under our Constitution.’ ‘At the moment we only draw members of the executive from the what happened the period as the, parliament, but I think there is 1 page essay, a case to draw some people, as they do in the United States, from outside. New forms of accountability could be considered—there could be committee processes allowing the appointees to be called to account in quite a considered way. ‘Look, this is just one idea, but I do think we need to consider ways of engaging people from outside the parliament and government and have appropriate checks and balances with it, because to Essay on Water Scarcity:, be frank, I don’t think we are going to 1 page essay, attract in the future a sufficient cohort of people with a broad cross-section of experience in our society into the parliament and into the executive.’ I understand how implementing an American-style process of external cabinet appointments would help expand the thinking that goes on cuba's in Canberra, and potentially dilute the combat and essay, coup culture, but I ask Combet how this would help make parliamentary life more sustainable for senior people.

The answer to this is simple, he says. The appointments are inherently short term, they span the life of governments, rather than requiring a long commitment to a parliamentary career. The external appointees would not have to attend to the extensive parliamentary and electoral duties that MPs have to poem similes, attend to, whether they are the highest flyers in Cabinet or humble backbenchers. They would also not have hours of essay, their sitting day chewed up with preparation for question time, and attending question time, given their accountability mechanism would be different. They would be responsible to the prime minister, and to a parliamentary committee, and on Water Scarcity: Privatization is Not the Solution, their sole focus would be on their portfolio. 1 Page Essay? ‘There are people who could offer a lot to our society if they were part of the section, executive, focused on formulating policy, but right now, those people are not going to be attracted into parliament.’ Combet says a political career is a strange blend of the 1 page essay, selfless and the cravenly selfish. ‘The thing about being in on Water is Not, politics at a senior level: on the one hand, it’s a selfless pursuit, you are working on behalf of the community and that is essay, very rewarding, but I can’t think of a more selfish pursuit in a career sense, because it so dominates your life, and your time and your ability to be there for your family and your friends. Everything else falls to other people.’ He says the problems are obvious, and we have to start focusing on telling the truth about what political life is like, as the cuba's independence, starting point for trying to make it better. The challenges facing Australia are immense, and essay, we need the cuba's, political system to sustain our best and brightest. He remains enormously proud of his parliamentary service, and respectful of the colleagues, still at the Canberra coalface, doing the best they can for the country. 1 Page Essay? He implemented a carbon price successfully, against the odds.

He also points to Julia Gillard setting up the royal commission into institutional responses to child sexual abuse. ‘That has been so important for so many people. You can do really great things in Essay on Water, politics. It’s a tremendous privilege and essay, I have no regrets about it. 17 Children? I’m not complaining in terms of these observations. I willingly took it on. I just couldn’t keep doing it.’

Combet says the country needs to focus on a pressing issue. ‘This is a weakness in our democracy that we need to think about. Essay? And in mental abuse, thinking about it, we have to consider what it is actually like to be a federal parliamentarian, and what the lifestyle of a cabinet minister is actually like, and essay, what is the best way to attract all the talent that is needed in section act 1989, our democracy.’ By the time mum pulls into the station, Levi is about ready to piss himself, has the 1 page, empty water bottle in his hand, eyeing me across the back seat as if to poem similes, say, I’ll do it, I’ll fucken do it. The car stops in the empty lot and Levi bolts for essay the [Read more. ]

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2016 01 edu Today, we unveil the 2016 RHSU Edu-Scholar Public Influence Rankings. Simply being included in essay, this list of 200 scholars is an anthem ayn rand honor, given the tens of thousands who might qualify. The ranked scholars include the 1 page, top 150 finishers from last year, along with 50 at-large nominees chosen by poem similes, the 26-member selection committee (see yesterday's post for a list of committee members and all other requisite details). The metrics, as explained yesterday, recognize university-based scholars in the U.S. who are doing the most to influence educational policy and 1 page, practice. The rubric reflects both a scholar's larger body of work and their impact on the public discourse last year.

Here are the 2016 rankings (click chart for larger view). Please note that all university affiliations reflect a scholar's institution as of December 2015. Only university-based researchers are eligible for the rankings. Anthem Ayn Rand. (As explained yesterday, university-based means a formal university affiliation, including a webpage on a university site.) After all, the point is to encourage universities to pay more attention to the stuff of scholarly participation in 1 page essay, the public square. The term university-based provides some useful flexibility. For instance, Margaret Macke Raymond runs the anthem ayn rand, evaluation outfit CREDO. However, she is an accomplished academic with a university affiliation at Stanford. So she's included. Essay. The line is admittedly blurry, but it seems to work reasonably well.

The bottom line is that this is a serious but inevitably imperfect attempt to anthem ayn rand nudge universities, foundations, and professional associations to do more to cultivate, encourage, and recognize contributions to the public debate. Without further ado, let's get to the results. The top scorers? All are familiar edu-names, with long careers featuring influential scholarship, track records of comment on public developments, and outsized public and professional roles. In order, the essay, top five were Linda Darling-Hammond of mental and physical abuse, Stanford, Diane Ravitch of NYU, Howard Gardner of Harvard, UCLA's Gary Orfield, and U. Wisconsin's Gloria Ladson-Billings. 1 Page. Rounding out the top ten were UCLA's Pedro Noguera, Stanford University's Larry Cuban, U. Oregon's Yong Zhao, Claude Steele of UC Berkeley, and Andy Hargreaves of Boston College. All ten are veteran, accomplished scholars who have each authored a number of (frequently influential) books, accumulated bodies of heavily cited scholarly work, and are often seen in the public square and section 17 children act 1989, working with state and district leaders. That reflects the intent of the rankings, which weight the broad, lasting public influence of a scholar at essay least as heavily as a short run of high visibility.

Stanford's Macke Raymond made the biggest single leap from last year, climbing 81 spots. Essay On Water Scarcity: Privatization Is Not The Solution. Other returnees making especially big jumps from 2015 included Harvard's Marty West, U. 1 Page. Michigan's Nell Duke, Christopher Lubienski of U. Illinois, Dan Goldhaber of U. Washington, Columbia's Jeff Henig, and Tulane's Doug Harris. What During Known Age. Stanford University, U. 1 Page. Penn, and Harvard University each fared exceptionally well, with all three placing three scholars in the top 20. UCLA, U. Wisconsin, and U. Virginia also placed multiple scholars in the top 20. In terms of the institutions that had the most scholars make the list, Harvard led the poem similes, pack with 21. Stanford was second, with 20, and 1 page essay, Columbia was third, with 14. Overall, more than 50 universities had at least one scholar make the cut. Happened The Period Known Hellenistic. A number of top scorers penned influential books of recent vintage.

For instance, just in the past year, Harvard's Tony Wagner coauthored Most Likely to Succeed: Preparing Our Kids for 1 page, the Innovation Era ; Richard Milner of U. Pittsburgh authored Rac(e)ing to anthem ayn rand Class: Confronting Poverty and Race in Schools and Classrooms ; and Columbia University's Tom Bailey copublished Redesigning America's Community Colleges: A Clearer Path to Student Success . As with any such ranking, this exercise ought to be interpreted with appropriate caveats and caution. Given that the ratings are a snapshot of where things stand as we start 2016, the results obviously favor scholars who penned a successful book or influential study in essay, 2015. But that's how the world works. And that's why we do this every year. A few scholars tended to lead the Essay the Solution, field in any given category. Essay. For those keeping score at home, here's a quick review of the category-killers: More than thirty scholars maxed out on Google Scholar. When it came to book points, ten scholars maxed out, including Darling-Hammond, Ravitch, Gardner, Cuban, and Paul Peterson of Harvard. Wagner and Essay on Water Scarcity: is Not the Solution, Steele took top honors for Amazon points, with 19.4 apiece. As far as attention in 1 page, the education press, Darling-Hammond, Ravitch, Noguera, U. Wisconsin's Sara Goldrick-Rab, and Angela Duckworth of U. Penn were the leaders. When it came to mentions in mainstream newspapers, Orfield, Goldrick-Rab, U. Penn's Richard Ingersoll, and Jonathan Zimmerman of 17 children act 1989, NYU topped the charts.

In terms of web visibility, Darling-Hammond, Ravitch, Gardner, Noguera, Goldrick-Rab, Duckworth, Michigan State's Bill Schmidt, and Marc Lamont Hill of Morehouse College were tops. 1 Page Essay. In the wild-and-woolly world of Klout scores, Ravitch and Lamont Hill dominated. If readers want to argue the relevance, construction, reliability, or validity of the what during the period as the, metrics, go for it. I'm not sure that I've got the measures right or even how much these results can or should tell us. That said, I think the same can be said about 1 page essay, U.S. Anthem Ayn Rand. News college rankings, NFL quarterback ratings, or international scorecards of human rights.

For all their imperfections, I think such efforts convey real information#8212;and help spark useful discussion. That's what I've sought to do here. Meanwhile, I'd welcome suggestions for possible improvements and am eager to hear your thoughts, critiques, questions, and suggestions. So, take a look, and have at it.

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Essay on Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. In this essay we will discuss about Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Microeconomics 2. Scope of 1 page essay Microeconomics 3. Limitations of Microeconomics 4. Importance of Microeconomics 5. Problems of poem similes Interrelation and Integration of Micro and Macroeconomics 6. Meaning of Macroeconomics 7. Scope and Importance of Macroeconomics 8. Essay? Limitations of Macroeconomics. Essay on the Meaning of Microeconomics Essay on the Scope of Microeconomics Essay on the Limitations of Microeconomics Essay on the Importance of Microeconomics Essay on the Problems of Interrelation and Integration of poem similes Micro and Macroeconomics Essay on essay the Meaning of Macroeconomics Essay on the Scope and Importance of Macroeconomics Essay on the Limitations of Macroeconomics. Essay # 1. Meaning of Microeconomics: Microeconomics is the study of the poem similes, economic actions of individuals and small groups of individuals. This includes “the study of particular firms, particular households, individual prices, wages, income, individual industries, and particular commodities.” It concerns itself with the essay, analysis of price determination and the allocation of resources to specific uses. The determination of equilibrium output of the firm or industry, the mental and physical, wage of a particular type of labour, the price of a particular commodity like rice, tea, or car are some of the fields of microeconomic theory. “Microeconomics deals with the division of total output among industries, products and firms and the allocations of essay resources among competing groups.

It considers problems of income distribution. Its interest is in relative prices of particular goods and services.” Microeconomics is, in fact, a microscopic study of the economy, according to Maurice Dobb. It is Essay Scarcity: Privatization is Not the Solution like looking at the economy through a microscope to find out the working of markets for individual commodities and the behaviour of individual consumers and producers. In other words, in microeconomics we study the 1 page, interrelationships of individual households and individual firms, and individual firms and individual industries to each other. In this sense, microeconomics involves the poem similes, study of aggregates.

“Price and value theory, the theory of the household, the firm and the industry, most production and welfare theory are of the microeconomic variety,” Thus, microeconomics studies: (i) How resources are allocated to the production of particular goods and services, (ii) How the goods and services are distributed among the people, and. (iii) How efficiently they are distributed. While studying the conditions in which the price of a particular good is essay determined, microeconomics assumes the total quantity of resources as given and seeks to anthem ayn rand explain their allocation to the production of that commodity. The allocation of resources to a particular good depends upon the prices of other goods and the prices of factors producing them. It is, therefore, the relative prices of goods and services that determine the allocation of resources. In other words, other things being equal, it is the essay, allocation of resources that determines what to produce, how to produce, and how much to cuba's independence produce. This decision, in turn, depends upon the relative prices of goods and services. Thus, microeconomics is the study of price theory: how the price of a particular commodity like rice, tea, milk, fans, scooters, etc. is determined; how the wages of a particular type of labour, interest on a particular type of capital asset, rent on a particular land and profits of a particular entrepreneur are determined; and how efficiently the various resources are allocated to individual consumers and producers. We briefly study these problems below. In microeconomics the 1 page, analysis of price determination and allocation of resources is and physical studied in three different stages: (i) The equilibrium of individual consumers and producers, (ii) The equilibrium of a single market, and.

(iii) The simultaneous equilibrium of all markets. Individual consumers and producers are unable to influence the prices of goods they buy and sell. A consumer is faced with given prices and he buys that much of the commodity which maximises his utility. For an individual producer, input and output prices are given and he produces that much of the product which maximises his profits. In the market, the essay, price and quantity bought and poem similes sold are determined by the actions of buyers and 1 page essay sellers. The aggregate demand and supply curves are derived from individual demand and supply curves. The equality of aggregate demand and supply curves determines the price and the quantity bought and what known sold in the market.

It applies both to product and factor markets. By relaxing some of the assumptions of the perfectly competitive market, this analysis is 1 page extended to monopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic, competition markets. Finally, in microeconomics, the interrelations between the different markets are taken so as to determine all prices simultaneously. Though, it is generally said that microeconomics is related to partial equilibrium analysis which is the study of the equilibrium position of an individual, a firm, an industry or group of what during hellenistic industries, yet it is also a study of their interrelationships and interdependences within the 1 page essay, economy which falls under the poem similes, general equilibrium analysis. First, there is the essay, consumers market in which the quantity of each commodity demanded depends not only on its own price but also on the price of every other commodity available in the market.

In this market, consumers meet producers to buy commodities which the former demand and the latter sell. The demand of consumers for the various commodities depends upon their prices and the prices of the services which they offer. In other words, a consumer earns by selling the productive services he owns and creates demands for commodities. The price at which a commodity sells depends upon its costs of poem similes production. The costs of production, in turn, depend on the quantities of the various productive services employed and the prices paid for them.

Thus the essay, supply of commodities in the market depends on the costs of the firms, and the prices and quantities of the various productive services used by them. Secondly, there is the producers market or factor market. Anthem Ayn Rand? In this market, the demand for productive services (factors of production) comes from the producers, and supply from the consumers. The quantity of a service (factor) used in producing a commodity depends on the relationship between the prices of that service and other services, and on the prices of commodities. Here producers meet labourers, capitalists, landlords and other resource-owners. In this market, money incomes are earned by resource-owners who own and sell their resources, the majority of whom are consumers. Thus microeconomics is a study of 1 page essay interacting units of consumers, producers, and cuba's resource-owners. In this system, all prices are relative to one another.

A change in any one price establishes a ripple which touches both product and factor markets. The interrelation between product and factor markets through prices is shown in Figure 1. In this system, consumers and firms are linked through the product market where goods and services are bought and sold. They are also linked through the factor market where the factors of production are bought and sold. In the inner circle that consumers who are resource-owners sell productive resources in the factor market which are used by firms. The firms, in turn, produce goods and services which they sell in 1 page essay the product market to consumers.

The outer circle of the what the period as the hellenistic age, figure shows that the consumers incur expenditure in buying goods and services from the essay, product market. The money so received by anthem ayn rand, firms becomes their revenue or income which they spend in 1 page essay buying the services of consumers as suppliers’ productive resources in the factor market which, in turn, goes to consumers as their incomes. Thus microeconomics is the study of the interdependence of anthem ayn rand commodity prices, factor prices, their demands and supplies and costs, in essay relation to individual consumers, firms and industries. Besides, microeconomics studies how efficiently the various resources are allocated to individual consumers and producers within the economy. Efficiency in the allocation of resources is related to the study of welfare economics. It involves the study of efficiency in consumption, efficiency in production and overall efficiency. Consumption and production efficiencies relate to individual welfare and anthem ayn rand overall efficiency to social welfare. An individual consumer’s welfare or efficiency is maximised when, with any reallocation of resources, he is made better off without making any other person worse off. An individual producer achieves efficiency in production when, with any re-allocation of resources in 1 page essay the production of a commodity, he is able to increase its output without reducing the output of some other commodity. Overall efficiency, also known as social welfare or Pareto optimality, relates to the overall improvement in the economic efficiency of the society whereby social welfare increases when with re-allocation of resources, society as a whole is made better off without making any individual worse off.

Any re-allocation of resources at this optimum level of efficiency will lead not only to overall economic inefficiency but also to individual consumers’ and producers’ inefficiencies. Thus microeconomics studies welfare theory in anthem ayn rand its individual and aggregate aspects. We may conclude that microeconomics consists of the study of price theory, the theory of the individual household, the firm and industry, production theory and welfare theory. Essay # 3. Limitations of Microeconomics : Despite its uses, microeconomic analysis is not free from certain limitations. (1) It is 1 page based on the unrealistic assumption of full employment in the economy. “To assume full employment”, according to Keynes, “is to assume our difficulties away.” Full employment is not the rule but an exception in anthem ayn rand the real world. Thus microeconomics is an unrealistic method of economic analysis. (2) Microeconomics is based on the assumption of laissez-faire. But the policy of laissez-faire is no longer practiced. It ended with the Great Depression of the 1930s. This makes the study unrealistic. (3) Microeconomics is concerned with the study of parts and 1 page essay neglects the whole.

As pointed out by Boulding: “Description of a large and independence complex universe of facts like the economic system is impossible in terms of individual items.” Thus the study of essay microeconomics presents an imprecise picture of the economy. (4) Further, microeconomics is not only inadequate but also misleading in analysing several economic problems. It is not essential that principles which are true in the case of a particular household, firm or industry may also be correctly applicable to the economy as a whole. To quote Boulding again: “The character and behaviour of aggregates cannot be…obtained simply by generalizing from character and behaviour of the individual components.” Essay # 4. Importance of Microeconomics: Microeconomics is an what hellenistic important method of economic analysis which Keynes regarded as “a necessary part of 1 page one’s apparatus of thought.” It has both theoretical and practical importance. 1. To Understand the Working of the Economy: Microeconomics is of utmost importance in poem similes understanding the working of a free enterprise economy.

In such economy there is no agency to plan and 1 page essay co­ordinate the working of the economic system. Such decisions as how to produce, what to produce, and for whom to produce, how to distribute and what to consume are taken by producers and poem similes consumers without any extraneous force. It follows that the 1 page, planning authority in a centrally planned economy cannot ensure an efficient working of the economy in the absence of a free enterprise economy. As pointed out by Learner, “Microeconomics teaches us that completely “direct” running of the economy is impossible—that a modern economy is so complex that no central planning body can obtain all the information and give out all the directives necessary for its efficient operation.” 2. To Provide Tools for Economic Policies: Microeconomics provides the analytical tools for evaluating the economic policies of the state. Price or market mechanism is the tool which helps us in this respect. In a mixed economy, the state runs certain public utilities like the postal services, railways, water, electricity etc.

In such cases the governments—centre, state or local—fix prices on Scarcity: is Not no-profit no-loss basis. These prices, in turn, influence the 1 page, prices of independence other goods and services. Essay? There are also public enterprises which are run on price-profit policy. The prices of the mental abuse, articles manufactured by them affect the price of various goods and essay services in the private sector of the economy. Some of the public enterprises compete with private enterprises so their price policies are based on market mechanism. They cannot charge prices higher than under the private sector. Microeconomics helps the state in formulating correct price policies and in evaluating them in proper perspective. 3. Helpful in the Efficient Employment of Resources: Microeconomics deals with the anthem ayn rand, economizing of scarce resources with efficiency. The principal problem faced by modern governments is the allocation of resources among competing ends. In this sense, microeconomics is used by the government in the efficient employment of resources and achieving growth with stability.

Microeconomics helps the business executive in the attainment of maximum productivity with existing resources. It is with its help that he is able to know the consumer demand and calculate the costs of 1 page his product. 5. Helpful in Understanding the Problems of Taxation: Microeconomics also helps in understanding some of the problems of taxation. It is used to explain the 17 children act 1989, welfare implications of a tax. A tax leads to the reallocation of resources from their optimal level. Microeconomics helps in 1 page essay explaining as to whether an income tax leads to a diminution of social welfare or an excise duty or sales tax.

It is the imposition of an excise duty or sales tax that leads to the diminution of social welfare rather than an income tax. Microeconomic analysis so studies the distribution of incidence of a commodity tax (excise duty or sales tax) between sellers and consumers. In the field of anthem ayn rand international trade, it is 1 page essay used to explain the gains from international trade, balance of payments disequilibrium and the determination of the foreign exchange rate It is the relative elasticity’s of demand for each other’s products that determine the gains from international trade. The disequilibrium in the balance of payments is the section, inequality between the demand and 1 page essay supply of foreign currency. The rate of exchange of a currency in a free market is determined by the demand for and supply of foreign exchange. 7. To Examine the Conditions of section act 1989 Economic Welfare: Microeconomics can be used to examine the conditions of economic welfare. “That is, to examine the subjective satisfaction that individuals derive from consuming goods and services and from enjoying leisure. It involves the study of welfare economics which is one of defining an 1 page ideal economy.” As already studied above, welfare economics is related to maximisation of social welfare. This is possible only on Water Privatization is Not the Solution under perfect competition. But under monopoly, oligopoly, or monopolistic competition there is always misallocation of resources and the output obtained is always less than the optimum.

Thus there is considerable wastage of 1 page resources. Microeconomics helps m suggesting ways and means of eliminating wastages in order to bring maximum social welfare. As aptly pointed out by Lerner: Microeconomic theory spells out the conditions of efficiency (i.e., for the elimination of all kinds of inefficiency) and suggests how they might be achieved. These conditions (called ‘Pareto-optimal’ conditions) can be of the greatest help in mental abuse raising the 1 page, standard of living of the population. “Microeconomic theory can be used as the basis for prediction. This does not mean that it will enable us to independence predict the future. Rather, it will enable the possessor to make condition^ predictions. Essay? These conditions have the following form – if something occurs, then a certain set of results will follow We should be able to study government policies affecting prices of on Water Privatization is Not commodities and wages, for 1 page essay, example and see how these policies affect the allocation of resources.

Microeconomic theory will enable us to make conditional predictions here”. Microeconomics constructs and uses simple methods for the understanding of the actual economic phenomena. “The theoretical approach to microeconomics utilizes abstract models in an attempt to poem similes see how prices are established and how resources are allocated to various uses. The use of theory should enable the possessor to determine which of many facts are particularly relevant to the problem being studied.” Lerner explains this point more clearly when he says: “Microeconomic theory facilitates the essay, understanding of what would be a hopelessly complicated confusion of billions of facts by constructing simplified models of behaviour which are sufficiently similar to the actual phenomena to be of help in understanding them. Poem Similes? These models at the same time enable the economists to explain the 1 page essay, degree to which the actual phenomena depart from certain ideal constructions that would most completely achieve individual and social objectives. They, thus, help not only to describe the actual economic situation but to suggest policies that would most successfully and most efficiently bring about desired results and to predict the outcomes of such policies and other events.” Thus it is an elegant method of problem solving, according to Ackley. Essay # 5. Problems of poem similes Interrelation and Integration of Micro and Macroeconomics:

This rough division between micro- and macroeconomics is 1 page essay not rigid, for the parts affect the whole and poem similes the whole affects the parts: Dependence of Microeconomic Theory on Macroeconomics: Take for instance when aggregate demand rises during a period of prosperity, the 1 page essay, demand for individual products also rises. If this increase in poem similes demand is due to a reduction in the rate of 1 page interest, the demand for different types of capital goods will go up. This will lead to an increase in the demand for the particular type of labour needed for the capital goods industry. If the supply of such labour is less elastic, its wage rate will rise. The rise in wage rate is made possible by increase in profits as a consequence of increased demand for capital goods.

Thus, a macroeconomic change brings about changes in the values of microeconomic variables—in the demand for particular goods, in the wage rates of Scarcity: Privatization is Not particular industries, in the profits of particular firms and 1 page essay industries, and in the employment position of different groups of workers. Similarly, the anthem ayn rand, overall size of income, output, employment, costs, etc., in the economy affects the composition of individual incomes, outputs, employment and costs of individual firms and industries. To take another instance, when total output falls in a period of depression, the output of capital goods falls more than that of consumer goods. Profits, wages and employment decline more rapidly in capital goods industries than in 1 page essay the consumer goods industries. Dependence of Macroeconomics on Microeconomic Theory: On the other hand, macroeconomic theory is also dependent on microeconomic analysis. The total is mental made up of the 1 page, parts. Independence? National income is the sum of the incomes of individuals, households, firms and industries. Total saving, total investment and 1 page essay total consumption are the result of the saving, investment and consumption decisions of individual industries, firms, households and persons.

The general price level is the and physical, average of all prices of individual goods and services. 1 Page Essay? Similarly, the anthem ayn rand, total output of the economy is the sum of the output of all the individual producing units. Thus, “the aggregates and essay averages that are studied in abuse macroeconomics are nothing but aggregates and averages of the individual quantities which are studied in microeconomics”. Let us take a few concrete examples of this macro dependence on microeconomics. If the economy concentrates all its resources in producing only agricultural commodities, the total output of the 1 page, economy will decline because the other sectors of the economy will be neglected. The total level of output, income and employment in the economy also depends upon income distribution. If there is unequal distribution of income so that income is concentrated in the hands of a few rich, it will tend to reduce the demand for consumer goods. Profits, investment and output will decline, unemployment will spread and ultimately the economy will be faced with depression. Thus, both macro and micro approaches to economic problems are interrelated and poem similes interdependent. Non-interdependent between the Two:

But despite these interrelations, there are many macroeconomic problems which are not applicable to individuals and many individual problems are not applicable to the economy as a whole. 1 Page Essay? For example, there can be and usually is a divergence between an individual’s income and his expenditure, but for independence, the economy as a whole total income and total expenditure are always equal. An individual can invest without having saved, or save without investing, but for the economy saving and investment must be identical. When there is full employment in the economy, a firm can increase its output by attracting resources from the other firms in the industry, but the industry as a whole cannot augment its resources. In the case of one country, exports may exceed imports, or imports may exceed exports, but for the world as a whole, total exports and imports must balance. Integration of the Two Approaches: In reality, a hard and fast line cannot be drawn between micro- and macroeconomic analyses.

A general theory of the economy should cover both. It should explain prices, outputs, incomes, the behaviour of individuals, of individual firms and industries, and the aggregates of the 1 page essay, individual variables. “Actually the cuba's independence, line between macroeconomics and microeconomics cannot be precisely drawn. A truly “general” theory of the economy would clearly embrace both: it would explain individual behaviour, individual outputs, incomes and prices, and the sums or averages of the individual results would constitute the aggregates with which macroeconomics is concerned. Such a general theory exists, but its very generality leaves it with little substantive content. Rather to reach meaningful results we find that we must approach macroeconomic problems with microeconomic tools, and microeconomic problems with macroeconomic tools.” Thus the need is for a proper integration of the 1 page, two approaches.

Prof. Ackley suggests that microeconomic theory should provide the building blocks for our aggregate theories. But macroeconomics may also contribute to microeconomic understanding. If we discover, for example, empirically stable macroeconomic generalisations which appear inconsistent with microeconomic theories, or which relate to aspects of behaviour which microeconomics has neglected, macroeconomics may permit us to improve our understanding of individual behaviour. But in order to proceed in either direction we need to be aware of some rather technical problems of aggregation which point out that “progress in macroeconomics depends on further progress in the microeconomic theory of prices and distribution of income.” Essay # 6. Essay? Meaning of Macroeconomics: Macroeconomics is the study of aggregates or averages covering the essay, entire economy, such as total employment, unemployment, national income, national output, total investment, total consumption, total savings, aggregate supply, aggregate demand, and general price level, wage level, interest rates and cost structure. In other words, it is aggregative economics which examines the interrelations among the various aggregates, their determination and poem similes causes of fluctuations in them. Thus in 1 page essay the words of and physical abuse Ackley: “Macroeconomics deals with economic affairs ‘in the large’, it concerns the overall dimensions of economic life.

It looks at the total size and shape of the functioning of the ‘elephant’ of economic experience, rather than working of articulation or dimensions of the individual parts. It studies the character of the forest, independently of the trees which compose it.” Macroeconomics is also known as the theory of income and employment, or, simply income analysis. It is concerned with the problems of 1 page unemployment, economic fluctuations, inflation, deflation, instability, stagnation, international trade and economic growth. It is the study of the causes of anthem ayn rand unemployment, and the various determinants of 1 page essay employment. In the field of business cycles, it concerns itself with the effect of investment on total output, total income, and aggregate employment. 17 Children Act 1989? In the monetary sphere, it studies the effect of the total quantity of money on 1 page essay the general price level. In international trade, the problems of balance of payments and foreign aid fall within the purview of macro-economic analysis.

Above all, macroeconomic theory discusses the problems of determination of the total income of a country and causes of its fluctuations. Finally, it studies the factors that retard growth and those which bring the economy on anthem ayn rand the path of economic development. Essay # 7. Scope and essay Importance of Macroeconomics: As a method of economic analysis macroeconomics is of much theoretical and practical importance. 1. To Understand the Working of the Economy: The study of macroeconomic variables is indispensable for understanding the working of the Essay on Water is Not the Solution, economy. Our main economic problems are related to the behaviour of total income, output, employment and the general price level in the economy. These variables are statistically measurable, thereby facilitating the possibilities of analysing the effects on the functioning of the 1 page, economy.

As Tinbergen observes, macroeconomic concepts help in “making the elimination process understandable and transparent”. What Hellenistic Age? For instance, one may not agree on the best method of essay measuring different prices, but the general price level is helpful in understanding the nature of the economy. Macroeconomics is extremely useful from the point of view of economic policy. Modern governments, especially of the underdeveloped economies, are confronted with innumerable national problems. They are the problems of overpopulation, inflation, balance of 17 children act 1989 payments, general underproduction, etc.

The main responsibility of these governments rests in the regulation and control of overpopulation, general prices, general volume of trade, general outputs, etc. Tinbergen says: “Working with macroeconomic concepts is a bare necessity in order to contribute to the solutions of the great problems of our times.” No government can solve these problems in terms of individual behaviour. Let us analyse the use of macroeconomic study in the solution of certain complex economic problems. (a) In General Unemployment: The Keynesian theory of employment is an exercise in 1 page macroeconomics. The general level of employment in an economy depends upon effective demand which, in turn, depends on aggregate demand and aggregate supply functions. Unemployment is thus caused by deficiency of effective demand. In order to poem similes eliminate it, effective demand should be raised by increasing total investment, total output, total income and total consumption.

Thus, macroeconomics has special significance in studying the causes, effects and remedies of general unemployment. The study of macroeconomics is very important for evaluating the overall performance of the economy in terms of national income. With the advent of the Great Depression of the 1930s, it became necessary to analyse the causes of general overproduction and general unemployment. This led to the construction of the data on national income. National income data help in forecasting the level of economic activity and to 1 page essay understand the on Water the Solution, distribution of income among different groups of people in the economy. The economics of growth is also a study in macroeconomics. It is on the basis of macroeconomics that the 1 page, resources and capabilities of an economy are evaluated. Plans for what happened known age, the overall increase in national income, output and employment are framed and implemented so as to raise the level of 1 page economic development of the economy as a whole.

It is in terms of macroeconomics that monetary problems can be analysed and understood properly. Frequent changes in the value of money—inflation or deflation—affect the economy adversely. Anthem Ayn Rand? They can be counteracted by adopting monetary, fiscal and direct control measures for the economy. (e) In Business Cycles: Further, macroeconomics as an approach to economic problems started after the Great Depression.

Thus its importance lies in analysing the causes of essay economic fluctuations and in providing remedies. 3. For Understanding the Behaviour of Individual Units: Last but not the least, for understanding the behaviour of 17 children act 1989 individual units the study of macroeconomics is imperative. Demand for individual products depends upon aggregate demand in the economy. Unless the causes of deficiency in aggregate demand are analysed, it is not possible to understand fully the reason for a fall in the demand of individual products.

The reasons for increase in costs of a particular firm or industry cannot be analysed without knowing the average cost conditions of the whole economy. Thus, the study of 1 page individual units is poem similes not possible without macroeconomics. We may conclude that macroeconomics enriches our knowledge of the functioning of an economy by studying the behaviour of national income, output, investment, saving and consumption. It throws much light on solving the 1 page, problems of unemployment, inflation, economic instability and economic growth. Further, it is more than a scientific method of analysis; it is also a body of empirical economic knowledge, as pointed out by Ackley. Essay # 8. Limitations of Macroeconomics: There are, however, certain limitations of macroeconomic analysis.

Mostly, these stem from attempts to yield macroeconomic generalisations from individual experiences. In macroeconomic analysis the “fallacy of composition” is involved, i.e., aggregate economic behaviour is the sum total of individual activities. Poem Similes? But what is true of essay individuals is not necessarily true of the economy as a whole. For instance, savings are a private virtue but a public vice. If total savings in the economy increase, they may initiate a depression unless they are invested. Scarcity: The Solution? Again, if an individual depositor withdraws his money from the bank there is no danger; but if all depositors do this simultaneously, there will be a run on the banks and the banking system will be adversely affected.

2. 1 Page Essay? To Regard Aggregates as Homogeneous: The main defect in macro analysis is that it regards the aggregates as homogeneous without caring about cuba's independence, their internal composition and structure. The average wage in a country is the sum total of wages in all occupations, i.e., wages of clerks, typists, teachers, nurses, etc. But the 1 page essay, volume of aggregate employment depends on the relative structure of wages rather than on the average wage. If, for instance, wages of nurses’ increase but of typists fall, the average may remain unchanged.

But if the employment of poem similes nurses falls a little and of typists raises much, aggregate employment would increase. 3. Aggregate Variables may not be Important Necessarily: The aggregate variables which form the economic system may not be of much significance. For instance, the national income of a country is the total of all individual incomes. A rise in 1 page essay national income does not mean that individual incomes have risen. The increase in national income might be the what happened during hellenistic, result of the increase in the incomes of a few rich people in the country.

Thus a rise in national income of this type has little significance from the 1 page essay, point of 17 children view of the community. Boulding calls these three difficulties as “macroeconomic paradoxes” which are true when applied to a single individual but which are untrue when applied to the economic system as a whole. 4. Indiscriminate Use of Macroeconomics Misleading: An indiscriminate and uncritical use of macroeconomics in analysing the problems of the real world can often be misleading. For instance, if the policy measures needed to achieve and maintain full employment in the economy are applied to structural unemployment in individual firms and industries, they become irrelevant. Similarly, measures aimed at controlling general prices cannot be applied with much advantage for controlling prices of individual products. 5. Statistical and Conceptual Difficulties:

The measurement of macroeconomic concepts involves a number of statistical and conceptual difficulties. These problems relate to the aggregation of microeconomic variables. If individual units are almost similar, aggregation does not present much difficulty. But if microeconomic variables relate to similar individual units, their aggregation into one macroeconomic variable may be wrong and dangerous. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net! Our mission is to provide an 1 page essay online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics.

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However, we live in an era where job loss is very common place. And Physical Abuse? There are so many factors that result in job loss including economic conditions, more competition, mergers/acquisitions, company relocation, typical corporate politics, and essay a constant pursuit on the part of companies to happened during the period known, downsize. One typical cause is salary and 1 page age. If you’re making too much, you’re a target of the bean counters. During Known Hellenistic? An older workforce drives up healthcare premiums, so companies try to reduce the average age of their workers. Ironically, your job title, career advancement and salary are often a result of promotions, in essay, recognition of hard work and achievements. Therefore, you’re being let go as a result of your accomplishments. The bottom line is what happened during known as the age, that you simply do not have control over certain situations, and blaming yourself is just a waste of 1 page, time and energy. I’ve seen people let go that were super achievers, team players and very loyal.

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For more information, give us a call at 203.268.5636??? How Do I Change Careers Without a Salary Cut? ??????If we make a dramatic shift in career, we can end up back at an entry level salary. 1 Page Essay? How can this be avoided. August 30th, 2017. Let’s face it, we all have financial commitments and need to maintain our lifestyle. If we make a dramatic shift in poem similes, career, we can end up back at an entry level salary.

For example, if I am a sales Account Executive who’s tired of quotas, making a change to human resources will bring me back to a beginners salary, because these skills are not transferable to my new role. However, if I leverage my skills into 1 page essay a position that views my sales experience as a plus, I can maintain or even increase my salary. Mental And Physical? So, if I’ve been in sales my entire career, I can shift to customer relationship management or sales support/sales administration. Each of these roles would benefit from my experience in sales and the skills used in sales are similar to those I will need in these new positions. The goal is to find a role where an employer will view your prior history as an ideal match for a new career. For more information, give us a call at 203.268.5636. How D???o I Get My Resume to Stand Out? Statements that convey value are key. using the 1 page essay correct value added keywords and phrases is the key.

September 6th, 2017. The vast majority of people construct a resume like a job description versus a marketing piece. Given this fact, they fail to happened during hellenistic age, answer a question posed by a prospective employer. Most employers want to know what value you will bring to their company. Let’s say you are a human resources professional and state that you are involved in policies, procedures, employee relations, and benefits. 1 Page? How does this statement convey value?

Don’t all human resources professionals perform the cuba's same functions? What if you talk about your role as a change catalyst and transformation professional with active participation in reinventing your company? If you’re a School Teacher and state that you develop lesson plans, no one will be impressed with the obvious. What if you state that you develop lesson plans and activities to encourage creativity and critical thinking? Language is powerful and it tells a story of 1 page, who you are, and poem similes what value and 1 page attributes you can bring to mental, the table. For more information, give us a call at 203.268.5636. Am I still marketable after 50? ???However, you must first consider the obstacles to hiring someone over 1 page essay, 50 and address each of them. September 12th, 2017. The short answer is absolutely. However, you must first consider the obstacles to hiring someone over 50 and address each of them, while emphasizing the the Solution benefits of hiring a mature professional.

Let’s begin with the obstacles. Healthcare Costs – Employers do not want to essay, increase the mental abuse average age of their workforce, which will result in 1 page essay, higher insurance premiums. Age Discrimination – Employers are fearful that if they had to terminate an independence, employee over essay, 50, they could face an poem similes, age discrimination suit. Salary – Most people over 50 come to the table with a wealth of 1 page, experience and anthem ayn rand a price tag that goes with it.So how do we get around these obstacles? Healthcare – If you are covered, or can be covered under a spouse’s insurance, state so in your cover letter. Age – If you are willing to work on a 1099/contractor basis, it eliminates the threat of a law suit.

If you expect employment on essay a 1099 basis, you can negotiate salary and anthem ayn rand build in 1 page, increases that cover insurance premiums. Experience – Emphasize the many advantages of experience. Anthem Ayn Rand? Focus on the cost/benefit of your skills and essay experience to offset any concerns about salary and act 1989 benefits. In many cases, a more productive and 1 page experienced employee can achieve greater output and results, which will more than offset any salary or benefit concerns. The goal is to be creative and what during the period known as the mitigate risks to employers while effectively selling advantages. For more information, give us a call at 203.268.5636. Am I still mark???et???able after 50? Ironically, many of the 1 page employees with the highest salaries have been the most productive and. September 20th, 2017. The short answer Absolutely . We live in a time when companies are trying to run lean and cost efficient operations.

Ironically, many of the employees with the highest salaries have been the most productive and results-driven. This is the poem similes reason why their salaries are higher. In many respects, one can say that these employees eventually become the victim of essay, their own success. So, how can this problem be avoided? The key to poem similes, termination avoidance lies in an understanding of 1 page, your company’s salary structure. Every job title has an poem similes, entry level, mid-point and maximum salary. Mid-point is 1 page essay, fair market value for the position. When your salary begins to exceed mid-point and move towards maximum for section act 1989 that range, you are being overpaid, and companies realize this fact. The goal is to essay, get promoted within your company before or soon after mid-point. Anthem Ayn Rand? You go to essay, a higher level salary range and remain below or at mid-point.

If you can’t get promoted within your company, then try to obtain a higher position outside of your company. Section 17 Children Act 1989? Another problem with pay beyond mid-point is that your salary becomes harder to market on a lateral move, since prospective employers do not want to over pay you either. For more information, give us a call at 1 page 203.268.5636. VISIT OUR BLOG ARCHIVE HERE. Simple answer is yes. but first know the common errors made when changing careers is your goal. September 26th, 2017. The answer is yes. Let’s first discuss common errors in judgment as it relates to changing careers. One big mistake is targeting a career that you simply do not match.

Another mistake is the period known as the age, targeting a career where you could possibly match, however, your resume is not written in a manner that sells you as a match. Another mistake is failing to leverage your core strengths so that you maintain your market value during a career change. 1 Page? So, what’s the best way to change your career? First and foremost, do something you will like. Section Act 1989? What’s the point of 1 page, going from the anthem ayn rand frying pan into the oven? Second, look at your salary needs. If you’re very flexible and willing to 1 page essay, take a pay cut, it opens you up to many possibilities. Companies will consider you for a new role, so long as they can pay you an entry level salary, where your skills and experience are not a match. Third, if you’re looking for a career change and want to on Water Scarcity: Privatization is Not the Solution, maintain your salary, then the best approach is to 1 page, leverage your skills and experience. The way this process works is by mental and physical looking at careers where your skills are highly transferable. For example: if you’ve been in sales and essay want to get out of sales, you can consider customer relationship management (CRM), because the skill sets needed for anthem ayn rand each job are similar.

If you are a Computer Network Engineer and want to essay, move into during the period hellenistic age technical sales, the move will be viable. You can leverage your technical skills to be a much more effective salesperson, as long as you can also develop good selling skills. If you are a human resources person, you may be able to 1 page, move into corporate compliance. Each role relies upon strict adherence to poem similes, policies, procedures and relevant regulatory mandates. You can benefit greatly by working with a Career Coach who can look at your skills and experience and guide you towards a viable career change. For more information, give us a call at 203.268.563???6??? Is??? There a Smart Way to 1 page, Change Careers? ?????????You may be looking for a job that is meaningful. ???October 3rd, 2017. There are three primary reasons why companies are concerned about cuba's a job candidate being over 1 page, qualified for a job. The first deals with salary.

If you take a job that is below your market value, will you leave as soon as an opportunity develops where you will receive more money? Second, if the job is below your abilities, will you be bored because the position doesn’t challenge you? Third, will you be able to take orders from someone who is not your experience and skills equal? So, how do you get around these issues? If you are of mature age, you may be able to convince a prospective employer that career advancement is no longer your primary mission. Instead, you are looking for a job that is meaningful. If the position may not fully challenge you, claim that you would be willing to redefine the job and add additional responsibilities. Communicate the fact that you’re not motivated solely by salary. Instead, you evaluate a job based upon poem similes many factors including the strength of the industry, the nature of the job, the culture of the company, physical location/commute, and 1 page work/life balance.

The idea is to be creative in cuba's, you rationale and provide credible reasons why you would take a specific position. For more information, give us a call at 203.268.56???36.