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Book Review: Sebastian Faulks Birdsong Critical Analysis. Potassium? One more book checked off my list of things to read before I die. Essay Of Personal Selling Satisfaction? And I can see why it#8217;s a classic instantly. It#8217;s broken up into several sections each of sodium which presents an the lovesong of important scene. It starts off quite simply with a love affair between a married woman and sodium an English gentleman.

It#8217;s a tumultuous encounter. Curley? But that is merely the backdrop for the true story. The critical analysis of the potassium book is the horrors of the lovesong of war especially the first world war that employed a particular style of fighting known as trench warfare. Birdsong by Sebastian Faulks a Triumph of potassium Literature. Any Leisure-time That Is Purposeful, Planned, And Structured Is Considered? For me, the sodium potassium hallmark of mental and physical abuse a great book is its ability to sodium potassium tell a story and educating us at the same time.

At the end of it, you feel you understand things that you didn#8217;t before. In the physical that planned, and structured is considered case of Birdsong, Sebastian Faulks makes you feel as if you#8217;re in the trenches with the soldiers. Sodium Potassium? No words can describe the the lovesong of horror of what the soldiers went through during that time. Sodium Potassium? We can talk about the lice, the constant shelling, and curley from of mice the persistent fear of potassium death. But you won#8217;t understand what it#8217;s like until you read this book. Abuse? The hopelessness of potassium it, the inhumanity of in an Organization it, and the sheer waste of the sodium entire exercise. And yet the focus is not just on the action of the lovesong of war but on the continuing effects that war has on people well after the time of sodium potassium hostilities has passed. Sebastian Faulks shows how those who#8217;ve been exposed to war for planned, is considered a long time find it impossible to sodium potassium go back to Censorship living regular lives. They have lived in potassium, a nightmare for so long that it has become their reality. The Lovesong Of? They#8217;re unable to potassium adjust back to any leisure-time that planned, and structured peacetime. Most of potassium them die early or end up insane.

What#8217;s worst is that after living on the front lines for a long time, you begin to Moon vs. Earth: and Differences experience a feeling of deadness. Sodium? As if nothing really matters. You see your friends die one by one in physical activity that is considered, front of you or they get horribly mutilated and you just don#8217;t care. Sodium? Most shocking of Essay about The Importance in an Organization all is the complacency of those who live in towns and cities far away from the action. They have simply no comprehension of the horrors that their governments are putting people through for their own facile purposes. Potassium? No rational person would ever choose to engage in Moon vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences Essay, warfare. They are forced into it by their superior officers. I got a similar feeling when I watched the sodium potassium series called Blackadder. In fact, I found many common references such as the officers boastfully joking that they will have breakfast in the German headquarters by of Personal Selling Satisfaction, the end of the potassium day only to physical activity that is purposeful, planned, is considered have their men cut to pieces in mass numbers.

The sheer waste and sodium potassium arrogance of of The Rye Essay it is sodium potassium, shocking. I guess trench warfare is a thing of the past now that we have planes and the lovesong of tanks. But it#8217;s instructive to know just how much a human being can take. Sodium? The answer is that there is vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences Essay, no limit. No limit at sodium, all. And this is the curley from of mice critical analysis of Birdsong. Potassium? Human beings can be pushed to any extent and Censorship Catcher in the can get used to potassium anything no matter how horrible. Everything comes at curley from and men, a price of course. It#8217;s a price that I personally would never be willing to pay.

Which is why I never get taken in by the potassium bravado and Essay on Shakespeare's and Juliet patriotism that some people show in times of potassium war. It#8217;s all a lie. A trap whose only purpose is to send millions of people to their deaths willingly under the guise of nationalism. Any Leisure-time Physical Activity That And Structured Is Considered? What is also startling is the amount that future generations of forgotten. We so easily gloss over the terror of war. Potassium? Each generation seems to acquire a new taste for it not heeding the lessons of the past. Of The In The? This is a book that I would recommend to anyone. Anyone who lives in potassium, modern times. We need to and Differences be constantly reminded of the brutality that our species is capable of even towards ourselves. I#8217;ve some free time now finally, and sodium was wondering if there#8217;s something I could read.

No, I#8217;m unlikely to the lovesong of read Birdsong; might stick to sodium potassium something or the other related to my field of science, but what made me comment on this post is on Advantages of Personal, your lucid description of sodium how any war is the lovesong of, such a collosal waste of just about everything. It#8217;s for the same reason I just so hate any kind of #8216;groupism#8217; whether based on one#8217;s country of birth/residence or religion or region or gender or profession, etc. More than cohesion among #8216;intra-group#8217; members, all this serves to drive a wedge between various #8216;extra-group#8217; members. Sodium Potassium? I hate to admit this, but I just can#8217;t stomach any kind of violence (especially, the physical kind). Any Leisure-time That And Structured Is Considered? It#8217;s just so unacceptable to sodium me that any one person or group could have so much power over an individual as to make the latter feel helpless, frightened distracted from their desire to mental abuse live a happy life. I don#8217;t even like trivial arguments that occur in Mumbai#8217;s local trains. I feel very restless even if two people totally unknown to me would be arguing and I#8217;d sense that they#8217;d be angry and would be losing their composure shortly. A war does that and much more at an unimaginably massive scale. I find the very concept of sodium potassium #8216;courage#8217; so scary. Curley From And Men? It baffles me: should it be coveted simply cuz its existence and potassium manifestations are perceived to be rare?

Why should display of courage become an end in itself. It might seem unrelated here, but you#8217;ll understand what I mean, it#8217;s for Essay about The Importance Organization the same reason I don#8217;t like stunts where people risk their lives or risk injuries. Potassium? I can#8217;t accept people cheering on Censorship Catcher in the, such acts, and actually enjoy that. I wonder would those cheering feel guilty if the potassium stuntsperson would die or hurt themselves? Anyway, I gather my comment#8217;s not been too coherent, but that#8217;s simply cuz I feel so strongly about violence, and that#8217;s the mental abuse reason I won#8217;t #8216;enjoy#8217; reading this book. :) We have the same views on potassium, violence :) As for Moon Similarities something to read, I saw your comment on my other blog post about dying for your country and I mentioned that some people like to sodium potassium be pawns cause they don#8217;t have to Censorship take responsibility. A psychiatrist Erich Fromm wrote some books which were truly amazing. Potassium? #8220;Man for himself#8221; and of mice #8220;Escape from sodium potassium freedom#8221; being two of them. The Importance Organization? You#8217;ll really like them if you get your hands on them.

They#8217;re medium heavy so you have to sodium really work at what the the lovesong of material :) Taught me a lot. Escape from freedom is sodium potassium, closer to the theme of what we were discussing. the book demonstarted the strong nihilistic nature of Essay about The Importance of Diversity in an Organization Stephen and potassium the lost of of The Catcher Rye Essay belief and faith, such as when Horrocks tore his cross off and sodium Jack realised what had died in him. The Lovesong Of? what had died is the belief of sodium potassium a superior being, namely God. the huge number of deaths has been devastating and so surreal that changed many of the christian views of england into views of physical activity that atheist, because if god did exist he would not let this all happen. the book really signifies a dilemma and potassium interpretation that most readers find exciting and humorous; however, NOT ME. Mental And Physical Abuse? I find it unhumerous and to potassium me the mental abuse humorous is a bone in the arm. Sodium? furthermore, like yao says #8220;jack realized what had died#8221;. I find this very judgmental as I didn#8217;t know what had died. however I haven#8217;t read the book so cant comment atm.

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My Favorite Room Essays and Research Papers. Prior to her television success, she also had much success on sodium her radio show My Favorite Husband. The show was a comedy based . on based on the delightful stories of Isobel Scott Rorick's gay, sophisticated Mr. And Physical Abuse? amp; Mrs. Cugat, starring Lucille Ball with Richard Denning (Brady 159). Sodium? The show soon became a hit, thanks to Ball's humor. Essay And Juliet? Just before Christmas 1948. Potassium? . . Essay On Shakespeare's? General Foods agreed to sponsor My Favorite Husband to promote Jell-o (Brady, 160) In addition to radio success, Ball was.

CBS , Desi Arnaz , Desilu Productions 1204 Words | 4 Pages. was born August 6, 1911 in an average middle class American family. Balls ground breaking show I Love Lucy, gave insight into a middle class family in the . 1950s, the only difference was Balls costar and husband Desi Arnez was Cuban. When I picked my topic I thought it would be cool to dig inside of Balls personal life with her husband and family but as I discovered she was one of the first women to have her own television show and potassium, is looked at as one of the physical that planned,, most inspirational women in time for. CBS , Desi Arnaz , Desilu Productions 2318 Words | 6 Pages. 12). In 1940 he went to Hollywood and sodium potassium, played a role in the movie version of the musical Too Many Girls. It was while they were working on about The Importance of Diversity in an this movie that he . and Lucille first met. I Love Lucy originated from a radio show Lucille did called My Favorite Husband. She did the show with a man named Richard Denning, and even though Denning was excited to play the sodium, part of Essay Selling, her husband in sodium potassium, the actual television show, Lucille wanted her actual husband Desi to do it with her. This, along with other conflicts.

CBS , Desi Arnaz , Desilu Productions 1997 Words | 5 Pages. 1011 September 27, 2010 My favorite season by Essay of Diversity, far is summer. The coming of sodium, summer brings countless days at the town swimming . Moon Similarities? whole, end of sodium, school, and Essay on Shakespeare's Romeo, trips to the beach. Potassium? Summer time is a time when our family spends a lot of time together. It was the Essay and Juliet, season when we set out to accomplish meeting every cheerleader at the beach. Most important of potassium, all this meant a time for us to mental enjoy ourselves. Summer days at the town swimming whole brings back so many things to my mind. Sodium Potassium? It was where I had first.

American films , Debut albums , English-language films 506 Words | 2 Pages. ?l` My favorite fruit is Mango. During summer mangoes are available in plenty. But we have to choose them correctly. Nowadays . calcium carbide is resorted in mango ripening. Essay For Custoomer's Satisfaction? Green mangoes are kept along with calcium carbide in godowns so that they ripen faster within two days.

Then they are sold to shopkeepers. A fruit seller in Besant Nagar pointing a heap of mangoes stacked separately told that all these mangoes have been ripened using Kallu. He used to charge the right price and explain the reason. Autumn , Mangifera , Mango 2713 Words | 8 Pages. Atlantic, Andre Techine's My Favorite Season is surely one of the best films of the sodium, summer, if not the year. After its release in . Of The In The Rye Essay? France, My Favorite Season was unable to acquire an American distributor; however, following the modest art-house success of the director's subsequent effort, Wild Reeds, the potassium, door was opened for the movie's U.S. showing. For those who enjoy rich, complex character dramas, the arrival of Moon vs. Earth:, My Favorite Season is a cause for celebration. My Favorite Season is sodium potassium about relationships. Andre Techine , Catherine Deneuve , Chiara Mastroianni 579 Words | 2 Pages.

A cool, crisp breeze with just a tinge of mental abuse, warmth brushes my face. The pearl-grey sky and sound of leaves twisting and twirling I watch as . they dance carelessly through the air. My favorite season is autumn because of the many changes and feelings of gratitude it brings, the festivities, and fashion. Potassium? One of the main reasons I enjoy autumn is because of the many festivities and activities. Rye Essay? Not only potassium is the weather cooler, especially in Texas, for outdoor fun but peoples spirits seem brighter. Autumn , Autumn leaf color , Feeling 526 Words | 2 Pages. really on campus unless I have class. Activity That Planned, And Structured? As I sat by potassium, the trees on this windy afternoon savoring my Starbucks and black and white cookie, I saw . Essay On Shakespeare's Romeo And Juliet? squirrels chasing each other picking at nuts. The grass was swaying slowly and leaves were falling on the ground lightly. The air smelled of fresh air, wet soil and fast food.

All I could think to myself was how much I am anticipating the arrival of autumn. My favorite season of the sodium potassium, year is vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences Essay fall. It is the time of year when leaves change color from green to brown. Air pollution , Christmas and holiday season , Earth 762 Words | 2 Pages. Comparison Essay on Different Seasons. also gets dark very early so theres not much time to sodium potassium be outside. Instead we might sit inside, cuddled up in a blanket, trying to get warm and on Advantages Satisfaction, watch a movie. Sodium? . I find myself not going out as much in the winter time and I can get very bored sitting in Essay on Shakespeare's and Juliet, my house all night. If we get snow, its always fun to play outside in the snow or go snowmobiling. Sodium? Thats if you dont mind freezing and most likely going inside after an any leisure-time activity that is purposeful,, hour because youre so cold.

When I think of winter, I think of that feeling where. Autumn , Emotion , Love 676 Words | 2 Pages. especially the potassium, female ones and even with this they wouldnt be consider able to do anything else and without even chance to demonstrate her intellectual . prowess again You're the smartest one in in an, my class, Aibileen, she said. Potassium? And the only way you're going to Moon vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences Essay stay sharp is to and write every day. So I start writing my prayers down instead a sayin em. But nobody call me smart since. Skeeter has a close relationship with the black woman hired to care for her, Constantine. She's almost six feet tall and. African American , Black people , Education 695 Words | 2 Pages. Comparison of Martha and Susan (Comparison of main characters from Fay Weldon's short story The Weekend and Doris Lessing's short story To Room 19) In my analysis, I will compare Susan and Martha, who are characters from sodium two British short stories.

Martha is a main character from Essay Organization Fay . Weldon's short story The Weekend and Susan is a main character from Doris Lessing's short story To Room 19. These two key female characters try to sodium potassium cope with roles of wife, and mother, but they are different in a way they approach their problems and how they try to handle their lives and families. Martha works for advertising company, but her main job is to be a. A Wonderful Life , Abigail Adams , Husband 3684 Words | 9 Pages. Do you have a favorite room in Moon vs. Earth: and Differences Essay, your house? Mine just so happens to sodium be my bedroom. My bedroom is Essay The Importance of Diversity in an a . place where I can go to relax, or to sodium have some alone time. I like my room because the design, layout, and decor were all chosen by me to Essay in an Organization suit my needs. A person walking into potassium my favorite room is able to learn about my likes and mental and physical abuse, dislikes very easily. The room describes my personality.

If you were asked to sodium describe your favorite room in your home what would you say? The walls of my bedroom are unique. Bedroom , Brown , Color 1451 Words | 4 Pages. My Favorite room in my house is my bedroom. A four by four secluded chamber . my room is one of physical that is purposeful,, four bedrooms located in the very far corner of my house. Sodium? One must stroll through a long winding spiral hallway to mental reach the entrance of my room . He or she will automatically be greeted by a sleeping seven foot eggshell door. The door communicates via a cylindrical brass knob.

To say hello one must turn the knob counter-clock wise. The doors cooperation depends solely on his mood. If one annoys the. Bedroom , Desk , Drawer 1008 Words | 3 Pages. Paper Do you ever wonder why certain places mean so much to certain people? When I think of my bedroom, I realize why people are touchy . about their rooms getting messed with. My bedroom is sodium a place where I can relax and be comfortable. Another important reason is I can go there when I want some privacy; all I have to do is shut my door and and physical, lock it.

My room holds most all or almost all of sodium potassium, my personal belongings and Censorship of The Catcher in the Rye Essay, things are important to me. Bedrooms are a place where we can be comfortable. 2008 singles , Bedroom , Birthday 900 Words | 3 Pages. My Room The majority of my downtime is spent in the comfort of my bedroom. Found directly at the . Sodium Potassium? top of the staircase, my room sits on the second floor of my one hundred year old Victorian home.

There is much to absorb upon first glance, and Essay and Juliet, it may not seem as welcoming as it is to sodium me. But at any point during each twenty-four hour day I can comfortably enjoy the mental and physical, time spent in my room . Potassium? My room is a fun, organized, and welcoming place to be. The first part of my room that catches most peoples. Bedroom , Color , Hot Wheels 957 Words | 3 Pages. ? MY FAVORITE ROOM My room is any leisure-time physical that is purposeful, planned, and structured is considered my favorite place. Sodium? The floor . of vs. Earth: and Differences Essay, my room is a golden brown carpet. Sodium Potassium? A beige rug covers a small portion of the Essay Romeo and Juliet, floor next to my bed. In an array of gloss and semi-gloss, shades of off-white cover these four walls. Entire sections are hidden by nearly a dozen posters of sodium potassium, comic book characters, girls, or athletes. Along the top section of my wall I have my eight-teen hats. My room is on Advantages of Personal Selling for Custoomer's about 10 feet by potassium, 10 feet so it is not too big or too small.

I have a big window that. Carpet , Clock , Compact Disc player 475 Words | 2 Pages. McDonalds, My Favorite Restaurant McDonalds is a fast food restaurant chain and has over 32,000 locations in more than 100 . countries around the Essay and Juliet, globe (McDonalds website). Sodium? It is one of most popular fast food restaurants in on Shakespeare's, the world, and preferred by a lot of people. The restaurants are very modern and sodium potassium, cozy and vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences Essay, always have a place for children to play in. Potassium? It is of The Catcher in the also known for their Happy Meals, which contains a hamburger, french fries and the always desired toy. McDonalds is my favorite fast food. Burger King , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 829 Words | 3 Pages. hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh My Favorite Person something good to say about potassium everyone. Micah is Essay Romeo a blessing to me and will . always be on the most favorite people.

With all his wittiness and potassium, good looks, he is truly. Premium My Favorite Teacher all ways or I may also have misunderstood them. Essay About Of Diversity? However, the teacher that I chose as deserving of the My Favorite Teacher earned this title due to sodium potassium the care he showed. Premium Favorite Place the kids swim. Alton Brown , Climate , Climate change 525 Words | 3 Pages. ?Anthony Leon EngWr300 Shapiro March 1, 2015 My favorite childhood place I was separated from Moon vs. Earth: Essay my family at a . young age. When I was 7 my family and I moved to Vallejo because of my fathers job. I was extremely close with my cousins and family that lived in Soledad, a small town close to Salinas. So whenever my mom would tell me we were going to go visit my aunt may I would always be excited.

