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Essay: Identity, and black identity issues. In recent years, people working in a remarkable area of Patrice Emry, social science and african american, humanities disciplines have taken interest in Patrice Lumumba, questions concerning identity. South And Culture. Within political science, for example, we find the concept of Patrice Lumumba, identity at the center of lively debates in every major subfield. Students of the scrivener text, American politics have devoted much new research to Lumumba, the identity politics of race, gender and sexuality. Compared to recent scholarship in bartleby, history and the humanities, however, political scientists remain laggards when it comes to work on Patrice, identities. Due to influences ranging from Michel Foucault to the debate on multiculturalism, the historical and cultural construction of the scrivener text, identities of all sorts has lately been a preoccupation for Lumumba both social historians and students of literature and culture. Despite this increased and broad-ranging interest in identity, the concept itself remains something of an enigma. What Phillip Gleason (1983) observed 15 years ago remains true today: the meaning of identity as we usually use it is not well captured by dictionary definitions, which reflect older senses of the word. Our present idea of Essay Antithetical Love in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice, identity is a fairly social construct, and a rather complicated one. Even though everyone knows how to Patrice Emry Lumumba, use the word properly in everyday discourse, it proves quite difficult to give a short and adequate summary statement that captures the range of its present meanings. Given the centrality of the concept to so much recent research and especially in social science where scholars take identities both as things to hurricane, be explained and Patrice Emry Lumumba, things that have explanatory force this amounts almost to a scandal.

At a minimum, it would be useful to have a concise statement of the meaning of the word in simple language that does justice to Essay about Antithetical in Jane, its present intension. This is the main purpose of this paper, to distill a statement of the meaning of identity from an analysis of current usage in ordinary language and social science discourse. The main results are easily stated, although a fair amount of work on alternative possibilities will be required to reach them. Patrice Emry. I argue that identity is presently used in people, two linked senses, which may be termed social and Emry Lumumba, personal. In the hurricane katrina newspaper articles, former sense, an identity refers simply to a social category, a set of persons marked by a label and distinguished by rules deciding membership and (alleged) characteristic features or attributes. In the second sense of Patrice Emry Lumumba, personal identity, an identity is some distinguishing characteristic (or characteristics) that a person takes a special pride in or views as socially consequential but more-or-less unchangeable. Thus, identity in causes growth, its present incarnation has a double sense. It refers at Patrice Emry the same time to social categories and to the sources of an individuals self-respect or dignity.

There is no necessary linkage between these things. In ordinary language, at least, one can use identity to refer to personal characteristics or attributes that cannot naturally be expressed in terms of a social category, and in some contexts certain categories can be described as identities even though no one sees them as central to their personal identity. Nonetheless, identity in its present incarnation reflects and in Jane Pride, evokes the idea that social categories are bound up with the bases of an individuals self-respect. Arguably much of the force and interest of the term derives its implicit linkage of Emry Lumumba, these two things. Of course, one can find brief definitions and clarifications in many places. These run the gamut, from suggestive glosses to newspaper articles, some fairly complicated and opaque formulations. Here are some examples, culled mainly but not exclusively from the areas I read most in (political science, international relations):

1. Identity is peoples concepts of who they are, of what sort of people they are, and how they relate to others (Hogg and Abrams 1988, 2). 2. Patrice. Identity is used in this book to describe the way individuals and groups define themselves and are defined by others on bartleby the scrivener text, the basis of race, ethnicity, religion, language, and Patrice, culture (Deng 1995, 1). 3. Identity refers to the ways in which individuals and collectivities are distinguished in their social relations with other individuals and collectivities (Jenkins 1996, 4). 4. Movies. National identity describes that condition in which a mass of people have made the Patrice, same identification with national symbols have internalised the symbols of the nation (Bloom 1990, 52). 5. Identities are relatively stable, role-specific understandings and expectations about self (Wendt 1992, 397). 6. Social identities are sets of meanings that an actor attributes to itself while taking the bartleby text, perspective of others, that is, as a social object. [Social identities are] at once cognitive schemas that enable an actor to determine who I am/we are in a situation and positions in a social role structure of shared understandings and expectations (Wendt 1994, 395). 7. By social identity, I mean the desire for group distinction, dignity, and place within historically specific discourses (or frames of understanding) about the character, structure, and Patrice Emry, boundaries of the polity and the economy (Herrigel 1993, 371). 8. The term [identity] (by convention) references mutually constructed and evolving images of self and other (Katzenstein 1996, 59). 9. Identities are prescriptive representations of political actors themselves and south african and culture, of their relationships to each other (Kowert and Legro 1996, 453). 10. My identity is defined by the commitments and identifications which provide the frame or horizon within which I can try to determine from case to case what is good, or valuable, or what ought to be done, or what I endorse or oppose (Taylor 1989, 27).

11. Yet what if identity is conceived not as a boundary to be maintained but as a nexus of relations and transactions actively engaging a subject? (Clifford 1988, 344). 12. Identity is Patrice Lumumba, any source of action not explicable from biophysical regularities, and to african people, which observers can attribute meaning (White 1992, 6). 13. Patrice. Indeed, identity is objectively defined as location in a certain world and can be subjectively appropriated only along with that world. [A] coherent identity incorporates within itself all the various internalized roles and attitudes. (Berger and Luckmann 1966, 132). 14. Identity emerges as a kind of unsettled space, or an unresolved question in that space, between a number of intersecting discourses. [Until recently, we have incorrectly thought that identity is] a kind of Austen’s, fixed point of thought and being, a ground of action the logic of something like a true self. [But] Identity is a process, identity is split. Identity is not a fixed point but an ambivalent point. Identity is Lumumba, also the relationship of the causes growth, Other to oneself (Hall 1989). The range, complexity, and differences among these various formulations are remarkable. In part, the differences reflect the multiple lineages that identity has within the Patrice Emry, academy. Different research traditions influenced variously by symbolic interactionism, role theory, Eriksonian psychology, social identity theory, and romance, postmodernism, have evolved somewhat different conventions regarding the term. Perhaps some of these authors intend to stipulate a definition of identity appropriate or useful for their specific purposes, so some variation might be expected with varying purposes. Nonetheless, it is also striking that the definitions seem to Lumumba, refer to a common underlying concept.

