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awa essays for poems wordsworth, gmat We all know that the Essay on Sweat People Subculture essays on the GMAT are scored separately and that the schools dont care as much about the essay scores. By William Wordsworth. We also know we have to write the automobile essays first, before we get to wordsworth the more important quant and People Subculture verbal sections, so we dont want to poems use up too much brain-power on the essays. Urban Poverty In 18th Century Depicted How The Half. Still, we cant just bomb the essay section; the poems schools do care about the essays somewhat. Which Following Describes The Ottoman Empire In The Before. So how do we do a good enough job on the essays without expending so much energy that were negatively affected during the wordsworth multiple-choice portion of the Is Changing the Mind Essay test? We need to develop a template, an organizational framework on which to by william wordsworth hang our writing. The template will not, of course, tell us exactly what to survival write. By William. For that, we need the actual essay prompt, which we wont see until we take the test. An Unbreakable Union. We can, however, determine how to organize the information ahead of wordsworth, time, as well as the of the following describes empire in the just before war i? general kinds of poems by william wordsworth, messages we need to convey at various points throughout. Is Changing The Mind Essay. The template should tell us: how many paragraphs to use the wordsworth primary purpose of each of Essay, those paragraphs the poems by william kinds of Essay Subculture, information that need to be conveyed in poems by william wordsworth, each paragraph. Modification And Self-Worth Essay. The template will vary a little bit from person to person; the important thing is to have a consistent template for yourself that youve worked out in advance of the poems wordsworth official test . In addition, we will need slightly different templates for the two different kinds of essays, so take note of the research differences below. As a general rule, essays should have either four or five paragraphs total.

The first paragraph is always the poems introduction, the last paragraph is Is Changing, always the conclusion, and poems the body (middle) paragraphs are for the examples we choose to use. An Unbreakable Union. Each paragraph should contain certain things; these are listed in the below sections. Poems By William Wordsworth. The information does not need to the necklace analysis be presented in the given order below, though; just make sure that each paragraph does contain the necessary information in some sort of clear and by william wordsworth logical order. In addition, the information listed below is the minimum necessary info; you can certainly add more where appropriate. Union Essay. summarize the by william issue state a thesis acknowledge that the other side does have some merit introduce your examples. The Mind. The first paragraph should contain a brief summary of the wordsworth issue at hand in automobile research, your own words (don't just repeat what the poems essay prompt said). Technology Is Changing Essay. For an Argument essay, briefly summarize the by william wordsworth conclusion of the research given argument. For the Issue essay, briefly summarize the issue upon by william, which the prompt has asked you to convey your opinion. For either, you dont need more than a one to two sentence summary. Best Describes The Ottoman Empire In The Before. The first paragraph should also contain a thesis statement. The thesis is typically one sentence and conveys to the reader your overall message or point for by william wordsworth, the essay that you wrote.

For the the necklace by guy Argument essay, you can write most of by william wordsworth, your thesis sentence before you get to the test! You already know that the Argument will contain flaws, and research that you will be discussing how those flaws hurt the wordsworth authors conclusion. Guess what? Thats your thesis! While the argument does have some merit, there are several serious flaws which serve to undermine the validity of the survival authors conclusion that XYZ. DONT USE THAT EXACT SENTENCE. Theyre going to get suspicious if hundreds of people use the poems same sentence. (Besides, thats my sentence. Automobile Research. Come up with your own!)

Note the opening clause: While the poems argument does have some merit. This is whats called acknowledging the other side. We dont say, Hey, your argument is completely terrible! Theres nothing good about which of the following describes the ottoman in the just, it at all! We acknowledge that some parts may be okay, or some people may feel differently, but our position is that the poems by william flaws are the most important issue (that is, our thesis is the Technology the Mind most important thing). Poems By William Wordsworth. On the Modification and Self-Worth Issue essay, you wont be able to write your thesis statement ahead of wordsworth, time, but you do know youll have to Century Depicted in Riis', do two things: (1) establish one clear position for poems by william, yourself and Technology Is Changing (2) acknowledge the other side. Poems By William. (While its certainly true that some people like Pepsi, more people prefer Coke.) Notice one other thing that I dont say: I dont say I think [blah blah thesis blah]. I state my thesis as though it is fact and reasonable people surely agree with me. Essay On Sweat People In The Bodybuilding. Thats a hallmark of poems, a persuasive essay. Finally, the survival first paragraph needs to introduce whatever examples were going to poems by william use in An Unbreakable, the body paragraphs below. Poems Wordsworth. Dont launch into the examples fully; that will come later. Essay. You can choose to use either 2 or 3 body paragraphs. By William Wordsworth. (I use 2 body paragraphs, personally. Which Describes Empire In The Before World War I?. Remember, we just need to poems by william be good enough!) introduce one flaw explain why it is a flaw suggest ways to Essay on Sweat and Iron: in the Bodybuilding Subculture fix the flaw. Poems By William Wordsworth. introduce one real-world example give enough detail for the necklace analysis, reader to understand relevance of example show how example supports your thesis. Poems By William Wordsworth. The body of an essay is where we support our thesis statement. An Unbreakable. For the poems wordsworth argument essay, your support will come from the Body Essay prompt itself: brainstorm several flaws from the argument (try to find the poems biggest, most glaring flaws).

Each flaw gets its own paragraph, so youll need either two or three, depending upon Is Changing Essay, how many body paragraphs you want to write. Poems By William. Explicitly explain why this flaw makes the which of the following best years before war i? conclusion less valid in some way, and then discuss how the author might fix that flaw. By William Wordsworth. For example, lets say that an argument claims that firing half of Urban Poverty in 18th Century America Depicted in Riis', Other, a companys employees will help the company to reduce costs and therefore become more profitable. While its certainly true that chopping half of poems, your payroll will reduce costs, it doesnt necessarily follow that the company will become more profitable! That loss of personnel may reduce productivity, hurt morale of the remaining employees, and so on. Automobile. The author of such an by william argument could bolster the automobile research claim by, for example, showing evidence that half of the poems wordsworth employees are fully redundant and Essay Bodybuilding Subculture firing them wouldnt affect the company adversely (if such evidence actually exists, of poems by william wordsworth, course!). For the issue essay, your support will come from Essay on Sweat People in the Subculture your brain: youll have to brainstorm some real-life example ( something that actually happened in the past ) in order to support your thesis. That example could be something from wordsworth your own life (work history, school, friend of Union Essay, a friend) or from the poems wordsworth broader world (business, history, and Modification so on).

Stating that Cokes market share is poems by william wordsworth, higher than Pepsis, for example, would bolster your claim that more people prefer Coke. There is Body Modification, no inherent advantage to by william a personal example versus a broader world example, but if you use a personal example, be sure to of the describes empire in the just before war i? provide enough detail that the reader can understand the poems by william wordsworth relevance. When you use real-world examples that the readers are likely to Union know, you dont have to by william worry about, for example, explaining what Coke and Pepsi are. Finally, make sure to tie your example specifically back to Body Modification Essay your original thesis. Dont make the wordsworth reader connect the dots: tell him or her exactly how this example supports your thesis. re-state your thesis (using new words) re-acknowledge the other side (using new words) briefly summarize how your examples supported your thesis (using new words) minimum 3 sentences; ideally 4 to Union 5. Poems. Are you noticing a theme within the Essay above bullet points? Basically, the conclusion paragraph isnt going to poems by william wordsworth contain much new information. Analysis. Its a conclusion; the major points should already have been made earlier in poems wordsworth, the essay.

What youre doing now is tying everything together in one neat package: yes, the the necklace by guy de maupassant analysis other side has some merit, but heres my point-of-view and, by poems by william wordsworth, the way, I proved my case using these examples. Automobile Research. Before you go into the real test, you should have a fully developed template, so that all you have to poems by william do is come up with your two examples and your thesis statement, and Urban America in Riis', Half then hang your words on by william wordsworth your framework. Practice with the Urban in 18th Century America How the Other Lives above as a starting point until you develop something with which youre comfortable. Dont forget to by william wordsworth leave some time to Urban Poverty in 18th Century Depicted in Riis', Other Half proof your essay; its okay to poems by william have a few typos, but systematic errors will lower your score.

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How to poems, Write a Business Plan: A Bookmarkable Guide (With Examples) Not all business ideas are good ones. By Guy De Maupassant? Take my friend Eric, for example, who had the idea of a cell phone that doubles as a taser. Probably not the best product to have on the market. A lot of people have business ideas -- it's whether these ideas are any good that really matters. That's precisely why, if you intend to actually build a business from your idea, it's helpful to poems by william, create a business plan so you can build out survival instincts, your concept in detail and prove that it can really work, both logistically and by william financially. (Check out our comprehensive guide on how to start a business to learn more about fleshing out the details of starting a new business.) A business plan is a living document that maps out the details of your business. It covers what your business will sell, how it will be structured, what the market looks like, how you plan to sell your product or service, what funding you'll need, what your financial projections are, and automobile which permits, leases, and other documentation will be required.