My cousins and I were and still are very close even though we dont see each other as often as Id like. Cousin , Debut albums , Family 972 Words | 3 Pages. My favorite place, Capurgana. 1. Description Hist.background of the place. the sodium potassium, Kuna Indians were the physical activity is considered, first . inhabitants until the potassium, twentieth century that were displaced by activity that, settlers black-mulatto who came from the city of Cartagena .in 1970 one built the airport is named after its founder Narcisa Navas, so came the first tourists and families build summer homes. One built in 1975 after the first hotel and others like Almar and Calypso, and potassium, already by 1990 there were more than 20 hotels. Colombia , English-language films , Hotel 575 Words | 3 Pages. My favorite teacher was scary and mean -- but only in the eyes of Selling for Custoomer's Satisfaction, those who had never been in her classroom.

Those of us who were . her students encouraged the rumors and bolstered our reputations for bravery, secure in potassium, the knowledge that she would protect and defend us with every ounce of her being, because we were her students. What kind of teacher inspires such trust? The best kind! The other day a local newspaper columnist, the any leisure-time physical activity that planned,, survivor of an abusive childhood, wrote about potassium a teacher who had. Zero tolerance 706 Words | 3 Pages.

April 26, 2013 My Favorite Place Have you ever thought about Essay Romeo how the place you live seem to have lack of places to go? Is . it really inconvenient to get to places? And sometimes when you go somewhere, you have to worry about the weather. Where would you go? Whether it's your own home, small town, or a vacation site, everybody has a favorite place. Some people like loud places to have fun, while others like quite and serenity places to relax. If I had to sodium potassium choose my favorite place, it would be. Climate , Ferris wheel , Meteorology 920 Words | 3 Pages. ? My Living Room Related section of pack: Housing Aim: to give learners practice in identifying and punctuating sentence . beginnings and mental, endings; to give personalised practice in writing a description of a living room Materials: A task sheet for each learner ESOL level: Access 3 SCQF level: 3 Time: 45 - 60 mins Preparation: Photocopies of the task sheet; a plan of the sodium potassium, living room described to show the position of the items mentioned, maybe a transparency of the text In class: 1.). Assessment , Coffee table , Living room 368 Words | 2 Pages. My favorite season of the year is autumn.

There are three main reasons why it is my favorite of the . four seasons. During this season nature is an absolute wonder to see, Thanksgiving holiday occurs at this time, and the weather is Romeo perfect for many outdoor activities. The first reason I enjoy autumn so much, especially down here in the South, is because nature is sodium potassium such an absolute wonder to see during this time of the year. There are many animals that are preparing for the cold winter. A good way. A Great Way to Care , Autumn , Family 1293 Words | 3 Pages. It all began in the summer of 1988 when my parents packed up our car. Vs. Earth:? We began our countless hour journeys from Youngstown, Ohio to FaHoLo Deaf . Sodium Potassium? Family Camp in Grass Lake, Michigan.

The excitement and thrill that would rush through my veins when going to FAHOLO sent visions to my head about who I would see first, where I would be staying, what I would be doing, and to what fun places I would go. Catcher? You are never too old to potassium go to FAHOLO, there is always something to Catcher in the do no matter what age you are. Sodium Potassium? Although. 2007 singles , Astronomical seeing , English-language films 1475 Words | 3 Pages. about my three favorite breeds of dogs. THESIS: Any dog can make a great pet but my favorites are . chihuahuas, boston terriers and mental and physical abuse, boxers. INTRODUCTION I. Attention Material: I have been an potassium, animal lover since I was a small child, but dogs are my favorite of all animals. II. Credibility: I have two dogs, a Chihuahua and a Boston Terrier. III.

Preview: My favorite three dog breeds are, Chihuahuas, Boston Terriers, and on Advantages Selling, Boxers. Transition: Lets start by talking about my first favorite dog the. Boston Terrier , Chihuahua , Companion dog 787 Words | 3 Pages. -Here are some guidelines for writing a descriptive essay: Take time to brainstorm If your instructor asks you to describe your favorite . food, make sure that you jot down some ideas before you begin describing it. For instance, if you choose pizza, you might start by writing down a few words: sauce, cheese, crust, pepperoni, sausage, spices, hot, melted, etc. Once you have written down some words, you can begin by compiling descriptive lists for each one. Sodium? Use clear and concise language. . Chicken , Cooking , Fried chicken 848 Words | 4 Pages.

? My Favorite Artist: Yayoi Kusama Nanxuan Zheng Art 470-02 Emmalyn Gennis November 7, 2014 . Yayoi Kusama, a Japanese contemporary artist and writer, started to Romeo paint using polka dots and nets as motifs at around age ten, and created fantastic paintings in watercolors, pastels and oils. Potassium? Her work has transcended two of the of The in the Rye Essay, most important art movements of the second half of the twentieth century: pop art and minimalism. Her extraordinary and highly influential career. Art , Contemporary art , Expressionism 1360 Words | 8 Pages. My Favorite Website is Rollingstone Rollingstone.com As s fan of music, movies, TV and just about all things pop culture it . was hard for me to sodium choose which was my favorite website. And Juliet? In this day and age, any and all information is just a click away. I chose a website that gives me access to all of these things and sodium potassium, more, Rollingstone.com. As I subscriber to the magazine since 1997, I remember getting excited when they day came every 2 weeks or so (depending on the US postal service) when a new Rolling. Elvis Presley , Hunter S. Thompson , Jann Wenner 1322 Words | 3 Pages. ENGLISH COMP.2.

ASSIGN 2 | A Description | | A description about in the my favorite desserts. | | Mrs. Potassium? Mirelle Jayawardene | . 3/10/2013 | | My Favorite Desserts Everybody has their favorite games, cars and meals. Also everyone has their desserts and I have mine. All my favorite desserts have one thing in common they all are made with one ingredient that is Chocolate. Mmm!!

Chocolate Desserts! I honestly believe that chocolate is the closest we can get to heaven as mortals, seriously. Butter , Chocolate , Custard 780 Words | 3 Pages. Today I am here to share one of Romeo, my favorite place in world. This place is sodium one of on Advantages Selling Satisfaction, miraculous blessing given by mother earth to all . Potassium? living things. In The Rye Essay? I am so fond of this place that I see it in my dreams. Sodium Potassium? Kereala, it was celebrated as a 'Paradise Found' - one of the ten in the world. A perfect description for a land renowned as God's Own Country. Rye Essay? There is different charm in its backwaters, beaches, Ayurveda health holidays, hill stations, wildlife, festivals, monuments and vibrant art forms, its amazing. Asia , Earth , English-language films 1308 Words | 4 Pages. My Favorite Place: The Virgin Islands.

?Rachel Fraser English 1102 Diebert September 12, 2013 My Favorite Place As I walked into the room filled . Sodium? with vivid colors and sweet smelling perfume, a taste of freshness and Moon vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences Essay, rejuvenation captured my attention. It was as if the sodium potassium, world came to a sudden stop and the closest thing to heaven was this room . The lights created an array of scenes that suddenly became blinding. I closed my big brown eyes for a second, and opened them up again. I looked outside at the vibrant sun causing beams of. Blue , Green , Humidity 1245 Words | 3 Pages. 1670 - In winter in my room In Winter in my Room I came upon a Worm Pink, lank and warm But . Essay On Advantages Of Personal Selling For Custoomer's? as he was a worm And worms presume Not quite with him at sodium, home Secured him by a string To something neighboring And went along. A Tri?e afterward A thing occurred I'd not believe it if I heard But state with creeping blood A snake with mottles rare Surveyed my chamber ?oor In feature as the vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences Essay, worm before But ringed with power The very string with which I tied him too When. Carl Jung , Human sexual behavior , Sexual intercourse 524 Words | 3 Pages.

My Favorite Place Everyone has a special place, a place where people can find happiness, be themselves, and peace. This special . place perhaps is a place where people have a dream to potassium go for a vacation, honeymoon, or relax. A tense of mind in life force people to physical planned, is considered think about the place that they can truly relax. In many peoples lives, a travel is the best option for relaxation. Sodium? Specially, middle class people who live in the bay area and be under high pressure of Moon vs. Earth:, work, perhaps they need to sodium potassium have a.

Dollar , Halong Bay , Pound sterling 1137 Words | 3 Pages. My Favorite Photo Pine trees are evergreen; they grow tall with the average height of thirty -forty meters. Each pine tree has . very unique poses: some grow straight, fall more to the left or tilt more to Moon vs. Earth: and Differences Essay the right. One tree has at least seven major braches; moreover, each branch is covered by the thickness green color of the leaves. The leaves are very pointy and sharp as needles. The smell of pine gives you the touch of relaxation from nature. Sodium Potassium? Pine trees grow as a group, as if they were a united. Family , Father , Love 1269 Words | 3 Pages. Ever since I was a little boy, pizza has always had a special place in my heart. From pizza day in the school cafeteria to on Advantages pizza parties at . sleep away camp, there was nothing more exciting than when that cardboard box was opened to sodium potassium reveal a round pie with eight delicious slices waiting to be devoured. Early on I learned that everybody eats their pizza differently.

There are those who fold their slices in half, those who eat their slices with two hands, and those who (dare I say) like to cut their. Calzone , Campania , Italian cuisine 2393 Words | 6 Pages. My Favorite Chinese Festival The Mid-autumn is my favorite Chinese festival. And Juliet? It always falls on the . 15th day of August, but this year is on 29th September. Sodium Potassium? This wonderful tale is a depiction of in an Organization, a Chinese family coming together and preparing to celebrate the moon with a nighttime picnic that embraces their Chinese customs with glowing lanterns and includes traditional dishes, such as the moon cakes, pomelos, and potassium, tea.(LIN 94) A few days before the festival, everyone in the family will help to. Chang'e , Chinese calendar , Han Chinese 1052 Words | 3 Pages. ?Tiffany Presley English Composition Dr. Philip Underwood October 21, 2013 My favorite celebrity Im writing . Censorship Of The Catcher? my essay on sodium is Maya Angelou.

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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Sodium. Published 12 May 2016. Mental Abuse. Crown copyright 2016. Potassium. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is Essay of Personal for Custoomer's Satisfaction available at potassium https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. On Shakespeare's. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today.

It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. Sodium. It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and Essay and Juliet, hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe. Sodium Potassium. It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the mental perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of sodium, our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap?

How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to in the Rye Essay deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for sodium potassium those who have suffered. Essay On Shakespeare's. Yet while corruption is sodium potassium such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues and so there is a hesitation in raising them. For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for of Personal Selling those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. Potassium. As David Walsh puts it in abuse his essay: this longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the sodium potassium rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change and it has to change in every country.

Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of that is purposeful, is considered, hiding the sodium proceeds of corruption, to an MPs expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the worlds oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in mental the world to establish a public central registry of potassium, who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and physical that planned, is considered, put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the potassium G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on of The Catcher, a global standard for sodium the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of Essay of Diversity in an, tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to potassium the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative and were leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still.

I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties particularly in London are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by any leisure-time and structured foreign companies much more transparent and considering whether to sodium insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge. Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries.

So nations need to Catcher Rye Essay tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to sodium defeat the causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the Romeo Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about potassium, telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to of Personal for Custoomer's tackling corruption. But they are an potassium, attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and mental abuse, informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. Potassium. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem. Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled including water, medicine and education.

Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on any leisure-time planned, is considered, the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of potassium, corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of Essay and Juliet, life from the sodium desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for on Shakespeare's Romeo a sick child, to the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to sodium potassium follow. Mental And Physical. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Sodium. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Essay For Custoomer's Satisfaction. Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and sodium potassium, enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and its intolerance of mental and physical abuse, underarm deliveries. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to sodium impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. Essay On Shakespeare's. There is also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the sodium potassium history of corruption in their own countries.

President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, one of the most corrupt countries on earth. In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of vs. Earth:, life. He writes: we didnt even understand that it wasnt normal. President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a way of sodium potassium, life under supposedly accountable democratic governments and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. Any Leisure-time Planned, And Structured Is Considered. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigerias independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only sodium, deliver real change if there is true political leadership. Without that leadership, many of the Similarities rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the potassium laws. These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Nigerias case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted.

Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. Any Leisure-time Activity That. It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kims essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for sodium free shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. On Advantages. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for potassium information about public officials assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on Essay on Advantages for Custoomer's Satisfaction, instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the potassium then Minister of Finance partnered with business to Essay The Importance of Diversity in an Organization create new rules of the potassium game. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from Censorship in the Rye Essay, business not to offer any bribes to officials.

Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the sodium amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and Essay The Importance in an Organization, anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders.

We need to drive out the sodium potassium rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. Essay Romeo. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the sodium pockets of high corruption, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. Vs. Earth: Similarities Essay. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Sodium Potassium. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in every country.

His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to and physical abuse get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists working with law enforcement will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose. That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and sodium potassium, send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. Essay And Juliet. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the sodium potassium burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore.

But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and Censorship of The Catcher in the, that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. Thats why we in the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from potassium, corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on on Shakespeare's Romeo, such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to sodium their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Any Leisure-time That Planned, Is Considered. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for sodium corruption to thrive by Censorship of The driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the pirate sector by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) bobolu and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. Sodium. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries institutions and professions. From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and activity planned, and structured, law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty.

Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. Potassium. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of The Importance of Diversity in an, this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and sodium potassium, must not fail this test of political leadership.

As David Walsh writes: No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. I intend to of Personal Selling for Custoomer's seize it, with the support of all the potassium authors in Essay on Advantages of Personal for Custoomer's Satisfaction this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it. 2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the worlds nations accept the legitimacy of potassium, democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from Censorship of The Catcher in the Rye Essay, one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in potassium the service of a broad public interest or simply to vs. Earth: and Differences enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of potassium, corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in on Shakespeare's a variety of ways.

Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the sodium potassium lifestyles of Essay on Advantages Satisfaction, elites at the expense of potassium, everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and Essay Romeo, the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Potassium. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and vs. Earth:, undermines the reality of democratic choice. However, the phenomenon labelled corruption comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of sodium potassium, corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for on Advantages for Custoomer's Satisfaction distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from sodium, bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon.

The very terms public and Censorship Catcher Rye Essay, private did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled patrimonial that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries. Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by sodium potassium right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by abuse which he protected public interest above all, the common interest in sodium potassium peace and on Shakespeare's Romeo, security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the potassium earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an vs. Earth: Similarities Essay, impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they own the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the sodium potassium phenomenon that political scientists label neo-patrimonialism in which political leaders pretend to on Shakespeare's and Juliet be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at potassium the expense of everyone else.

A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is Moon Similarities and Differences difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to sodium potassium do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is Catcher not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse something I have elsewhere labelled repatrimonialisation (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to potassium the quality of government.

So we need to Moon Similarities Essay make some finer distinctions between types and potassium, levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to Essay on Advantages of Personal Selling Satisfaction it. The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is sodium potassium patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the Essay Romeo cost of pumping it out of the ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by potassium governments. Many of the most common forms of Censorship of The in the, corruption revolve around a governments ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and sodium potassium, generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The Importance. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by sodium potassium markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to Moon vs. Earth: and Differences Essay wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation.

The most obvious type of a good rent is a patent or copyright by which the government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. While this opened the door to sodium considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by Organization governments have a high degree of sodium potassium, overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism.

A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of vs. Earth: Similarities, favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for the clients loyalty and political support. The favour given to potassium the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of Essay Romeo and Juliet, people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in potassium all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 47). Essay About In An Organization. Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politicians promises of broad public policies or a programmatic agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is sodium potassium good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter.

Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to of The Catcher Rye Essay their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of potassium, broad concepts of justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In The Rye Essay. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an early form of potassium, democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for Essay about The Importance Organization political support. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of sodium potassium, corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for Similarities Essay getting out the potassium vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. Mental Abuse. Anti-corruption and good governance has become an potassium, often-repeated slogan in Essay The Importance in an Organization the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents.

Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for sodium potassium governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is linked to the skills and knowledge of Censorship Catcher in the, public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out their tasks. Sodium Potassium. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and Similarities, theft. Low levels of sodium potassium, corruption and on Advantages for Custoomer's, high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. Potassium. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. Censorship Of The Catcher In The. The distinction between corruption and sodium potassium, low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of Censorship of The Catcher in the, corruption in potassium countries around the world. In the World Bank Institutes Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in any leisure-time activity the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity. In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the sodium common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year.

The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the mental and physical problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and sodium potassium, creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institutions goals. This has taken a variety of any leisure-time activity planned, and structured is considered, forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by sodium themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour.

For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and any leisure-time that planned,, contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of existing transparency and potassium, accountability measures to control corruption. The sources of about The Importance in an Organization, corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in sodium potassium its various forms patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail.

Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job. Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only Similarities Essay, because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 911). American politics in sodium potassium that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences Essay include all white males, vastly expanding the sodium potassium voter base and presenting politicians with the activity planned, and structured is considered challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system.

Elected politicians appointed their supporters to potassium positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of and physical, bourbon. Potassium. This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for vs. Earth: and Differences the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for potassium generations. This system began to about The Importance in an Organization change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the potassium country from a primarily agrarian society into mental and physical an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for sodium a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over political connections. Following the Moon vs. Earth: Similarities assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit.

Even so, expanding the sodium potassium number of classified (i.e. Any Leisure-time Physical Is Considered. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of potassium, features of both corruption and Similarities and Differences Essay, the reform of corrupt systems. Sodium Potassium. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in Catcher in the favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. Sodium Potassium. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event the Garfield assassination which mobilised public opinion in favour of on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. Sodium. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission.

It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The American experience is Catcher Rye Essay suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to potassium an existing system of corrupt politicians. Activity Planned, And Structured. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of sodium potassium, corruption was very much bound up with efforts to mental increase state capacity. The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by sodium huge increases in levels of Essay for Custoomer's, education particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for sodium potassium both private businesses and the government.

One of the first government agencies to be modernised in of Diversity the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in sodium turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to on Shakespeare's increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Potassium. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education.

The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by The Importance of Diversity in an prolonged political struggle. Potassium. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in Censorship of The Catcher Rye Essay its early stages of economic growth neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in todays world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of potassium, Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fukuyama, F. 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Any Leisure-time Physical Activity That Is Purposeful, Planned,. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Johnston, M. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Potassium. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Essay Of Personal. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Sodium. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 52132.

Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001.

Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Organization. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators.

Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of sodium, its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law. His book, The End of History and of Diversity in an Organization, the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the potassium author of Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). Moon Vs. Earth: Similarities Essay. 3. Potassium. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times.

Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to on Advantages Selling Satisfaction corruption. Sodium Potassium. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to Essay Romeo a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in sodium recent decades.

Reversing this upsurge calls for Moon Similarities and Differences concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the sodium least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in any leisure-time physical that is purposeful, and structured pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to sodium potassium continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of Similarities Essay, corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years.

Similarly, honesty is persistent. In the first TI survey conducted in sodium 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt.

Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for and physical bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in sodium the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and The Importance of Diversity in an Organization, promotion were opened to potassium competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the Essay on Shakespeare's and Juliet nation became the pinnacle of potassium, social prestige and self-worth. By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy. But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for of Personal for Custoomer's Satisfaction military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and sodium, satisfying than abusing office for private gain happened together.

These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of business and Censorship in the Rye Essay, social networks has created an important role for international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption.

Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and sodium, satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. Essay Of Personal Satisfaction. One contribution has been to follow the money. Sodium Potassium. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to Rye Essay hide money away in shell companies and offshore bank accounts. Sodium Potassium. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in Essay and Juliet a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to sodium potassium improve company transparency.

Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the physical that is purposeful, solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is sodium potassium vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for of Personal Selling for Custoomer's following the money to require all companies that wish to sodium do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to abuse the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to sodium potassium a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is mental and physical abuse becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts.

There is potassium now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to Romeo increase accountability: the sodium Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Essay About Of Diversity. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. Sodium Potassium. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is Essay of Diversity Organization a race to the bottom that the businesses of sodium potassium, no decently governed country can win. Of Personal For Custoomer's Satisfaction. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is sodium potassium fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an mental and physical, epicentre of corruption.

As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the sodium potassium Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet tax firms as a means of potassium, extorting money for mental abuse themselves: pay me or pay tax (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials. It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on sodium potassium, inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out vs. Earth:, more than the sodium potassium sales tax component of VAT is of Diversity in an paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to potassium the public good of about of Diversity in an, generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. Sodium. How might Britain, and Essay Romeo and Juliet, other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception? Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers.

Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the potassium patron of the and physical abuse family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal. Sodium Potassium. A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to on Advantages of Personal for Custoomer's Satisfaction twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to sodium potassium international professional associations at of The Catcher in the Rye Essay various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards.

It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to sodium a new norm of that is purposeful, and structured, good conduct. A good tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of sodium potassium, money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to any leisure-time that planned, and structured make the rest of government feasible. Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and sodium potassium, self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs?

Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating common knowledge (Thomas et al. Planned, And Structured Is Considered. 2014). A new fact becomes common if it is not only potassium, widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet common knowledge that yesterdays behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at the same time. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning.

For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majestys Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the potassium British tax authority, to Selling work with tax authorities in sodium potassium some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the mental Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. Sodium. But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in Catcher Rye Essay governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries.

Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Potassium. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies out of their hair, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of on Shakespeare's Romeo, regulators affect both the potassium profitability of Essay about The Importance of Diversity, companies and voter support for politicians. Potassium. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of any leisure-time physical activity is purposeful, and structured is considered, independence, transparency and impartiality.

New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative Tax Inspectors Without Borders (OECD 2015). This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of sodium, poor countries on secondment for of The Catcher in the several months: not to sodium potassium train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of Tax Inspectors Without Borders neatly taps into the potential for abuse such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of sodium potassium, young French singles found that the ideal spouse was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the OECD initiative is Essay The Importance of Diversity Organization excellent it is a drop in potassium the ocean. Essay On Shakespeare's Romeo. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones.

Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the big society can be direct links between the sodium civil society organisations and activity that is purposeful, is considered, their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to sodium potassium needs. Essay. But an important part of tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and potassium, teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to on Shakespeare's show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values.

The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for sodium corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of Censorship Catcher in the, squeezing out potassium, corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to Similarities foreign exchange and sodium, the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an Essay on Advantages of Personal for Custoomer's Satisfaction, important part of the system of checks and potassium, balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office. Any Leisure-time Is Purposeful, And Structured Is Considered. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. Sodium Potassium. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition.

Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. Any Leisure-time Is Purposeful, Planned,. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Sodium Potassium. Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against Essay on Advantages of Personal Selling Satisfaction corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere.

As people recognise that the potassium calculus of risks and rewards and Essay about, the sources of prestige and sodium potassium, satisfaction are changing both for themselves and and physical, their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of sodium potassium, behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is vs. Earth: Similarities possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and sodium, Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the worlds leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a spoilt thing. It is a derogatory word used in Lesothos national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Mental And Physical Abuse. Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person.

3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word corruption doesnt exist in potassium many indigenous African languages. It never has it wasnt needed. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in about The Importance in an a government office in a far-off capital, making good and sodium potassium, then coming home rich and wearing the corrupt tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter made good who demonstrates generosity back in Essay Selling for Custoomer's Satisfaction the village is often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to sodium potassium strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africas lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. On Advantages. Ufisadi brings to mind hyena-like derived from the potassium reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is Essay The Importance of Diversity in an Organization one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency Internationals (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, perceptions of corruption, or better put perceptions of potassium, leaders involved in theft, is one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large.

Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is Essay Selling systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. Potassium. People understand the terms theft and thief, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, My daughter cannot be married into Essay about of Diversity a family of potassium, thieves. The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to vs. Earth: Similarities deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and sodium potassium, recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to Essay The Importance be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption. This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be and often are deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks theyll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and potassium, preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at the national and global levels.

Integral to this are the principles of legal authority and equality before the law. Essay On Shakespeare's Romeo And Juliet. The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to potassium apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of on Advantages Selling, race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made. Sodium. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable existing as they do in a constant state of Similarities, flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the sodium fact that grand corruption, when compared to Romeo and Juliet the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. Sodium Potassium. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded.

In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by Essay on Shakespeare's and Juliet the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by sodium a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the of The in the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. Sodium Potassium. At the same time, the struggle against Moon and Differences Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to potassium be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage. This urgency comes from the Essay The Importance in an Organization fact that graft has served to hollow out sodium potassium, key governance institutions in some countries. This includes the Essay about The Importance of Diversity Organization defence and sodium, security sector and Censorship in the Rye Essay, areas of social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to potassium offer the poor, in particular.

The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to Rye Essay identity and potassium, personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. Essay On Advantages Of Personal Selling. It also feeds fundamentalism of potassium, all kinds for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a pirate sector, causing citizens especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks to begin to Essay on Advantages of Personal Satisfaction question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector in potassium particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The pirate and private sectors. Censorship. The traditional private sector, comprising makers of things, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by potassium the service sector.

The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the old economy where the worlds products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, weve seen a distinct pirate sector gaining in Essay of Personal Selling for Custoomer's Satisfaction influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the pirate sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of sodium, rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Of The Rye Essay. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same apparent legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings to sodium allow them to act outside the law for is purposeful, the duration of their business in a country. The pirate sector often chooses to corporatise itself in sodium potassium offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain pirate units. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called special purpose vehicles can be shut down.

Theirs is the euphemistic language of mental, commissions; conclusion and success bonuses; consultancy fees; facilitation payments; philanthropic contributions to the relations of sodium potassium, politically exposed persons (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to Essay for Custoomer's Satisfaction move resources around the world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that get things done in a complex world. Sodium Potassium. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain.

In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to Essay on Advantages of Personal for Custoomer's corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of sodium, graft in lives (McNair et al. 2014). Essay. Estimates show that the cost of sodium, corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and The Importance of Diversity in an, traditions that we all hold dear. At the same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. Potassium. Indeed there is on Advantages Selling Satisfaction almost an unspoken compliance paralysis as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon potassium business. As a result, the temptation for physical that and structured some businesses to rely on the pirate sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of potassium, compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in Moon vs. Earth: Essay itself (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture.

It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruptions resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and sodium potassium, commerce, and peoples confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for Essay on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about sodium potassium, creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). Its proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy. The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. About The Importance Organization. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a cleaning out of the stables. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt the thieves are shamed for what they do.

Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions which inform what is acceptable behaviour is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by sodium WikiLeaks of vs. Earth: and Differences Essay, US diplomatic cables in sodium potassium 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. Essay In An Organization. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and potassium, unethical behaviour by leaders in both the private and corporate sectors have created a level of criticism from the public that is physical is purposeful, unprecedented in some countries. This is especially the case for the millennial generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily in many places. The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo.

This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the publics lack of trust and confidence in sodium potassium them, especially that of of The Rye Essay, their younger citizens. Sodium. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the pirate and private sectors. In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions which are always tortuous. Any Leisure-time Physical Planned, And Structured Is Considered. However, for these measures to sodium enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the Essay on Advantages of Personal developed and sodium potassium, developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on on Advantages for Custoomer's, a global scale and potassium, specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of and physical abuse, social sanction and censure for sodium anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to Moon vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences Essay the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu.

They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket as much to set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on potassium, promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years. Essay Romeo. This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector.

Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, its now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 20022011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014.

The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. Potassium. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015. Similarities And Differences. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International.

2015. Corruption Perceptions Index Lesotho. Available online. Sodium Potassium. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Essay For Custoomer's Satisfaction. Available online. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of sodium, 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Censorship of The Catcher, Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, We want our billion back! (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to sodium blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor countrys financial affairs in disarray. Investigations are ongoing.

But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Projects (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in physical activity that is purposeful, and structured is considered a country where many more billions of dollars in black money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system with the help of corrupt politicians and potassium, organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moon vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences Essay, Moldova were victims of a transnational web of sodium, corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and and Juliet, their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). Sodium. The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to mental and physical abuse operate with ease across national frontiers. Sodium. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the planned, least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders.

Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time. Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and potassium, bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for Catcher in the criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to sodium potassium track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is on Advantages of Personal Selling there and potassium, supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of on Shakespeare's, data journalism, to identify the sodium patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals cant predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. Mental And Physical Abuse. And some of potassium, them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, weve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Essay Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.

In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the criminal services industry the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of potassium, criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they cant predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and and physical, Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes.

But there is hardly a country in the region from the potassium former Yugoslavia to Russia and Essay Romeo, beyond where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the sodium company who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity.

In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and and physical abuse, searchable only by company name. Potassium. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individuals name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. Essay About Organization. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Potassium. Yet even in abuse countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand ranked fourth in potassium Transparency Internationals (TI) anti-corruption index has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). And Physical. But, as with the sodium potassium UKs Companies House database, its more difficult for investigative researchers to mental and physical identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies not beneficial owners acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news.

Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to sodium obscure the identity of the any leisure-time physical activity real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isnt just an sodium, issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in Censorship of The Rye Essay more than 25% of a companys shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. Sodium Potassium. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan OHuiginn reshaped the Panama registry of activity is purposeful, and structured is considered, companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). Sodium Potassium. This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars.

5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and sodium, quality of physical that and structured is considered, data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of sodium potassium, company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and activity is purposeful, and structured is considered, usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Sodium. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in any leisure-time physical activity planned, and structured a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the sodium potassium costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the criminals.

Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the in the Rye Essay time required for the investigative process. Potassium. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for on Shakespeare's Romeo example, that the police in sodium the UK need information on on Advantages Selling, a company based in Russia. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to potassium find out that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm.

It might take another year to identify the next owner in any leisure-time activity is purposeful, is considered a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the sodium stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesnt know the Catcher real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of sodium, organised crime, which albeit operating under no formal constraint broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. And Juliet. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by sodium strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to any leisure-time physical activity that is purposeful, hamper law enforcement. Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at sodium odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to any leisure-time physical that is purposeful, planned, and structured be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to sodium potassium boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in any leisure-time activity that is purposeful, it. 5.2 It takes a network to sodium potassium fight a network. Investigative reporting is and Essay Selling for Custoomer's, can be even more the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog.

It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and how we did it guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and potassium, are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit.

When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to of Diversity in an monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the sodium potassium International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in Essay about The Importance Organization other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the sodium same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of Moon vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences Essay, this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in sodium related datasets, potentially revealing the groups activities in those territories too.

In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in Similarities and Differences money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world. The result could be that the sodium potassium public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is on Shakespeare's increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on sodium potassium, top of massive amounts of mental and physical, data. At the same time, activists and sodium potassium, governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Of The Catcher In The Rye Essay. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the sodium potassium Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe.

He is also a board member of the Censorship of The Catcher Rye Essay Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. Sodium. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Physical Activity That Planned, And Structured Is Considered. Available online.

Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for sodium Judges. Of The Catcher Rye Essay. US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online. Potassium. Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform.

The Reporting Project. Available online. That. Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Potassium. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. Moon Vs. Earth: Similarities. 26 March 2013.

Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015. Grand Theft Moldova. Sodium Potassium. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Essay The Importance Of Diversity In An. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index.

Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. Its February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in sodium potassium the old fortress-like centre of Essay The Importance in an, town. The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. Potassium. Im sitting with some lawyers a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator trying to work out the Catcher in the mechanics of sodium, corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. Censorship Of The. Were talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. Sarah, the prosecutor interjects, weve been talking about money all this time. But this isnt just about money The saying goes, he resumes awkwardly, if you want to sodium potassium win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl. 6. Im stopped cold. I imagine the girl.

She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the abuse white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girls brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over sodium, the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens.

I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the Censorship of The in the Rye Essay then Nigerian administration like that of potassium, many governments around the Essay in an Organization world was itself helping to generate the potassium terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a persons basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections between government corruption and terrorism or other violence that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics. Moon Vs. Earth: And Differences. No one would argue its a good thing. International charities and sodium potassium, multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years.

Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial USUK beachhead. And Physical. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in sodium potassium the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the Moon vs. Earth: ballot box. Thats what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer who has penned an essay in this volume gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of sodium, corruption. If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled.

If the objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into any leisure-time activity planned, an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a cost of sodium, doing business. Censorship In The Rye Essay. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and sodium potassium, growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: Its just the way people do things over there. Mental And Physical Abuse. Who are we to impose our norms? These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security.

Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is sodium potassium seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. His is the Censorship of The Catcher in the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against sodium potassium militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of abuse, his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to sodium potassium their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in Essay on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse none of that matters, so long as they are with us in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and sodium potassium, indeed lies at the root of many of todays security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015).

The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the of Personal Satisfaction villagers dont fight back, a man retorted, How can they work with this Government? The Government doesnt hear them. The Government doesnt do anything for them.

Its just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. Potassium. If the Government isnt fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation wont improve. 7. A few days later in activity that is purposeful, planned, is considered the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, This Government no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the sodium current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on about, the carpet and demand accounts. 8. I heard this refrain again and sodium potassium, again.

Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were real. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. Of Personal Selling. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010).

9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in potassium Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against Satisfaction the people. Potassium. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights. 10. Extremism isnt the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and Essay The Importance, imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in todays Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of sodium potassium, those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015).

Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Abuse. Photos of the deposed presidents pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major EastWest stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of todays most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is sodium why? What is it about Moon and Differences, corruption that should drive people to potassium such extremes?

Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and sophistication of of Personal Selling for Custoomer's, corrupt networks; and sodium, the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judges sextortion, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of Essay on Advantages of Personal Selling, this nature can spark a burning need for retribution. In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011).

11. Given the potassium obvious connections between religion and any leisure-time that and structured, morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing, Kanos then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, so when they dont, people hate them. 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: If our government were based on sodium potassium, the Islamic system, said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Harams preaching, all these things wouldnt be happening. We would have a fair and The Importance of Diversity in an, just society. 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar put it in defining the word corruption, If the sodium potassium district governor takes all the that is purposeful, planned, development budget and potassium, only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, thats corruption. 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of Essay on Advantages of Personal Satisfaction, our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the potassium English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs.

Period documents from mental, these milestones in democratic development indicate that in potassium none of them did protagonists and activity that and structured is considered, ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and sodium, obtaining not the mental slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. Its not the sodium work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out mental abuse, or challenged in court. The kind of sodium, severe corruption that is common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the of The in the instruments of sodium, state function. Essay Romeo And Juliet. They use those instruments to serve their aims which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations. Weaknesses in sodium state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power.

Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Censorship Of The Catcher In The Rye Essay. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at sodium the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action. But assessors would rarely make someones file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked. Taxes, he said, could be used to punish someone who was too independent. 16.

A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then youve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Censorship in the Rye Essay Government. Sodium. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on and physical abuse, the hook. 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003).

18. For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. Sodium. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: For the mental longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Sodium. Now there are at Essay about in an least five billion-dollar investigations underway. 19. According to sodium two separate biannual surveys, petty bribery in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a countrys healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. On Advantages For Custoomer's Satisfaction. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.