Almost every one evokes a sense of african and culture, recognition, so that none seems obviously wrong, despite the diversity. This is also to be expected, because identity has for some time now been a staple of ordinary language. Regardless of particular research traditions or purposes, it would be very strange to offer a definition of identity that bore no relation to what we already intuitively understand by the concept. There is an important and more general point to be made here about the definition of social science concepts. Lumumba. In contrast to many areas in african romance movies, the natural sciences, in social science most of our key concepts either derive from or enter into ordinary language.

Power, rationality, democracy, ethnicity, race, the Patrice Lumumba, state, and even politics are examples. I will write especially about race and about black identity. 1.1 BLACK IDENTITY ISSUES. In the history of research on Black identity, scholars have defined and american romance, operationalized the concept in many different ways. The earliest sociological research on Black identity focused on the racial preferences and self-identification of children. Early studies used photographs, drawings, or dolls representing Black and White children to Patrice Emry Lumumba, study the concept. The childs choice of object (Black or White) was taken to indicate a preference for or self-identification with the corresponding racial group. In this early research the authors concluded that Black children had a more negative orientation to their own race than White children. During the hurricane katrina articles, Civil Rights and Black Power movements, researchers critiqued these early studies and developed a new paradigm of Black identity that stressed its resilience despite oppression used a different definition of Emry Lumumba, Black identity. He focused on the process of katrina articles, Black identity change across an individuals life course; he termed this process nigrescence. Nigrescence is Emry Lumumba, a resocializing experience; it seeks to transform a preexisting identity (a non-Afrocentric identity) into one that is Afrocentric. There was argued that Black identity is a multidimensional concept that encompasses a wider array of feelings than simply closeness to other Blacks.

They expanded the concept to include not only feelings of closeness, but also Black separatist sentiments, which they define as commitment to African culture and the degree to people and culture, which Blacks should confine their social relationships to other Blacks, and racial group evaluation, which is a general measure of a respondents positive or negative evaluation of Black people as a group. It was argued that Black identity is complex and multidimensional and Patrice, has been oversimplified. African American Romance Movies. In their study they separate feelings of closeness to Lumumba, other Blacks into closeness to elite Blacks, closeness to the masses, and closeness to the rebels. Some works examine characteristics of society, the of population, state, and Emry Lumumba, the group itself that affect the macro-level construction of Black identity. They conceptualize Black identity as the society-wide meaning attached to the racial category Black. Clearly, conceptualizations of african american, Black identity are not uniform across academic disciplines. The characterization of Black identity as a process (e.g. nigrescence) is more prevalent in the counseling and cross-cultural psychology literature.

In the past century we have gained much valuable knowledge about the racial identity of Patrice, African Americans. Researchers examined black identity at both the micro- and macro-levels, and determined individual and social characteristics correlated with Black identity. However, there are several ways those studying Black identity can improve the literature. First, the substantial body of quantitative study of Black identity is the scrivener, not matched with qualitative in-depth research on the topic. With a few notable exceptions,6 scholars have not used qualitative methods to Emry Lumumba, explore the ways in which African Americans understand their racial identity. Another improvement, albeit a more difficult one to south african and culture, attain, is to complete research using more recent data. Much of the work in the field uses the first wave of the National Survey of Black Americans (data gathered in 1979 and Patrice, 1980).

Research using later waves of the katrina newspaper articles, survey or other more recent data would greatly improve the literature. Many young Black adults today never experienced the Civil Rights or Black Power movements, as did those interviewed in the NSBA. It would certainly be beneficial to investigate the Patrice Emry Lumumba, identity experiences of these younger adults. Further, it would be valuable to update the information gathered at earlier points in time on adults who did live through these social movements. Finally, researchers in this field need to focus on the development of theory. The empirical research has produced a large set of facts about African American identity, but very little theory in which to contextualize these facts.

This tradition of african romance movies, research is a ripe area for scholars to Patrice Lumumba, theorize about factors that affect Black identity at both the micro- and macro-levels. 1.2 THE SHADOWED IDENTITY. The term Afro-American as a literary genre started to be considered from the so-called. Harlem Renaissance at the beginning of the twentieth century; in fact, Harlem Renaissance can be considered as the spring of Afro-American voice: it was the moment in hurricane katrina newspaper, which scholars started to revive all the Patrice Emry, forgotten texts written by American Blacks, considering them within the frame of a literary tradition rooted in groups, the time of slavery. In this way, this new perspective intends to articulate a new concept in Patrice, literature in which the Black voice plays a role. The great problem with Harlem Renaissance is that, in its approach, it tends not only to ignore but, in Essay in Jane Austen’s Pride, fact, to Patrice Emry Lumumba, reject explicitly the role of woman in Afro-American tradition. The reason for growth this ignorance of the Black-woman cause, focusing only Black-male repression through History, is clearly expressed by B. Hooks: Oppression of black men during slavery has been described as de-masculinization for the. same reason that virtually no scholarly attention has been given to the oppression of black. women during slavery. Underlying both tendencies is the sexist assumption that the. experiences of men are more important than those of women and that what matters most.

among the experiences of men is their ability to Patrice Emry Lumumba, assert themselves patriarchally.'(Hooks, The feeling that the female black experience through History is reflected in black womens literary production is also shared by many other specialists in this field .From the rediscovery of black feminine voice, its the black woman who has the power of defining herself without the distortion of male and/or white perspective. The flourishing of black womans voice implies, then, that she has the control over her own image and she now knows this new power. In the past and in Jane and Prejudice, depending on Emry, who held the pen, black women have almost exclusively in terms of negative and regressive stereotypes . Black women are themselves in the front of reclaiming their own womanhood, and the arena where their invisibility and. misrepresentation is heterogeneous groups, played out is the novel.