At its core, a business plan helps you prove to yourself and poems by william others whether or not your business idea is worth pursuing. It's the best way to take a step back, look at your idea holistically, and solve for the necklace by guy de maupassant, issues years down the road before you start getting into the weeds. This post covers tips for writing a business plan, followed by poems, an outline of what to include and business plan examples. Let's start with some basic, overarching tips before we dive in to the details. Narrow down what makes you different. Before you start whipping up a business plan, think carefully about what makes your business unique first. If you're planning to automobile research, start a new athletic clothing business, for example, then you'll need to differentiate yourself from the numerous other athletic clothing brands out there. What makes yours stand out from the others? Are you planning to by william, make clothing for specific sports or athletic activities, like yoga or hiking or tennis?

Do you use environmentally friendly material? Does a certain percentage of your proceeds go to charity? Does your brand promote positive body image? Remember: You're not just selling your product or service -- you're selling a combination of product, value, and brand experience. Think through these big questions and outline them before you dive in to Essay on Sweat Subculture, the nitty-gritty of your business plan research. Business plans are more short and concise nowadays than they used to be. Poems By William? While it might be tempting to include all the results of your market research, flesh out on Sweat People, every single product you plan to sell, and outline exactly what your website will look like, that's actually not helpful in the format of a business plan. Know these details and keep them elsewhere, but exclude everything but the meat and poems potatoes from the business plan itself. Instincts? Otherwise, you might risk losing your readers' attention.

Your business plan shouldn't just be a quick(ish) read -- it should be easy to skim, too. By William? That's where formatting becomes particularly important. The Necklace By Guy De Maupassant Analysis? Use headers and poems bullet points, bold or highlight the key lines or metrics you want the the necklace de maupassant, reader to take away, and even attach labeled tabs to poems by william, your copies (paper and digital) for easy reference. You can (and should) change it as you go. Keep in automobile, mind that your business plan is a living, breathing document. That means you can update your business plan as things change. For example, you might want to update it a year or two down the road if you're about to by william, apply for a new round of funding.

Here are the key elements in a business plan template: Executive Summary Company Description Market Analysis Product and/or Service Operations Management Marketing Sales Plan Financial Plan Appendix. Here's what goes in to each of the elements of that business plan outline: The purpose of the Union, executive summary is to by william, give readers a high-level view of the company and the market before delving in to by guy analysis, the details. ( Pro Tip: Sometimes it's helpful to write the poems, executive summary after you've put together the in the Subculture, rest of the plan so you can draw out the key takeaways more easily.) The executive summary should be about a page long, and should cover (in 12 paragraphs each): Overview: Briefly explain what the company is, where you'll be located, what you'll sell, and who you'll sell to. Company Profile: Briefly explain the business structure, who owns it and wordsworth what prior experience/skills they'll bring to the table, and who the first hires might be. Products or Services: Briefly explain what you'll sell. Essay People In The Bodybuilding Subculture? The Market: Briefly explain your main findings from your market analysis.

Financial Considerations: Briefly explain how you plan to fund the business and what your financial projections are. Example of an wordsworth, Overview section of the An Unbreakable Union, Executive Summary (from Bplans): Jolly's Java and Bakery (JJB) is a start-up coffee and bakery retail establishment located in southwest Washington. JJB expects to catch the interest of a regular loyal customer base with its broad variety of poems by william coffee and pastry products. The company plans to build a strong market position in the town, due to the partners' industry experience and mild competitive climate in the area. JJB aims to offer its products at a competitive price to which of the following best describes the ottoman in the years just world war i?, meet the demand of the poems wordsworth, middle-to higher-income local market area residents and tourists. Next, you'll have your company description. Here's where you have the chance to give a summary of what your company does, your mission statement, business structure and business owner details, location details, the marketplace needs that your business is trying to meet, and how your products or services actually meet those needs.

Example of a Company Summary section (from Bplans): NALB Creative Center is a start up, to go into business in the summer of Technology Is Changing Essay this year. We will offer a large variety of art and craft supplies, focusing on poems those items that are currently unavailable on this island. The Internet will continue to be a competitor, as artists use websites to buy familiar products. We will stock products that artists don't necessarily have experience with.

We will maintain our price comparisons to include those available on line. We will offer classes in the use of of the best describes just world new materials and poems by william wordsworth techniques. We will build an Artist's Oasis tour program. We will book local Bed and Breakfasts; provide maps and Essay guides for appropriate plein-air sites; rent easels and materials; sell paint and other supplies and ship completed work to poems by william, the clients when dry. We will expand the Technology the Mind, store into poems, an art center including: A fine art gallery, offering original art at, or near, wholesale prices; Musical instruments/studio space; Classrooms for art/music lessons; Art/Music books; Live music/coffee bar; Do-it-Yourself crafts such as specialty T-Shirts, signs, cards, ceramics for the tourist trade. One of the Essay People in the, first questions to ask yourself when you're testing your business idea is whether it has a place in the market. The market will ultimately dictate how successful your business will be. What's your target market, and why would they be interested in buying from poems you? Get specific here. For example, if you're selling bedding, you can't just include everyone who sleeps in a bed in your target market. You need to the Mind, target a smaller group of customers first, like teenagers from middle-income families.

From there, you might answer questions like: How many teenagers from middle-income families are currently in your country? What bedding do they typically need? Is the market growing or stagnant? Include both analysis of research that others have done, as well as primary research that you've collected yourself, whether by surveys, interviews, or other methods. This is also where you'll include a competitive analysis. In our example, we'd be answering the question: how many other bedding companies already have a share of the market, and who are they? Outline the strengths and by william weaknesses of your potential competitors, as well as strategies that will give you a competitive advantage. Example of a Market Analysis summary section (from Bplans):

Green Investments has identified two distinct groups of describes the ottoman in the target customers. These two groups of customers are distinguished by their household wealth. They have been grouped as customers with $1 million and $1 million in household wealth. The main characteristic that makes both of these groups so attractive is poems, their desire to make a difference in the world by making investment decisions that take into account environmental factors. The financial services industry has many different niches. Some advisors provide general investment services. Instincts? Others will only offer one type of investments, maybe just mutual funds or might concentrate on by william wordsworth bonds.

Other service providers will concentrate on research a specific niche like technology or socially responsible companies. Green Investments has segmented the target market into two distinct groups. The groups can be differentiated by their difference in household wealth, households of $1 million and $1 million. $1 million (household worth): These customers are middle class people who have a concern for the environment and are taking personal action through their choosing of stock investments based on companies with both strong economic and environmental performance records. Because these people do not have an over abundance of money they choose stocks that are of poems by william wordsworth moderate risk. Generally, this group has 35%-45% of their portfolio in stocks, the remaining percentages in Essay on Sweat and Iron: People in the Bodybuilding, other types of by william investments. $1 million (household worth): These customers are upper middle class to upper class. They have amassed over $1 million in which of the following describes the ottoman years before war i?, savings and poems wordsworth are fairly savvy investors (themselves or the people they hire).

These people are generally concerned about the rate of return of their investments but also have environmental concerns. Here's where you can go into detail about Essay and Iron: in the Bodybuilding, what you're selling and how it benefits your customers. If you aren't able to articulate how you'll help your customers, then your business idea may not be a good one. Start by describing the problem you're solving. By William? Then, go into how you plan to solve it and where your product or service fits into the mix. Finally, talk about the competitive landscape: What other companies are providing solutions to this particular problem, and and Iron: People Bodybuilding what sets your solution apart from theirs? Example of a Products and poems wordsworth Services section (from Bplans):

AMT provides both computer products and services to make them useful to small business. We are especially focused on providing network systems and services to small and medium business. Is Changing The Mind Essay? The systems include both PC-based LAN systems and minicomputer server-based systems. Our services include design and poems by william installation of network systems, training, and on Sweat in the Bodybuilding Subculture support. Product and Service Description.

In personal computers, we support three main lines: 1) The Super Home is our smallest and least expensive line, initially positioned by its manufacturer as a home computer. Poems Wordsworth? We use it mainly as a cheap workstation for instincts, small business installations. Its specifications include . [additional specifics omitted] 2) The Power User is our main up-scale line. It is our most important system for high-end home and small business main workstations, because of . Its key strengths are . Its specifications include . [additional specifics omitted] 3) The Business Special is an poems, intermediate system, used to fill the gap in the Mind, the positioning. Poems By William? Its specifications include . [additional specifics omitted]

In peripherals, accessories and other hardware, we carry a complete line of necessary items from Is Changing cables to forms to wordsworth, mousepads . [additional specifics omitted] In service and support, we offer a range of walk-in or depot service, maintenance contracts and on-site guarantees. We have not had much success selling service contracts. Our networking capabilities . [additional specifics omitted] The only way we can hope to differentiate well is to define the vision of the An Unbreakable Union, company to be an information technology ally to our clients. We will not be able to compete in poems, any effective way with the chains using boxes or products as appliances. We need to An Unbreakable Union, offer a real alliance. The benefits we sell include many intangibles: confidence, reliability, knowing that somebody will be there to answer questions and poems by william wordsworth help at the important times. These are complex products, products that require serious knowledge and experience to use, and our competitors sell only the products themselves.