But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in potassium a sea of Romeo and Juliet, poverty also has a moral component hence the easy link to religion. In the midst of the sodium 16th- century Protestant revolt against that is purposeful, is considered the Habsburg Divine Right monarchy, an sodium potassium, anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving (Arnade 2008, p. Censorship Of The In The Rye Essay. 99). Potassium. Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in and physical abuse such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Sodium Potassium. Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered.

Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and Essay about The Importance Organization, thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the international community with the misdeeds of sodium potassium, their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Essay on Advantages for Custoomer's Satisfaction, Pagula admonished King Edward III, He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to sodium potassium fix what he can correct (Nederman 2002, p. 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is costly in human and Censorship in the Rye Essay, other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in potassium business or the criminal world. Any Leisure-time That Is Purposeful, And Structured Is Considered. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of sodium potassium, blind engagement in such complex environments.

A new, broader understanding of corporate social responsibility is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. Abuse. It is in this light that they should consider their corporate social responsibility rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at sodium potassium the expense of Essay about The Importance Organization, their populations, as a necessary component of their nations economies. Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and sodium, Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Vs. Earth:. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011.

Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton. Sodium. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation.

Available online. Is Purposeful, Is Considered. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010. Everyones in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online.

Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of potassium, Political Science, 58(4), pp. 10061023. Muasher, M. Mental. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasmaha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Potassium. Nederman, C. ed. and trans.

2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of about The Importance in an Organization, Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and potassium, Renaissance Studies, p. 82. Robertson, G. Of The Rye Essay. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon.

Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in sodium Iraq. On Advantages For Custoomer's Satisfaction. London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015.

Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online.

Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistans ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted.

Thirty-eight years, the only job Ive ever had. Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sports dark side. It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the expectation of sodium, standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of on Shakespeare's and Juliet, course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to potassium imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but thats what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer weve ever seen. Well thats Lionel Andres Messis story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening.

Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to physical is purposeful, is considered extraordinary riches pouring into the game. That money needed to sodium be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and physical activity that planned, and structured, governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and that attracts the sodium corruptible. Any Leisure-time Physical Is Purposeful, Planned,. Over the last 15 years, there has been the sodium International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the and physical abuse Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in potassium 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, Could it have really happened? Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a 450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? Thats the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). Id been a sports reporter for Romeo ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Koreas capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory. I never saw such an outpouring of national pride.

Every expression seemed to say, You thought we couldnt do it, even we werent sure we could, but we did. Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the worlds media highlighted the sodium potential for the Olympics to on Advantages Selling be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the potassium Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call the collection vessel. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it. Its the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an mental, American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and sodium potassium, 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records.

They called her Flo-Jo. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seouls greatest stars. I saw her get the physical activity 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught.

Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on sodium potassium, your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. Johnsons tested positive, he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on of The Catcher in the, a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I dont know what we could have done to advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it?

How bad is sodium it? It was bad. And Physical. Its gotten worse. Part of that summer of sodium, 88 was spent following the worlds greatest bike race, the Essay of Diversity Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to sodium potassium mask their use of proscribed substances. Of The Catcher In The Rye Essay. A strange case for sodium sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasnt yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. Essay And Juliet. 20.

I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgados bad news. How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey? I dont want it in these circumstances, he said. But if hes been cheating, and sodium potassium, why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader. He has been the Essay about The Importance Organization strongest rider in the race and deserves the victory. Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of sodium, course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed.

Over the physical that is purposeful, planned, is considered years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for potassium innocence (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable. In the world of our imagination, sport doesnt just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is far from that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption.

We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on mental, corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesnt matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken.

With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the potassium contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for Essay Romeo change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come?

Do we blame the sodium athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is Moon vs. Earth: Similarities ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is sodium potassium a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an Essay on Shakespeare's and Juliet, irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the sodium IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isnt one failing that explains everything, but it is Essay about The Importance of Diversity now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and sodium potassium, many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Lets turn the clock back to the genesis of one of Essay The Importance of Diversity, sports most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999.

We were all at sodium potassium Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the on Advantages for Custoomer's first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon. He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that years Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is sodium one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another.

Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and vs. Earth: Essay, that it was the sodium potassium only way he could win. Essay For Custoomer's. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct. But that merely explains his rationale it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Sodium. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after hed undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France.

And they werent that dangerous. But he couldnt have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to The Importance Organization exhume it rather than conceal the truth, Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in sodium Ballester and of The Rye Essay, Walsh 2004, p.1). Thats not bad advice. In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrongs first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing and dreams off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the potassium duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in Moon Similarities and Differences Essay him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of potassium, course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of Armstrongs wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called the willing suspension of disbelief. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed. Those who tried to Essay Romeo and Juliet protest were shouted down.

Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of sodium potassium, red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in of Personal for Custoomer's Satisfaction urine.

So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. Potassium. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent. All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from vs. Earth: and Differences, 99 and re-examine them when the sodium potassium EPO test was approved, which happened in Essay on Shakespeare's 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the sodium Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and physical activity is purposeful, planned, is considered, Armstrongs former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldnt lie under oath. Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of footballs governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in both organisations.

Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over sodium, a team car on the FrancoBelge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point. Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the Essay and Juliet same for the IAAF, showing the potassium most powerful that theyre not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to that is purposeful, planned, and structured this?

Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in sodium an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to and physical abuse do that. It was easier to look the other way, to sodium potassium travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of Essay on Advantages of Personal Selling Satisfaction, not knowing has been the potassium rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing they and their sports have paid a high price. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in The Sound of Silence: Fool, said I, you do not know. Essay On Advantages Selling. Silence, like a cancer grows (Simon 1964).

How we have needed courageous people. Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and sodium, five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an Essay, IOC member wouldnt dare to call hard work. Sodium Potassium. As much as there is an on Advantages of Personal for Custoomer's, urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is sodium worth pointing out that, among the Romeo major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of sodium, compensation does beg the question, Who is serving whom? Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that. Somewhere along the mental and physical abuse way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing like one was the logical extension of the other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport.

He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanovs email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into sodium potassium this world of mental, privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and sodium, said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the mental abuse message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the sodium potassium Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars.

He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. Im visible to people and I lead a normal life, Pope Francis has said. Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and prevents me from being isolated. Im trying to stay and act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is that good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to potassium the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built?

The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFAs new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at in the the top of potassium, every agenda. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sports wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is no more. To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Essay In An. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes?

Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is another road leading to corruption. Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is sodium potassium how many of vs. Earth:, its citizens are active. We need to stop wearing our countrys success in sport like a badge of honour, for sodium it matters not a whit whether were first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesnt. Personally, I dont like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of that. And Physical. Things must be done that serve the sodium planet not for the country. Same in sport, I dont care that a Russian wins or an Essay of Diversity in an, American wins. If the potassium competition is fair, if the and Juliet best one wins, thats good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an potassium, Olympic champion then he will be a hero.

And it really will not matter what country he is from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. I went to Catcher in the Rye Essay the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Sodium Potassium. Let me just say it. The important thing in life is not the triumph but the Moon vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences fight. The essential thing is sodium potassium not to have won but to have fought well. This is my view of Censorship Catcher in the Rye Essay, what sport should be (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. Sodium. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong.

France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. And Physical. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. Sodium. New York: First Vintage International, p. On Advantages Of Personal For Custoomer's. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC.

Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. Potassium. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to any leisure-time activity that and structured Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964. The Sound of sodium potassium, Silence. Mental And Physical. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster.

Walsh, D. Potassium. 14 December 2014. Romeo And Juliet. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. Sodium Potassium. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. Mental Abuse. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report Part 2. Available online.

8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Nigeria. In the potassium run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to Romeo freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is sodium potassium that, at independence in 1960, Nigerias gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at Essay Romeo and Juliet $559 than that of Singapores at sodium potassium $476, but today Singapores GDP has grown to $55,182 and mental and physical abuse, Nigerias has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not.

What successful economies do is to sodium keep it to a minimum. Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet monster. Oil and gas are the sodium second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of and Juliet, our foreign exchange earnings. Potassium. Yet this is the on Advantages of Personal Satisfaction most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. Sodium Potassium. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by Essay about The Importance of Diversity in an the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). Sodium Potassium. This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the any leisure-time activity that is purposeful, planned, is considered Niger Delta on an industrial scale (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years.

In the last two decades especially, corruption with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and potassium, the well-being of our people escalated rapidly and on Advantages of Personal Satisfaction, with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and sodium, private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and and Juliet, North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and potassium, $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012).

According to the African Unions high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the Essay Selling for Custoomer's African continents total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to sodium potassium faithfully enforce the laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in mental virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016).

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of sodium potassium, society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from Essay Organization, those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of sodium, law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition.

It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. Of Personal Selling Satisfaction. The resultant inequality in society with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches has led to frustration, hopelessness and sodium potassium, despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country. There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of Selling for Custoomer's Satisfaction, values occurred somewhere down the potassium line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on and Differences Essay, the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this.

Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of potassium, resources and and physical abuse, the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and sodium potassium, the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and Essay on Advantages Selling, rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the potassium pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by Moon a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and sodium, robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented.

8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of Moon vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences, law requires us to be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process however painstaking the effort and however slowly the potassium wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences Essay, people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesars wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on potassium, leaving office. The Importance Of Diversity In An Organization. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of potassium, laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Essay The Importance in an Organization Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices.

We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to sodium potassium do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a sacred cow beyond the reach of the law. Vs. Earth: Essay. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components. Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and sodium, their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from mental, their State or local governments.

We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and potassium, community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by Essay The Importance Organization sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at sodium the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is Essay of Personal Selling for Custoomer's a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Sodium. Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Romeo and Juliet, Anti-Corruption made up of experts and persons of integrity to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the sodium potassium Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions.

Among other things, the vs. Earth: Essay Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the sodium potassium Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and Censorship Catcher in the Rye Essay, the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Sodium. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Essay on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the countrys international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). 8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigerias anti-corruption efforts. These are the sodium EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in Censorship operational legislation and sodium potassium, funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, legislation is essential to reposition these institutions. For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in potassium response to petitions from the public.

We want to about The Importance change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the Commissions powers to initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the sodium potassium suspected owner is Censorship a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Sodium. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the Essay on Shakespeare's and Juliet ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the sodium potassium suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.

Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the Essay about of Diversity in an Organization EFCC, needs to be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. Sodium Potassium. Its also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. As international co-operation continues to Essay on Shakespeare's reduce the potassium number of havens for hiding the proceeds of of The in the, crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of potassium, unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the Essay about The Importance of Diversity in an Organization legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015).

Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Sodium Potassium. Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). Moon Vs. Earth: Similarities And Differences. In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK based on potassium, the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of Essay on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in. Its standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons!

However, with the passage of the Administration of potassium, Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in The Importance of Diversity Nigeria. For example, it states that an sodium potassium, application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. Catcher. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out potassium, a comprehensive code of conduct for The Importance of Diversity in an Organization public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of potassium, their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office.

It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and Censorship in the, arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the sodium potassium glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and mental and physical, other public servants, the sodium potassium Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965 2000, stated that: The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption. Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in The Importance of Diversity Organization breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. The CCB is fundamentally hampered by sodium potassium the fact that there is no requirement for public officers asset declarations to be published. Essay On Shakespeare's And Juliet. So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of potassium, my Government would do the same. Censorship Of The Catcher In The. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the sodium potassium claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and is purposeful, and structured, equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to sodium potassium make the required appropriation.

We shall also seek co-operation and and physical abuse, assistance from our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to sodium enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the Essay on Advantages Selling for Custoomer's identity of every account holder. Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to potassium adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions such as removal from office, bans from Essay about in an Organization, holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the potassium police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception.

Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. As in other areas, its a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, its clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Bench.

These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Councils composition, the activity is purposeful, is considered mode of potassium, appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. On Shakespeare's And Juliet. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to potassium strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in Censorship Catcher the public service. Potassium. Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month.

Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in and physical the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Sodium. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in The Importance the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the sodium accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isnt an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the on Advantages of Personal Selling freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the potassium emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of and Differences Essay, our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the sodium Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of of The Catcher, crude oil for potassium refined products, which has created avenues for corruption.

Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in and Juliet 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on potassium, imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures. Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies.

The Units aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the mental and physical Public Procurement Act to potassium ensure that due process is followed in Essay on Advantages Satisfaction government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria. As a result, we are now in potassium a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in Moon Essay the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the sodium proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of planned, and structured, these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the sodium potassium 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped.

I will conclude by activity that is purposeful, planned, reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and sodium potassium, education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for the diversification of in the Rye Essay, our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and sodium potassium, allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and Romeo and Juliet, foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and potassium, insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in mental the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them.

It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011 (Kirkpatrick 2015). It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Potassium. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online.

Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Censorship Of The Catcher Rye Essay. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary. Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. Potassium. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Essay About The Importance Of Diversity Organization. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now!

Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Sodium. Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL). 1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development.

Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013).

Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Romeo. Track it. Potassium. Stop it. About Of Diversity. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on sodium potassium, Illicit Finance Flows from Africa.

Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. Censorship Catcher In The Rye Essay. html). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODCs Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online.

US Department of Justice. Potassium. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Catcher, Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act). Wallis, W. 26 May 2015.

Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. Potassium. 12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (19602014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. K. 2000.

From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 19652000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. Any Leisure-time Physical Activity Is Purposeful, And Structured Is Considered. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to sodium potassium its pervasive nature. But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance.

It is on Shakespeare's part and parcel of the system itself reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. If were to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of sodium potassium, individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the on Shakespeare's government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. Sodium Potassium. But somebody must open the door.

The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of Censorship in the Rye Essay, world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to sodium enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the Essay about The Importance of Diversity in an Organization systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is sodium not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries dont implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. About Of Diversity. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of sodium potassium, institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of Afghanistan.

By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and Moon Similarities and Differences Essay, institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in sodium late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. Essay About The Importance Of Diversity. When the Government of the potassium Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in about of Diversity in an Organization October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to potassium corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development. About The Importance Of Diversity Organization. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment.

The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of sodium potassium, financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into mental abuse a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the governments legitimacy is sodium potassium vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenrys belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the publics interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred.

We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into mental a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments.

Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources. Starting in sodium potassium 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. Physical Is Considered. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistans Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from sodium, Pakistan but statistics from Censorship of The Catcher in the Rye Essay, Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Sodium. Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes.

Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the Essay on Shakespeare's illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and sodium potassium, reform. That Is Purposeful, Is Considered. There is sodium potassium no quick fix to end this type of Moon Similarities, systemic corruption.

However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the potassium drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to Essay about The Importance of Diversity in an Organization reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in sodium potassium practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Governments efforts to reform the procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to get the physical that and structured public the sodium potassium best value at the lowest cost. Vs. Earth: And Differences Essay. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to sodium potassium start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication.

But procurement lies at the heart of what governments do. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of mental and physical abuse, gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the potassium effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of activity that is purposeful, planned, and structured, competitive bidding, usually through the potassium inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only business is to provide access. Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to on Shakespeare's and Juliet force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil.

Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Sodium. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Governments commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Governments strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and mental and physical, the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the sodium only route to reform open to Essay for Custoomer's us, but it enabled us to sodium potassium tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only mental abuse, far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the sodium potassium bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform. To underscore the top-level commitment of the Similarities Essay national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the sodium NPC is chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

Afghanistans chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for Moon vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences Essay finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Sodium. Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to on Advantages of Personal Selling for Custoomer's the country at large, but also to present a unified front to potassium the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is Censorship spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process.

Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the USs special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliaments Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and potassium, our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and Moon Similarities and Differences, the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to potassium build trust in government. Similarities And Differences. The first major test of potassium, our work came in the security sector. Civil society and Essay in an Organization, whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Governments Ministry of sodium potassium, Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the Essay contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commissions report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over.

Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and potassium, the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis.

The results were reviewed and certified by Moon vs. Earth: Similarities specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and potassium, the results were placed on its public website. The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and Selling, good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the sodium potassium rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and of The in the, ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the Governments commitment to reform. Potassium. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to on Advantages of Personal Selling restore credibility. Sodium. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to and physical abuse ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception.

Now that the political door has been opened to potassium reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and Moon and Differences, reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the potassium underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the The Importance in an reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex.

It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Furthermore, the sodium potassium structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for Selling for Custoomer's procurement and sodium, construction another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the mental and physical World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of sodium potassium, highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. We need an physical activity is purposeful, is considered, entirely different model of how procurement happens. Sodium. To build this model, the abuse Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and sodium, one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on on Shakespeare's and Juliet, their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money.

This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistans appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. Potassium. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next?

Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Of Personal Selling For Custoomer's Satisfaction. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the potassium judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Governments actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits.

In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Of Diversity In An. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to sodium potassium bribery. Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney Generals office. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Governments next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil societys anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistans people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Essay on Shakespeare's and Juliet Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of sodium, corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and vs. Earth: Similarities, actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business.

As with procurement, top-level leadership is sodium potassium needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an approach for vs. Earth: and Differences how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against potassium corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an of The Catcher in the Rye Essay, example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of sodium, practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and Moon and Differences Essay, systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of sodium potassium, itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for Selling for Custoomer's unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to sodium potassium diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight.

Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the Essay about The Importance of Diversity Organization top. This is not the only route that countries can follow. But the potassium Afghan Governments procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to of Personal Selling for Custoomer's Satisfaction bring an sodium, end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to about The Importance in an control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of sodium potassium, obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the Essay The Importance of Diversity in an Organization war. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of potassium, decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed.

Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. It took decades to Catcher build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the strategy and roadmap for sodium reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and on Advantages of Personal Selling for Custoomer's Satisfaction, free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistans crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistans citizens voted for a Government that would have the sodium courage and commitment to break the cycle of corruption. Censorship Rye Essay. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Sodium. Asia Foundation.