The novels, essays and poems of Maya Angelou, Toni Cade Bambara, Zora Neale Hurston, Paule Marshall, Toni Morrison, Gloria Naylor, Ntozake Shange, Alice Walker and Sherley Anne Williams, with their powerful celebration of maternal presence, have been instrumental in opening up the historically and distinct world of black women. The act of writing down their experiences and the act of reading their own literature are mutual acts of empowerment. In fact, Black Women History is Patrice Lumumba, a history of Self empowerment in a fight against external forces trying to silence their own voice. And this. fight has not been an easy one since it implied to struggle against a double discrimination, racism and sexism. On the one hand, identity has been denied to black women because of racism. Blacks in a white American society were considered as mere objects during slavery and afterwards it took a long time to consider them as equal; when the Feminist movement began, it didnt include black women because of their colour. About Antithetical Love In Jane Austen’s Pride. Black women have had the Patrice Emry Lumumba, feeling, then, that white women liberation did not challenge this sexist-racist practice; they continued it. (Hooks, 1982: 8). Causes. So, the first problem that the black woman faces is that society denies the existence of Patrice Emry Lumumba, non-white women in America. (Hooks, 1982; 8) On the other hand, black womens identity has also been denied because of heterogeneous, Sexism. Slavery has been considered as a Black male phenomenon, regarding Black women as biological functionaries whose destinies are rendered ephemeral- to lay their eggs and die.

Therefore, the Emry Lumumba, emancipation movements from the end of the American Civil War have been seeking the text, equality between white people and Patrice, black men since black men were not able to risk their chances including women in their enterprise. South African. (Hook, 1982: 1) Consequently, the yearnings of Afro-American women have been frustrated by the double stigma non-white, non-man and Patrice Emry Lumumba, their main struggle has been to seek for a definition of themselves according to positive characteristics and not according to what they lack (either blackness or masculinity). This frustration feeling has been a characteristic in of population, the female Afro-American tradition: When I was in the third grade I wanted to be president. I can still remember the Patrice Emry, striken look of my teachers face when I announced it in class. By the time I was in the fourth grade I have decided to be the newspaper articles, presidents wife instead. It never occurred to Emry Lumumba, me that I could be neither because I was Black. (Wallace, 1982: 5) One of the many alternatives opted by the Afro-American woman to build up her own identity has been the causes, literary production. During the slavery period, being able to Emry, write and read meant freedom and active rebellion for a Negro; it also meant a way of saying aloud metaphorically what was forbidden to say aloud in practice. Pride And Prejudice. In fact, the black woman has found in Patrice Emry Lumumba, writing a place on her own through which she can fulfil her ambitions and express her emotions without the white and/or masculine trace. Therefore, we cannot consider black womens writings as mere fiction since there is an inherente Black woman identification in the Black female literary tradition () black women have used writing as a way of capturing and exalting their experiences. (Brethel, 1982: 185) African American Literature constitutes one of the supreme enrichments of the black women and black life.

The literature of the black people is a composite of what is people and culture, known coming from the unknown. The black women have been involved in the development of Lumumba, African- American writing since its inception. Their perspective is faithful to the actual experiences of the black women in North America. Among the women writers one of the most prolific black American women writers is Alice Walker. She is known not only for her classic novel The Color Purple but for her rediscovery of an causes growth, earlier African American women novelist and Emry, folklorist Zora Neale Hurston. She is also known for american romance her activism in causes like environmentalism, spirituality, racial justice and womens issues and against female circumcision.

Walker in order to describe the lives of the black women within her community , has created on Patrice, of the most striking protagonists who, like their predecessors is concerned about the past and at the same time, are different from them, and who believe in the survival of the whole people. Alice Walker, author of The Color Purple and renowned womanist, uses a color analogy to describe the women of south, two movements that are the foundation of womens rights and equality. In her novel The Color Purple she brings out the Lumumba, especial Blackness of the novel. It may be. called a painterly novel casting its narratives in terms of spectrum of causes growth, colours in Black. Women lives. Feminism is often the first and most prominent ideology that we all think about concerning the womens rights movement. Considering the fight for womens rights from the 1800s through the Patrice Lumumba, Civil Rights Movement of the 50s and 60s to present day, womanism includes an african romance movies, extension beyond the boundaries of race and class. It integrates the needs of women who may have faced additional societal biases throughout the evolving history of the movement. Emry. Womanism considers a womans culture, family, and spirituality.

There are greater and more specific differences to katrina articles, each perspective, and Lumumba, a range of hurricane katrina newspaper articles, views within them, but overall there remains unity across the ideologies. Women from Patrice Emry, both schools of thought have marched together, sat with Presidents, and met with policy makers to african people and culture, fight for womens rights. All labels aside, at the end of the day, each school of thought supports equality for women in our professional and personal lives. The novel is written in two voices. One is addressed to Patrice Emry Lumumba, god, i.e. Celie the main narrators naive addressed or prayers to God and heterogeneous groups, the other is Netties who is Celies sister, in Lumumba, her letter from Olinka in Africa to bartleby the scrivener, Celie.

This aspect of narrative brings to the fore the Patrice Lumumba, theme of of population growth, repression of the voice, women and Black voice, and the breaking of silence. Both Celie and Nettie in a way break their silence in their addresses, Celies to Emry, God, communicated in private and in groups, confidence of solitude and Netties to Patrice, her sister. Both of which do not reach the addressee, one to the white God whose ironic (non)existence is linked to racial oppression and other, Netties letter to Celie which are intercepted by Albert, Celies tyrannical husband who Stashes them away from Celie who thinks she has lost her sister. African And Culture. There is a comparison between God and Mr. Albert who plays god being male. The white God who silences Blacks stories and the Black Male who silences Black womens voices. The White Mayor who slaps Sophie Celies spirited and rebellious daughter in law and then sends to jail because she refuses to become housemaid; and rapes Mary Agnes Squeak Harpos second wife to show her that she is not his kin, when she goes to Patrice Emry Lumumba, speak for the scrivener Sophie is comparable to Mr. Patrice Emry. Albert. Racism and of population, Sexism are expressed in the same forms of violence and Emry, subjugation. The epistolary style in Walkers novel recreates the mode used by slaves to newspaper articles, denounce their.

situation. The epistolary style is Emry, also an approach used traditionally by women to enter into. the literary field and to be able to enter the realm of literature by means of letters. In The Color Purple, all the characters words are controlled by Celies supravoice having her, in katrina newspaper articles, this way, the power of manipulating their speeches. The only sentence that seems not to be under Celies control is the first one in the novel: You better never tell anybody but God. Id kill your mammy. This sentence is heading the first page and, by Emry, extension, the groups, whole novel. Its precisely this threat what makes Celie silence her physical voice and look for a new voice through the written language. The Color Purple is structured as a series of letters addressed, firstly, to God and, then, to Celies sister, Nettie.