Unfortunately, we cannot sell the products at survival instincts a higher price just because we offer services; the market has shown that it will not support that concept. We have to also sell the service and charge for wordsworth, it separately. Use this section to describes the ottoman in the years just, outline your business' unique organization and management structure (keeping in mind that you may change it later). Who will be responsible for what? How will tasks and responsibilities be assigned to each person or each team? Includes brief bios of each team member and highlight any relevant experience and education to help make the poems wordsworth, case for why they're the right person for the job. If you haven't hired people for Technology Is Changing, the planned roles yet, that's OK -- just make sure you identify those gaps and explain what the people in those roles will be responsible for.

Example of an Personnel Plan section of the Operations Management section (from Bplans): The labor force for poems wordsworth, DIY Wash N' Fix will be small. It will consist of An Unbreakable Essay a part-time general manager to handle inter-business relationships and corporate responsibilities. In addition, DIY Wash N' Fix will employ three certified mechanics/managers; their duties will consist of the day-to-day operation of the firm. These duties fall into two categories: managerial and operational. Managerial tasks include: scheduling, inventory control and by william basic bookkeeping. Safety, regulatory issues, customer service and repair advice are the operational tasks they will be responsible for.

Additionally, customer service clerks will be hired to perform the most basic tasks: customer service and custodial. DIY Wash N' Fix will have a single general manager to coordinate all outside business activities and partnerships. Automobile Research? The business relationships would include accounting services, legal counsel, vendors and suppliers, maintenance providers, banking services, advertising and marketing services, and investment services. Laurie Snyder will fill this general management position. Wordsworth? She will be receiving an An Unbreakable, MBA from the by william wordsworth, University of Notre Dame in May 2001. The daily management of the business will be left to the lead mechanic. Is Changing The Mind? Even though DIY Wash N' Fix is by william, not a full service repair shop it can be expected that some customers will attempt repairs they are not familiar with and need advice.

Therefore, we intend to Technology Is Changing Essay, hire three fully certified mechanics. The mechanics will not be authorized to perform any work on a customer's car, but they will be able to take a look at the car to evaluate the problem. To reduce our liability for repairs done incorrectly we feel only professional mechanics should give advice to poems wordsworth, customers. Research? The primary function of the by william wordsworth, mechanics will be customer service and managerial responsibilities. This is where you can plan out your comprehensive marketing and sales strategies that'll cover how you actually plan to sell your product. Before you work on your marketing and sales plan, you'll need to have your market analysis completely fleshed out, and choose your target buyer personas, i.e., your ideal customers. Which Of The Empire Years Just? (Learn how to create buyer personas here.) On the marketing side, you'll want to cover answers to questions like: how do you plan to penetrate the market? How will you grow your business? Which channels will you focus on for distribution? How will you communicate with your customers? On the sales side, you'll need to cover answers to questions like: what's your sales strategy?

What will your sales team look like, and how do you plan to by william, grow it over time? How many sales calls will you need to make to make a sale? What's the average price per sale? Speaking of average price per sale, here's where you can go into your pricing strategy. For more help with your marketing and Union Essay sales strategies, go to our online guide for how to start a business and poems wordsworth scroll to the Marketing, Sales Services Tips for Startups section. Example of a Marketing Plan section (from Bplans): The Skate Zone plans to be the first amateur inline hockey facility in Is Changing, Miami, Florida. Due to the overwhelming growth of poems wordsworth inline hockey throughout the research, United States, the company's promotional plans are open to poems, various media and a range of marketing communications. The following is a list of those available presently.

Public relations. Press releases are issued to both technical trade journals and major business publications such as USAHockey Inline, INLINE the skate magazine, PowerPlay, and others. Tournaments. The Skate Zone will represent its services at championship tournaments that are held annually across the United States. Print advertising and article publishing. The company's print advertising program includes advertisements in The Yellow Pages, Miami Express News, The Skate Zone Mailing, school flyers, and instincts inline hockey trade magazines.

Internet. The Skate Zone currently has a website and has received several inquiries from poems by william wordsworth it. Plans are underway to upgrade it to Essay on Sweat in the Bodybuilding, a more professional and effective site. Wordsworth? In the future, this is expected to be one of the company's primary marketing channels. Finally, outline your financial model in detail, including your start-up cost, financial projections, and a funding request if you're pitching to investors. Your start-up cost refers to the resources you'll need to get your business started -- and an estimate of how much each of those resources will cost. Are you leasing an office space? Do you need a computer? A phone?

List out survival instincts, these needs and how much they'll cost, and wordsworth be honest and conservative in your estimates. The last thing you want to do is run out of by guy de maupassant analysis money. Once you've outlined your costs, you'll need to justify them by detailing your financial projections. Poems Wordsworth? This is especially important if you're looking for funding for your business. Make sure your financial model is which of the best the ottoman empire in the years world, 100% accurate for the best chance of convincing investors and loan sources to by william, support your business. Example of a Financial Projections section (from Bplans): The following table is the projected Profit and Technology Is Changing the Mind Essay Loss statement for poems by william wordsworth, Markam.

Finally, consider closing out your business plan with an An Unbreakable Union Essay, appendix. The appendix is optional, but it's a helpful place to include your resume and the resume(s) of your co-founder(s), as well as any permits, leases, and other legal information you want to include. There you have it. We hope this has helped you get a better idea of what a business plan should look like. Now it's time to wordsworth, turn that business idea into a reality. Good luck!

Originally published March 13 2017, updated October 05 2017.

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George Orwell Fifty Essays. REFLECTIONS ON GANDHI. >> Download: >> George Orwell Fifty Essays. Wordsworth! REFLECTIONS ON GANDHI. REFLECTIONS ON GANDHI. Saints should always be judged guilty until they are proved innocent, but the People, tests that have to be applied to them are not, of course, the same in poems, all cases. Instincts! In Gandhis case the poems by william, questions on feels inclined to ask are: to what extent was Gandhi moved by vanityby the consciousness of himself as a humble, naked old man, sitting on a praying mat and shaking empires by sheer spiritual powerand to what extent did he compromise his own principles by entering politics, which of their nature are inseparable from coercion and fraud? To give a definite answer one would have to Union Essay study Gandhis acts and writings in immense detail, for his whole life was a sort of pilgrimage in which every act was significant. But this partial autobiography, which ends in the nineteen-twenties, is strong evidence in his favor, all the by william, more because it covers what he would have called the unregenerate part of his life and reminds one that inside the saint, or near-saint, there was a very shrewd, able person who could, if he had chosen, have been a brilliant success as a lawyer, an administrator or perhaps even a businessman.

At about the time when the Essay Bodybuilding Subculture, autobiography first appeared I remember reading its opening chapters in poems by william, the ill-printed pages of some Indian newspaper. They made a good impression on me, which Gandhi himself at by guy de maupassant, that time did not. Poems By William Wordsworth! The things that one associated with himhome-spun cloth, soul forces and vegetarianismwere unappealing, and his medievalist program was obviously not viable in automobile, a backward, starving, over-populated country. It was also apparent that the British were making use of him, or thought they were making use of him. Strictly speaking, as a Nationalist, he was an by william wordsworth, enemy, but since in every crisis he would exert himself to prevent violencewhich, from the on Sweat in the Subculture, British point of view, meant preventing any effective action whateverhe could be regarded as our man. Poems By William! In private this was sometimes cynically admitted. Essay On Sweat And Iron: Subculture! The attitude of the Indian millionaires was similar.

Gandhi called upon them to repent, and naturally they preferred him to by william wordsworth the Socialists and Communists who, given the chance, would actually have taken their money away. How reliable such calculations are in the long run is Essay on Sweat doubtful; as Gandhi himself says, in the end deceivers deceive only poems by william wordsworth themselves; but at any rate the gentleness with which he was nearly always handled was due partly to the feeling that he was useful. The British Conservatives only became really angry with him when, as in Essay on Sweat in the Bodybuilding, 1942, he was in effect turning his non-violence against a different conqueror. But I could see even then that the British officials who spoke of him with a mixture of amusement and disapproval also genuinely liked and admired him, after a fashion. Nobody ever suggested that he was corrupt, or ambitious in any vulgar way, or that anything he did was actuated by fear or malice. In judging a man like Gandhi one seems instinctively to poems wordsworth apply high standards, so that some of his virtues have passed almost unnoticed. Survival! For instance, it is poems by william clear even from the autobiography that his natural physical courage was quite outstanding: the manner of his death was a later illustration of this, for a public man who attached any value to his own skin would have been more adequately guarded. Again, he seems to have been quite free from that maniacal suspiciousness which, as E. M.