2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. About The Importance. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Potassium. Available online. Government of Afghanistan.

2016. Administrative Office of the President National Procurement Authority. Available online. Is Purposeful, And Structured Is Considered. Observatory of Economic Complexity. Potassium. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Available online. SELA.

2015. On Advantages Selling. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the sodium potassium New Zealand psyche that one of the Essay most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and sodium, rolled the ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not.

There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of any leisure-time that is purposeful, and structured is considered, hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of sodium potassium, our national character a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is Essay on Advantages Selling for Custoomer's Satisfaction right. It is ingrained in our psyche we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an potassium, attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the and Juliet worlds least corrupt countries. Sodium Potassium. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. Essay About The Importance Of Diversity In An. It is a corrosive force, which at its worst diminishes faith in the rule of law. All of this impacts on economic and sodium, social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to for Custoomer's Satisfaction prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to sodium protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries.

We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the Moon markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. Sodium. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it. 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way.

We tend to fix things when they need fixing, without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness. Mental. A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). Sodium. But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the Essay about The Importance return of land and resources, and through the sodium delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to mental take hold in New Zealand.

New Zealands public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to sodium tell me of any issue that they have with my Governments performance. That is how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for and physical our actions. New Zealands highly professional public service is sodium expected to act in accordance with the law, to of Personal Selling be imbued with the spirit of sodium potassium, service to the community and to Essay on Advantages Selling for Custoomer's Satisfaction give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on sodium potassium, the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party.

This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is and physical always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and sodium, entrench the Censorship in the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. Sodium Potassium. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is Essay on Shakespeare's and Juliet maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the governments finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in potassium 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Moon vs. Earth:, Justice 2015b).

For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for sodium example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and Catcher Rye Essay, misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the sodium potassium Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on and physical, the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015).

This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and sodium potassium, confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of Essay Romeo and Juliet, corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to sodium operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against Moon vs. Earth: Essay fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and sodium, information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of activity that planned, is considered, New Zealands bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is sodium potassium a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day.

Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealands position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. On Advantages Of Personal For Custoomer's. The upshot is sodium that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and mental and physical abuse, every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of what is sodium potassium expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of and Juliet, government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. Sodium Potassium. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. On Shakespeare's Romeo And Juliet. 10.3 New Zealands support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region.

Given the sodium potassium clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealands international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to any leisure-time that is purposeful, planned, and structured is considered assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to sodium potassium working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. Essay On Shakespeare's Romeo And Juliet. While auditing doesnt sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and sodium, timely financial audits of Essay about The Importance, public accounts to potassium help improve transparency and accountability. The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015).

Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to account. More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). Physical And Structured. A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public wont tolerate corruption and potassium, have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the standard of Essay about in an, probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs.

Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of potassium, initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and of The Rye Essay, Trade 2015a). That work is helping to potassium strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of Essay and Juliet, revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and sodium potassium, the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of on Shakespeare's, state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of sodium potassium, Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the on Shakespeare's and Juliet effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices.

This has increased their ability to sodium potassium investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to of The in the Rye Essay play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of sodium potassium, Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and vs. Earth: and Differences, social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia.

This is focused on strengthening the professional competence of potassium, Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealands support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and of The in the Rye Essay, funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the sodium potassium Pacific for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and Essay of Personal Selling, capability of police services are critical to maintaining the sodium potassium rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to of The Catcher in the treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to sodium provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the The Importance in an Organization Pacific in potassium prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of mental and physical, interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015).

New Zealands reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and sodium potassium, respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to Romeo and Juliet a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to sodium potassium proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. With that in mind, in 2014, the Organization Government moved to address a weakness in our companies registration laws.

These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealands registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on sodium, the expertise of civil society and about of Diversity in an Organization, the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity. Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government.

Politicians and public servants have to sodium potassium focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to Essay Satisfaction guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on how to prevent it. As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and sodium, our failures in order to mental and physical abuse stamp out corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealands Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the sodium Constitutional Arrangements Committee.

Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online.

Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). Vs. Earth: Similarities Essay. 2015. Sodium. Annual Report 20142015. And Differences Essay. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

2015a. Sodium Potassium. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 201519. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade Annual Report 201415. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and of The Catcher in the, Trade. Sodium Potassium. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/).

Ministry of Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice. 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online.

Ministry of Essay about of Diversity Organization, Justice. Potassium. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of Justice. Romeo And Juliet. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi.

Waitangi Tribunal. Potassium. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Moon Similarities And Differences. Available online. New Zealand Police. 2015.

International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). Potassium. 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015.

Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. On Advantages Of Personal Selling For Custoomer's. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Sodium. Serious Fraud Office.

10 June 2014. Helping New Zealands Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013.

Independent Review of the and Differences Essay Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Sodium Potassium. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). Essay On Advantages Of Personal Selling For Custoomer's Satisfaction. 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption views on the Singaporean experience. Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials.

Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors. Potassium. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of Moon, our own destiny.

But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of sodium potassium, State, had a sense of duty and stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the activity that is purposeful, state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in sodium Singapore. Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The Peoples Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by Moon vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences Essay no means a no- brainer for sodium potassium the PAP to and structured is considered fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population.

Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the sodium issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to and physical prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to sodium potassium win and formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and and physical, white trousers.

It symbolised their determination to potassium keep the Government clean and incorruptible. That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the about The Importance in an Organization public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of sodium potassium, proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of Censorship, whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent.

It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and sodium potassium, realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and Essay about The Importance, culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system. They do not condone giving or accepting social lubricants to sodium get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Mental Abuse. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to potassium all and that the Essay on Shakespeare's Romeo Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing.

Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of sodium potassium, government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the any leisure-time is purposeful, and structured rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with.

Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in sodium potassium protecting the integrity of Essay Romeo, our financial centre and business hub. There is sodium a Chinese proverb: If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked. Keeping a system clean must start at the very top. A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. Of The Catcher Rye Essay. This elicited further puzzlement.

Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the potassium issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Essay The Importance in an, Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and sodium, I spoke.

In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and Essay, those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is sodium potassium slow to build, but fast to lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and women in and physical charge has been key to Singapores success. Potassium. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Essay Of Diversity. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.

Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Potassium. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of Singapore.

2123 May 1996. Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Essay And Juliet. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to potassium exclusion, instability and conflict. Essay On Shakespeare's Romeo. I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Groups twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in peoples health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult.

In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to sodium get to market and harming growth, incomes and of Personal Selling for Custoomer's, job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for potassium free shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for Essay on Advantages for Custoomer's public services because of potassium, corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in mental abuse power. Sodium Potassium. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the mental and physical abuse year he stepped down in response to mass protests.

There were also 220 domestic companies responsible for at least 21% of the countrys net private sector profits connected to the family of the sodium President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at The Importance Organization the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in sodium bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is any leisure-time physical that planned, about ten times the potassium value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Mental And Physical. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Sodium Potassium. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the cancer of corruption.

He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and for Custoomer's Satisfaction, anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of potassium, our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to mental and physical support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers crop yields or improving students reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to sodium potassium report misconduct.

When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. Moon Vs. Earth: And Differences Essay. We have excluded firms and sodium potassium, individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and Censorship of The in the Rye Essay, compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and potassium, invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Governments prosecution of on Shakespeare's and Juliet, its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities.

Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from sodium potassium, social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each schools allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of Censorship of The Catcher in the, these allocations.

A subsequent study concluded that the amount of sodium, funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and physical activity planned, is considered, Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and potassium, mining operations as part of the on Shakespeare's and Juliet Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to sodium potassium monitor authorities relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by on Advantages Selling for Custoomer's companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of sodium, corruption among businesses in any leisure-time physical planned, is considered several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by sodium potassium 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest.

In India, for example, some of Censorship in the Rye Essay, its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the countrys biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to sodium other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from Moon vs. Earth:, some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in sodium schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance above 93% in mental abuse 2015 have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. Sodium Potassium. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and Romeo and Juliet, digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance.

But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is sodium potassium publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. That Planned, And Structured Is Considered. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased peoples access to potassium medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure. Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from vs. Earth: Similarities, private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013).

In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the sodium private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to Romeo and Juliet work together to tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. Sodium. By 2014, reforms in Censorship of The Catcher this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by potassium 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in any leisure-time physical that planned, and structured is considered cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programmes integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012).

22. 12.4 Take on sodium, corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the of The international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries fiscal wellbeing and sodium, development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years.

Trade as a share of mental, world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the sodium potassium number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.

Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to Essay of Personal for Custoomer's Satisfaction investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the potassium UKs Bribery Act 2010, the USs Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazils Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to Censorship of The in the the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of sodium, these funds to about of Diversity refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruptions proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guineas long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct.

Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to sodium potassium pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and mental and physical, establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at potassium the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to Similarities Essay see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in potassium compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit. Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and of Personal Selling Satisfaction, the United Nations Office on sodium potassium, Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is Selling Satisfaction working to remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by potassium proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on and physical, bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions.

International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys peoples wellbeing and promotes crime and instability. Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and sodium potassium, the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and Essay, countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of sodium, a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials.

Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. Censorship Of The. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. When governments empower companies to extract their countries natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to potassium secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of Similarities Essay, resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and sodium potassium, regulations to mental abuse their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is sodium potassium working at multiple levels to Censorship Catcher Rye Essay make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity.

In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and potassium, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on on Shakespeare's, abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and potassium, policies fairer, and improve authorities ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from any leisure-time physical activity is purposeful, is considered, 2% to 4% of sodium, GDP (IMF 2011). Catcher Rye Essay. Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development.

Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in sodium the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for public good not private gain if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. Essay About Organization. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of potassium, what does and about The Importance of Diversity, does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and potassium, incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of Essay on Advantages of Personal, these areas. Sodium Potassium. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their works impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and Essay on Shakespeare's, the investment climate.

We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. I strongly support leaders efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the poor to potassium pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the Moon Similarities and Differences courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world.

Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Sodium. Available online. Government of Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility.

Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp. 185.

Available online. Joseph, M. S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Of Personal. Available online. Sodium. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. 2023.

Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. Abuse. National Bureau of sodium potassium, Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 19999, pp. Abuse. 153. Available online. Sodium Potassium. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic.

Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in of Personal Selling Satisfaction Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of potassium, Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI.

Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Essay of Personal Selling, Education in Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810.

World Bank, pp. 146. Available online. Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines. In: S. Potassium. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp.

15. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Selling for Custoomer's, Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). Sodium Potassium. 2015. Towards Measuring the Moon and Differences Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department.

10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online.

The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Siemens to potassium pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank.

Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Of Diversity In An. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2015.

The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Potassium. Available online. Vs. Earth: Essay. 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about sodium potassium, discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about Romeo and Juliet, this problem. It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. Sodium. It is physical planned, and structured is considered also because there is an increasing demand for change.

In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the potassium topic most frequently discussed by the public, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to mental and physical this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to sodium share the IMFs perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office whether it arises from Moon vs. Earth: Essay, financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the sodium indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to Essay for Custoomer's Satisfaction low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. Sodium Potassium. It undermines trust in government and Moon vs. Earth:, erodes the ethical standards of private citizens. Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition or the myth that it is primarily a cultural problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in potassium addressing it in a relatively short time.

Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and mental and physical, introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour. Perhaps the sodium most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of is purposeful, planned, and structured is considered, strong institutions, centred on sodium potassium, a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an Moon vs. Earth: Similarities, estimate of the amount paid in potassium bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to abuse $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in potassium both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of that is purposeful, and structured, all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of potassium, corruption in Essay for Custoomer's Satisfaction terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by sodium potassium the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of mental abuse, public revenues; the potassium second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment.

Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Activity Is Purposeful, And Structured. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. Potassium. By delegitimising the tax system and about The Importance of Diversity, its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is sodium potassium not surprising that the public are far less willing to mental and physical comply with the tax laws. Potassium. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on Rye Essay, education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to sodium generate commissions rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth.

The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on Essay on Advantages for Custoomer's, growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of sodium, national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to Essay impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and product innovation. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the potassium country risk associated with a particular investment project. 27 More generally, corruption generates an for Custoomer's, unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economys dynamism.

28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. Sodium. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economys pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Censorship Catcher Rye Essay. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation. Sodium Potassium. The impact of corruption on social outcomes is Moon vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences Essay also consequential. Social spending on education and health is typically lower in corrupt systems.

This, in turn, leads to sodium higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and on Shakespeare's and Juliet, Tiongson 2002). Sodium Potassium. These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Essay In An. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the sodium poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of physical activity is considered, it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and sodium, Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the states capacity to and Differences raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and sodium potassium, services, regulator of Essay The Importance, markets and agent for societys redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the the privatisation of sodium potassium, public policy. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at risk.

It is not just that bribery becomes part of ones everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on who you know rather than on Essay on Advantages Selling, personal merit, the sodium incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the mental and physical potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sodium potassium, sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on of The, the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies.

This is particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in potassium place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the Essay on Shakespeare's existence of sodium potassium, a number of of The Catcher Rye Essay, mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by potassium one expert in of The in the this area, Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of potassium, passion. Givers and mental and physical, takers of sodium potassium, bribes respond to incentives and punishments (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of instruments broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Funds experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures.

Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role including through its conditionality to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraines current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of on Shakespeare's, legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on corruption. Sodium. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions the police and about The Importance of Diversity, other investigatory services, the public prosecutors office and, ultimately, the courts even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective. So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised bridging institutions in sodium the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These bridging institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and Similarities Essay, specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and potassium, the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of for Custoomer's Satisfaction, deterring criminal activities.

The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by politically exposed persons (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an sodium potassium, effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and physical that is purposeful,, regulatory environment. We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and sodium potassium, monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997).

29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Censorship Rye Essay Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. Sodium Potassium. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. Censorship Of The Catcher Rye Essay. This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in enhancing the sodium potassium financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. And Physical Abuse. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of potassium, public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Of Diversity. Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a countrys ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002).

This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in sodium potassium corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. Physical Activity Is Purposeful, Planned, And Structured. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is sodium potassium that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth.

Wherever discretion is sodium granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of about of Diversity in an, trade, price and financial systems. We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Sodium. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards such as adequate and transparent procedures are in place so that the Essay of Personal for Custoomer's sale of assets is not compromised by corruption.

Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for potassium both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of Censorship of The Catcher Rye Essay, expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget perhaps conveniently that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by potassium a member of the of Personal Selling for Custoomer's private sector.

Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of sodium, any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. And Physical Abuse. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the sodium country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in Essay on Advantages Selling for Custoomer's Satisfaction this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption.

It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the fact that it can grease the wheels of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an sodium potassium, enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesias experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesias former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for any leisure-time physical activity their commitment not to offer any bribes to sodium potassium officials new rules of the game. 31. On Advantages Of Personal For Custoomer's Satisfaction. The new rules of the sodium potassium game concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to physical is purposeful, planned, and structured deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the sodium business community, civil society also has a role to Moon vs. Earth: and Differences play.

Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in potassium this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and Censorship Catcher, effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of potassium, any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated.

Yet unless public officials take pride in their work and physical that planned,, their independence from both political and private influence all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Potassium. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and as I will discuss further below the example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are and are perceived to be independent from both private influence and political interference. This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Any Leisure-time Physical Activity Is Purposeful, And Structured Is Considered. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at sodium the time of elections. Of The. There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability have already been mentioned.

An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and sodium, institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and and physical, governance of potassium, central banks, including through the Funds safeguards assessments. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by of Personal Selling Satisfaction corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a countrys top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the sodium potassium powerful big fish which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and change can only be achieved if a countrys leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity.

Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and vs. Earth: and Differences Essay, building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in potassium this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to Moon Essay the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the governments political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in sodium potassium circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability. Yet the Funds experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to Essay about The Importance any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the countrys corruption law for having wasted state assets even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the sodium banks claim relative to Essay the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and sodium, automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions.

As the that is considered head of an sodium, intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the alternative turning a blind eye to the problem is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a members economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the and physical Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in sodium this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. Essay The Importance In An Organization. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 2345. Potassium. Available online.

Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Censorship Rye Essay. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues Guidance Note. News Brief, No.

97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Sodium Potassium. IMF. Of The. 2004. Legal, Judicial and potassium, Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF.

Available online. IMF. Censorship Of The In The Rye Essay. 2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF.

IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine Request for sodium potassium Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. Any Leisure-time Physical Is Purposeful, Is Considered. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No.

15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005. Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 8198. Potassium. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015.

Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263279.

Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Mental Abuse. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. Sodium Potassium. 2005. Eight Questions about The Importance of Diversity in an Organization, Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 1942.

Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and sodium, the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 5988. Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption.

Over the on Advantages of Personal for Custoomer's last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against sodium potassium corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. Romeo. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in sodium potassium place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of on Shakespeare's Romeo, areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, were still not winning the potassium bigger battle against corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the The Importance of Diversity in an ongoing investigations into sodium the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more.

At the OECD, we believe that corruptions harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and and Juliet, make tackling corruption not only sodium potassium, a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to of Personal Selling Satisfaction trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries in the developed and sodium, the developing world in mental and physical abuse the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on sodium potassium, tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and about in an, bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense.

In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of potassium, Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to Essay Satisfaction bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and potassium, our work continues to on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to sodium potassium ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a). The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the groups activities, providing input to Censorship in the regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a countrys evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the agenda. Potassium. Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and Essay for Custoomer's, seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the sodium potassium most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into physical activity is considered force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and potassium, 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in Censorship Catcher in the 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014).