At the beginning, Celie describes the sexual abuse on her by the man she assumes to Patrice, be her father and how she is given like an object to Mr.- the man who will be her husband: She spoiled. Twice. ().She ugly. ().But shell make the causes growth, better wife. She aint smart either. (). Patrice Lumumba. But she can work like a man. Celie has to bear The exploitation of katrina newspaper articles, black women by black men (Stuart, 1988: 61) and her story will be the story of a black woman empowered to reject the role of passive victim and become active agent in her own life, through her relationship with other women: sister, lover, daughter-in-law and friends (Stuart, 1988: 64).

The first and, probably, most influential woman in Celies life is her sister Nettie. They will be forced to be separated by her oppressive husband but, before leaving, Nettie encourages her to be active. You got to fight. You got to fight. But I dont know how to fight. All I know how to do is to stay alive. Celie and Nettie promise each other to Patrice Emry, keep in contact by letter but Mr. hides all the letters from Nettie and Celies only addressee (and hope) is God, so she writes to him.

However, her relationship with God doesnt give her courage to adopt an active attitude and african american romance, its only useful to her since it helps her to bear her oppression: I dont say nothing. I think bout Nettie, dead. She fights, she run away. What good it do? I. dont fight; I stay where Im told.

But Im alive. At this stage of Patrice Emry Lumumba, her life another woman influences on her life; its Sofia, the african, wife of Mr.-s son. Celie considers her as a model because she fights for her rights but Celie is not able to behave the same way: Im jealous of you. Patrice Emry Lumumba. I say it cause you do what I cant. What that? She says.

But the great trigger for Celie to adopt an active attitude seems to be Shug Avery, her husbands lover. Their relationship will be a very special one since Shug gives Celie the support to african romance, build up her own independent self: She says this song Im about to sing is called Miss Celies song () First time somebody. made something and named it after me. I wont leave, she says, until I know Albert wont even think about beating you With Shug, Celie speaks about Patrice Emry Lumumba sex and bartleby text, she is Patrice Emry Lumumba, able to african and culture, redefine her image of God fromold. and tall and greabearded and white (31) to a pantheistic God: Dear God. Dear stars, dear.

trees, dear sky, dear peoples. Dear Everything. Dear God. Shug also helps her to Patrice Emry, find Netties letters and wear the pants (literally and metaphorically) and thanks to her, and to Netties letters, Celie is able to bartleby, react and Lumumba, speak: (To Mr.-) You a lowdown dog is whats wrong, I say. Its time to leave you and enter into.

the creation. And your dead body just the welcome mat I need. From this moment on, Celie will be in control of her life being able to abandon her husband and work precisely sewing pants-. Essay In Jane Austen’s Pride And Prejudice. Mr. will try to intimidate her but now he wont be able to Patrice Lumumba, humiliate her: Mr.- Look at you.

You black, you pore, you ugly. You a woman. Goddam, he say, you. (Celie) Im pore, Im black, I may be ugly and cant cook, a voice say to everything. Men in Celies life constantly prevent her from speaking and the act of writing down her feelings is a way of shouting her rights in silence. Heterogeneous Groups. Writing, to Celie, is a tool to stay alive and, therefore, its as important to her as breathing: Long as I can spell G-o-d I got somebody along To finish, I would like to point out the important idea, conveyed in Patrice, the novel, that womens power can even change men. Celies liberation is a positive one because it also means the bartleby, liberation of Patrice, other people from their badness. In this way, what is good for Celie is also good for her community and, therefore, she can reconcile with her previously hostile environment.

Celie is unable to hate Mr. Groups. (I still dont like frogs, but let us be friends and her attitude is a model for Mr.- who realizes that giving love and understanding he will receive the Patrice Emry Lumumba, same: (Mr.-) The more I wonder, he say, the more I love. (Celie) And people start to love you back, I bet, I say. (Mr.-) they do, he say, surprise. Harpo seem to romance movies, love me. Sofia and the children. I think even ole evil Henrietta love me a little bit Celies power, therefore, makes women more man-like (since they have opinion and they wear pants), men more woman-like (Mr. Emry. learns to sew) and, in doing so, it also makes both more complete, more human. Women struggle everyday against discrimination: color, gender, illiteracy, violence, insecurity, lack of equal opportunities; the Essay about Love in Jane, list is long and bleak. Celie is an example of an African-American woman exerting her right of self-defining. She represents any black womans experience but, above all, her own.

Her voice stands for a whole community but, at the same time, she also claims her right of speaking as an individual voice. Her experience is similar to that of many other black women: she had to bear the same type of discrimination, being always the other (the non- white and the non- man.) and she finds her path towards her own self through the written language. Therefore, Celie is, above all, an individual searching for her place in Patrice Emry Lumumba, society. In the same way, Alice Walker is also female Afro-American but, most of all, a writer searching for her place in literature; and the great popularity of her book together with the Pulizer Prize for Fiction in 1983 to The Color Purple confirm that she has found that space. 1.3 BLACK WOMENS IDENTITIES. Being part of two marginalized groups historically deemed inferior, Black females figured in a distinctive way different from either Black men or White women. They were ascribed peculiar derogatory images that were the legacy of a long-lived racism and Essay Antithetical Love Austen’s, sexism. Myths perpetuated by Whites and Lumumba, long underpinning the image of Blacks might contain common elements for bartleby Black females and males as their experiences were two sides of the same coin and influenced each other.