Forster rightly says in A PASSAGE TO INDIA, is the besetting Indian vice, as hypocrisy is the British vice. Although no doubt he was shrewd enough in detecting dishonesty, he seems wherever possible to have believed that other people were acting in research, good faith and had a better nature through which they could be approached. And though he came of a poor middle-class family, started life rather unfavorably, and poems by william, was probably of unimpressive physical appearance, he was not afflicted by envy or by the feeling of inferiority. Color feeling when he first met it in its worst form in South Africa, seems rather to have astonished him. Even when he was fighting what was in effect a color war, he did not think of people in which empire in the years world war i?, terms of race or status. By William Wordsworth! The governor of a province, a cotton millionaire, a half-starved Dravidian coolie, a British private soldier were all equally human beings, to be approached in much the same way. It is noticeable that even in Technology Is Changing the Mind, the worst possible circumstances, as in South Africa when he was making himself unpopular as the champion of the wordsworth, Indian community, he did not lack European friends. Written in automobile, short lengths for poems by william wordsworth, newspaper serialization, the autobiography is not a literary masterpiece, but it is the more impressive because of the commonplaceness of the necklace by guy de maupassant, much of its material. It is well to by william wordsworth be reminded that Gandhi started out by guy de maupassant, with the wordsworth, normal ambitions of a young Indian student and only adopted his extremist opinions by degrees and, in some cases, rather unwillingly.

There was a time, it is interesting to learn, when he wore a top hat, took dancing lessons, studied French and Latin, went up the Technology Is Changing, Eiffel Tower and even tried to learn the violinall this was the idea of poems wordsworth, assimilating European civilization as throughly as possible. He was not one of those saints who are marked out by their phenomenal piety from childhood onwards, nor one of the other kind who forsake the world after sensational debaucheries. He makes full confession of the misdeeds of his youth, but in the Mind Essay, fact there is not much to confess. As a frontispiece to the book there is a photograph of Gandhis possessions at by william wordsworth, the time of research, his death. The whole outfit could be purchased for about 5 pounds, and Gandhis sins, at least his fleshly sins, would make the same sort of appearance if placed all in one heap. Wordsworth! A few cigarettes, a few mouthfuls of meat, a few annas pilfered in childhood from the maidservant, two visits to research a brothel (on each occasion he got away without doing anything), one narrowly escaped lapse with his landlady in Plymouth, one outburst of temperthat is about the whole collection. Almost from childhood onwards he had a deep earnestness, an attitude ethical rather than religious, but, until he was about thirty, no very definite sense of direction. His first entry into anything describable as public life was made by way of wordsworth, vegetarianism. Underneath his less ordinary qualities one feels all the time the solid middle-class businessmen who were his ancestors.

One feels that even after he had abandoned personal ambition he must have been a resourceful, energetic lawyer and Technology the Mind, a hard-headed political organizer, careful in keeping down expenses, an adroit handler of poems, committees and an indefatigable chaser of subscriptions. His character was an extraordinarily mixed one, but there was almost nothing in it that you can put your finger on and call bad, and I believe that even Gandhis worst enemies would admit that he was an interesting and unusual man who enriched the world simply by being alive. Whether he was also a lovable man, and whether his teachings can have much for de maupassant analysis, those who do not accept the religious beliefs on which they are founded, I have never felt fully certain. Of late years it has been the fashion to talk about wordsworth, Gandhi as though he were not only Essay on Sweat People in the Bodybuilding sympathetic to the Western Left-wing movement, but were integrally part of it. Anarchists and pacifists, in poems wordsworth, particular, have claimed him for Technology, their own, noticing only that he was opposed to centralism and by william wordsworth, State violence and ignoring the other-worldly, anti-humanist tendency of Is Changing Essay, his doctrines. But one should, I think, realize that Gandhis teachings cannot be squared with the belief that Man is the poems, measure of all things and that our job is to make life worth living on this earth, which is the only earth we have. They make sense only on the assumption that God exists and survival, that the world of wordsworth, solid objects is an illusion to Technology Is Changing be escaped from. It is worth considering the disciplines which Gandhi imposed on himself and whichthough he might not insist on by william every one of his followers observing every detailhe considered indispensable if one wanted to the necklace de maupassant serve either God or humanity.

First of all, no meat-eating, and if possible no animal food in poems wordsworth, any form. Automobile Research! (Gandhi himself, for the sake of his health, had to compromise on by william wordsworth milk, but seems to have felt this to be a backsliding.) No alcohol or tobacco, and no spices or condiments even of a vegetable kind, since food should be taken not for its own sake but solely in order to preserve ones strength. Secondly, if possible, no sexual intercourse. If sexual intercourse must happen, then it should be for the sole purpose of the necklace by guy analysis, begetting children and presumably at long intervals. Gandhi himself, in his middle thirties, took the vow of BRAMAHCHARYA, which means not only complete chastity but the by william wordsworth, elimination of sexual desire. This condition, it seems, is difficult to attain without a special diet and An Unbreakable Union Essay, frequent fasting. One of the poems, dangers of milk-drinking is that it is apt to arouse sexual desire.

And finally this is the cardinal pointfor the seeker after goodness there must be no close friendships and no exclusive loves whatever. Close friendships, Gandhi says, are dangerous, because friends react on one another and through loyalty to a friend one can be led into following best describes the ottoman in the wrong-doing. By William! This is unquestionably true. Moreover, if one is to love God, or to love humanity as a whole, one cannot give ones preference to survival any individual person. This again is true, and poems by william wordsworth, it marks the point at which the humanistic and the religious attitude cease to be reconcilable. To an ordinary human being, love means nothing if it does not mean loving some people more than others.

The autobiography leaves it uncertain whether Gandhi behaved in an inconsiderate way to his wife and children, but at any rate it makes clear that on automobile research three occasions he was willing to let his wife or a child die rather than administer the poems by william wordsworth, animal food prescribed by the doctor. It is true that the threatened death never actually occurred, and also that Gandhiwith, one gathers, a good deal of moral pressure in the opposite directionalways gave the de maupassant analysis, patient the poems by william, choice of staying alive at the price of committing a sin: still, if the decision had been solely his own, he would have forbidden the animal food, whatever the risks might be. There must, he says, be some limit to the necklace by guy analysis what we will do in order to remain alive, and the limit is well on this side of chicken broth. This attitude is poems by william wordsworth perhaps a noble one, but, in the sense whichI thinkmost people would give to the word, it is inhuman. The essence of being human is that one does not seek perfection, that one is sometimes willing to commit sins for the sake of loyalty, that one does not push asceticism to the point where it makes friendly intercourse impossible, and that one is prepared in the end to be defeated and de maupassant analysis, broken up by life, which is the inevitable price of fastening ones love upon other human individuals.

No doubt alcohol, tobacco, and so forth, are things that a saint must avoid, but sainthood is also a thing that human beings must avoid. There is an obvious retort to this, but one should be wary about by william wordsworth, making it. In this yogi-ridden age, it is too readily assumed that non-attachment is not only better than a full acceptance of earthly life, but that the ordinary man only rejects it because it is too difficult: in other words, that the average human being is a failed saint. It is doubtful whether this is true. Many people genuinely do not wish to be saints, and it is probable that some who achieve or aspire to sainthood have never felt much temptation to be human beings. If one could follow it to its psychological roots, one would, I believe, find that the main motive for non-attachment is a desire to the necklace de maupassant escape from the by william wordsworth, pain of living, and research, above all from love, which, sexual or non-sexual, is hard work.

But it is poems not necessary here to argue whether the other-worldly or the humanistic ideal is higher. The point is that they are incompatible. One must choose between God and Man, and all radicals and progressives, from the mildest Liberal to the most extreme Anarchist, have in on Sweat Bodybuilding, effect chosen Man. However, Gandhis pacifism can be separated to some extent from his other teachings. Its motive was religious, but he claimed also for by william wordsworth, it that it was a definitive technique, a method, capable of the necklace by guy de maupassant, producing desired political results. By William! Gandhis attitude was not that of most Western pacifists. SATYAGRAHA, first evolved in South Africa, was a sort of non-violent warfare, a way of defeating the enemy without hurting him and without feeling or arousing hatred. It entailed such things as civil disobedience, strikes, lying down in front of railway trains, enduring police charges without running away and without hitting back, and the like. On Sweat Bodybuilding! Gandhi objected to passive resistance as a translation of SATYAGRAHA: in poems, Gujarati, it seems, the word means firmness in the truth.

In his early days Gandhi served as a stretcher-bearer on Essay the British side in the Boer War, and he was prepared to do the same again in the war of poems by william wordsworth, 1914-18. Even after he had completely abjured violence he was honest enough to see that in war it is usually necessary to take sides. He did notindeed, since his whole political life centred round a struggle for national independence, he could nottake the sterile and dishonest line of pretending that in every war both sides are exactly the Is Changing the Mind, same and it makes no difference who wins. Nor did he, like most Western pacifists, specialize in poems by william wordsworth, avoiding awkward questions. In relation to the late war, one question that every pacifist had a clear obligation to answer was: What about the Jews? Are you prepared to see them exterminated? If not, how do you propose to save them without resorting to war? I must say that I have never heard, from Is Changing the Mind any Western pacifist, an wordsworth, honest answer to this question, though I have heard plenty of evasions, usually of the youre another type. But it so happens that Gandhi was asked a somewhat similar question in 1938 and that his answer is on record in Mr.

Louis Fischers GANDHI AND STALIN. According to Mr. Fischer, Gandhis view was that the German Jews ought to commit collective suicide, which would have aroused the world and the necklace, the people of Germany to Hitlers violence. After the war he justified himself: the Jews had been killed anyway, and poems by william wordsworth, might as well have died significantly. One has the impression that this attitude staggered even so warm an admirer as Mr. Fischer, but Gandhi was merely being honest. If you are not prepared to take life, you must often be prepared for lives to by guy de maupassant be lost in some other way. When, in by william, 1942, he urged non-violent resistance against a Japanese invasion, he was ready to admit that it might cost several million deaths. At the same time there is reason to think that Gandhi, who after all was born in 1869, did not understand the nature of totalitarianism and saw everything in terms of his own struggle against the British government. The important point here is not so much that the British treated him forbearingly as that he was always able to command publicity.

As can be seen from the phrase quoted above, he believed in arousing the world, which is only possible if the world gets a chance to hear what you are doing. It is difficult to see how Gandhis methods could be applied in a country where opponents of the regime disappear in the middle of the night and are never heard of again. Without a free press and the right of following best just before world, assembly, it is impossible not merely to appeal to poems wordsworth outside opinion, but to bring a mass movement into being, or even to make your intentions known to following best describes the ottoman empire just before world war i? your adversary. Is there a Gandhi in Russia at this moment? And if there is, what is by william he accomplishing? The Russian masses could only practise civil disobedience if the Technology Essay, same idea happened to occur to all of poems wordsworth, them simultaneously, and survival, even then, to judge by the history of the by william, Ukraine famine, it would make no difference. But let it be granted that non-violent resistance can be effective against ones own government, or against an occupying power: even so, how does one put it into practise internationally? Gandhis various conflicting statements on the late war seem to show that he felt the difficulty of this. Applied to foreign politics, pacifism either stops being pacifist or becomes appeasement. Moreover the assumption, which served Gandhi so well in dealing with individuals, that all human beings are more or less approachable and will respond to a generous gesture, needs to be seriously questioned. An Unbreakable Essay! It is not necessarily true, for poems wordsworth, example, when you are dealing with lunatics.

Then the question becomes: Who is survival sane? Was Hitler sane? And is it not possible for by william wordsworth, one whole culture to be insane by the standards of another? And, so far as one can gauge the feelings of whole nations, is there any apparent connection between a generous deed and a friendly response? Is gratitude a factor in international politics? These and kindred questions need discussion, and need it urgently, in the few years left to Technology the Mind us before somebody presses the by william wordsworth, button and the rockets begin to fly. It seems doubtful whether civilization can stand another major war, and it is at least thinkable that the way out lies through non-violence. It is survival instincts Gandhis virtue that he would have been ready to give honest consideration to poems by william the kind of question that I have raised above; and, indeed, he probably did discuss most of these questions somewhere or other in his innumerable newspaper articles. One feels of An Unbreakable Union, him that there was much he did not understand, but not that there was anything that he was frightened of poems wordsworth, saying or thinking. I have never been able to feel much liking for Gandhi, but I do not feel sure that as a political thinker he was wrong in the main, nor do I believe that his life was a failure.

It is the necklace by guy de maupassant curious that when he was assassinated, many of his warmest admirers exclaimed sorrowfully that he had lived just long enough to see his life work in ruins, because India was engaged in a civil war which had always been foreseen as one of the by william wordsworth, byproducts of the Union Essay, transfer of power. But it was not in poems, trying to smooth down Hindu-Moslem rivalry that Gandhi had spent his life. His main political objective, the peaceful ending of automobile, British rule, had after all been attained. As usual the relevant facts cut across one another. On the other hand, the British did get out of India without fighting, and event which very few observers indeed would have predicted until about a year before it happened. On the other hand, this was done by poems, a Labour government, and it is certain that a Conservative government, especially a government headed by Churchill, would have acted differently.

But if, by 1945, there had grown up in the necklace de maupassant analysis, Britain a large body of opinion sympathetic to Indian independence, how far was this due to Gandhis personal influence? And if, as may happen, India and Britain finally settle down into a decent and friendly relationship, will this be partly because Gandhi, by keeping up his struggle obstinately and without hatred, disinfected the by william wordsworth, political air? That one even thinks of asking such questions indicates his stature. One may feel, as I do, a sort of aesthetic distaste for Gandhi, one may reject the automobile, claims of sainthood made on his behalf (he never made any such claim himself, by the way), one may also reject sainthood as an poems wordsworth, ideal and therefore feel that Gandhis basic aims were anti-human and reactionary: but regarded simply as a politician, and compared with the other leading political figures of best empire years before, our time, how clean a smell he has managed to leave behind! Please contact the author for suggestions or further informations:;

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. SAT Essay scoring can be tricky to figure out. Maybe you've already created target goals for your SAT score, following our guide, so you at least have that score goal set. But where does your essay score fit into all this? What is a good SAT essay score? This article will answer those questions. Note : The information in this article is for the old (pre-March-2016) SAT essay, which was scored out of 12 and part of the Writing section. Scores for the March 2016 SAT were only released May 10th, 2016, which means that data on percentiles and averages aren't going to be available for wordsworth, a while yet. We'll update this article as soon as the information comes out. feature image credit: Doing Great by automobile, Eli Christman, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. Before you can know what a good SAT essay score is, you need to poems wordsworth, know how many points you can get total on the essay. So what's the SAT essay out of?

Currently, the SAT essay is scored on a scale of 1 to 6 by which best the ottoman empire in the years just before world war i?, two graders, for poems, a total essay score out of 12 . Your essay is scored holistically, which means you dont get bumped down to a certain essay grade if you make, for instance, a certain number of comma errors. Essay On Sweat People Bodybuilding! Instead, SAT essay scorers use the SAT essay rubric to grade your essay as a whole. By William Wordsworth! Note: SAT essay scoring will change beginning with the March 2016 SAT. For more information on that change, read our other articles on the new SAT essay prompts and the new SAT essay. The Mind! As with most things on the SAT, a good essay score depends on what your goals are. These goals should be concrete and determined by the colleges youre applying to - after all, if your reach schools have an average essay score of 9, then there's no need to burn yourself out poems by william wordsworth trying to get that elusive 12. Of The Following Empire World! To some extent, your essay score goal will also be influenced by your performance on the multiple choice section of poems, SAT Writing.

If you do better on multiple-choice questions, you may be able to and Iron: in the Bodybuilding, cut yourself some slack in the essay department. But how do figure out what your SAT Writing (and SAT essay) goals should be? Use our three-step process, explained below. Step 1: Know Your Target SAT Writing Score. By William! If youve read our free ebook on calculating your target SAT score, you may already have figured out Essay on Sweat and Iron: in the Bodybuilding Subculture your target SAT Writing score. By William! If not, it's time to the necklace de maupassant analysis, calculate it!

I'll walk through the process using the poems by william, example of Virginia Commonwealth Unversity. First , download this worksheet. Technology! It's designed for calculating your target SAT score out of 2400, so you'll have to poems by william wordsworth, modify it a little bit. Fill in survival instincts, the schools you want to apply to in the leftmost column. Here's what the worksheet will look like for wordsworth, Virginia Commonwealth University: Next , google [name of which following best describes the ottoman in the years war i?, school] average SAT writing to get the middle 50% of all SAT Writing scores. Poems By William! For instance, if you're interested in Virginia Commonwealth University, you'd do the following search: There'll usually be a link that has this information. Essay! Sometimes (as you can see above) the college website will also pop up, so you can use that to double-check your numbers. You're looking for by william, the 25th and 75th percentile scores on analysis the SAT Writing section . A quick refresher on what percentile scores mean : 25th percentile means that 25% of the students attending have a score at or below that number (below average). The 75th percentile means that 75% of students have a score at or below that number (above average).

In essence, the 25th/75th percentile score range covers the middle 50% of all students admitted to Virginia Commonwealth University. If the by william, sites dont list a specific SAT Writing score range, you can divide the top and bottom of the overall SAT score range by the Mind, 3 to get a general idea of what your Writing score needs to be. In this case, there is information about the wordsworth, SAT Writing score range, so we can fill that in on the worksheet: Do the same for all of the of the describes in the years just world, schools you want to apply to. Include dream or reach schools, but dont include safety schools (schools you think you have at least a 90% chance of by william, getting into). Once you've filled in the information for all of the schools you want to which following describes just, apply to, average the 25th percentile and 75th percentile columns, then choose a target SAT Writing score with that information. As it says on the worksheet, we recommend that you take the 75th percentile score as your target SAT Writing score. It'll give you a very strong chance of getting into poems the schools youve listed.

If youre applying to humanities programs, you may even want to consider a higher score target for SAT Writing. Step 2: Find an Official SAT Writing Score Chart. The next step is to take a look at an SAT Writing score chart to find out the the necklace by guy analysis, range of essay scores that will get you your target SAT Writing score. The chart will differ in by william, precise score differences from test to test, but it can at by guy least give you a broad idea of the range. Let's say that your target SAT Writing score is 576 (rounded up to 580). I've highlighted this in green in the following SAT Writing score chart (from an by william wordsworth, official SAT practice test): As you can see in the chart above, there are theoretically over ten ways to get a 580 on SAT Writing, with anywhere from a 25-46 multiple-choice raw score and a 0-12 essay score. But is it really realistic to expect to score a 12 on the SAT essay if your multiple-choice raw score is only a 25? Probably not. Essay! In 2015, the average SAT Writing score was a 484, and poems by william wordsworth, the average SAT essay score was a 7 (data from the CollegeBoard; for more on this, read our upcoming article on average SAT Writing scores).

Based on survival instincts this information (and on poems by william an official practice SAT Writing score chart), we've created a table of realistic essay scores you can expect to achieve if you're scoring in of the describes the ottoman in the years just, a certain range: So while you can get a 580 on SAT Writing with an essay score from 0-12, you're more likely to do so if you can score a 7 or above on the essay. Step Three: Take a Timed SAT Writing Section and Score It. The final step is to see what your multiple choice score is now so that you know how much prep time you'll have to put in. To do this, you'll need to take a timed SAT Writing section and calculate your multiple-choice raw score . The best way to get a realistic idea of what your raw multiple-choice Writing score is would be to take a full-length practice test (because itll give you an idea of how tired you get from the other sections and how you deal with switching back and forth). If you don't have the time to do this, just take the Writing sections from an official SAT practice test, adhering to the time limits. How do you calculate your multiple-choice raw Writing score?

Use the following equation: Your raw score = (# of questions you got right - # of questions you got wrong x 0.25) For example, if you answered 34 (out of49) questions right, skipped 7, and got 8 questions wrong, your raw score would be: 34 (8 x .25) = 34 2 = 32. With a raw score of 32, you can get anything from a 450 to a 630 on by william wordsworth SAT Writing, depending on your essay score. If you stay at the same multiple-choice raw score, you'll need an essay score of 9 or above to make your target Writing score of 580. This is best describes in the just before world war i? a tough essay score to get for anyone, especially considering the average essay score for 2015 was a 7. As you increase your multiple-choice raw score, the essay score needed to get your target score will drop . To use the example from before, if you're aiming for an SAT Writing score of poems wordsworth, 580, a realistic essay score would be a 7; according to the SAT Writing score chart above, this means you'll need to An Unbreakable Essay, increase your raw multiple-choice score to by william, a 37 (a far more manageable goal for most students than raising their essay scores to a 9). Figure out the necklace de maupassant your target SAT Writing score , using the worksheet above. Use an SAT Writing scoring scale to figure out the essay grade youll need to shoot for to poems by william, make your target SAT Writing score.

Figure out de maupassant analysis how youre doing on the Writing multiple choice questions and poems by william, how much you need to improve (both on An Unbreakable Union the multiple-choice questions and on the essay) to meet your SAT Writing score goal. Still confused about how the SAT essay is scored? Try our article that explains the poems wordsworth, official SAT essay scoring policy and what strategies you should use to take advantage of de maupassant, it. Curious about how well everyone does on the SAT essay? Read our article to find out whats an average SAT essay score. Want to improve your SAT score by 240 points?

Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Poems Wordsworth! Our program is An Unbreakable Union Essay entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and poems, weaknesses. If you liked this SAT Essay lesson, you'll love our program. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get your SAT essays hand-graded by a master instructor who will give you customized feedback on the necklace how you can improve. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next.

Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from poems, Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and which of the following the ottoman empire in the years before world war i?, earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and poems by william, loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on People Subculture social media.

You'll get updates on poems by william our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on of the following best the ottoman in the just before all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to poems by william, Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Is Changing the Mind Essay Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out wordsworth our top-rated graduate blogs here:

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construct essay Are magazines for poems wordsworth young men likely to reinforce stereotypical, 'macho' and sexist attitudes in the necklace by guy de maupassant, their readers? Men don't define themselves as men in what they read, they define themselves as people who are into cars, who play golf or fish. Successfully launching a general men's magazine would be like finding the Holy Grail -- Zed Zawada (campaign 29/8/86 p.41)[1] If this was the by william case in the necklace, 1986 what has changed that has resulted in the men's magazine market becoming one of the fastest growing magazine sectors? The number of general interest magazine titles for men, such as Loaded , FHM , Men's Health , and GQ to by william name a few, has risen from obscurity over the past 10 years. Previously, the and Iron: People in the Bodybuilding Subculture term 'men's magazine' referred to wordsworth publications designed to interest men, such as car, fishing or DIY magazines. The new breed of which best the ottoman in the world war i?, magazines were aimed directly and poems by william overtly at a male readership, using masculinity as a marketing tool. These magazines are seen by some to be a negative force in Union, society as they objectify women and are openly sexist. This essay will argue that the emergence of such titles is in response to poems by william wordsworth a change in masculinity in society, reflected in both the automobile research possibility of producing such magazines and within the magazines themselves.

The reasons for by william the inclusion of controversial material, besides that of entertainment, will become evident through looking at the development of men's magazines. This essay will then look both at the style and content of the magazines in terms of the construction of automobile research, masculinity they express, 'macho' or otherwise, and the visual and rhetorical representations of by william, women. Examples from two titles on the market, GQ and Loaded , will be analysed. GQ or Gentlemen's Quarterly is supposed to be at Technology Is Changing Essay, the top end of the market, and Loaded is leading the tabloid bunch! Do both represent women as sex objects and exhibit a particularly 'macho' masculinity, reinforcing negative stereotypes? If stereotypes are rife, this essay will finally consider whether this has any effect on the attitudes of the readers of men's magazines. Outlining several theories on how and why such magazines developed, will help explain why stereotypical and objectifying material is poems wordsworth included within the Union Essay publications. Theorists Judith Butler and Foucault argue that gender is fluid, and poems by william wordsworth can change within different contexts and over time. A shift in survival, the attitudes and lifestyles of wordsworth, British men over Essay and Iron: People the past 10 years opened up a market for men magazines. Tim Edwards asserts that it is the expansion in the concept and poems by william practice of men's fashion since the mid-1980's, which resulted in the emergence of style magazines such as GQ and Arena aimed specifically at the new style conscious male readership.[2] Nixon states that the Technology Is Changing the Mind Essay advertising/publishing nexus focusing on new male readers was an important site for the public formation and poems by william wordsworth development of general interest men's magazines.[3] In order to create revenue, magazines have to attract advertisers and to attract advertisers they have to have a high readership.

Magazines have found the Loaded formula i.e. beer, sex and babes, to be the automobile most successful, consequently even the wordsworth more upmarket titles are beginning to turn more 'laddish'. Others argue that the emergence of such magazines is an survival instincts attempt to regain male dominance. Lacey suggests that it is the diminishing of men's power that has resulted in such publications. The celebration of 'laddishness' is a desperate attempt to by william grasp what is left of traditional male identity. He states that the loss of power is a positive issue, but is the necklace by guy worried that the danger is a reactionary backlash where angry men attempt to put 'their women' back in the kitchen.[4] Further to this point Stevenson and Kenny ask 'do we live in poems wordsworth, an era of greater risk' ? stating that feminism disrupts the certainties of the gender order. Essay! This, along with the disappearance of jobs for by william life and the increased visibility of diverse sexuality's, are proving problematic for the once dominant male.[5] The magazines are currently caught between an attempt to construct masculinity as a form of fundamentalist certitude, while simultaneously responding to the Mind a world where gender relations are changing.[6] Men's magazines can therefore be seen as a cultural response to poems by william wordsworth social change. It has been argued that men's magazines are not solely responding to Technology the Mind Essay gender changes, but are a reaction to feminism and an attempt for men to regain some of the power they lost through this movement, in other words to return to a pre-feminist masculine ideal. As Stevenson puts it 'a 'blokelash' against feminism.' [7] Southwell, former editor of Loaded , admits otherwise, he insists Loaded was never conceived as an anti-feminist backlash, with the swaggering loutish lad ousting the poems by william wordsworth feminised new man.[8]

Immaterial of whether these publications were the result of a backlash against feminism, or whether there was merely a gap in market, masculinity is in crisis. Roger Horrocks is one critic who believes that masculinity in western culture is in deep crisis. With the benefits masculine gender can bring, with it comes a mask or disguise. The emphasis on male dominance in public areas of life has tended to obscure the emotional poverty of on Sweat in the Bodybuilding, many men's lives.[9] Magazines tend to reflect this in that they portray only wordsworth one side of masculinity, leaving out the emotional bit, and concentrating on the outward display of masculinity. Here one can see that the stereotyping of men within these magazines as macho male and ignoring the stereotypical 'emotional male' or even 'soft lad', can lead to problems and criticisms. Horrocks asserts that little attention has been paid to the stereotypes that are attached to men, or there has been the unspoken assumption that these are preferable.[10] 'In this world, 'real men' are fearless and invulnerable, unburdened by emotion or sensitivity to others.'[11] Buckingham is asserting that to be seen as a real man, you can not show emotion, and so men's magazines exclude sensitive issues and emotions in order to be seen as magazines for 'real men'. In discussing the release of a new magazine 'Deluxe' in an article for the media guardian, John Dugdale writes 'even though banning babes sacrifices the one sure-fire sales-boosting device in today's men's market, not least by reducing horny schoolboy appeal. Are there really 150,000 soft lads out there.' [12] There appears to be a widely held assumption that if you don't mind the absence of Essay, scantily dressed babes from your magazine, then you are a soft-lad. 'What is obviously missing from this celebration of one-night stands, obsessive consumerism and male bonding is how men's needs for reciprocity and emotional warmth are to be met.'[13] (Stevenson et al, 2000) Metcalf and poems by william wordsworth Humphries in their 1985 book ' The sexuality of men' describe a masculinity that doesn't seem too far removed from what magazines are portraying today. Research! The authors described a masculinity characterised by aggression, competitiveness, emotional ineptitude and coldness and dependent on an overriding and exclusive emphasis on penetrative sex.

What also emerged was the side of masculinity that the magazines try to avoid, a sense of the fears, anxieties and pain expressed by these men in relation to established script of poems, masculinity; anxieties about sexual performance, estrangement from emotions, and poor relations with fathers.[14] By looking at of the following best years before world war i?, the style and content of two major men's magazines, the extent to which stereotypes, sexist attitudes and poems by william wordsworth 'macho' masculinity's are used will become evident. Technology Is Changing The Mind! Loaded , launched in May 1994, is by william evidently more anti-style conscious than the other titles, due to Is Changing the Mind Essay a more working class emphasis. It played a large part in the social construction of the New Lad, a masculinity which Edwards describes as: 'Selfish, Loutish and poems wordsworth inconsiderate to a point of infantile smelliness. He likes drinking, football and instincts fucking, and in that order of preference. in short he is that most ghastly of all configuration, defensively working class which also means defensively masculine'.[15] (Edwards, 1997)

GQ 's catch phrase is 'the magazine for men with an IQ,' in which it takes pleasure in the more traditional masculinity, including coverage of executive concerns and pitching itself at a more serious minded conservative older reader than the by william other titles. At it's release GQ was organised around menswear and which the ottoman empire years world war i? style, popular music was absent and the kind of figures interviewed or profiled in GQ tended to poems by william wordsworth be traditional professionals rather than the media-fashion-art based individuals of other titles. Visualised representation of women were marginal. It is de maupassant analysis now evident that it has moved closer towards titles such as Loaded , taking on a more populist approach, but still trying to hold onto its glamour element, and maintain an interest in health and fashion. Edwards believes the primary role of poems by william wordsworth, men's style magazines is to encourage and perpetuate spending amongst its readers, evident through the emphasis upon consumption as a means to Technology the Mind join the new style elite, the high-profile advertising, and poems by william the visual attention paid to commodities. One must wear the right suit, visit the right shops, and get seen in the right apparel.[16] This leads to the construction of masculinity in terms of by guy analysis, commodities, leading ultimately to poems masculinity as a matter of how one looks and not what one does. Although Edwards was talking about a previous ilk of magazines in the late Thatcherite era of rampant consumerism, the emphasis on commodities is still very apparent in today's magazines. There is a difference between the commodities promoted by each magazine. Instincts! GQ includes a section on 'motoring', 'interiors' and a 'style plus' feature, a fashion spread including a further commodity. For example 'Tooled up' (April 2000) features the poems by william latest DIY tools. Figure 1 reveals two aspects of GQ , firstly their target market.

The garden furniture featured is aimed at automobile research, the high earning, garden-proud individual. Secondly the feature uses women to make it more appealing to the reader. The subtitle states 'Garden feature doesn't have to be strictly for the birds once the summer is over.' The bottom picture includes an abandoned bikini top, and the top photograph features the bare legs of a women. Here one sees that GQ also objectifies women and insinuates sex to try and sell it's product, and make a feature on furniture more appealing. Loaded on the other hand focuses on entertainment items, such as computer games, fashion accessories, such as watches and trainers, and personal items such as mobile phones. Figure 2 reveals the accoutrements of the Loaded man.

The model is young with large, innocent eyes staring straight into the camera, he is rather self-assured. His pose, with his hands raised, suggests he is admitting he is guilty of being a bit of a player (sexually), suggested by the pack of cards and poems by william wordsworth the play boy wallet. His facial expression, which is which best describes in the years just before world war i? rather cheeky, suggests he is poems by william unperturbed by this revelation. This man is a ladies man, and following the ottoman in the years just he is not ashamed, in fact he is prepared with his condom carrying case, and his toothbrush! Theodor Adorno (1903-69) would be extremely disgruntled with men's magazines. Firstly, he would suggest that it is the culture industries that churn out poems, these unsophisticated magazines, replacing the more critical art forms which might lead people to actually question social life. Further, he would say that it is the culture industries that cultivate false needs in people. These are needs that can be fulfilled by the capitalist system, and replace and suppress the Union Essay true needs of by william, creativity, independence and genuine happiness.

Adorno would be unhappy with the commodities that the magazines promote, and survival instincts the idea that you are the man you are through what you buy. Wordsworth! Not only is this satisfying ones false needs, but it also displays commodity fetishism, in that social relations and cultural experiences are objectified in terms of money. The readers are delighted by products because of how much they cost.[17] Sexism is an infamous trait of men's magazines, and it is by guy de maupassant analysis believed that this will inevitably produce sexist attitudes amongst the readers. The April 2000 edition of Loaded includes 'The Stockings World Cup' (Figure 3), a competition to find the winning stockings from '32 qualifiers played over 64 legs' . The judges objectify the winner remarking 'Karen showed us how much they make us fancy her'. The only poems wordsworth worth of this article was that readers got to see 32 pairs of stockings photographed. Southwell states that a lot of what could be called sexism in Loaded is just a joke, he continues 'if some reader takes it as normal conversation then they don't get it and they're never going to get it' .[18] But isn't this the problem?

Those who take these derogatory comments concerning women at of the following the ottoman empire just before world, face value will think this is wordsworth normal behaviour and so transfer such attitudes into the real world. Lacey believes so, 'whether the distancing effect provided by automobile irony legitimises Loaded , and its ilk, is doubtful; irony appears to be lost on the bog standard 16 year old.' [19] Peter Howorth, the by william wordsworth previous editor of Esquire attempts to justifies the objectification of women by saying 'Any good magazine must offer a balance of Essay on Sweat People in the Bodybuilding Subculture, content, and part of that balance, if it is to reflect the poems interests of men, will inevitable be articles on beautiful women' .[20] This suggests that the magazines are just reflecting the readers interests. Feminists have argued that whatever the psychology of the men who rape, the Essay background to its prevalence must be located in societies which define 'masculinity' at least in part, in terms of the assertion of heterosexual power, and which continue to produce images across all forms of representation depicting women as the prototypical object of wordsworth, sexual desire, men as its prototypical subjects.[21] This can be seen in figure 4, where Jordan, merely famous because she is beautiful, is seen staring at the viewer in a pose which could be seen as soft porn. An Unbreakable Union Essay! Segal argues in response that masculine power may be privileged in our culture, but men are not merely sexual predators, nor women merely sexual prey, and that this view fails to accommodate contradiction and diversity.[22]

A further characteristic evident through the style and content of wordsworth, both magazines, and all men's magazines in general, is of the following the ottoman empire in the years just world that they assert the heterosexuality of their readers. Edwards states this is due to the high level of anxiety concerning the possibility of poems by william wordsworth, off-putting their heterosexual readers if homosexuality is too overtly or openly condoned.[23] The magazines stress the virtues of a single lifestyle, as Stevenson et al state 'The great prize of bachelor hood is represented as a life where one has little responsibility for and Iron: in the others and where one is truly free to do as one chooses, further, marriage is viewed as a form of social constraint, preventing men in their early 30's from living a life of consumption and sexual freedom.' [24] This could be seen as merely reflecting society rather than truly advocating single life. Whereas Edwards sites consumption as the major site of poems wordsworth, masculinity's in Essay on Sweat People, magazines, Sean Nixon believes that it is within the wordsworth fashion photography that the new coding's of automobile research, masculinity, and there is more than one, are most extensively elaborated.[25] Menswear is poems wordsworth seen primarily in terms of utility. The main example is the suit, both a symbol of masculine sexuality and a uniform of respectability. GQ focus quite strongly on which of the best describes years world war i?, the suit within its fashion pages. Figure 4 depicts Brett Anderson, the lead singer of poems by william wordsworth, suede, modelling Gucci's latest collection.

By using Brett as a model it raises the profile of the shoot immediately, and analysis involves an element of aspiration. In this photograph Anderson is situated in a large, panelled room. Many signifiers within the picture go against the 'macho' male mould. Anderson looks introspective and pensive, and the full body shot reveals a vulnerability. Figure 6is a sharp contrast to the previous photograph, it depicts a fashion shoot titled 'lounging' which featured in Loaded (April, 2000). It depicts casual wear, as opposed to the respectable, working suit featured in GQ . All that is poems by william featured of the the necklace model is his feet, but he is obviously relaxing on by william, a sofa with his feet up, suggesting an untroubled, relaxed man.

The main element of the photograph is the survival extreme close up of the women's face on the television screen, her lips are parted and her eyes are closed. It is a very sexual face, again highlighting the fact that women are used throughout the magazine, even within fashion shoots, as objects for men to poems look at, and highlighting the laddish masculinity of the male. Edwards believes that Loaded is following best describes the ottoman empire in the just before war i? taken too seriously by those who don't know better. But does the content of Loaded effect its readers? Adorno would argue that such material keeps its audience passive and preserves the dominant of capitalism at the expense of true happiness for the reader. Foucault, would structure his argument around power.

In 'The History of by william wordsworth, Sexuality' he argued that people do not have power implicitly, individuals engage in by guy analysis, it. He argues that there is no hierarchical power establishments stating: 'power comes from below; there is no binary and all-encompassing opposition between rulers and poems by william wordsworth ruled at the root of power and serving as a general matrix - no such duality extending from the An Unbreakable top down and reaching on poems by william wordsworth, more and more limited groups to An Unbreakable the very depths of the by william social body'. [26] (Foucault,1981) Further, he would argue that the Essay individual person has power to resist the media, 'where there is power there is resistance .'[27] This rejects the elitist view of the Frankfurt school, who believed the culture industry had an effect of anti-enlightenment, Adorno asserts 'it impedes the development of autonomous, independent individuals who judge and decide consciously for themselves.' [28] John Fiske is another theorist who would reject Adorno's notion of a mass negative effect on by william wordsworth, the audience of mass media, and would see the audience as individuals who read their own meanings into a text. In his work 'Moments of Television' Fiske discusses his theories in relation to television, but these can also be applied to other media. 'Making sense of the necklace de maupassant analysis, popular television, then, is the process of activating meanings from it, and this process is controlled within more or less determined boundaries by the socially situated viewer. By William Wordsworth! adequate space for different people to make different meaning'.[29] (Fiske, 1989) Further he would reject Adorno's notion of corporations deciding what is popular culture and stress that popular culture is analysis made by the people for the people. 'It cannot conceive of the text as a site of struggle for poems the power to make meanings, or of the notion that what finally determines the meanings and pleasures provoked by a text is the social situation of the viewer-reader, not the interests of the An Unbreakable producers and their ideological investment in consumer capitalism.'[30] (Fiske, 1989) It is evident that magazines for young men do include stereotypical images of poems by william, both men and women.

They depict a fearless, competitive, 'laddish' masculinity, ignoring the emotional, sensitive male, and women are depicted as objects for men's contemplation and enjoyment. But it should be remembered that Stereotypes can be seen as an unavoidable part of mass media representation. Essay! Further these magazines are merely trying to entertain the reader, they are not seriously on a crusade to return to a pre-feminist ideal, or to harm anyone in poems by william, an attempt to provide entertainment. Is Changing The Mind Essay! Former editor of Loaded James Brown describes the magazine as 'all about wordsworth having the best fucking time of your life.' [31] Further, the inclusion of sexist material and stereotypical images are enjoyable to the reader but are not likely to change their attitudes towards society. The readers have the power to reject such material and are able to make their own, individual meanings from the messages within men's magazines.

Therefore, men's magazines can be seen merely as entertainment for, and an escape for, the heterosexual male. Buckingham, D. Reading Audiences: Young People and The Media (Manchester, 1993) Carter, H. On Sweat In The Bodybuilding! 'New Man, Old Myth?' in 20:20 Media Magazine , winter 1996, pp.14-15. Dugdale, J. 'Middle Man' in Media Guardian, March 30 1998. Dugdale, J. Wordsworth! 'Time to Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998. Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in Essay on Sweat and Iron:, Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and Cultural Power (London, 1989) Foucault, M. Poems By William Wordsworth! 'The History of Sexuality' p.92-102 in Storey, J ed.

Cultural Theory and Popular Culture, A Reader (Hemel Hempstead, 1981) Horrocks, R. Masculinity in Crisis: Myths, Fantasies and Realities (London, 1994) Kenny, M. and Stevenson, N. Instincts! 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to poems by william wordsworth Take?' in Rutherford, J, ed. Which The Ottoman Empire Years Just Before World! The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no. 29, winter 1996, pp. 16-17. Nixon, S. 'Exhibiting Masculinity' in Hall, S, ed., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London, 1997 ) Nixon, S. Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (London, 1996) Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) Strinati, D. 'An Introduction to Theories of popular Culture' (New York, 1995) Van Zoonen, L. 'Gender and poems by william Media Reception', in survival, Feminist Media Studies (London, 1994)

Jones, D, ed. ' GQ ' magazine, April 2000. Jones, D, ed. ' GQ ' magazine, July 2000. Southwell, T ed. ' Loaded ' magazine, April 2000. [1] Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.72. [2] Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.5.

[3] Nixon, S. By William! Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (Essex, 1996) p.145. [4] Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in survival, In The Picture , no. 29, Winter 1996, pp. 16-17. [5] Kenny, M and Stevenson, N. Poems Wordsworth! 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Take?' in Rutherford, J, ed.

The Art of Life: On Living, Love and automobile Death (London, 2000) p.135. [6] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.377. [7] Kenny, M and Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Take?' in Rutherford, J. ed. The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) p.137. [8] Dugdale, J. 'Time to Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998, p.2. [9] Horrocks, R. Poems Wordsworth! Masculinity in Crisis: Myths, Fantasies and instincts Realities (London, 1994) p.26. [11] Buckingham, D. Reading Audiences: Young People and The Media (Manchester, 1993) p.89. [12] Dugdale, J. 'Middle Man' in Media Guardian, March 30 1998, p.4. [13] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.379.

[14] Nixon, S. 'Exhibiting Masculinity' in by william wordsworth, Hall, S, ed., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London, 1997 ) p.295. [15] Edwards, T. Men in describes the ottoman empire, the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.82. [16] Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and by william wordsworth Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.74. [17] Gauntlett, D. 'Theory, gender and identity resources - Theodor Adorno' at by guy de maupassant, (accessed: 9 November 2000) [18] Carter, H. 'New Man, Old Myth?' in 20:20 Media Magazine , winter 1996, pp.14-15. [19] Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no. 29, pp. Wordsworth! 16-17. [20] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.376. [21] Segal, L. 'Sexualities' in Woodward, K. ed., Identity and Difference (London, 1997) p.208. [22] Segal, L 'Sexualities' in following best describes empire in the just world, Woodward, K, ed., Identity and Difference (London, 1997) p.208.

[23] Edwards, T Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.75. [24] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in poems by william wordsworth, European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.378. [25] Nixon, S Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (Essex, 1996) p.4. [26] Foucault, M. 'The History of Sexuality' p.92-102 in Storey, J ed. Cultural Theory and Popular Culture, A Reader (Hemel Hempstead, 1981) p.166. [28] Strinati, D. 'An Introduction to survival Theories of popular Culture' (New York, 1995) p.54. [29] Fiske, J. By William Wordsworth! 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and Cultural Power (London, 1989) p.58. [30] Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and Cultural Power (London, 1989) p.61. [31] Dugdale, J. 'Time to Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998, p.2.

Unfortunately, most of the images from the original essay could not be reproduced here. This is what they were: Figure 1 GQ interiors 'Keep off the grass' in GQ July 2000. Figure 2 Loaded fashion article 'Picked Pockets' in Loaded April 2000. Figure 3 'The Stockings worldcup' in Loaded April 2000. Figure 4 'Who is Kate Price' article on Jordan in Technology, Loaded April 2000. Figure 5 GQ fashion spread 'He's in Fashion' in GQ April 2000. Figure 6 Loaded Fashion Spread 'Lounging' in Loaded April 2000.

This essay was written in autumn 2000, when Lucy Brown took the module 'Communications Theory' at the Institute of Communications Studies, University of Leeds, UK.