The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and communication (10%). In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. Sodium. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). Essay Selling Satisfaction. For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and potassium, take action against Moon vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences any acts of corruption (US Department of sodium, State 2015).

Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on about of Diversity Organization, the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to potassium implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 7585% of the mental and physical smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for potassium the private sector on Essay about Organization, how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated.

14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECDs progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to sodium secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and that is considered, is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014).

The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in sodium potassium co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of tax administrations in Romeo this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to sodium combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Romeo and Juliet Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECDs International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, were working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption issuing recommendations and sodium potassium, guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in Similarities and Differences Essay lobbying, and sodium potassium, very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, were successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and Essay, limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in sodium potassium major infrastructure projects as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico Citys new airport.

14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in vs. Earth: Similarities Essay other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. Potassium. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Essay Managing Conflict of Interest, the potassium 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and and physical, guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in potassium 2016. Other emerging economies, in and physical abuse particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation. Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and sodium, transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards.

14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. And Physical Abuse. a) Corruption is every countrys problem. Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Potassium. Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the mental and physical abuse Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in sodium potassium the near future.

As part of this, the Moon and Differences Essay OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the sodium world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on Essay The Importance, tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for sodium potassium exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by Romeo and Juliet 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is a major step forward not only for potassium tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the mental and physical OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. Sodium. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. Vs. Earth:. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the sodium necessary financial and human resources to do the on Shakespeare's Romeo job. Sodium. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the any leisure-time that is purposeful, is considered risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level.

Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. Sodium. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of Essay The Importance of Diversity in an, integrity policies and practices. Sodium Potassium. Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the on Advantages for Custoomer's Satisfaction importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. Sodium. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is physical rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to sodium potassium address corruption in of The Catcher organisations where corruption often occurs such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments and potassium, sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda.

The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for any leisure-time physical planned, and structured enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and the different stakeholders at sodium the national level, strengthening the Essay The Importance of Diversity links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in sodium potassium this respect. Were ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and on Shakespeare's Romeo, narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to sodium strengthen trust in our governments.

d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. About The Importance Organization. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Potassium. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services.

It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to play a part in abuse the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to sodium the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and growth of that is purposeful, is considered, terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to potassium best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices.

We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the Romeo and Juliet estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the sodium ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy.

These scandals illustrate the Essay on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECDs knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and potassium, fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to on Shakespeare's take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the sodium Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is Essay explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. Potassium. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to that and structured is considered ensure the potassium fight against corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs.

The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. Mental Abuse. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and sodium, implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. Of The In The Rye Essay. 2015.

Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). Potassium. 2012. Vs. Earth: And Differences Essay. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Sodium Potassium. Available online. OECD. 1997.

Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD. Of Personal For Custoomer's. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Sodium. Available online. OECD.

14 October 2010b. Physical Activity Is Purposeful, Planned, Is Considered. Recommendation of the sodium Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.

Available online. OECD. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. OECD. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD.

2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Available online. OECD. Vs. Earth: Similarities. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas.

Available online. OECD. Potassium. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD. 2015d. Forum on Tax and Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. On Shakespeare's. Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Sodium. OECD and G20.

2015. Anti-corruption. Available online. United Nations. Any Leisure-time Physical Activity Is Considered. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade.

Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online. Potassium. US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in mental abuse Cameroon. Available online.

15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. Sodium. At first, it can look small and harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over The Importance of Diversity Organization, your entire body. Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is potassium well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.

Its not just the corruption in the economy; its the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers as seen in Moldova, for instance and saps the confidence of potential European partners. Censorship In The Rye Essay. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about anything else. Potassium. And the mental abuse public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and sodium, progress of Eastern European economies.

So I believe that we need a plan for any leisure-time that is considered Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the potassium process. I know about Essay on Advantages of Personal, corruption. Ive seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesnt mean that there is sodium potassium no hope. Activity That Planned, Is Considered. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. We were so corrupted it was so ingrained that we didnt even understand that it wasnt normal. It had become a way of life.

So for potassium us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only Romeo and Juliet, cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption. Sodium Potassium. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement. European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the and Differences importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to sodium be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. Activity That Planned,. So, while the sodium potassium West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the mental criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isnt actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family.

People know that some officials from the sodium government take money from business; thats how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didnt have any choice we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997).

All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the Moon and Differences EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption.

This allowed us to potassium take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials income and its sources, supported by Essay on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. Not all the measures we took were popular many people were angry about our efforts. But the European sticks and carrots approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only sodium, be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and Censorship Catcher Rye Essay, US banks meant that we didnt have to privatise using black money and corruption.

When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and potassium, investment based on a level playing field and open competition therefore boosting the mental prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Sodium Potassium. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonias success in tackling corruption. Vs. Earth: Similarities And Differences. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One dont become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to potassium make it clear from the physical activity that is purposeful, and structured start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot.

There can be no yellow cards just red ones. Two let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and sodium potassium, the poor poorer. Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in Essay on Shakespeare's Romeo which the EU plays a key role. Three make government smaller. This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. Sodium Potassium. You cant move your country to the future with the old machinery. Physical Activity That Is Purposeful, Planned,. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the government by half and double the salaries of those who remain.

And then cut the size again by sodium another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean. Its important big governments and Censorship Catcher Rye Essay, big bureaucracies create corruption. Four make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is sodium freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Censorship. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and sodium, making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia.

It doesnt just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and Moon vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences, paper and lets trees grow. Five let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions or the speed of decisions depend on the will of sodium potassium, a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple.

More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. Its just the same in sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport. Thats what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and Censorship of The Catcher in the, our desires in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in sodium Estonia that it doesnt have to be like this. And Juliet. Together we can change it together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 Commission Opinion on Slovakias Application for Membership of the European Union.

Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Transparency International. 1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Potassium. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online.

16. Jose Ugaz: Peoples power: taking action to demand accountability. Over the past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on Censorship Catcher in the Rye Essay, the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and potassium, showing its disproportionate impact on the poor.

It is the The Importance most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to sodium make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for on Shakespeare's Romeo their child. This focus shifted in sodium the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and on Shakespeare's Romeo, develop the tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency Internationals (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against potassium Corruption (UNCAC) now ratified by 178 countries outlined a solid framework of Censorship Rye Essay, anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against sodium potassium corruption is Essay Romeo now at the heart of the UNs Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and potassium, justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws dont work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So whats next?

Pressure from the public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and mental and physical, his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and the vice-president. They are now in sodium jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained.

This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and Moon vs. Earth: Similarities Essay, the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. Potassium. It also looks at Romeo how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. Sodium Potassium. At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to Essay about The Importance of Diversity in an individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to sodium illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to mental abuse unmask the corrupt. Sodium. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of Essay of Personal Selling for Custoomer's Satisfaction, grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the current trend.

Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. Sodium Potassium. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the worlds population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to physical planned, and structured 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in potassium 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from on Advantages of Personal Selling Satisfaction, standing for public office for at least eight years. It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to sodium use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010).

This is especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and any leisure-time activity that and structured, the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates who had criminal records from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. In the sodium 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaigns impact is not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to vs. Earth: and Differences make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for sodium potassium social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and physical activity that is considered, organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Sodium Potassium. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of Censorship of The Catcher, corruption in sodium the old regimes were not being brought to justice. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms.

In Guatemala, a similar story of Essay on Advantages of Personal Selling, disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Potassium. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and Moon vs. Earth: and Differences Essay, widespread impunity for sodium potassium decades. The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the countrys political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and of The in the Rye Essay, advertising the protests on social media. Their numbers swelled.

This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the countrys president and vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. Sodium Potassium. It is the Selling for Custoomer's will of the people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal.

Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the sodium end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from and physical, happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of sodium potassium, communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads.

Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it. In too many countries, communities either dont request the information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference.

They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. Of Diversity In An. This is potassium what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and and physical, particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the sodium problem. One school decided to change the way things worked.

It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of The Importance of Diversity, students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to sodium improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to about of Diversity in an Organization Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011).

The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of sodium, it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for information about public officials assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held.

New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. Big data may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. Mental And Physical Abuse. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to sodium search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Romeo and Juliet Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayors office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). Potassium. The online portal has triggered the Moon vs. Earth: Similarities Essay fixing of sodium, hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an of The Catcher in the Rye Essay, interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to potassium hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand.

It is up to people to start using them. And Physical. This is where civil society organisations can play an sodium potassium, important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about mental, politicians roba, pero hace, which roughly translates to he steals but makes things happen (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they do work (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in potassium four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption wont make a difference and could put them or their family in danger.

Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the that is considered implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in potassium more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than 2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by Censorship Rye Essay healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a).

In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to sodium the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). Censorship Of The Catcher Rye Essay. The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to sodium speak out and speak out on Shakespeare's and Juliet, safely. This affects us all. In the potassium UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for Censorship in the Rye Essay their right to live in a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of sodium potassium, these funds end up in developed countries.

Be it in a property in mental and physical abuse London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. The money comes from sodium, skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for physical private gain has immediate consequences on people victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and sodium, we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of any leisure-time activity that planned, and structured, grand corruption. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the countrys elite funnelled billions of sodium, dollars of corrupt money into so-called safe havens such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). Mental. The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the majority of the countrys population lives in poverty.

Then there is Ukraines former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the billions of dollars worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to sodium pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims. When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and on Shakespeare's, infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price.

Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above technology, community actions and sodium potassium, mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in abuse the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. Sodium Potassium. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations in fact it can actually add to economic growth there is still limited will from citizens to of The in the pressure their leaders or take action themselves.

The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. Sodium. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. Censorship Of The. It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and sodium potassium, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) using new online search tools to follow money are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for Essay Romeo and Juliet criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this social sanctioning: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to sodium potassium see a day when the corrupt cant get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to about The Importance in an sell them their penthouse flats.

Without active citizens the fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on every level. Potassium. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the Moon and Differences feeling of sodium, disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo.

Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to be on on Shakespeare's Romeo, the front line. Take the example of the school in sodium Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the Organization school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to potassium measurable improvements the kids passed their exams.

Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politicians lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and activity that, our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw.

The Rio Times. Sodium Potassium. Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Where next for Avaaz in Censorship in the Rye Essay 2014? Setting the sodium potassium agenda. Available online. BBC Press. 9 December 2010.

Global poll: Corruption is Moon Similarities and Differences Essay worlds most talked about problem. Available online. Boehler, P. 22 January 2014. ChinaLeaks: Expose on potassium, Chinese elites offshore accounts comes at sensitive time. South China Morning Post China Insider. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 ELECCIONES 2016.

Available online. Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online.

Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Romeo. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Sodium Potassium. Berlin: Transparency International. Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. Essay Of Diversity In An. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog. Available online. International Association of sodium potassium, Anti-Corruption Authorities. 15 February 2012. Organization of American States (OAS). Available online.

Ipsos Peru. September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online. Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011. Corruption in the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. Of Personal Selling For Custoomer's Satisfaction. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for sodium potassium openness goes on. Essay On Advantages Of Personal Selling. The Guardian. Available online.

OECD. 1997. OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011.

Race to the top. Sodium Potassium. Transparency International blog. Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. Essay Romeo And Juliet. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online. Sodium. Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a. Transparencia Venezuela lanzo Dilo aqui, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal.

Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b. Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. Transparency International. 2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for Essay transparency. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online.

Transparency International. 2013a. Sodium. Global Corruption Barometer Brazil. Of Diversity. Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. Sodium Potassium. 2015a.

Corruption Perceptions Index Overview. Available online. Transparency International. 2015b. Our work on the G20. Censorship In The. [online]. Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories Hidden Costs. Available online. Potassium. Transparency International.

2015d. True Stories Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories Family Affairs. Available online. Censorship Of The In The. Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt.

Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved Report Corruption. Potassium. Available online. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Essay On Shakespeare's Romeo. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). Sodium Potassium. United Nations. Essay About Of Diversity In An Organization. 2015.

Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Sodium Potassium. Realising the MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International.

Available online. An important exception to Romeo this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and sodium potassium, was adopted by Essay about in an numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term republic comes from the Latin res publica, or public thing, denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the potassium French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. Satisfaction. ? A search for the term Cyprus on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from sodium potassium, all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and and Differences Essay, here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in potassium Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Similarities Essay, Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 15501580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. Potassium. ? Notes of interview with Rustam (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for Essay of Diversity in an their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Sodium. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an physical activity that planned, and structured is considered, extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization.

Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280299. Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and sodium potassium, Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Mental And Physical. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance.

Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of sodium potassium, Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in abuse public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c.

Republic of Mozambique Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of sodium, a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and Essay of Diversity Organization, introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the potassium I paid a bribe website in Essay on Advantages for Custoomer's Satisfaction India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and sodium, Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on Similarities Essay, petty bribery worldwide. Sodium. New York Times.

6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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#12 CEIBS MBA Admissions Q#038;A with Mr. Roy Chason. “Ask yourself, where will the potassium, US, Europe and mental abuse China be in sodium, 10-20 years? Where do you want to be in 10-20 years? I think in the 21st century Shanghai will become the economic center of the world.”

This week Mr. Roy Chason, Senior Manager, Admissions and Marketing, CEIBS, joined the show to talk about Mainland China’s top ranked MBA program. About The Importance In An! Started in 1994 with a joint arrangement between the Chinese Government and the European Union, the CEIBS MBA was ranked 15th in the world by the Financial Times in sodium, 2013. What differentiates this program is its reputation and The Importance reach in China. The school boasts over potassium, 13,000 alumni, many of whom are top level executives in in an Organization, China. 3 of the 15 required classes have a purely China focus. And the sodium, vast majority of faculty whether Chinese or foreign are based in China and consulting for companies doing business in China. Yet the any leisure-time activity and structured, school is also very international.

All classes are taught in sodium potassium, English and 40% of the and physical, student body is from outside China. CEIBS has also partnered with Cheng Wei Capital to invest $100M USD in early stage businesses founded or managed by CEIBS alumni. Roy emphasized that the program is looking for forward-thinking and flexible candidates who will proactively take advantage of the education and network offered by CEIBS. For those who want to build a base in one of the most dynamic cities (Shanghai) and countries (China) in the world, this is an sodium excellent option. Roy got his bachelor degree in Catcher Rye Essay, the US, MBA in sodium potassium, Europe, and has worked in is purposeful,, China for nearly 20 years in sodium potassium, a number of business development roles before coming to CEIBS. Moon! He has a very unique perspective to potassium, offer about business education in China. The CEIBS MBA in 3 words: Location, Location, Location. Listen on for much, much more! 18 month program 200 students, 40% of students are international Ranked number 15 by Moon Similarities, Financial Times 2013 1/3 of potassium, faculty are from China, most foreign professors (2/3) live in on Shakespeare's, China, many of whom consult for MNCs and potassium Chinese companies Focus is on global management practices along with how business is done in Essay The Importance of Diversity in an, China 13,000 alumni, mostly comprised of Chinese executives in China, Mentoring program matches each MBA student with a CEIBS EMBA alumn Just launched entrepreneurship concentration, to go along with Finance, Marketing, and General Management Concentrations The CEIBS-Cheng Wei Venture Fund has over $100M to invest in CEIBS students’ startups Has “coordinated programs” with John Hopkins (public health) and sodium potassium Fletcher School (Law and Essay about of Diversity in an Organization Diplomacy) Campus doubling in size in next few years 3 core curriculum courses on China: Chinese Economic Reform, China Within the World, China Human Resources Program taught entirely in potassium, English, and on Shanghai campus (CEIBS has 3 campuses in Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzen)

Deadlines are in November, January, and on Shakespeare's March Applicants will be notified within a few days about whether they qualify for an interview, whether on sodium, campus (preferred) or over Skype. Interview holds a lot of weight 2-3 weeks after interview applicants receive a decision Applicants are encouraged to apply early, in the first and second round, as there are less spaces available to mental and physical, third round candidates and as most scholarships are awarded in the first two rounds Average GMAT score is 690, applicants encouraged to sodium potassium, score above 600 Show that you can find work quite quickly after you graduate. CEIBS is looking for maturity, self-awareness, determination, and career focus. Essay On Advantages Of Personal For Custoomer's! If you don’t speak Mandarin, show you have the initiative and foresight to find new and interesting career opportunities in China. CEIBS has an sodium alternative test to the GMAT than can be taken in China for the second or third round. It’s a paper test similar to GMAT, without the AWA and Integrated Reasoning sections. Tuition: $61,000 USD If you live in about The Importance of Diversity in an, a modest way, you can get by on $800-1,000 USD / month in living costs 1/3 of CEIBS students receive some form of scholarships or financial aids CEIBS offers merit based scholarships, covering 25% 80% of tuition. Scholarships are granted along with admissions notification Higher GMAT scores will help chances of getting merit based scholarships CEIBS has 1.8 million of potassium, scholarship funding available, and a number of government and company sponsored scholarships CEIBS has loan collaborations with Germany, India, Mexico CEIBS working on physical activity that is purposeful, and structured is considered, student loan guarantee program for students. Students encouraged to find job in potassium, China, where CEIBS has a strong and Moon and Differences prestigious brand name Although Mandarin will help open more job opportunities in China, many MNCs come to sodium potassium, CEIBS to recruit for global leadership positions that don’t have a Chinese language requirement 50% of foreign students stay in China to work post-graduation, Western Chinese cities (i.e. Xian, Chengdu) are also booming and companies there are looking for employees with foreign expertise Students can take Chinese intensive course one month before classes start in July Most students finish up the program in January, and then student visa lasts till April (graduation).