However, standing on the nexus of American race and sex ideologies, Black women were doubly discredited. Racial and discriminatory representations of Black womanhood which had roots in the antebellum era evolved around four central figures: the inept domestic servant (the mammy), the domineering matriarch, the Patrice Lumumba, sex object (the Jezebel), and the tragic mulatto. Drawing on some works by Black female writers and Blacks racial uplift strategy between the 1890s and the 1930s, this article delineates the distorted conceptualization of Black women, and the way it molded their identities. It will primarily map out three of these images namely the mammy, the Jezebel, and Essay in Jane Austen’s Pride, the tragic mulatto. The bipolar conceptualization of Black and White womanhood assigned Black women all the negative traits of disgrace whereas White women were attributed all the idealized aspects of Emry Lumumba, true womanhood, such as piety, deference, domesticity, passionlessness, chastity, cleanness and fragility. Conversely, Black women were conceived and south, pictured as primitive, lustful, seductive, physically strong, domineering, unwomanly and dirty. Lumumba. There was a breadth of stereotypical perceptions of causes growth, Black women, which placed them outside the enclave of delicacy, femininity, respectability and virtue. As Patricia Morton suggests, all except Mammy had profoundly derogatory, dehumanizing characterization. There is also observed black womens enslavement and the construction of stereotypes. In fact the old slave mammy or Aunt jemima figure pervaded a body of writings about Black womanhood. She was generally dark-skinned, strong-bodied, thick-lipped, obese and ugly.

Despite the Patrice Lumumba, desexualized image projected onto the mammy, which contradicted that of the Jezebel, both figures simultaneously underpinned the American mind.Unlike mammy, the Jezebel was a middle-aged or young woman governed by her libido. The stereotypical representation that went hand in hand with the Jezebel image was that of the seductress. Black women, paricularly light-skinned ones, who could pass gor whites sometimes, were in white womens opinion able to overpower the White mans will to resist their allure. Whether as a depraved oran an elevated mulatto, a mammy or a Jezebel, a bonds woman or a free woman, the image of the blac woman was conditioned by whites patriarchal values. If blac mens psychological masculinity was undoubtely restored and their images were improved, black females identity remained pictured in a negative light. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Sociology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

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English and Comparative Literary Studies. This handbook is a guide that I’m hoping will enable you. It is geared, in particular, towards the seventeenth-century literature and culture module but I hope you will find it useful at other times too. I would like to stress, though, that it is not the only way to do things. It may be that you have much better ideas about what makes for a successful essay and have tried and tested methods of executing your research. Emry Lumumba. There isn’t necessarily a right way and so I hope you will not see this as proscriptive and limiting. You should talk to all your tutors about Essay Love Pride and Prejudice what makes for a good essay to Lumumba get a sense of the different ways that you might construct an essay.

1. Essay writing (p.2) 2. Close reading (p. 4) 4. Constructing an newspaper, argument (p. 8) 5. Help with this particular assessment (p. 9) 6. Grade descriptions (p. 10) 1. ESSAY WRITING (and historicist writing in Emry particular)

Essay writing has four stages: reading, planning, writing and proof-reading. African. Excepting the last, you may not find that they are not particularly discrete but rather interlinked and mutually informative. If any stage is skipped or done badly, though, it will impair your work. 1) Read the text and Patrice, make sure you understand it. Use the Oxford English Dictionary online to look up any words you don’t understand or if they are operating in bartleby text an unfamiliar context.

Available on the Warwick web: 2) Do a close reading. Make a list technical features (cf. the page in this booklet entitled ‘close reading’; refer to the section on poetic form in Patrice Emry the back of your Norton Anthologies pp. Heterogeneous Groups. 2944-52). Lumumba. Ask yourself: ‘how does the text achieve its effects?’ Then ask yourself: ‘how do those poetic effects relate to the meaning of the text?’. 3) Do some research, particularly on the historical theme, period, cultural group that you’re interested in. You could begin with a general history and then do a literature search for american romance, more specialist books and articles. It may help you to narrow your research to Patrice a particular theme or idea that is suggested, hopefully by your reading in 1) and 2). Rather than trying to find out about the whole of seventeenth-century culture, limit your research to and culture the restoration, cavalier culture, medicine, the family or whatever. (See the handout on research).

4) Be careful when you take notes so that you will make no mistake, when you come to writing and Patrice Emry Lumumba, referencing your work, about what is your work and what is someone else’s. Hurricane Katrina. Read and Patrice, be clear about the university’s rules on plagiarism which are laid out in the blue booklet ‘Essay Writing and Scholarly Practice’ which you can get from the general office. 1) Begin by making a spider plan of all your ideas and the relationships between them. IF YOU DON'T LIKE SPIDERS FORGET THIS BIT. 2) Then write out a paragraph (which you will not include in your essay necessarily) called ‘MY LINE OF ARGUMENT’. This will be information to yourself (so it can be very boringly and functionally written) about what you intend to say. Ideally this should be a single big idea, which you can sustain for the length of the essay, made up of stages that can be demonstrated with reference to katrina articles the passage in question.

It may well be that you want to write something similar to this ‘line of argument’ paragraph, only in a more dynamic and elegant way, for your introduction. See the page entitled ‘constructing an argument’ that has an example of a ‘line of Patrice Lumumba argument’ paragraph. 3) Then write out a linear plan of african american romance your essay with a logical ARGUMENT, an Lumumba, argument that is assertively stated and then proved through the course of your piece. TIP: try not to separate out style, content and context; discuss them together to show how the relate to one another. You are aiming to produce something that identifies and describes both the wood and the trees; indeed, the trees are your evidence for the existence of the wood!

You need to put together a big argument out of lots of bits of evidence. 1) Everyone has his or her own way of writing. I sometimes find it easier to write the middle of the essay first and then come to the introduction last, which is perhaps the hardest bit to write. Austen’s Pride And Prejudice. You may find that your ideas change and are worked out more fully as you start to write. Patrice Lumumba. In which case go back to B) and produce another plan. Present your ideas as a finished thought, rather than a thought process. 2) Keep yourself closely to your argument by african american imagining your reader. Perhaps a friend, a tutor or a parent might serve: imagine them behind you as you write asking ‘SO WHAT?’, making you insist on Lumumba, its relevance and trying to prove a particular point. Imagine that you are a newspaper editor writing a polemic, trying to convince your readership of a particular point of view. 3) Inventing a title and writing an introduction. You should try to make your essay interesting to an examiner.

Which do you think is the best of these three titles: ‘Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko’; ‘Discuss the question of Essay Love and Prejudice race in Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko’; ‘The “gallant slave”: the idea of the Patrice Lumumba, noble savage in heterogeneous Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko’. Similarly with the Lumumba, introduction. The first sentence should grab the bartleby the scrivener, examiner immediately. Which is a better first sentence: ‘Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko was published in Patrice 1688 and is a prose work about Surinam’; ‘At the heart of Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko stands the deep paradox of the ‘royal slave’. 4) Using secondary literary criticism. It is, of course, good to read lots and to incorporate that reading into your work. What you are attempting to do, though, is to position your independently arrived at ideas in relation to bartleby other critics in Patrice the field. You shouldn’t be deferential or let the ideas of others drag you off course. Causes Growth. You should USE other people’s work in Emry the service of your own argument.

For example, you might disagree with a critic; you might apply their theory about one text to in Jane Pride another; you might say that their work hasn’t gone far enough in its assessment. Never use a quotation from someone else to clinch an argument: just because someone famous has said x or y it doesn’t mean that it’s necessarily true. Patrice. I sometimes find it useful to write a draft of my paper that includes no secondary reading at all, basing it just on my general knowledge of the critical field. I then do some detailed research in secondary criticism before writing a second draft. This means that the agenda is not dictated by other scholars, and ensures that I use them rather than becoming their spokeswoman. Make sure, of course, that all your reading is properly referenced to avoid a charge of plagiarism. 1) Check the spelling: in particular the names of the author and the text that you’re looking at MUST be spelled correctly. 2) Check your punctuation. If you don’t know how to use particular punctuation marks please get a book and learn how. Of Population. In particular the misuse of apostrophes is Patrice Lumumba deeply irritating to an examiner. The Collins gem guides are really good also Lynne Truss, Eats, Shoots and Leaves is fun and informative.

3) Make sure that you get hold of the blue booklet, ‘Essay Writing and katrina newspaper articles, Scholarly Practice’, from the general office. You must use the Patrice Emry, reference guide in of population growth there. I favor the MHRA guidelines; you may prefer the MLA style. If you do reference a website it is best to put it in a footnote rather than the text were it looks ugly. You should always include some close detailed analysis of the literary text(s) that you’re discussing in your essay. This demonstrates your sensitivity to Patrice Lumumba the forms, textures and ideological purpose of language. You should aim to show the relationship between form and meaning, between the text and about Antithetical in Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice, its world. Before you can put together an argument about the Lumumba, relationship between a text and its time you will need to do some close reading, compiling a list of technical features in a text or an excerpt from a text. Choose excerpts that relate to themes or passages that interest you. Then you can develop a checklist of features to look for. People. Use this as a guide but you may want to add to, or amend it.

*** What you see will be very different from what other people see. So, although it looks like a slightly dry exercise, this is where your ideas, your originality will come from. Close reading, in Emry any module, will make your essays sparkle. *** #61623; Prose, drama or poetry? #61623; Genre? (e.g. is it panegyric, epic, restoration comedy or what ever) #61623; Does it remind you of anything? Can you compare or contrast it with something of a similar date? Or, alternatively, compare it with something of a similar genre from the previous or next decade, for example, in order to investigate change over time. #61623; Poetry: metre, rhythm and heterogeneous groups, rhyme. Look at the section on Patrice, poetic form at the back of the Norton Anthology (p.

2944) and heterogeneous groups, other guides. Lumumba. Don’t just describe metre etc but ask yourself how it works in that particular passage. Bartleby The Scrivener. How are units of meaning created by the line divisions? When a poet downplays or emphasizes a particular word through positioning it in Patrice Emry a particular way, what effect does it have? How does the poet manage tone, pace and register with his use of rhyme and rhythm? iF THESE FEATURES ARE NOT IMPORTANT IN YOUR PIECE IGNORE THEM. #61623; Drama: look at the length / speed of the speeches, the stage directions, the Austen’s Pride, entrances and Patrice Emry, exits.

#61623; Prose: rhetorical features and clause structure are the things to look out for south african people, in particular. Are the sentences complex or simple? Is it in hypotaxis or parataxis? What about word order and syntax, is there anything unusual or unexpected there? #61623; What is the overall structure of the passage / text? Are there abrupt changes or a progression from one idea to another? #61623; What other structures are there? Symmetries, comparisons and contrasts, digressions, asides, repetition. Is there any dialogue? Are the arguments circular or progressive?

#61623; Are there any words you don’t fully understand? If you aren’t in a closed exam you could look them up in the Oxford English Dictionary online. This would also give you a sense of the other meanings that that word might have. Are there any puns? #61623; Think about Patrice Lumumba grammatical features: tenses, conditional constructions, the passive voice. Is the articles, passage in the first, second or third person? Perhaps there are tense or person shifts; what effect do these produce? #61623; Look out for predominance: several superlatives or comparative adjectives and adverbs; a lot of words that mean a similar thing, repetitions of possessive pronouns or what ever. #61623; What kind of language is being used? i.e. Patrice Emry Lumumba. what register is it in? Is it elevated or earthy, legal or lyrical, rhetorical or religious? Why?

#61623; Look for particular rhetorical features: metaphor and hurricane newspaper articles, simile, hyperbole and litotes, personification, metonymy and so on. #61623; Look at punctuation (but be careful: it could be the intervention of a printer or a later editor). Emry Lumumba. Look out hurricane newspaper for: enjambment, parentheses, direct speech? When the punctuation is sparse, why? Is it because there is Lumumba a proliferation of conjunctions that resist punctuation like, for example, the word ‘and’. This may indicate parataxis or a very conversational style. #61623; Look out for allusions and references, often to the bible or classical stories.

If you don’t know them and south african people, you’re not in a closed exam, look them up in a reference dictionary or on the internet. #61623; What is the tone of the passage? Is it homiletic, comic, anxious, melancholy or ironic? How is Patrice Emry this effect created? #61623; Where else does that poet use similar phrases, ideas, patterns and images? What does it say about his or her concerns and art? TIP: Don’t make simple associations between sense and sound. For example, whilst there are a lot of warm words that begin with ‘m’ (like, for example, milkmaid, mother, magic etc) there are also some, like ‘malice’, ‘muscular’, ‘murder’ which evoke quite different associations. You then need to think how those technical features, which you’ve noted construct the south people and culture, meaning of the passage / text. Do not think about form and Patrice Lumumba, content as separate things as if form were a kind of cloak in which meaning is dressed: they are organically connected. Above and beyond that you will also need to think about how that text (both its form and its meaning) relate to the particular concerns and fashions (literary, political, philosophical etc) of its time.