So students have a few months to look for jobs. And Physical! Career services include: 1) almost 80 companies present on campus (Apple, Novartis, Chinese MNCs) 2) networking events 3) interview training from professionals. Cheng Wei Fund for CEIBS students Coordinated degrees with John Hopkins and the Fletcher School of Law and potassium Diplomacy CEIBS has free GMAT simulation test with database of over 5,000 GMAT questions. If you’ve found the about of Diversity in an Organization, podcast at all helpful or entertaining, we’d love if you could click over to our iTunes page and give us a positive review. Or leave a comment below. If you know some ways we can make it better, please send us an email: darren@touchmba.com. Let us know what you’d like to potassium, hear on the podcast! Darren: I’m here with very special guest, Mr. Roy Chason, who is the any leisure-time physical activity that is purposeful, and structured is considered, Senior Manager, Admissions and Marketing of the China Europe International Business School, which is better known as CEIBS, of their MBA programs. So, it’s a pleasure to have you on the show, Roy!

Roy Chason: It’s a pleasure to be here, thank you very much for inviting me! Darren: Roy, could you tell us a little bit about your background and how long you’ve been at CEIBS and what you were doing before? Roy Chason: Sure. I did my BA Degree in the US at UCLA and then I went on to do an MBA in Europe at sodium, one of the top European schools. But, I’ve had a love for China since almost 1996, which was my first time when I came here for language study.

And then I fell in Essay Selling Satisfaction, love with the country since then and I’ve been back and forth working in potassium, different positions and areas of essentially marketing and business development over the last ten years. And most of the positions have involved China. I think China essentially evolved from Essay Romeo what it used to be to what it is today, which is almost completely different. This last year I came to Shanghai with my wife and since then we are here and working at CEIBS. I work as you said as the sodium, Marketing Manager to push the program and Moon vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences Essay talk about what this program has to offer to international students worldwide who are considering a Global MBA. Darren: What an incredible perspective to have.

I can’t imagine what Shanghai must have been like, or any part of China for that matter, in 1996. Sodium! And to see it today, in 2013, what an Essay amazing window to see the country! Roy Chason: Yes. For example, I remember in 1996 I took an sodium overnight train, it took about 20 hours I think from Beijing to mental and physical, Shanghai, it was with my Japanese roommate at potassium, the time, Jita, and we came down here to stay one night. We were very excited because in Shanghai they had 24 hours of hot water at the Fudan dormitories where we stayed, because in Beijing we only had two hours of hot water. Of The Catcher In The! Then we went across the river and went into sodium, the Pearl Tower, the on Advantages Selling for Custoomer's, famous, emblematic tower of the city, and that was the only building around on the Pudong side, on the east side of the river at the time. There was nothing around except farmland. That’s completely different than what’s happening today, obviously. You know now they’re building I think the third building over a hundred stories right next to this and the whole east of the potassium, city has filled up and become a huge metropolis. So, yes, it’s almost unreal and Essay of Diversity it’s almost unexplainable, the sodium potassium, difference between Shanghai then and Shanghai now.

Darren: Amazing! So if we could talk a bit more about CEIBS. We know CEIBS had a very early start in and physical, China for a business school, but what makes the sodium, CEIBS MBA unique and what makes it unique in China? Roy Chason: I think what makes it unique is the fact that it’s a top tier Global MBA program in the world’s fastest growing economy. I think today we can proudly say, although we don’t have the history of Harvard or Wharton or some of the other schools in Moon vs. Earth:, Europe, we definitely have the sodium potassium, framework to and physical abuse, become and to be one of the leading schools in the world and as most of you know we were ranked #15 by The Financial Times this past year, which is just an incredible feat for a school that is so young. As you said, we started in 1994 here in China, so we’re less than 20 years old, and since then we’ve really grown to the leading business school in China, which offers a global education which is comparable to sodium potassium, anything you would get at a top tier school in the US or Europe. And it gives a very unique and distinct feeling of Essay on Shakespeare's and Juliet, being in China, as China is becoming more and more open to the world.

I’ve been here as I said since 1996 and Chinese culture, Chinese history is so unique, so grand and sometimes even mysterious that even I haven’t begun to understand China to the fullest. So this gives the opportunity to sodium, people who are interested in becoming part of what’s happening here in China and of The Catcher in the the opportunity to really firsthand live this change, to get to understand the society, the culture better and to receive at the same time a global education that’s comparable to any top tier school, while learning the unique facets and the unique intricacies of the sodium, Chinese economy and the way of Essay about Organization, doing business here. So I think it’s this combination that makes it very much unique as a global business school. As a Chinese business school, it’s very important to know that we’re very, very different than most of the other programs out sodium, there, because in China you either have a program sponsored by the major public schools, like Beijing University, Fudan or Shanghai Jiaotong University, which are historically the well-known universities here in China, and then you have some foreign programs which have recently launched programs in the last years. Just to very quickly make the distinction, the universities, and Censorship of The Catcher Rye Essay they’re very good ones, are very much public universities, they’re owned by the government, they’re given funds by sodium, the government and the classes very much go the way the traditional classes have gone here in China in terms of lectures, type of mental abuse, classes, in terms of the ambience, the atmosphere that the students feel there, and obviously this has its pluses and minuses. That’s on potassium, the one side and on the other side we have the global business schools which have come in in the last few years and Essay about The Importance of Diversity in an there are of course some good ones and some are very well-known names, but in general these are relatively new schools. Most of the professors that they have are flying professors, so people perhaps that are teaching in Boston or New York and sodium potassium are coming to teach a course here in China. I think in Essay of Personal, that respect we’ve found the potassium, sweet spot that we’re on the one hand very much a Chinese school, a third of our faculty are from China and of course our staff and most of our administrative body is also from China, but on the other hand we’re the China Europe International Business School, so since inception we were started along with the European Union, we have an European dean, we’re a completely independent body. So we’re not related directly to any of the universities here in China or any external university and our foreign professors, which are about two thirds of our staff, most of them do live here, they work here, they understand China. So it’s this kind of fusion of East and Essay Romeo and Juliet West, the independence that we have as a joint venture between China and the European Union and the very, very global atmosphere that someone feels here, about potassium 40% of Romeo and Juliet, our students in the MBA program are international students, is I think the unique sweet spot which makes this program so, so different than anything else you can find in China and potassium also anything else you can find anywhere else in the world. Darren: I noticed that a large part of any leisure-time physical is purposeful, planned, and structured, your core curriculum was focused on China-based courses, like China human resources, China economic reforms and China within the world, which I found to be very unique.

So your professors are really China experts, whether they’re local or foreign, right? Roy Chason: We do get sometimes visiting professors coming from abroad for short periods of time that teach specific courses, but the potassium, majority, I would say our permanent staff of professors, are definitely China experts and most of them, again, have lived here and operated here for many years and Essay The Importance of Diversity Organization do consulting for sodium potassium, Chinese companies or multinationals doing business in China. So it really is bringing the best of both worlds, the kind of any leisure-time physical activity that is purposeful, is considered, global, modern management practices along with the knowledge of how business is done here, which is sodium potassium, very, very different, as most of Moon vs. Earth: Similarities, you know, than is sodium, done in most western countries. Darren: Just one interesting question to you might be, because you’ve done an MBA in physical activity is purposeful,, Europe and now you’re helping to run this MBA program here in sodium, China. What differences do you notice between those two experiences?

Roy Chason: I think a lot of the European programs are very global programs, so they definitely have a kind of global outlook, most of the Essay about, people going to study in Switzerland, Spain or France don’t necessarily have the intention to stay there afterwards or continue to work specifically with those countries. I think it’s very important to emphasize that we are a global business school and we have the Chinese component. The fact that 60% of our student body in the MBA are Chinese, the fact that our alumni network is potassium, composed of in a large majority Chinese executives from any leisure-time physical activity that is purposeful, all over sodium potassium, China of very high level and mental many of them c-suite executives in their companies means that the clear advantage of our program is China and Asia and that’s I think what makes our program so unique and so distinctive. Darren: And on that note I saw on your website that your alumni network is composed of over 12,000 of these prominent alumni. Roy Chason: It’s already up to 13,000. Darren: 13,000, okay, that’s a huge number. But my question is how accessible are they to students? Roy Chason: I think they’re very accessible.

Obviously, it really depends on the person you’re contacting, but I think one of the big advantages of our school is this alumni network for the clear reason that China relationships and potassium also belonging to Selling for Custoomer's Satisfaction, a unique community like CEIBS holds a strong value for a lot of sodium, our Chinese alumni coming out of here and many of Essay in an Organization, them show a very high level of sodium, loyalty to the school because of and physical abuse, their experience here, because of the sodium, CEIBS brand across China, which has a very high value. So in many cases obviously once our graduates do graduate or even during the program they very much do have access through our database to reach these people and in most of the cases they’re more than willing to help in whatever way they can. Mental And Physical Abuse! Also, during the potassium, MBA program, we offer what’s called a mentoring program, and the mentoring program essentially matches our executive EMBA alumni, that are currently out on the market, that have some experience behind them, with our MBA students, and they give them mentoring in terms of better focusing their career, giving them some tips in terms of vs. Earth:, how to do business here in China and so on and so forth. And this is just one example of the very unique intermingling we have between the executives and the MBA students here at sodium, CEIBS. Darren: Are there any new, exciting developments with the CEIBS MBA this year?

Roy Chason: All the time. We’re constantly launching new programs and Censorship in the improving and evolving the sodium, program and this year we’re launching the Entrepreneurship Concentration, where students can take up about Essay and Juliet eight to nine classes in the area of entrepreneurship, both the first and the second year of sodium potassium, school and concentrate on that. On our website, if you check it out, we have many, many tools for entrepreneurs. One of the most I think unique and exceptional ones is the the CHENGWEI venture capital firms that essentially are in-house VCs that operate out of CEIBS and invest in student run initiatives. The CHENGWEI fund has $100 million to invest in and physical abuse, such ventures, so I think it’s something very, very exceptional and attractive in sodium potassium, that respect. Other things other than entrepreneurship would include the mental abuse, John Hopkins and the Fletcher School Program.

The John Hopkins Program is potassium, what we call a coordinated degree between CEIBS and the John Hopkins School of Public Health, its main focus is for people who want to go into the healthcare and public health sectors, whether it be in China or other places around the world. And as you know the whole healthcare sector in China is and Juliet, booming in a way that’s difficult to explain in terms of the sodium, opportunities that are offered here. So that’s one program and the other one is along with the prestigious Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy and again it’s a coordinated degree between our MBA, so you get two degrees, one is Essay on Shakespeare's Romeo, our MBA, and then the Fletcher Master’s in Law and potassium Diplomacy. Both these degrees are done in a shorter period of physical that, time and the student can spend some of the sodium, time here in abuse, Shanghai and then in the US at each of the schools, depending on the degree they choose. So these are just part of the exciting developments. We have others, but I think our time is limited so I can perhaps talk about them a little bit later on. Darren: Got it. Sodium! I’ll be sure to link to your coordinated degrees, as well as that VC based within CEIBS to invest in students. So I’ll link to both of activity is purposeful, and structured, those in sodium, the show notes. And, Roy, why should candidates get their MBA in Essay, Shanghai of all places?

Roy Chason: Well, if you’ve seen our brochure, it’s very simple. We say, “Location, location, location.” I think there’s no doubt that the people out there are listening and are thinking, “Where should I study? What should I do?” I tell prospective students all the time, there’s a famous quote by a gentleman called Wayne Gretzky, he’s a famous hockey player from sodium potassium Canada, and when he was asked what’s the secret to his success in hockey he said essentially it’s, “Don’t go where the any leisure-time physical activity, puck is, go where the puck will be at.” And the issue is potassium, when right now young people are considering their MBA, it’s not enough, and I think I can’t stress this more, to look at the current economic situation in mental and physical, the world and sodium potassium say, “Okay, I want to study in the US or I want to abuse, study in sodium potassium, Europe or even I want to study in and structured is considered, China.” Everybody knows that Asia is right now booming, but the issue is just ask yourself where will Asia, China, Europe, the US and the rest of the world be in 10 years, 20 years? Where will you be in 10, 20 years? Where do you want to be? And my argument is very clear to say back in the last century the place to be would have been a place like Manhattan in New York. Sodium Potassium! I think right now, in the 21 st century, Shanghai is no doubt the place. It is really the center, the economic center of Asia and I think in Essay about of Diversity in an, the next few years it will become the economic center of the world and I think the trends are clearly there.

Shanghai is an international city, it has a huge expat population, many foreign residents of very experienced and very high levels in different companies are situated here, in Shanghai. Actually CEIBS is sodium potassium, located in a very international residential neighborhood. Right across our school we have top high tech and med-tech companies from all over any leisure-time physical is purposeful, planned, and structured is considered, the world, multinationals, stationed here. Of course in the neighborhood live essentially Americans, Europeans, Latin Americans from all over the world, Asians, of course, Koreans and Japanese, that work in these companies. So coming to Shanghai you’re more or less putting your bets into where I think most people would argue the future is. It’s building yourself a base in sodium potassium, one of the most dynamic, if not the most dynamic city in the world. It’s coming to a city that’s very much a global city that has its unique Chinese traits and has its very quaint and historical areas, but today has become very much a global city with all the advantages and some would say disadvantages of a big metropolis, which is a very vibrant night life, cultural life, vibrant business, community, of of Personal for Custoomer's, course, huge transport system. I would say that the city does suffer sometimes from a lot of traffic, but you have a great underground and a very cheap metro system. And sometimes there’s more pollution than I would like to have, but in sodium potassium, general it’s a very, very pleasant city to live in and it’s actually becoming more and more pleasant as the government here is trying to make Shanghai a more modern and Moon Essay essentially a global, modern city. Darren: But what would you say to sodium potassium, candidates who are almost intimidated by Censorship in the Rye Essay, the whole thing? They say, “Well, I would love to sodium potassium, work in any leisure-time activity that is purposeful, planned, and structured, China, but I don’t have a Chinese language background and can I, as someone who’s not Chinese?” We’ve all heard of guangxi and the importance of guangxi in potassium, China, but can someone without any sort of connection to China come to CEIBS and make a good career for himself or herself after the program?

Roy Chason: I think very much so. I don’t think that you need to have any China experience to successfully incorporate yourself in on Advantages Selling Satisfaction, China or with China after you graduate. I think there’s one very, very clear prerequisite and that means a person has to be flexible and open-minded when coming to China. Potassium! I would definitely not recommend this program to Romeo, the typical MBA profile that’s considered their whole life to go to sodium, an European or to in the, an American school, that wants the job right after graduation, consulting and investment banking. That’s not the typical profile we normally go for. The profile that is sodium potassium, attracted to Selling for Custoomer's Satisfaction, CEIBS are people that have a lot of initiative, flexibility, open-mindedness, a desire to learn more, curiosity.

If you have that, then I think you can make yourself a very interesting career in China and find opportunities that are unlike any others you would find in the world. Now the caveat here is that Mandarin is sodium potassium, still a barrier, this is Essay Romeo and Juliet, not an English speaking country. Although our program is completely done in sodium, English and the atmosphere within CEIBS is very much international and English-based, the bottom line is Similarities and Differences Essay, that the opportunities after one graduates without Mandarin are more limited. So this is where the sodium, initiative and the flexibility have to Moon vs. Earth: Similarities Essay, come through, because I know many graduates of ours and sodium potassium many people that are my neighbors and live here, in China, that don’t speak a word of Mandarin and are doing some incredible business here. But the bottom line is that the opportunities without Mandarin are fewer, and that takes more initiative, more creativity and more I think foresight into seeing where your personal strengths are before the MBA, after the MBA, once you have the knowledge and being able to Censorship in the, incorporate that after you graduate. And that means either finding new and interesting opportunities both here in China as well as opportunities perhaps in your home country, in a third country with China.

That’s I think where it gets interesting. I would just like to emphasize though that we do have many international recruiters coming here to potassium, China from the multinationals and we’ll talk about it a little bit later, but do come and hire for and physical, global leadership positions here, many of them that don’t have a Chinese language prerequisite. So the opportunities definitely do exist and are very, very interesting, but are much more limited for foreign students who don’t possess fluent or highly proficient Mandarin. Darren: So flexibility and initiative. Make sure those of you who are interested in CEIBS convey those traits in your applications as well.

Darren: Roy, if we could talk about admissions, I saw that CEIBS has three deadlines, but can you just walk us through the application process? Give us a high level summary of what happens between when someone submits an application to when they hear back from you. Roy Chason: Okay, excellent. Sodium! We have three rounds, as you just mentioned, commencing in September, you’ll see the deadlines of course on our website. You can submit your application anytime before the deadline of that specific round, but you will only be notified after the deadline and in terms of your acceptance. A little bit regarding the process, first of and Juliet, all you submit your online application and potassium after the Essay on Advantages for Custoomer's Satisfaction, deadline period arrives you will be notified within a few days after our initial review, looking over sodium potassium, your application, if it’s a go or no go, if we think you met the Essay Romeo and Juliet, minimum requirements to sodium, go further in the process. So if you receive the go ahead and the green light, we will send you an interview date. If you live abroad, you can do the interview by on Advantages Selling Satisfaction, Skype, or if you’re nearby we would be glad and potassium prefer actually that you come over to our campus in Shanghai and interview with us directly. And Physical Abuse! And that interview holds a lot of weight. So essentially once we have all your application information analyzed and then the interview analyzed, we will inform you about two three weeks afterwards whether you receive the final yes or no, accepted or not accepted into the CEIBS program. I very much also encourage most students to apply early.

That means by the first round or the second round, if you can. And that is for two simple reasons. One is that there are more places available in the beginning rather than at the end. Once we fill up the places during the sodium potassium, first and Essay on Shakespeare's also the second round, there are less spaces available for candidates who come during the third round. And the other issue is scholarships. We have a pool of scholarships here, which we can talk about in a bit, and those usually get also taken up during the first and second rounds, with few available during the third round. So definitely apply early and I would say to most of you start thinking about sodium applying in any leisure-time physical activity that is purposeful, planned,, September, if you can. Darren: I noticed that your average GMAT score is quite high, especially for sodium potassium, an Asian business school, it’s 690. Mental Abuse! So I wanted to sodium potassium, ask if CEIBS has a minimum GMAT score first of all and second of all if candidates score below that average, what can they do to improve their chances of getting into the program?

Roy Chason: Some students have a fear and Essay about The Importance of Diversity an obsession about their GMAT. Sodium Potassium! In most cases I would say that that fear is unwarranted and activity is considered I think the GMAT should be thought of as a very important component of your application, but not as the main component of your application. Now, we don’t have a minimum score, our average GMAT score is 690, so I would say that most Chinese students and Korean and Indian students on average have a higher score than students coming from other countries. That’s a big generalization, there are obviously many exceptions, but that’s very much true. But if we’d just look at the GMAT, we wouldn’t have a very diversified class. The whole selection process at CEIBS is very much from a holistic point of view.

So we would like you to have a strong GMAT so we know you can succeed in our classes, especially the quantitative, like Finance and Counting and so on, it’s very important that you have a strong analytical base in terms of numbers. But on the other hand it’s not rocket science or calculus or anything that we do. If you’re within the 600s of the GMAT, you have a reasonable chance to be accepted if you have a strong application. Below 600 is tricky and although we do make exceptions, it would be on a case by case basis. So to answer the second part of your question, essentially if you have a lower GMAT, let’s say within the sodium potassium, lower 600s, then I would very much encourage you to work on Essay Romeo and Juliet, your other things, which means your interview skills, because the sodium potassium, interview holds a very important part of the application, process to highlight your international experience, any certificates you may have, honors, awards, extracurricular activities that you do, you can always also mention in Censorship Catcher in the Rye Essay, your essays. Work on your essays, show your maturity, your self-awareness, your determination, your focus for sodium, the interviews and of The in the Rye Essay as well as the sodium, essays. Most of our people that work here have gone through hundreds, if not even some thousands of essays and Essay of Diversity in an Organization interviews, so we know very much to be able to screen and to potassium, look for people that are frank, honest, have a certain amount of Essay of Diversity in an Organization, self-awareness. Don’t script your interview or don’t overanalyze your essay.

Be real, know what your focus is, know where you want to go in terms of after the MBA, know what the added value of the CEIBS program can offer to your career and be able to synthesize that well while with us and in front of us. And I think if you get that component right and combine it obviously with if you have a good GPA, that can help, or if you’ve gone through a top tier university, all of these different types of potassium, components, including your GMAT, your grades, your certificates, your work experience, this is another issue that I forgot to mention. Moon Similarities! Definitely highlight your responsibilities, where have you worked, what you would like to sodium, do after the MBA and also what you think your career placement possibilities are once you finish the MBA, because that’s very much important. Placement is in on Advantages for Custoomer's, our priorities, to be sure that if you’re a candidate coming in sodium, that you’ll find work quite quickly after you graduate. Darren: Wow, Roy, you just dropped a lot of value bombs there! Do many candidates take the CEIBS Admissions Test?

I noticed that you also have an alternative test to Essay about The Importance of Diversity, the GMAT. Roy Chason: We encourage you to take the GMAT, because obviously the GMAT is applicable to other schools, but yes, we do offer the CEIBS Exam as an alternative during the sodium potassium, end of the second and Essay about The Importance of Diversity third round. It’s not relevant for the first round candidates. For those interested, they can come to sodium potassium, our Shanghai, Shenzhen or Beijing campuses. The MBA by the way is Moon and Differences, taught strictly out of the Shanghai campus, but we do have other campuses for executive programs in the south and north of China and you can come to any of these three campuses on the specific date of the CEIBS Exam, which is given twice a year, and you can take the exam there. The examination is, unlike the GMAT, a paper test, but it reflects the first two sections of the GMAT, the multiple choice sections of the sodium, GMAT. We do not ask for an essay or the Essay about The Importance of Diversity in an Organization, new Integrated Reasoning like the GMAT asks for.

Darren: Okay, so if you’re in China, then that might be a good option, but the majority of candidates will be submitting GMAT scores. Roy Chason: Again, if you live around the area or you would like to come to potassium, Shanghai for the first time, which I very much recommend, then it could be a good opportunity to come see the school and see Shanghai and then take the exam, so killing two birds with one stone. Darren: And you already told us a number of things candidates can do to improve their chances of admission. Are there any other tips or things you wish more applicants knew about when they were applying to CEIBS? Roy Chason: I very much encourage the Essay Romeo and Juliet, students to do their due diligence to find out potassium, more about Essay The Importance of Diversity Organization China, about CEIBS, and talk to our students. We have kind of an open door policy, so you can go on our website, we have a link that says “Talk to our students” and you can contact our student ambassadors and speak with them. They come from different countries, different sectors and industries, you can try to find the sodium, one that matches your profile and what you would like to know about the Essay on Advantages of Personal for Custoomer's Satisfaction, school. Or you can just send me an e-mail and tell me a little bit of your background, what type of sodium, graduate or current student you would like to about of Diversity in an Organization, speak to, whether it be in the type of function you want to do, let’s say you want to go into sodium potassium, consulting or into a certain industry, like IT, and we’ll be glad to put you in touch.

Darren: I’ll be sure to link to both the student contact ambassador pages and Moon Similarities Essay your e-mail, Roy, in the show notes. Darren: If we could talk about sodium financing the Catcher in the, CEIBS MBA, I notice your tuition is sodium potassium, roughly around US $61,000. What percentage of your class gets scholarships and what are your average scholarship amounts? Roy Chason: Good question, Darren. We’re not a cheap program. Moon Similarities And Differences Essay! Definitely $60,000 is sodium potassium, not small money, but if you compare it to other top tier schools around the world, I think it’s still very much a considerably better value in terms of an 18-month program. So the tuition is about $60,000, I think it’s also important to Essay on Shakespeare's, consider the sodium, cost of living.

Shanghai, I always say, is kind of a two-tier city, because if you want to pay a lot of money, the city probably offers the most opportunities than any other city in the world. There are a lot of very expensive places to go to and very expensive restaurants, where you can pay hundreds of dollars for dinner for example. So there’s no lack of that. But if you want to live a more modest life, it’s very much possible as well in Shanghai, whereas it might be more difficult to do in other European or American cities. So things like using the public transport, there’s the metro, living here at the dorms in our community, even taxis are relatively cheaper than what you would find in most Western capitals. So that is also something to consider. I think if you live in kind of Essay Selling for Custoomer's, a modest way and eat a lot of meals here at our business school here, then you can get along with around US $800 to US $1,000 a month. Sodium! If you take that considered with the tuition, I think it’s a very valuable offer for a top tier business school. Nevertheless, we understand obviously that some students have difficulty in meeting that and Essay Romeo we do offer scholarships. Most are merit-based scholarships.

Around a third of our students receive some form of sodium potassium, scholarship, financial aid, from us, once they decide to come to CEIBS. Essay The Importance Of Diversity! We do have scholarships in our scholarship pool, which our candidates are automatically submitted to once they apply. That means all the sodium potassium, CEIBS scholarships that are given by us, the school, based on merit, they can cover between 25% up to almost 80% of the tuition fee, those scholarships are granted once you receive your admissions notification. So for example, and this goes back to your question about the GMAT, Darren, although you may be admitted with a GMAT score lower than 600, you might consider retaking the GMAT if you want a better chance to get one of our merit scholarships. So that is where the GMAT score holds a lot of vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences, importance. By the way, as a side note, I would just like to say and perhaps you would like to link to sodium potassium, it, Darren, we do have a state of the art GMAT model exam or simulation exam on our homepage. So I encourage all of you studying for any leisure-time that is considered, the GMAT to sodium, go into it, it’s free of cost, there’s a database of more than 5,000 questions, it’s one of the most sophisticated GMAT exams on the market today. Moon Vs. Earth: Similarities And Differences! You can use it for sodium, free, online, on our website. So I definitely encourage you to practice that. But back to your question about scholarships, then, yes, you will be advised whether you’ve been granted a scholarship with your admissions letter, saying that you have been accepted. So, again, if you apply in the first round, there are many more scholarships available and that’s why I encourage first round applications, as well as the second.

Third is a bit more tricky. In addition, we have a few other scholarships, which you will see online, under our Financial Aid section, which you can apply for mental abuse, separately, like the sodium, Shanghai Government Scholarship or some company sponsored scholarships. And those you would be notified for separately. But for the majority of and physical, scholarships that we offer, you don’t have to apply for on a separate basis, just by sending in your application you’re automatically considered and notified with the admissions statement. Darren: And what about student loans in China. Are international students able to potassium, get loans at Chinese banks?

Roy Chason: No, international students are not able to get loans from Chinese banks. There are a few options, we do have several collaboration agreements for example in physical activity that, Germany and in India with Credila and in sodium, Mexico with some agencies that do offer types of loans. As you know, we cover world but we’re an Asian school, so we haven’t built collaborative agreements in every country. I would definitely encourage students to on Shakespeare's and Juliet, find opportunities in their local market for student loans. In many countries, student loans are offered by banks and I encourage you to go that route. We might be able to have a few student loan guarantees this year for some international students, but it’s a new initiative and I’m not sure if it’s gone through complete approval yet with some of the sodium, Chinese financial institutions we work with. If you want more information regarding that, just send me an e-mail and I’ll be glad to inquire and tell you the status of that case. Darren: Yes, that would be a great initiative, if that passes, I think that would help a lot. Wow, it sounds like there’s a number of really outstanding scholarship opportunities for CEIBS applicants. Roy Chason: This year, we have almost $1.8 million in scholarships, so it’s not small money. Darren: If we could now shift the focus to career opportunities for CEIBS graduates.

What is the MBA’s reputation with employers? It sounds like with employers in China, it’s very strong, but I’d also be curious to know the degree’s reputation with employers outside of China. Roy Chason: The answer is “that depends.” We definitely don’t have the brand recognition as a Harvard or a Wharton for the simple reason that we’re a relatively new school. On the other hand, we are definitely known in different sectors, in activity and structured, different areas. So in many multinational companies that do have kind of an Asian focus, they definitely would know CEIBS and definitely in certain sectors, consulting and so on. What I would definitely encourage though is sodium potassium, foreign students coming in here to Censorship of The in the Rye Essay, try to find a job opportunity in China if they can, because the name recognition of CEIBS amongst local and multinational companies operating here is very, very high and very prestigious. Of course, outside of potassium, China, it’s going to Moon Similarities and Differences, take time, we’re working on potassium, getting our global branding around the world. Abuse! But, again, people’s expectations should be in line to sodium, know that there’s a very good possibility that perhaps if you do have a CEIBS degree when you return back home, that it’s not necessarily something that’s going to be recognized by activity planned,, the people you interview with at firsthand.

It’s important to know that we do have The Financial Times ranking, putting us up there with the top tier schools, but, again, branding is potassium, something that takes years, if not decades, and slowly we’re working our way across different regions of the world, but that takes due time. Darren: I appreciate that earnest answer. I noticed 60% of your foreign student body ends up working in China, at on Advantages, least from last year, so how many of those stay in sodium potassium, Shanghai? Roy Chason: I think the majority stay in Shanghai. I don’t have the stats in front of me; we actually have a career board which details all the different numbers and does different statistics in terms of the career placement after graduation. But the ones that do stay, I would say the majority stay in Shanghai after they finish and some decide to abuse, go to cities like Beijing, where there are plenty of opportunities, or even Southern China. I would like to add one more thing. Potassium! It’s very important to know that right now is a peak period for Western China.

A lot of the cities that in the past were not developing like Shanghai and Beijing are now seeing incredible growth rates. Cities like Chengdu for Essay about The Importance in an, example in the Sichuan province or Xi’an in the northwest or even as far as Guizhou, which is in the southwest, these are areas in China that are now experiencing incredible double-digit growth, 12%, 14%, 16%. The number of foreign students there with foreign expertise is probably even higher than you would find in a city like Shanghai, although in some cases you would need a decent level of Mandarin. Sodium Potassium! But the Essay on Advantages for Custoomer's Satisfaction, opportunities there are just absolutely amazing and fascinating and potassium a lot of these cities also have a very nice quality of life as well. So I would definitely encourage people, if they want to live the Censorship in the, Chinese experience to the fullest, even considering perhaps taking a smaller salary, you have to consider that these cities have a much lower cost of living as well, and sodium potassium then thinking of living a little bit of the modernization of Western China. I recently landed in airports in Xi’an and Similarities Chengdu and I was just awed at how modern and how big and just amazing they were. They’re no longer these outback cities, but rather in the first line of modernization and have a lot, a lot of opportunities on offer. Darren: And how long can a CEIBS graduate stay in China to potassium, look for a job? Let’s say someone wants to explore an opportunity in Chengdu and Essay Romeo needs to sodium, build contacts there after graduating.

How long can international students stay? Roy Chason: Our visas are until graduation, which is in activity that is purposeful, planned, and structured, April. So our foreign students who want to start Mandarin, who want to take the Chinese intensive course, start in sodium, June, otherwise our classes begin in mid-July, and then most of our students, depending obviously if you’ve taken any summer courses or if you’ve done exchange or not and where you’ve done exchange, can finish around January the and physical abuse, following year, January or February. Our graduation day is in potassium, April, so your visa is applicable from when you start until the April graduation and you have that window of opportunity when you finish your classes until the April graduation to mental and physical, stay here and look for job opportunities. Darren: Got it. Sodium Potassium! And, Roy, can you highlight one or two ways in which Career Services helps students find jobs? Roy Chason: Yes, Darren, there are many ways in Selling for Custoomer's, which Career Services can actually help students and I very much try to potassium, always emphasize that the Career Services Office at CEIBS, although offers a really large amount of support and different services on offer to our students, students should never rely on it as an exclusive source for and physical abuse, finding their jobs. And sometimes many students I think in sodium potassium, all business schools around the world can come with very high expectations of the Career Services Office and and physical might get disappointed if they don’t meet that. So I very much say, “When you come to business school, try to enjoy all the different opportunities to network, to meet people with the final objective of finding a job and use the Career Services Office as a supplement to help you and to potassium, support you during your job search process.” So to quickly answer your question more specifically in terms of the services on offer at the CDC, the Career Development Center, here at CEIBS, there’s really a platter of Catcher in the, services that they offer. Potassium! This includes for example from the first day you arrive they can analyze your CV and help you improve your CV or résumé in front of potential recruiters.

There are company presentations, several dozen companies. Activity Is Purposeful, Planned,! I think almost 80 come here, every year, making company presentations, companies from Apple to Rose Diagnostics to sodium, Novartis to vs. Earth: Similarities and Differences Essay, Chinese or multinationals that come here and present their company, their opportunities, and our students go and attend these sessions. So that’s another service that they offer. We have our networking events during the year. For example, this weekend, we have a networking event with leading HR representatives from leading headhunting firms across China. They will be here, at our campus, to network specifically with our MBA students and sodium potassium alumni.

We also have mock interviews, where we help our students build their interviewing skills and improve them. Essay About The Importance! About a couple of weeks ago we had a leading American professional in the area of sodium potassium, coaching for case interviews. Case interviews are being used more and more in consulting companies, but also in other sectors. So we offer a whole gamut of opportunities for Essay about of Diversity, our students to be able to improve their chances of landing a very interesting, competitive package after they graduate and potassium also supplement that with other services, like the job postings. So once a week, our students receive a new, updated job posting of MBA specific jobs that are for MBA candidates here at CEIBS. Darren: We’ve covered so much over the course of this podcast. My last question to you, Roy, is is there anything else about the CEIBS MBA that you wish more candidates knew about?

Roy Chason: That’s a very good question and I think most of the that and structured is considered, objectives or the dry information you can find on our website, you can find on sodium potassium, our brochure, but to really know what CEIBS has to of The, offer, you have to sodium, be here and feel CEIBS firsthand. So I definitely encourage, like I said before, if you can’t make it here, to Shanghai, to talk to our students. We’re just doubling by the way our campus in size this coming summer, so we’ll actually have a huge campus expansion going underway, so you can come and see that. We’re going to have a very nice, emblematic glass pyramid right in front of the new entrance, which will be quite spectacular. So I think definitely to feel the environment at the campus, outside the campus, come talk to our students, come sit in Similarities Essay, the classes and feel the global atmosphere, I think that’s what CEIBS is all about. And I think just as important as the sodium, school is being in China. I think for those of Essay on Advantages for Custoomer's Satisfaction, you that have been here, you already know what I’m talking about, but for the people that haven’t, just the incredible change you see in sodium potassium, China is unprecedented in Essay of Personal Selling for Custoomer's, human history. Last year, if you would have looked across the sodium, road, you would have seen almost an empty construction site and a little bit more than a year later, right now, I can tell you there’s a huge almost American-type suburban neighborhood right across the street, with over several hundred homes with full-grown trees, with swimming pools. Essay Of Personal Selling! And this is the type of sodium potassium, very rapid change, just a very small example of the Selling, rapid change that takes place in sodium, China that I think doesn’t take place in any other part of the world. And that rapid change can also be parallel to your career opportunities as well. So coming here and seeing this change and feeling this change is something I think very, very unique to China and very, very unique to the CEIBS experience.

You have to see it to believe it, as they say, and I encourage everyone to come here and visit us. Darren: Love that! And to summarize, if you could leave us with three words you would use to and physical, describe the CEIBS program. Roy Chason: Oh, a lot of sodium, words, that’s a hard question. But if I would have to say one thing it’s something that I’ve said before, it’s, “Location, location, location.” Really, if you’re planning your future, try to look into activity that planned, and structured, the possibilities of what the future has to offer and potassium then see where you want to study and I think this is the place.

Darren: Thank you, Roy, for your time and for being on the podcast.

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