You might think about the way in which repeated ideas in your text / excerpt link to heterogeneous significant contemporary discourses. Look for substituted vocabularies: i.e. Emry. when love / sex is discussed with the language of money / credit for groups, example. Could that be related to prevailing economic trends and Patrice, ideas? When you are constructing your ARGUMENT and writing your essay, consult your close reading list. The Scrivener. Not everything there will be relevant to your ARGUMENT; you only want to include the things that relate, that offer evidence for Patrice Lumumba, a particular point of view about south and culture how the text is placed culturally, politically, socially and / or historically. Research is crucial for any essay and requires a certain amount of initiative. Patrice Emry. You will partly have to learn by trial and error. African. Here are a few tips and Patrice Emry, ideas, though.

Read both narrowly (and address the theme of groups your essay) and also widely. So if you are, for example, researching infanticide, also research the family or law / crime. When you research a context it might be worth look at the work of philosophers, painters, and theologians and Emry, see what they were saying / doing in this period. An essay which looked at the early modern patriarchal family in the light of Robert Filmer’s political tract Patriarchia, for heterogeneous, example, would be much more interesting than one that only looked at modern historians’ account of the Patrice Lumumba, early modern family. An essay that discussed the panegyric written to, or on african and culture, a particular king, alongside the portraits that were painted of him could also be very suggestive. EEBO might be very useful here at helping you to Emry find out about, say, sermon culture or advice literature. (look at american movies, the last page of this booklet for some help here). Think of some the areas, themes, historical moments, authors and ideas that you want to find out about.

List them as key words. For example: Aphra Behn, Oroonoko, race, royalism, restoration, early modern, colonialism, slavery etc Do not be limited here. Patrice. Think of terms / phrases that will give you some background too. How about american ‘cheap print’, ‘renaissance politics’ etc Then begin on Patrice, the computer. South African People And Culture. Be careful of stuff that you find on the ordinary WWW. It is not usually very reliable. Often this is stuff that people can’t publish in Patrice Emry proper books. Use it is a guide and be very critical. 1) (through the Warwick network only).

Here you can read articles from reputable, peer-reviewed journals on line. An excellent starting point. Try various combinations of your search terms in either the Basic search (will give you hundreds of items) or in the advanced search form (which will give you much narrower and probably more useful stuff. Try it out; go to the advanced search form: A) In the about Antithetical Love in Jane Pride and Prejudice, box marked ‘All of Emry these words’ insert the word ‘Behn’. Then tick the box marked ‘title’ and then also the box marked ‘article’. Press the ‘Search’ button. See if you can identify any articles with a particularly historicist bent. B) In the box marked ‘All of these words’ insert the words ‘White’ and ‘Black’ and ‘England’. In the box marked ‘exact phrase’ enter ‘Seventeenth-century’.

Press search and see what you get out. Try other, similar search terms. C) In the box marked ‘All of Essay about Austen’s Pride and Prejudice these words’ insert the word ‘Royalist’. In the box marked ‘at least one of these words’ enter the Lumumba, words ‘print culture’. Perhaps limit to articles by checking the relevant tick box. Press search and see if any of those are useful. [you will see that sometimes you have to bartleby text do some considerable sifting to Patrice Emry Lumumba find good things.]

2) The Modern Language Association of America database direct access from the Warwick network at: The bibliographic databases are listed alphabetically so scroll down to ‘M’. Select ‘MLA’. This will give you the reference only (although Warwick may provide a link to the on-line journal). You may find that some of the things that are listed you won’t be able to get because Warwick doesn’t subscribe to that journal or perhaps the item is a doctoral dissertation from another institution. Don’t worry, you’re not expected to read everything under the sun. Leave those things that you can’t get. Try it out: put in the search terms ‘Aphra’, ‘Behn’ and ‘race’ into the keywords box.

Press search and see what you get. 3) Historical abstracts: Again, use this database to help you compile a list of articles or books that you could look at about Antithetical, either on-line, if Warwick has a link, or in the library. Ignore the things that you can’t get hold of. A) Put the search terms ‘restoration’, ‘race’ and ‘England’ into the keywords box.

Press search. B) Put the Lumumba, search terms ‘early modern’ and ‘print culture’ into the keywords box. Press search. Causes. Again you will have to decide what’s useful / relevant. 4) Use the Patrice Emry, library catalogue, don’t limit yourself to books about English. Put in south people and culture search terms that will give you books on the historical background that you’re looking for. Once you have found one book on Patrice Lumumba, the shelf look around in bartleby the scrivener that same area for others that will be related by subject. 5) Look on your reading list for general background books. CONSTRUCTING AN ARGUMENT.

Producing a successful argument is a process that has a number of stages. Often you will understand your argument better after you have started writing. Patrice Lumumba. It is important that you go back and re-plan your work, taking into account your new findings. You will need to Antithetical Love Austen’s Pride and Prejudice develop a provisional thesis, however, so that you have somewhere to start: a focus for your close reading and Lumumba, research. You don’t need to argue that history is important for the study of literature. Romance. You can take that as a given and move on Patrice Emry Lumumba, to say something a bit more sophisticated about how the particular poem / play or prose piece you’re working on intersects with a particular set of events or ideas in a specific historical moment.

A good argument should be fairly specific rather than general and comprehensive. In particular, when writing a historicist essay, do not list the african romance, ways in Lumumba which one text is embedded in its period. Instead choose one of causes of population those ways and research it in more depth. So, rather than writing about, say, Ben Jonson’s interest in Anabaptists, Spanishness, alchemy, the plague, etc in The Alchemist, choose one of these themes and Patrice Emry, find out in Jane and Prejudice about it in the historiography of the seventeenth century and Emry, couple this research with a close reading of those sections of the play that treat that theme. Your readings of the text and about Antithetical Austen’s Pride, the history of the times should suggest your detailed argument. Don’t think of your argument first and Patrice Emry, then try to press it onto the play or poem you’re interested in; allow your idea to grow out of your reading. Below is about in Jane and Prejudice my best attempt at a LINE OF ARGUMENT for an essay on Rochester and Milton.

Again, I should stress that this is Patrice only by way of demonstration what I would do. This is very different from hurricane katrina newspaper, what you would do. There is no one way and your ideas will be as interesting / valid as mine. Don’t think that you have to Patrice Emry produce something the same, or even necessarily similar I have done this just to Essay about Antithetical Love Austen’s and Prejudice give you an example of what I mean. I have tried to construct an argument which uses both close reading and historical context. Imagining the future in the restoration: a critical comparison of the poetry of John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester and John Milton. Line of Argument: This essay will argue that Rochester’s poetry is not only everywhere fascinated by time, regularly exploring what it is and how it operates, but that this interest betrays his sophisticated engagement with contemporary political philosophy. It will closely interrogate the forms of several of Rochester’s time-related poems for their political sensibilities. It will then contrast those poetic forms and Patrice, political sensibilities with those in the poetry of causes growth John Milton and especially Paradise Regained. Milton as I shall show with the use of historical evidence is very differently socially and Patrice Lumumba, politically placed, indeed at the other end of the ideological spectrum from the Earl of Rochester.

I shall show that the difference is one of in Jane Austen’s and Prejudice dispossession (Rochester) and providence (Milton). Rochester’s narrators exist in fear of, and subject to Emry an arbitrary and absolute future; Milton’s Paradise Regained, on the other hand, asks an imagined republican reader to bartleby the scrivener wait in Lumumba anticipation of a future in causes of population which God will deliver their political success. I shall explore the Emry Lumumba, way in which Rochester’s pessimism the idea and tone of dispossession in of population his poetry and Milton’s optimism the visionary quality of his providential allegory stand in contrast to the respective fortunes of the political groups to which those poets actually belonged and at the particular times when the poems I’m discussing here were written and published: i.e. Rochester’s being part of the Patrice Lumumba, royal court and Milton’s being displaced from american romance movies, his office at Patrice Emry, the restoration of Charles II. This will arrive at, by way of conclusion, the demonstrable sadness of some of Rochester’s verse which indicates the about in Jane Austen’s and Prejudice, complex circumspection with which he viewed his own aristocratic, political community and its limited expectations of monarchical authority. HELP FOR THIS PARTICULAR ASSESSMENT. Details of Lumumba what you are expected to do are on the departmental website at:

There you will find a list of texts and details of how to heterogeneous groups find them on EEBO (Early English Books Online). Their website is at: You need to download those texts, read them and then choose one to write about. You could also read the essays, published on the EEBO website, by previous Warwick students that have won prizes for Lumumba, their attempts at bartleby, this assignment. You might also use EEBO in your essay research. Try the subject list in particular. If you get yourself to the search form at you can click on Patrice Emry, the link marked ‘select from a list’ next to about Austen’s and Prejudice the subject keyword box. Lumumba. This has all sorts of heterogeneous interesting categories: look up, for example, ‘anti-catholicism’ or ‘restoration’, ‘credit’ or ‘murder’. I would like you to do what you can in terms of Patrice Emry placing the about Antithetical in Jane Austen’s and Prejudice, text of your choice, and researching it. Then I’d like you to come and see me at Patrice Emry Lumumba, the end of term with a title and a line of argument. You could also, if you wish, bring a longer essay plan.

This is Isabel talking to her group. We will all be available on email over text, the holidays--do ask. Patrice. Gabriel won't be here after the holidays--he lives in of population growth London--but do come and see me, his group, if you need a person to talk to. USING THE OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY. The OED can be found online (through the Warwick network) at Patrice,

When we read an edited text we often have a helpful gloss which an editor has provided so that words and phrases that we don’t understand are defined for us. In this assignment you will have to put together that gloss for yourself and the best way to start to do that is of population with the Emry Lumumba, OED. The OED is an extraordinary resource that will give you assistance in all sorts of ways. For example: a) it will obviously help you to understand words which you don’t understand or unusual applications. Bartleby The Scrivener. It will also help you to find obsolete and Lumumba, dialect words. b) it will help you to see how words have changed their meanings or emphases over time. c) it will help you to identify puns.

There may be sexual or religious connotations to a particular word that we may have lost. Some times our modern definitions will co-exist with old, and now obsolete meanings. d) it will tell you the earliest use of a particular word. This is useful for working out which of several definitions might apply to the word you’re looking at. Look at african american romance movies, the examples, that is the quotations that are given, and note their dates.

It may be that you find that the word was new or recently borrowed from Lumumba, another language. African American. Click the ‘date chart’ button to see the uses represented on Patrice Emry, a time line. It may be that you will find that a word is used differently and in different contexts at different points of the seventeenth century: what might the romance movies, use of a particular word / phrase tell us about an Lumumba, author’s engagement with political, historical or sociological movements? e) Look at the etymology: this might tell you about causes growth how the text you’re looking at engages with particular fashions or imperial encounters. Look up, for example, ‘chocolate’ where does the word come from? At what period does it come into the language?

f) the examples given in the dictionary will also help you to see how other contemporaries used the word or phrase you’re interested in, and in what sort of contexts it came up. In this way it can operate as a concordance. You should investigate the concordances available in the library, by the way. Similarly they will give you a sense of Patrice Emry Lumumba how a particular word or phrase is used elsewhere. You should use the OED not just to look up words that you don’t understand but also other words, especially those that are used in an unfamiliar way. You will find more interesting things if you look up lexical, rather than grammatical words. That means verbs, adjectives, adverbs and causes growth, nouns rather than prepositions, articles and pronouns. You need to remember that there was no standard spelling in the early modern period; the move to standardize spelling did not occur until the Patrice Emry Lumumba, middle of the eighteenth century.

This means that when you have a word you don’t understand it you may not get an adequate definition by putting it in exactly as it is into bartleby, the OED search box. Try that first but if it isn’t found, or you get a definition that is not right (i.e. the examples indicate that its earliest use was a lot later than your text) you should try different spellings. In particular the vowels are often interchangeable. Try every vowel combination that you can think of. Try substituting ts and cs, us and vs and other related consonants. Try out the OED. Look up the following words: how have their meanings have changed?

Where do the words come from? How were the words used at different points in history? And in the seventeenth century in particular? Department of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Humanities Building, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL.