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Research Paper Sample “On Oscar Wilde and Plagiarism” “When I see a monstrous tulip with four wonderful petals in someone else’s garden, I am impelled to grow a monstrous tulip with five wonderful petals, but that is no reason why someone should grow a tulip with only three petals.” – Oscar Wilde (1) Charges of Oscar Wilde’s plagiarism are certainly not new; they have their origins in his contemporaries’ sharp criticism of his first published volume, Poems (1881). Even if they did not claim any of netherland drug laws his poetry had been stolen verbatim from the Romantics and Pre-Raphaelites whose work he adored, commentators grasped that much of his work was highly derivative. The Saturday Review was fairly typical of the critical reception: “The book is not without traces of cleverness, but it is marred everywhere by imitation, insincerity, and Essay on Botswana's Depends bad taste.” (2) At the laws, same time, the Oxford Union famously rejected on similar grounds the copy of Poems that its secretary had solicited from Wilde; at the Oxford Union, the undergraduate Oliver Elton—later to bacterial amylase become a renowned literary historian—asserted that Wilde’s poems were “not by their putative father at all, but by a number of better-known and more deservedly reputed authors.” (3) Modern scholars have on occasion rebutted Elton’s claim, suggesting that disdain for Wilde’s developing poetic voice or even downright jealousy motivated the netherland drug laws, outcry. (4) Nevertheless, the stigma attached to the reception of Poems has stuck firmly to that work and to many others in Wilde’s oeuvre. In the bacterial, late twentieth century, his presumed unoriginality appeared to one scholar as a symptom of his constitutional indolence : “One feels that Wilde was more than usually immature in his slavish regurgitation of diverse and unassimilated poetic tags; one is impatient with his lazy refusal to replace the shorthand of quotation by a carefully thought-out phrasing of his own; and laws one is amylase shocked at netherland drug, the effrontery of a would-be literary imposter.” (5) Many observers dismissed the idea that Wilde’s youthful identification with his Romantic and Pre-Raphaelite poetic idols was so strong that his devotion to and ice them—and not a desire to steal from them—resulted in his apparent copying of their writings. And in a connected point, while charges of affectation were frequently applied to Wilde’s aesthetic mannerisms, it seems that few took seriously the idea that the lassitude or nonchalance he embodied was itself affected; his languor was (like the “Double First” degree he earned at Oxford even as he insisted to friends that he would be lucky to escape with a third) the product of drug intense—if skillfully concealed—effort. From the early 1880s onward, Wilde found it difficult to escape the entrenched belief that he happily filched other people’s ideas. By far the most controversial conflict in Wilde’s career arose from criticisms that the socially-competitive painter James McNeill Whistler made about tucker Wilde’s unacknowledged appropriation of his bon mots. The rivalry between the drug laws, older American artist and the younger Irish author, who moved in similar fashionable circles, developed through a spirited, if eventually bitter, exchange in the periodical press.
On February 20, 1885, Whistler delivered his notorious “Ten O’ Clock Lecture,” whose title indicates the attention-grabbing late-evening slot he chose to deliver his thoughts on art. In particular, Whistler attacked the modern critic: “the unattached writer” who “has become the middleman in the matter of Art.” (6) Such an arbiter of film alabama taste, in Whistler’s view, could not see the “painter’s poetry” in the artwork, since the laws, critic treated it as he would “a novel—a history—or an anecdote.” (7) Wilde retorted by objecting to Whistler’s belief that only the artist can comprehend aesthetic beauty. “An artist,” Wilde commented, “is not an isolated fact; he is the resultant of the world go round a certain milieu and laws a certain entourage, and home alabama can no more be born of a nation that is devoid of any sense of netherland drug beauty than a fig can grow from a thorn or a rose blossom from a thistle.” (8) In other words, Wilde claimed that cultural traditions created the conditions in which the finest types of on Botswana's Economy Depends Mining art could flourish. Moreover, he asserted that in these modern times, “an artist will find beauty in ugliness, le beau dans l’horrible.” (9) Challenged, Whistler responded briskly in the World, stating Wilde had implied it was left to netherland laws modern poets to find “‘l’horrible’ dans ‘le beau.”’ (10) In turn, Wilde sparred back that Whistler had scarcely understood his critique: “Be warned this time, James; and film sweet home alabama remain, as I do, incomprehensible. To be great is to be misunderstood.” (11) With intentional archness, in this last line, Wilde drove home his point by quoting—though not explicitly acknowledging—Emerson’s famous essay, “Self-Reliance” (1840) (12), thus further appropriating another person’s wisdom to speak eloquently on his behalf. Toward the end of 1886, Whistler’s temper flared up once more when he detected Wilde’s flagrant appropriation of some of his phrases. “What has Oscar in common with Art, except that he dines at our tables, and picks from our platters the plums for the pudding he peddles in the provinces.” (13) “Oscar,” Whistler’s barbs continued, “has the courage of the opinions… of others!” (14)
Matters did not rest there. Years later, the American painter again grew vociferous when he read Herbert Vivian’s reminiscences, which appeared in the London Sun in the autumn of 1889. Vivian recalled a lecture that Wilde delivered almost seven years before, for drug which Whistler had “in good fellowship crammed him.” In the makes go round, lecture, Wilde wryly addressed Whistler as “Butterfly” (Whistler commonly signed his artwork with a stylized butterfly) but failed to give the elder artist credit for his assistance. (15) Vivian also noted that in drug laws, “The Decay of Lying,” published in January 1889, Wilde had incorporated, without acknowledging Whistler as the source, the artist’s claim that he had “the courage of the opinions… of others.” (16) Wilde’s alleged offense occurs early in the essay, when his main speaker in this critical dialogue argues that the sweet alabama, modern novelist has lost the ability to lie and “presents us with dull facts under the drug laws, guise of fiction”: He has not even the courage of chris other people’s ideas, but insists on drug laws, going directly to life for everything, and ultimately, between encyclopedias and personal experience, he comes to the ground, having drawn his types from the family circle or from the weekly washerwoman, and having acquired an amount of useful information from which never, even in his most meditative moments, can he thoroughly free himself. (17) In Whistler’s eyes, the irony could not have been more blatant.
From Whistler’s perspective, Wilde could hardly argue for artistic originality in young, the novel when his criticism of such repetitive and predictable fiction relied on netherland, words that he had stolen from his erstwhile master: Whistler himself. Whistler went so far as to call Wilde the film, criminal “arch-imposter,” the “detected plagiarist,” and the “all-pervading plagiarist”—one who would have violated in America the “Law of ’84.”‘ (18) Yet, to Wilde, Whistler’s “shrill shrieks of plagiarism” were the pitiful sign of netherland drug “silly vanity or incompetent mediocrity.” (19) No matter how petty Whistler’s gripes may appear, they illuminate the difficulties involved in casting Wilde in the role of whats poverty a deceitful plagiarist. Whistler described his holding forth at dinner as a type of “cramming,” positioning himself as the workaday instructor of the younger man, raising pressing questions about the connection between pedagogy and netherland plagiarism: can the teacher accuse his student of this crime because the pupil has parroted the content of the Economy Depends on Diamond Mining, instruction? Is not one’s goal, when preparing intensively for an examination, the ability to duplicate with as much fidelity as possible the information studied?
Looked at it critically, Whistler’s self-important accusation against Wilde may well appear as an excuse to generate a decidedly public feud, one that Whistler exploited to netherland laws keep himself in the public eye. Fire And Ice? Nonetheless, Whistler’s insults helped sustain the broad allegation that Wilde’s was not an drug laws, original mind. Fire And Ice Robert? Much later, Frank Harris—who developed a close relationship with Wilde as an editor and friend—reiterated the belief that Whistler had done more to netherland drug shape Wilde’s wit than any other figure: “Of all the Essay on Botswana's Economy Depends, personal influences which went into the molding of Oscar Wilde’s talent, that of Whistler was by far the most important; Whistler taught him the drug, value of wit and the power a consciousness of genius and a knowledge of men lend to the artist.” In Harris’ view, Wilde enjoyed great success as a writer because of his “great ability” as well as “inordinate vanity”—qualities, it would seem, that no charge of plagiarism could stifle. (20) This success did not inoculate Wilde from claims that his work was unoriginal. In early 1892, when his earliest Society comedy, Lady Windermere’s Fan, won many plaudits at the St.
James’s Theater, Wilde’s apparent borrowings again incensed critics. The fairly liberal-minded A.B. Walkley, for example, claimed that the “staleness of the incidents” came “from half a dozen French plays,” and he observed that Wilde’s female protagonist was “a guileless young bride” who resembled “M. Dumas’s Francillon.” (21) Meanwhile, as far as Walkley could tell, another of Wilde’s characters, Mrs. Fire Robert? Erlynne, appeared to have stepped out from a further play by Dumas fils, L’Etrangere (1876). Elsewhere, one commentator found the drama to netherland drug be a “not too ingenious blend of the Eden of Mr. Edgar Saltus, with the Idler of whats poverty Mr. Haddon Chambers,” together with that other well-known drama of adultery, Francillon (1887), once more put in for netherland drug laws good measure. (22) Not everyone agreed these were capital offenses.
As Frederick Wedmore perceived it, such borrowings were standard fare in film sweet alabama, the theater, a comment supported by the sheer number of texts cited as sources for Wilde’s play. In his view, even if the fan—Wilde’s major stage prop—had a clear antecedent in Haddon’s Idler (1890), it had “hardly occurred to the least intelligent to suggest plagiarism.” (23) How, then, to make sense of these borrowings? Over the years, the amassing scholarly research on Wilde’s later works showed that many passages echo writings that were essential to his intellectual growth. These inquiries disclosed that parts of “The Critic as Artist,” for netherland drug laws example, repeat ideas in Pater’s Studies in the History of the Renaissance. (24) The same might be said of many sections of the dialogue where Lord Henry Wotton speaks in whats poverty, The Picture of Dorian Gray. (25) Yet Wilde scarcely concealed the drug, influence that Pater’s Renaissance had exerted on him since his “undergraduate days at bacterial amylase, Oxford,” as he freely stated in netherland, his review of young tucker Pater’s Appreciations (1889): Mr.
Pater’s essays became to me “the golden book of spirit and sense, the holy writ of beauty.” They are still this to me. It is possible, of course, that I may exaggerate about them. I certainly hope that I do; for where there is no exaggeration there is no love, and where there is netherland drug no love there is no understanding. (26) As Wilde suggested, to be impassioned about another writer’s work created for him the possibility of understanding his source of young chris tucker inspiration critically. In any case, Wilde’s frequent evocations of Paterian phrases hardly resembled theft. (27) Consider the many echoes of Pater’s Renaissance that are detectable in Wilde’s sole novel. It would be difficult to claim that Lord Henry’s advocacy of the “New Hedonism,” for example, evinced the author’s intent to steal surreptitiously from what was a fully-recognizable source. The advice Lord Henry gives to netherland laws Dorian Gray about the need to pursue pleasure, which sounds similar to sentences in on Botswana's on Diamond Mining, Pater’s “Conclusion” to his 1873 study, has terrible consequences—ones that are entirely contrary to Pater’s insistence on laws, the “desire for beauty” as the fire, “fruit of a quickened, multiplied consciousness.” (28) Areas more vulnerable to allegations of drug plagiarism would be the extensive sections that paraphrase entries from South Kensington Museum catalogs, a French book on embroidery and amylase lace, and information gleaned from John Addington Symonds’ five-volume Renaissance in Italy (1875–1886). (29) These exhaustive lists—which detail the netherland, artifacts, instruments, and vestments that capture Dorian Gray’s attention—also evoke the kinds of objects d’art that recur in J.K. Huysmans’ anti-realist novel about an aesthetic collector, A rebours (1884): a well-known work of fiction that counted among several French sources that at least one indignant contemporary reader believed Wilde had plundered. (30) Still, these various allegations of Wilde’s fearless thieving of other writers’ ideas, phrases, and situations stand in contradistinction to whats poverty his carefully elaborated ideas on drug, literary borrowing, criminality, and creative expression. In his reviews from the 1880s, Wilde addressed uninspired borrowing as a demonstration not of an author’s artistic integrity or work ethic, but as an tucker, indication of poor taste.
That is to say, both the netherland laws, writers from young tucker whom an author chooses to poach and the finesse with which he commits the netherland drug, act create the proper grounds for assessing this type of theft. His commentary in on Diamond, the popular Pall Mall Gazette on netherland, two works of poetry reveals this distinction: the one volume ostensibly written by “Two Tramps,” and the other by H.C. Irwin. Here Wilde considered the permissibility of poetic borrowing. By using language pulled directly from his “Chatterton” notebook (another text that has generated charges of plagiarism), he took the “two tramps” to amylase task for laws conflating the “defensible pilfering from hen roosts” with the “indefensible pilfering from young tucker poets.” (31) “We feel,” Wilde wrote, “that as bad as poultry-snatching is, plagiarism is worse. ‘Facilis descensus Averno!’ from highway robbery and crimes of violence, one sinks gradually to literary petty larceny.” (32) Earlier in his review, Wilde had excused the authors, even praised them, for netherland drug laws trying to “annex the domain of the painter” through their aesthetic choices in paper color and binding, but here he suggested that plagiarism was a transgression far worse than that. (33) One reason was that, although the makes go round, appropriation of colors from the painters led to beauty in the finished product, the plagiarized lines resulted in terrible poetry: the difference between the five-petaled tulip and the three-petaled tulip. Netherland Drug Laws? This contrast was heightened through Wilde’s positive assessment of Irwin’s collection, which, as he put it, “gains her colour effect from the poet not from the makes the world, publisher.” (34) In Irwin’s poems, Wilde certainly witnessed traces of netherland drug Matthew Arnold’s works, but he nonetheless praised Irwin for “studying a fine poet without stealing from him—a very difficult thing to do, and though many of the reeds through which he blows have been touched by other lips, yet he is fire and ice robert able to draw new music from netherland laws them.” (35) In other words, even when learning lessons from a master, it was the case that the epigone might transform evident echoes of his idol into innovative art. Bacterial? Such is the meaning that underscores the epigraph to netherland this essay; to makes transmute and to improve source material, in Wilde’s view, was a perfectly legitimate approach to literary creativity. One of Wilde’s last, and most fascinating, direct engagements with plagiarism occurred in netherland drug, a series of letters published in the Pall Mall Gazette under the heading, “The Ethics of Journalism.” (36) The episode began on tucker, August 5, 1894, with the publication of a poem, “The Shamrock,” in the London-based Weekly Sun, which the netherland, paper erroneously attributed to Wilde. Soon thereafter, the poem was reprinted in Essay on Botswana's Economy Mining, the New York Sun, where an alert reader recognized the poem as one that “Helena Calahan” had previously published, and drug laws he demanded an explanation from Wilde in a letter to the London paper. The Weekly Sun’s editor, T.P.
O’Connor (whose paper Wilde clearly disliked), pressed Wilde for Essay on Botswana's Economy on Diamond Mining a response, which came in a letter the following month to netherland drug the Pall Mall Gazette. (37) Wilde noted the ridiculousness of the fire and ice, situation. He faced an accusation of plagiarism from an editor who had published a poem under his name without having verified the authorship of the work, much less having asked for the (ostensible) author’s permission to publish it. Netherland Drug? Wilde referred to fire robert “The Shamrock” derisively as “some doggerel verses,” which raised the serious question of authorial and editorial taste in addition to laws the “ethics of modern journalism.” (38) A letter of rebuttal from the Weekly Sun’s assistant editor quickly appeared in the Pall Mall Gazette. By prefacing his comments first with the acknowledgement that the editors “regret exceedingly the suggestion of plagiarism,” the editor explained the circumstance of the attribution: the poem had arrived in the mail with a letter ascribing it to Wilde, and so the Weekly Sun published it under Wilde’s name. Chris Tucker? Perhaps because of the impeachability of this explanation, the editor then pivoted to debates about taste, alternately defending the poem’s “melodic charm” and “pure and exalted patriotism” and suggesting that the editors’ willingness to attribute the poem to Wilde was an act of generosity: So conspicuous, indeed, was its elevation of tone that we were reluctant to believe it could have been the product of a mind like Mr. Oscar Wilde’s, and were driven to take refuge in the charitable belief that it belonged to the period of a forgotten and netherland drug laws generous youth. (39) A final missive from Wilde closed the conversation. He critiqued the Weekly Sun for sloppy editorial practices and blurring the Essay on Botswana's Mining, boundaries between ethics and taste. If, he maintained, the paper believed the “fifth-rate verses” to be his, its staff would have asked his permission to publish. Netherland? (40) “No respectable editor,” wrote Wilde (himself a former periodical editor), “would dream of printing and publishing a man’s work without first obtaining his consent.” (41)
We take from this episode a snapshot of Wilde’s position in the press. Since Wilde had long been a target for charges of plagiarism, the unscrupulous Weekly Sun suspended editorial integrity in order to catalyze once more a dated public conversation about his artistic inferiority. Moreover, the assistant editor’s letter intimated that the author’s Irish background should be considered the source of this embarrassment. Alabama? It is drug laws remarkable, even amid all of makes the world this sniping, that in netherland drug laws, the Weekly Sun’s letter to Pall Mall Gazette, in which the amylase, assistant editor admitted his fault and apologized for accusing Wilde of plagiarism, a postscript serves as an netherland drug, unabashed advertisement for whats poverty his own newspaper: “We are giving a number of drug laws letters bearing upon ‘The Shamrock’ in our next issue, together with the text of the poem and Mining a letter from laws its actual author.” (42) Such a self-serving apology, clearly enough, sharpens the belief that certain areas of the bacterial, late Victorian press had little to lose when intervening in polemics about literary plagiarism. 1. Recorded by Robert Ross, “Introduction,” in Oscar Wilde, Salome (1912), xxiii. 2. Anon., “Recent Poetry,” Saturday Review, 23 July 1881: 118; in Karl Beckson, ed., Oscar Wilde: The Critical Heritage (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970), 37.
3. Henry Newbolt, My World as in My Time (London: Faber and Faber, 1932), 96. 4. See Merlin Holland, “Plagiarist, or Pioneer?” in Rediscovering Oscar Wilde, ed. George Sandulescu, (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe, 1994), 199. Richard Ellmann states that the proceedings at the Oxford Union had a “Swiftian lunacy” (Oscar Wilde [New York: Knopf, 1988], 146). The Union voted against the acceptance of Wilde’s volume by laws a fairly narrow margin: 188 against 180 votes. Elton proceeded to sweet alabama a distinguished career as a university professor of English; he became best known for his Survey of English Literature, 1780–1830, 2 vols. (London: Edward Arnold, 1912). 5. Averil Gardner, “‘Literary Petty Larceny’: Plagiarism in Oscar Wilde’s Early Poetry,” English Studies in Canada 8 (1982): 52. 6. James Abbott McNeill Whistler, “Mr. Whistler’s ‘Ten O’ Clock,”‘ in netherland, Whistler, The Gentle Art of Making Enemies, New ed. Essay On Botswana's Depends On Diamond? (London: Heinemann, 1892), 146. 7. Whistler, The Gentle Art of Making Enemies, 146-47.
8. Netherland Laws? Wilde, “Mr. Whistler’s Ten O’Clock,” Pall Mall Gazette, 21 February 1885: 1–2; in sweet, Journalism Part I, 6:35. 9. Wilde, in Journalism Part I, 6:35. 10. Whistler, “Tenderness in Tite Street,” World, 25 February 1885: 14; in laws, The Gentle Art of Making Enemies, 162.
11. Wilde, “To the Painter,” World, 25 February 1885: 14; in The Gentle Art of Making Enemies, 163; and in on Botswana's Economy Depends on Diamond Mining, Complete Letters, 250. 12. In “Self-Reliance,” Emerson writes: “A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of laws little minds, adored by sweet home alabama little statesmen and netherland philosophers and fire and ice robert divines. With consistency a great soul has simply nothing to do….
To be great is to be misunderstood.” Essays: First Series in The Collected Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson, ed. Joseph Ferguson, Alfred F. Carr, and netherland drug laws Jean Ferguson (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980), 2:33–34. 13. James McNeill Whistler, “To the Committee of the ‘National Art Exhibition,”‘ World, 17 November 1886, 16; in The Gentle Art of Making Enemies, 164. 14. Whats Poverty? Whistler, “To the Committee of the ‘National Art Exhibition,”‘ in The Gentle Art of Making Enemies, 164. 15.
Whistler, “The Habit of Second Natures,” Truth, 2 January 1890, 4-5; in The Gentle Art of Making Enemies, 237; and in Wilde, Complete Letters, 418. 16. Whistler, “The Habit of Second Natures,” in The Gentle Art of Making Enemies, 237; and in Wilde, Complete Letters, 419. 17. Wilde, “The Decay of netherland Lying,” in Wilde, Criticism, ed. Guy, 75–76. Zola writes of Flaubert’s Madame Bovary, “c’est un document humain d’une verite universelle, une page arrachee de l’histoire de notre societe” (“It is a human document of the universal truth, a page torn from the history of our society”): Les Romanciers Naturalistes (Paris: Charpentier, 1893), 143. Whats Poverty? “[U]ne ouvre d’art est un coin de la creation vu a travers un temperament”) (“a work of art is a corner of netherland drug creation seen through a temperament”): Emile Zola, “M.
H. Taine, Artiste,” in on Botswana's on Diamond Mining, Mes haines: Causeries litteraires et artistiques (Paris: Charpentier, 1879), 229. 18. Whistler, “The Habit of Second Natures,” in drug, The Gentle Art of whats poverty Making Enemies, 236; and in Wilde, Complete Letters, 418. Whistler’s reference to the “Law of drug laws ’84” is presumably an ironic one, since it implicitly alludes to Burrow-Giles Lithographic Co. v. Sarony (1884), in which Napoleon Sarony, whose studio retained copyright over makes the world go round all of the photographs accompanying Wilde’s 1882 lecture tour, sued because he believed his rights to the images had been violated by netherland drug laws a company selling unauthorized lithographs of them. The Supreme Court judged in Sarony’s favor. 19. Young Chris? Wilde, “In the Market Place,” Truth, 9 January 1890, 51; in netherland drug laws, Whistler, The Gentle Art of Making Enemies, 239; and in makes, Wilde, Complete Letters, 419.
20. Netherland Drug? Frank Harris, Contemporary Portraits (London: Methuen, 1915), 104. 21. A. Young Tucker? B. Walkley, Review of Lady Windermere’s Fan, Speaker, 27 February 1892: 257–58; in Beckson, ed., Oscar Wilde: The Critical Heritage, 120. Netherland Drug Laws? Dumas fils’ Francillon, in which the husband consorts with a courtesan, and the young wife responds by keeping company with another man, has arguably a much more risk-taking plot than Lady Windermere’s Fan. 22. [Anon.,] Review of makes the world go round Lady Windermere’s Fan, Black and White, 27 February 1892: 264; in Beckson, ed., Oscar Wilde: The Critical Heritage, 127. 23. Netherland Laws? Frederick Wedmore, “The Stage,” Academy, 5 March 1892: 236–37; in Beckson, ed., Oscar Wilde: The Critical Heritage, 128.
24. See, for example, the main text and the editorial commentary on a passage from ‘The Critic as Artist,” in Wilde, Criticism, ed. Guy, 176 and 499-500. 25. On the echoes of Essay Mining Pater’s writings in Wilde’s novel, see The Picture of Dorian Gray, Joseph Bristow, ed., The Complete Works of Oscar Wilde (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 3:359–62. 26. Wilde, “Mr.
Pater’s Last Volume,” Speaker, 22 March 1890: 319-20; in Journalism Part II, 7:243. 27. For more on parsing the distinction between allusion and plagiarism, see Christopher Ricks, Allusion to the Poets (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), and Harold Bloom, The Anxiety of Influence (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973). 28. Pater, “Conclusion,” in The Renaissance: Studies in laws, Art and Poetry, The 1894 Text, ed. Donald L. Go Round? Hill (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1980), 190. 29. Netherland? For Wilde’s adaptation of and ice these and other sources in drug, his novel, see Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray, ed.
Bristow, 398–419. 30. “Mr. Wilde resembles the hero of his own romance; he has been unable to ‘free himself from the memory’ of certain books” (“G.,” “The Long Arm of Coincidence,” Scots Observer, 6 September 1890, 410). This critic also detects similarities between sections of Wilde novel and Honore de Balzac’s short story, “Massimilla Doni” (1837-39) and Nathaniel Hawthorne’s “Prophetic Pictures,” which was first collected in Twice-Told Tales (1837). 31. Wilde, “The Poets’ Corner,” in Journalism Part I, 6:96. For a comprehensive discussion of film sweet home Wilde’s “Chatterton” notebook, see Joseph Bristow and Rebecca N. Mitchell, Oscar Wilde’s Chatterton: Literary History, Romanticism, and the Art of netherland drug laws Forgery (Yale: Yale University Press, 2015), from which this article is adapted. 32.
Wilde, “The Poets’ Corner,” in Journalism Part I, 6: 96. Whats Poverty? The Latin translates as “easy is the descent,” and netherland drug it comes from Virgil, Aeneid, VI, line 126. 33. Wilde, “The Poets’ Corner,” in Journalism Part I, 6:96. 34. Wilde, “The Poets’ Corner,” in Journalism Part I, 6:96. 35. Young Tucker? Wilde, “The Poets’ Corner,” in Journalism Part I, 6:97. On his aspect of Wilde’s review, Jerome H. Buckley, “Echo and Artifice: The Poetry of netherland drug laws Oscar Wilde,” Victorian Poetry 28 (1990): 19. 36.
For a discussion of the events surrounding “The Shamrock,” see Wilde, Decorative Art in whats poverty, America, ed. Richard Butler Glaenzer (New York: Brentano’s, 1906), 265–267. 37. Wilde realized that there was little point in sending out review copies of the French edition of netherland drug laws Salome (1893) to reviewers who were likely to express hostility toward his work; in early February 1893, he informed his publisher, John Lane, “pray remember it was agreed that no copy of Salome is to be sent either to the National Observer or to Mr. O’Connor’s Sunday Sun” (Complete Letters, 547). One of Wilde’s archenemies, W. E. Henley, edited the National Observer. 38. Wilde, “The Ethics of whats poverty Journalism,” “To the Editor of the Pall Mall Gazette,” Pall Mall Gazette, 20 September 1894: 3; in netherland laws, Collected Works, 14:172; and in Complete Letters, 611. 39. [Anon.,] “The Ethics of Journalism,” Pall Mall Gazette, 22 September 1894: 3; and in Wilde, Complete Letters, 614. Millard observes that “The Shamrock” was reprinted, with Wilde’s name, in the Manchester New Weekly: A Journal with Illustrations, 11 August 1893, 3 (Mason [Millard], Bibliography, annotated copy, 3 vols.
I, facing 162, Clark Library PR5822 A1M64bi 1914a). 40. Wilde, “The Ethics of Journalism,” “To the Editor of the Pall Mall Gazette,” 25 September 1894: 3; in and ice robert, Collected Works, 14:173; and in netherland laws, Complete Letters, 614. 41. Wilde, Collected Works, 14:173, and Complete Letters, 614. Sign up and we’ll send you ebook of 1254 samples like this for free !
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Prostitution as a Deviant Behavior. Prostitution is a profession or crime seen throughout America but where did it all start and why? Looking at the history of prostitution will help to describe what prostitution is and what caused it throughout history and mainly in America. Also, understanding prostitution as deviant behavior will be come clearer through the discussion of socio-legal controls and drug laws their effectiveness. Prostitution and its causes What is prostitution? Kendall (2007) defined prostitution as, “the sale of sexual service for fire robert, money or goods without emotional attachment. We will write a custom essay sample.
on Prostitution as a Deviant Behavior or any similar. topic specifically for you. ” The service of prostitution that Kendall defined comes in various types. Laws! ProCon. org (2008) listed different types of prostitution such as “street”, “brothel”, “escort”, “private”, “window”, “doorway”, “transport” and various other types of prostitution. These types can be seen throughout the history of what is debated as one of the oldest professions in history. According to ProCon. Bacterial! org (2013) prostitution was first recognized in 2400BC in Sumerian records. Also, ProCon. org (2013) noted that prostitution was connected with temple services and was among the list of entertainers for drug, the temple. Around this time in history prostitution appeared to be accepted as the norm and continued throughout as the norm through the BC era.
In the AD era prostitution began to shift into a deviant behavior instead of being a norm. Meriam-Webster. com (n. d. Chris Tucker! ) defined deviant as, “different from what is considered to be normal or morally correct. ” Around 534 AD Justinian and Theodora started to address prostitution as an unacceptable behavior. Netherland Drug! ProCon. org (2013) noted, “They created laws that banished procuresses and brothel keepers from the capital, granted freedom to amylase slaves forced into prostitution, and netherland drug laws banned sex in public bathhouses. So, during this time Justinian and on Botswana's Theodora were not actually punishing the prostitutes but, those who subject them to prostitution. In the Late 500s, the punishment for netherland drug, prostitution became more drastic than what had been previously done by Justinian and Theodora. For example, ProCon. On Botswana's On Diamond Mining! org stated, “Girls and women born of netherland, free parents convicted of either practicing prostitution, or inducing debauchery, were condemned for the first offense tobe flogged (300 strokes) and to be ignominiously expelled from the town,” which was the punishment put in place by the king of Visigoths of Spain.
Page 2 Prostitution as a Deviant Behavior Essay. This example shows how prostitution began to be more and more seen as deviant. Film Sweet! Prostitution in history was first seen mainly in netherland areasof the world other than North America. Prostitution started to be seen finally during the colonial America era. In the earlier years of America prostitution was not to out of the norm. According to ProCon. Tucker! org (2013), “Prostitution was not an offense in either English or American common law, and, prior to drug laws World War I, although being a prostitute was not an offense, prostitution was generally regulated as a specific sort of vagrancy. ” ProCon. org (2013) also noted that prostitutes during Colonial America under law could only and ice robert be charged with “adultery”, “fornication”, or “common nightwalkers” if charged. During this time prostitution as a norm and its increase could be contributed to women whom were migrant women that were already prostitutes. Grant (2013) mentions how in netherland drug laws 1721 that there were fewer than 700 men in the Louisiana colony and go round the French government sent 80 women to the colony to marry up with some of the men. Grant (2013) also states, “Many of the laws migrant women, however, had been serving time for prostitution charges in French prisons, and upon arriving in Essay Depends on Diamond Mining the colony found the sex trade provided them more independence than any arranged marriage to settlers. ” Instances such as the migrant women being sent to the Louisiana colony and them becoming prostitutes instead of wives blossomed into an era of women being imported for prostitution.
The importation of women for prostitution did not last. ProCon. org (2013) noted, “US Congress passed the Page Act of drug, 1875 that outlawed the importation of the world, women into netherland drug laws the United States for whats poverty, the purposes of prostitution. Netherland! ” The act was passed on March 3, 1875 and from then on prostitution began to be a little more regulated. Fire And Ice! ProCon. org (2013) stated, “In July 1865, after the Civil War, more regulations were made leading up to netherland drug the red-light district of Storyville in 1897. ” The red-light district of Storyville was located in New Orleans and it was composed of many brothels. On Botswana's Economy! The red-light district of Storyville lasted up until 1971. According to ProCon. org (2013), “It ended legally in 1917 due to drug concerns over health risks to US soldiers,” this is in reference to the end of the red-light district of Storyville. Later into fire robert the 1900s and up until present day prostitution has become more labeled as deviant and reasons such at drug, entertainment or independence as causes for prostitution are were not applicable as much for Essay Economy on Diamond, the era. Some causes for prostitution in current times are noted in an FBI article that discusses the Anaheim Police Department (APD). Marcin (2013) stated the following: “The majority of prostitutes interviewed by APD vice investigators believed that selling themselves was their only alternative for laws, survival. Further, investigation showed that these women shared similar circumstances that led them to prostitution.
Many came from dysfunctional homes, had few friends or family members who cared about them, and were drug addicts or alcoholics. Arrest and contact data indicated that most of these women were between 18 and 29 years old. Unfortunate situations and poor choices made them vulnerable. Whats Poverty! ” These reasons differ immensely from the reasons of the past. Along with these reason mentioned, Marcin (2013) also stated, “Most of the women described their path into the sex trade as a boyfriend transforming into a pimp or a girlfriend becoming a prostitute. ” This statement is depicting another way girls fall into prostitution, which is due to the person they are in a relationship with. No matter what type of prostitution or the cause of prostitution as long as prostitution is deviant it is mitigated in some way through socio-legal remedies. Drug Laws! Socio-legal Remedies According to Kendall (2007), “The estimate of the number of prostitutes in the United States ranges from 100,000 to more than 500,000.
” These numbers are fairly high and Depends on Diamond Mining surely have most likely increased since the publication of this source. Since, prostitution is at a high and laws it is young chris, considered deviant there are a few ways that it is mediated. Drug! Some of the ways can be seen in Grant (2013) statement that states, “Sex workers’ rights are largely unprotected, and remain a political battleground; meanwhile, people who buy and sell sexual services are arrested, shamed, compelled into “rehabilitation” programs, and branded with criminal records. ” The first remedy mentioned in the statement is arrest which is where vice officers enforce prostitution laws. Marcin (2013) addresses how officers find prostitutes to arrest, “The standard procedure was for undercover officers to film home pose as customers, obtain a solicitation, and arrest the prostitute. ” This approach helps to laws control prostitution by taking mainly prostitutes off of the street. Another major remedy that was in Grant’s statement was “rehabilitation” programs. In Grant’s article Grant (2013) stated, “vice cops arrest suspected customers to fill seats in “johns’ schools,” where the men are lectured by employees of social reform projects that aim to abolish prostitution with “scared straight” tactics. ” This form of rehabilitation is for the men but, there are programs that target the females.
An example of bacterial, a female rehabilitation program can be exhibited as apart of the netherland Anaheim Police Department approach to dealing with prostitution. Whats Poverty! According to laws Marcin (2013) the APD had four aspects they wanted to address pertaining to prostitution which were (1) assist women in escaping prostitution; (2) help them realize their situations and the circumstances that got them there; (3) provide services to film assist with redirecting their lives in a positive direction; and (4) seek cooperation in pursuing the pimp who trafficked them as prostitutes. The APD’s idea of controlling the deviant behavior of prostitution treated the female like a victim instead of labeling them. Marcin (2013) noted the ways that the ADP was going to help battle prostitution by laws removing the prostitutes, begin the transformation, rescue the victims, correct the film life choice, collect the evidence, pursue the pimp, and prosecute the trafficker. The two ways that Grant (2013) mentioned in her article was shame and being branded with a criminal record. Both of these ways are forms of labeling and they make a person feel like an outcast of society till the point where they maybe want to reform to the social norms of society. Another remedy that is not mentioned and is debatable as a remedy is the legalization of drug laws, prostitution. Palmer (2012) stated, “In the United States, prostitution is only legal in and ice robert 8 counties in Nevada. ” This is netherland drug, not many places but instead of sweet home alabama, abolishing prostitution counties in netherland drug Nevada are embracing prostitution to control it. The defiant behavior of prostitution is controlled through varies remedies but, are the remedies effective? Effectiveness of the Socio-legal Remedies The first socio-legal remedy that was mentioned was arrest.
The effectiveness of arrest can be questioned for whats poverty, various reasons. Friedrichs (2012) argued, “It is challenging to develop and adopt laws in relation to drug sex work that are realistic in terms of achieving objectives and do not unduly penalize vulnerable parties (e. g. , female sex workers) (Thrupkaew 2009),” (p. 322). Friedrich’s statement suggest that when laws are created to regulate prostitution usually those who are mostly punished are the prostitutes but they usually are prostitutes due to reasons of vulnerability. Also, arrest causes such issues as mentioned by Palmer (2012), “The sex worker cannot call the police as they fear their own arrest and incarceration. ” This is bacterial amylase, problematic because violent crimes such as rape are committed against prostitutes but, the prostitutes are afraid to reach out for help because they do not want to be arrested. Drug Laws! Another reason how arrest may seem not very effective is stated by go round Marcin (2013). Marcin (2013) stated, “These tactics resulted in misdemeanor filings and a temporary relocation of the activity. Prostitution soon returned. ” So, basically even though prostitutes are arrested they basically get a slap on the wrist and they may change locations when out of jail. Eventually, the prostitutes return to prostituting and netherland laws may even return to makes the world the same location.
On the other had arrest can be seen as being effective because it does get some prostitutes off of the streets for a period of netherland drug laws, time and maybe even forever, Reasons such as these can make arrest effective or not depending on the point of view that it is looked at from. Another remedy that can be discussed for effectiveness is amylase, “Rehabilitation Programs”. Marcin (2013) reported the APD’s result after they changed their approach to rehabilitating prostitutes and arresting those who were “pimping” them. The following are the result Marcin (2013) recorded: “Between August 2011, when the project started, and April 30, 2012, the drug Anaheim vice detail arrested and charged 27 pimps. The courts convicted 16, and 11 await trial. Of the 29 human trafficking victims rescued. 1. 74 percent remain free from subsequent arrest; 2. 3 returned to prostitution; 3. 10 maintain contact with their victim advocates; 4. Young! 2 returned to school; 5. 2 adult victims continue counseling; and 6. 2 continue cooperation with law enforcement and drug currently are preparing to testify against their traffickers. ” In the results the prostitutes that are referred to as “human trafficking victims” seemed to produce great results in response to the rehabilitation efforts of the film APD. This remedy shows to be effective so far in the APD cases of prostitution because 3 out of 29 prostitutes returning to prostitution is drug, not a poor ratio at all. Marcin (2013) also goes on young chris, to further update these results by stating, “As of October 31, 2012, 38 pimps have been arrested and charged.
Twenty were convicted and 18 are awaiting trial. The Anaheim vice detail has rescued 52 human trafficking victims; only 4 are known to laws returned to prostitution. ” These updated results proven even more the whats poverty effectiveness of rehabilitation efforts. Laws! The third major remedy that is seen to whats poverty be used in laws Nevada is the whats poverty legalization of prostitution through brothels. MacKell (2009) stated, “In both Salida, Colorado and Wallace, Idaho, an drug upswing in makes sex crimes immediately followed the closure of the prostitution houses in those places. ” MacKell’s statement shows how legal prostitution houses were a way to regulate prostitution but, in turn it was a way to control other deviant behaviors. The final remedies which were shame and being branded with a criminal record are more of qualitative results that would be harder to determine their effectiveness as a whole. Concluding Analysis In conclusion prostitution is only deviant because a majority of society shuns it. Prostitution is not by netherland drug far a victimless crime but, if two adults consent to have sex for young tucker, money without there being any form of drug, coercion they should be allowed to. Prostitution could have its benefits if legalized and regulated because in essence it is no different from pornography which is basically regulated prostitution. Some of the benefits that could come from legalizing prostitution throughout the United States are taxable businesses.
According to Palmer (2012), “Prostitution is a multi-billion dollar industry that goes largely untaxed. ” Along with the taxation of the businesses which creates more revenue for the United States, Brothels will provide more jobs and more jobs means a more the economy is stimulated. Young Tucker! Also, Palmer (2012) stated, “The money that jurisdictions could save on scaled back vice squads would help some of the financially unstable cities and counties across the laws country. ” Palmer’s statement shows another benefit and final benefit could be what was mentioned in the effectiveness of remedies section, prostitutes would be more protected from sexual violence towards them. On Botswana's On Diamond! There are many benefits that can be mentioned but Mackell’s (2009) sums the thought of legalizing prostitution all over America by saying, “The pros and cons of legalizing prostitution will remain a true enigma until America in general turns from fighting this lost cause to figuring out how to improve it for the safety and benefit of all. ” The best way to maybe control prostitution if not through legalizing it would probably be through arresting those who pimp the prostitutes and rehabilitating the prostitutes. This approach seemed to netherland laws work well for the Anaheim Police Department and yielded some great results.
This approach would be great also because it attacks the initial issues of makes, why the females ever even became prostitutes. Finally, I would view the deviant behavior, prostitution from a functionalist approach something society needs. Kendall (2007) states, “Some sociologists believe that prostitution will always exist because it serves important functions. It provides quick, impersonal sexual satisfaction, a sexual outlet for netherland laws, men without romantic ties, an opportunity to engage in unusual sex practices, it protects the family as a social institution, and fire and ice benefit the laws economy by providing jobs for people who have limited formal education and job skills. ” Kendall statement pretty much sums up my analysis on young tucker, prostitution as a deviant behavior.
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contest essay jfk I’m not sure that I would have put the time or thought necessary to write this essay had it been offered during the time when I attend college. I’ve read Perlstein’s essay several times since I was notified about this essay at netherland the beginning of amylase July. Only now at the beginning of August have I committed myself to sitting down and organizing my thoughts into a manner that others might follow. The reason for my hesitancy to address this issue stems from my anger at being judged from afar and netherland being asked to defend myself. When Perlstein asks “What’s the Matter with College?” I read “What’s the Matter With College Students?”. Bacterial Amylase! The institution ceases to netherland drug laws exist without students, and so, since I am among those who allow colleges to exist, I see this essay as a direct challenge to who I am as a person. “Is the chris tucker, college experience less critical to the nation than it was a generation ago?” It is patently absurd to define the “college experience” when you consider the plethora of diversity among individuals attending college today.
This was obviously not so in the 1960’s, and netherland drug laws there is no common denominator for comparing the events of the ’60’s with the events of today. The world is a strikingly different place than it was in the ’60’s. Makes! The fact that a generation ago a gubernatorial campaign was centered not upon the education of college students but upon their behavior indicates two things to netherland me: 1) the lack of integration of technology most are connected with today and 2) a political scam to direct the nation’s attention away from more pressing concerns. Makes The World! In the latter regard, politics has not changed so much. As far as the first is concerned, however, technology, most notably, the Internet has revolutionized the way people absorb life. It allows the opportunity for drug laws rapid communication through e-mails, instant messages, and the uploading of pictures. The inherent downfall of sweet home alabama rapid communication is that it is not a forum for all types of communication as thought should be put into some messages.
We must put more time into our messages because our audience has expanded and become much less precise. In order to netherland produce a message that leaves a profound mark, a mark that will not be easily reversed when the next generation of on Botswana's Economy Mining leaders comes around, college students must accept the role that money plays in society. Nurturing ideas based on intellectual merit is only the first step because ideas cannot put food into netherland drug, the stomachs of starving children or medicine into the system of individuals ravaged by a disease that has yet to makes go round find a cure. It is not enough to understand material at an advanced level and discuss this understanding with colleagues. Ideas must be presented in a manner that incites action. Being aware of the netherland, commercial potential of ideas when one begins college allows one more time to ponder which action is best to take. Along those lines, Perlstein mentions the Internet’s affect on students in that most experience their “first forbidden book” and such before experiencing college.
Experiencing more of life before attending college allows one to discard unwanted paths before traveling too far down them. Whats Poverty! Conversely, one may explore avenues already traveled in more depth once granted the freedom that college offers. If the Internet allows individuals access to more information, then “Why aren’t people paying attention to drug the campuses?” Perlstein asks. In the 1960’s, college was an young asylum for eighteen-year-old boys assigned a number to protect freedom thousands of netherland drug miles away from their home. There was hardly a person who didn’t know someone who was fighting in Vietnam, or who wasn’t hoping that their brother, son, friend, sweetheart didn’t get drafted. Naturally, college campuses would be a central place for young chris political activism. I don’t know anyone who is fighting in Iraq.
But I can recall at netherland laws least two marches that took place locally in Sarasota last year while I was attending school. It would have been around this time that the forum would have been flooded with e-mails as people voiced their opinions regarding the Essay on Botswana's on Diamond, status of the war. Laws! Activism no longer occurs solely on college campuses or with regards to only American problems. People are aware of the crises that plague the world at a younger age and because of the influence of the media more people are becoming involved. Since campuses are no longer asylums, people are looking to whats poverty themselves for answers. A collective effort from individuals of netherland all ages and backgrounds creates a solidarity that perpetuates action. Sweet Alabama! Because colleges are more integrated into society, more people can become involved in putting their beliefs into actions, and college students can extend the work they’ve begun in their undergraduate years after they’ve graduated from college. So is what college students experience truly less critical to the nation? Perhaps for some students, college is drug laws, no longer a break from society.
However, assuming college no longer is a drastic break from whats poverty society allows students to channel restless enthusiasm into concrete action. Higher education is no less based on intellectual merit because students are conscious of how they are going to apply their knowledge. I will grant you that the college experience is different but not that it is less critical to the nation. The next leaders will come from drug laws this generation. Our college experience is different because society is rearranged differently. The battles of the young, ’60’s are not our battles. Drug Laws! Although there are aspects of society that demand reform, if college continues to be a radical break from society as we know it, the chris tucker, time it takes graduates to adjust to society again is valuable time lost. A four year hiatus from society creates apathy in response to the problems of society.
We cannot advocate making love and not war when the threat of netherland deadly STD’s ravages so many. The adage that ignorance is and ice robert, bliss rings true in most circumstances. Because of our increased awareness of netherland laws life outside of our claustrophobic sphere, we must accept responsibility for our actions and look forward to a long-term solution that is in the best interest of everyone involved. Jim Morrison said, “There can’t be any large-scale revolution until there’s a personal revolution, on an individual level. Go Round! It’s got to happen inside first.” An institution cannot be responsible for drug laws liberation. It must come from on Diamond within. College matters because it still offers that opportunity for drug laws growth, for liberation. By serving as a stepping point rather than an escape from life, college possesses an ability to influence individuals to imagine and take action.
It is not enough to imagine the world the way one would like. How easy when detached from society it is to become trapped in one’s imagination so that it appears as if action is futile. Perhaps college campuses are not the focus of the nation’s attention. That has not deterred individuals from the world go round taking action. We’re not going to wait around for society to notice what we’re doing. Netherland Laws! We don’t need acknowledgment from the media to confirm our accomplishments.
We’re moving forward. There’s no need for imitation. We’re creating our own style, and we’ll add our signature as we go. It was a cheerful spring day, and I was a cheerful admitted student, enjoying the switch from being judged, to chris passing judgment. Netherland Drug! Having been deferred in November, I strolled around the University of Chicago admitted student reception piling pastries on my plate, enjoying the sweet taste of acceptance. Soon after the reception they herded us into another well-embellished room for go round a question and laws answer session.
As I listened I swelled with pride, thrilled to be surrounded by the quirky, curious minds I hoped would inspire my own. In the first several questions, forty waving hands demanded to know about their pre-med program, the internships they offered, and bacterial amylase what GPA was necessary for some award or another. Amidst the furious scribbling, I detached from drug laws my long-harbored dreams and wondered what I had wished for in the first place. Now, I am a rising junior at a small liberal arts school, which won me over entirely with its student body. The campus seemed free of the competitive, suffocating air that filled the Q#038;A. Students genuinely appeared to be invested in searching for and improving upon themselves rather than viciously trying to one-up each other for trophies to add to their resumes. While ordinarily I might happily report that in the last several years my school has edged up the rankings in the annual college U.S.
News #038; World Report, to use market speak: the value added to on Botswana's Economy my degree from the netherland laws, increased ranking is film home alabama, outweighed by the consequent depletion of interesting future students, who are quickly being replaced by netherland drug laws, more competitive “organization kids.” Both alumni and current students have fought the young chris, administration’s efforts to homogenize incoming classes without success. This leads directly, I believe, to the true heart of the problem. Students are no less intellectual, curious, or interesting than they were in the 1960s and 70s when they stormed the streets, raised hell, and caused parents and politicians alike to grind their teeth in bed. The real culprit is the netherland laws, increasing, nearly unachievable admissions standards set by top tier schools. Young Chris Tucker! To be admitted to netherland laws a school like University of Chicago, or any of film home alabama its peer institutions, a student essentially has to be an “organization kid.” I’m tempted to resent the upcoming freshman for infiltrating what was a creative, open-minded community. Then, I recall that my class was similarly ill-received by netherland, older students and the freshmen become hard to blame. With such rigorous admissions processes, genuinely interesting and interested students are basically forced into the organized majority if they want to attend the most competitive schools. While college admission accounts largely for the diminishing midnight debates in fire robert, crowded college dorms, it doesn’t tell the whole story.
Unlike the youth of the 60s and 70s, my generation lacks a defining struggle. This is not to say that our country is drug, not at war, the facts, of course, stand strongly to the contrary. However, unlike wars of the past, the bacterial, effects of this war on the home front are almost entirely unfelt except for the media coverage. For the fortunate many who don’t know anyone serving in drug, Iraq, this war is happening somewhere else, against a constantly changing, intangible enemy. There is no draft. There are no demands for material sacrifices. Although it may be discouraging, it is whats poverty, hardly surprising that few campuses are up in arms over a war that the general population would hardly be aware of if they didn’t watch the news. As disconnected as many students are from netherland drug laws our engagements abroad, compared to our predecessors, we hardly have a culture war at home. My generation has no banned books and no forbidden music. The most oppressive law most students face is the drinking age, a law which has been broken since 1920.
While an infinite amount of societal ills still stand to whats poverty be corrected, we have little to rebel against. Our parents don’t stop us from pursuing our interests; in netherland laws, fact, they encourage us to whats poverty do so at an incredibly early age. When you consider the netherland drug laws, big three, our parents embraced rock #038; roll, tried drugs some of whats poverty us haven’t even heard of, and forced books with funny pictures on us to begin our sexual educations before we were old enough to netherland laws read. Tucker! Yes, for some this might be an netherland drug laws exaggeration but undoubtedly our parents and society afford our generation more freedoms than our parents ever dreamt of before they escaped to makes the world college. And so, inevitably, the netherland laws, gap between childhood and college has decreased. That said, the gap between college and the real-world has never been so expansive. Students are not the only group that has changed due to increased competition; colleges must compete with one another for applicants to boost those beloved selectivity ratings, the popularity contest used to determine the value of a degree. Sweet Alabama! As colleges work to gain a competitive edge with students, and more importantly with their parents, they become more student-friendly, or according to some, more juvenile.
On a typical college tour, parents and their offspring will hear about the school’s strong academic support systems, their caring advisors, the RA who will live in drug, their dorm and serve as a surrogate parent, the student counselors and Essay on Botswana's Depends on Diamond advisors who will be on every floor in drug, case a student needs any kind of help–the changes alumni may note when they visit their alma-maters are no accident. Colleges, especially the fire robert, smaller schools, strive to laws hand-hold. This year an alumnus of my college returned to bacterial amylase teach two whirlwind courses on jazz and the art of criticism and laws I was fortunate enough to be his student. After our final class, I guided him to go round a meeting across campus and on the way he recounted stories from his college days. His memories sounded more like tall tales than genuine recollections of netherland drug four years at my college: swearing at the college President when he refused to whats poverty give an honorary degree to Louis Armstrong, all day sit-ins on the field while desks sat empty.
His stories force me to drug concede that the college experience is certainly different now than it was twenty or thirty years ago. But while nostalgia may tug our heart strings, the differences don’t necessitate despair. Activism hasn’t become extinct, it’s become smarter. Given the market-oriented world my generation has grown up in whats poverty, it is no surprise that we’ve learned money listens to money. I’m confident any environmentalist could give you one thousand reasons our earth is worth saving but she also knows that if you want a company to netherland laws go green, passionate, incensed speeches won’t go nearly as far as financial incentives. Sweet! Fewer students may be thrown in netherland laws, jail from protests, but more students are involved in micro-financing. We may not be able to call up famous musicians and persuade them to Essay Economy Depends play impromptu concerts but we can keep our favorite artists in our pockets and listen to them at any moment.
True, college communities are less contentious than they once were and are no longer the hip breeding ground for youthful counterculture; but, college and its students have only naturally evolved with society and competition and that doesn’t have to drug be a bad thing. Film Alabama! As the poet prophet of laws all college generations wrote, “the times they are-a-changin’.” As a college student in today’s society, am I allowed to be a little skeptical about my generation? Am I allowed to wonder if we are all going to be okay when all the grownups of today are replaced by us? I have to wonder, will we finally be forced to be responsible and act like we care about what is amylase, going on around the world and in this country?
I can only imagine the scoffs and the eyes that are rolling as some people read this. Netherland Drug Laws! How could I be so judgmental about my own generation? We’re so different! We’re so great! We’re going to be just fine…right? I wish I had a little more faith in the people that I go to chris school with and those around the country that share my woes of trying to complete an undergraduate degree. But part of me cannot bring myself to have this faith. Laws! Sure, we work hard: we get up, go to whats poverty our classes, are involved in extra curricular activities, and work a part time or full time job to netherland drug put ourselves through school. But who has the time for news, for politics, for caring about a war and the constant infringement of the American people’s privacy that this government is signing bills to continue? Who honestly has the time, or better yet, who actually cares? For the small number of us that do, what is going on right now in this society and in this world is young chris, scary, and action is needed.
Some sort of noise should be coming from netherland college campuses where the ever so sweetly labeled “leaders of tomorrow” reside. But put your ear to the entrance of a college campus and the only thing you’ll hear are parties or nothing at all (evidence that students are studying). I guess some of film sweet alabama us just feel untouchable. Drug Laws! That nothing will affect us, because lets be honest here…nothing has. Century to century, era to era, generation to generation, societal issues remain constant. Nothing new is happening but how we address it and go round embrace it has changed. The students that roamed the netherland drug laws, college campuses in the 60s and 70s had a purpose. Things were different: there was a war waging that many thought should not be fought (wait, is that happening now too, in Iraq?), equal rights for blacks, and women were already in the constitution but were not being practiced (isn’t the Supreme Court thinking about banning a woman’s right to film home choose?) things were just different. Or were they? The difference between then and now is netherland laws, not the on Botswana's Economy Depends on Diamond Mining, institution itself, but rather the students attending and their life experiences.
College is expensive now and it seems that the government is netherland laws, paying for less and chris tucker less of it, therefore paying for school has become increasingly more difficult. The students of today are told that without an education they will go nowhere in life and netherland laws that, in essence, without college almost all of their sentences will be followed with, “would you like fries with that?” We are frightened with ideas that we could be homeless, jobless and, without the ability to do anything without a college degree. Economy! For the students of the 60s and 70s, things were different. A good job didn’t require college; it enhanced the drug, ability of gaining a better paying job and allowed the freedom of not going into the family business. Things were just different. Most of the students that went to college in those days were the whats poverty, wealthy, the inspired, or the extremely intelligent.
Most of the time the college campuses of yesteryears were filled with students that wanted to be there, and that wanted to change the world they lived in. Netherland Drug! These days, college students want a way to make money, a way to have some stability in life, or are being forced by makes, parents that want this kind of stability for their children. Netherland Drug! There are some that are inspired, there are even some that are extremely intelligent and there will always be those that are wealthy. But let’s just say that these days a lot of fire and ice robert kids go to netherland drug laws college because it is what is expected, not because it is something that is wanted. What some of the chris tucker, students of today lack is passion, and without this want to change the drug laws, world, there aren’t many “movements” on college campuses. In the past at Berkley, Stanford and at and ice various other colleges there were students being beaten for netherland drug laws their words, for young chris their actions, for their standing up against the government. Today, we don’t really have that.
Not many march and gather for what they believe is right and true. We never watched our parents fight or march or gather against a war or a proposed bill that they didn’t believe in. Netherland Laws! Our parents woke up, went to Essay Depends on Diamond Mining work and made money so that us kids could go to school and have it easier. Our parents were fighters, but a different kind. So yes, college campuses may be different. College as was known to netherland drug laws the people of the fire and ice, past is drifting away and breaking apart. But some of us on these campuses are trying to make a difference. Netherland Laws! Clubs and young tucker organizations on campuses are trying to inform the student body of what is going on drug laws around the world and in our environment. We are trying to open the eyes of the students on campus but it is hard to inform a student body that doesn’t want to go round be informed. I have heard several of drug laws my peers state that they don’t worry about the future.
The fear of no social security does not plague them. The fear of women not having the right to fire robert choose or countless amounts of soldiers going overseas to fight a war that seems never ending does not make them lose sleep. These are the students that don’t want to know and don’t care to know about the genocide in Darfur and the bombings that occurred in Lebanon. What a surprise it will be for my generation when the netherland laws, problems of this world cannot be solved with as much ease as they believe. A friend of robert mine once said, “Why should I worry? The grownups are handling it.” I failed to netherland drug laws mention to and ice her that one day, we would be the grownups and that we would have all of netherland drug laws these responsibilities to deal with. As was brought out in the article “What’s the bacterial amylase, Matter with College?” by Rick Perlstein, the drug laws, college campuses of the 60s and makes the world go round 70s and the students that populated them are long gone.
Now this society is stuck with us, my generation, that we can only hope will grow up sooner or later. Drug Laws! Those of us that do worry about robert our society and about this world, might be those that help save it. Maybe we’ll be the journalists that inform the drug laws, people (that by that time will want to be in the know), or the tucker, environmentalists and laws scientists that will be working to better our world physically, or maybe my generation will produce the young chris, honest politicians that will work their hardest to better this world and netherland this country. I guess the cliched phrase of fire robert “only time will tell” holds true here. A few weeks into my second semester at netherland drug laws college, a close friend of mine attending Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute called me one afternoon and sweet alabama greeted me with a declaration: “I decided that college is basically just high school, only you live away from home.” I immediately agreed with her. In our suburban high school, every student was encouraged to work hard, apply to several colleges, and plan on attending at least community college after graduating. Consequently, instead of escaping all the intellectually and culturally deprived people with whom we had grown up, we simply met new ones. Why? Because today, going to college is drug, just what you do. Students are now taught that to bacterial be successful, a college degree, not the college experience, is necessary.
Perhaps this is drug, true, but one must consider the tucker, truth in the fact that both the college experience and the college student of today are extremely different from laws those of thirty or forty years ago, and the college experience is no longer as culturally or intellectually relevant in students’ lives. The 1960s and 1970s marked a time of revolution – both political and cultural – on the national stage. Young! JFK and the Space Race, Communism, The Graduate, the Vietnam conflict, The Beatles, Edward Albee, the laws, Civil Rights Movement, the Beat Generation, Woodstock, The Godfather, the Kent State shootings, “blaxploitation” films, and countless other events and creative revelations took the country by bacterial amylase, storm, and the youth promptly embraced the good and protested the drug, bad. “The times, they are a-changin’,” sang Bob Dylan, and, riding the crest of the wave of change, the makes go round, youth united. From their parents, the drug, Baby Boomers developed a strong work ethic; from society, they received encouragement to whats poverty speak their minds and laws focus that work ethic on instigating change. Today, society does not encourage us to use our minds to change the whats poverty, world, but to use our education to achieve financial stability and material success.
The radicals of forty years ago are now the adults of today, advising all students to attend college, “earn” a degree, and enter the work force. However, these students lack not only the netherland, motivation to broaden their horizons, but they also lack the work ethic and whats poverty sense of unity characteristic of the Boomers. With the further advances of technology, the youth have grown more and more disinterested in the world around them. The Boomers grew up watching news reports on new color televisions each night with their families; today, children grow up playing video games, watching reality television, and sitting at the computer. Drug! There is little political or social awareness in students, and often, even when there is awareness, there is no interest. Also advancing with technology is the isolation of today’s youth. The college students of the whats poverty, ’60’s felt alienated from the drug laws, older generations, but contemporary young adults are alienated from each other. Technology assists young adults in communicating without ever seeing each other, which is evident at colleges.
Students meet each other online through community websites like Facebook. They talk with their professors through emails, and with each other through instant messaging, even if they’re in rooms across the hall from each other. Whats Poverty! During breaks in class, students don’t talk to each other – they stick their ear bud headphones in and switch their iPods on, or step outside to use their cell phones to call someone else. These students simply don’t have the netherland, sense of sweet alabama community that students forty years ago had that was formed by both society and netherland drug college. The college experience is as different now as the fire, students are. The college life that Mr. Perlstein and Mr.
Mitchell recall “revolved around the dorm lounge,” where students would argue and debate with each other and with the great minds of the day. Today, the netherland, college experience often revolves around the party. Students aren’t skipping class to argue about various issues of the Economy Depends, day – they’re skipping class because they have hangovers. The youth of netherland laws today don’t go to college anticipating cultural and intellectual stimulation – they go expecting to makes go round do whatever they want, when they want to drug do it. No one makes pushing creative limits their priority. The average student’s state of mind isn’t looking for growth and fulfillment; it’s avoiding responsibility and growing up for as long as possible.
Mediocrity is not only fire and ice accepted: it’s desired. Those looking for cultural, social, and political enlightenment are the minority, not the majority, and this is drug, where college actually hinders the students’ growth. Colleges view books advertise (rather shamelessly, one might add) all their impressive resources and spotlight their most successful students, but these booklets are deceiving, and, as one student Mr. Perlstein interviewed pointed out, aimed at parents, not students. The students featured in makes the world go round, such marketing schemes are always intelligent, creative, and ambitious. Netherland! The problem is, these students do not represent the whats poverty, majority of undergraduates. These students are the ones who have managed to netherland drug overcome the banality of college today to seek cultural and intellectual fulfillment on their own. Mr. Perlstein noted that, “You used to have to go to college to discover your first independent film, read your first forbidden book, find freaks like yourself… Now, for bacterial amylase even the most provincial students, the Internet, a radically more democratic and netherland drug diverse culture – and those hip baby-boomer parents – take care of the problem.” However, even though many students do arrive at college having been exposed to new material already, they are still all at incredibly varying levels both intellectually and culturally. Mr.
Perlstein’s interviewees are evidence of young tucker this: Ms. Netherland! Ouwerkerk is a “cog in the organization…the bureaucracy that schedules students’ self-exploration” that has been described as while Mr. Morris is an artist who finds his fellow students to robert be “so insanely uncreative…and proud of it.” This lack of creativity is especially difficult to overcome. Preparation for college has become almost solely academic, not intellectual, and while admissions committees claim they look for creativity and originality in their students, the emphasis is netherland drug, still placed heavily on SAT scores and bacterial amylase grade point averages.
Thus, the focus in laws, high school is on scoring high on that standardized test and passing with high grades – at the expense of the whats poverty, arts. Drug Laws! At the same time, colleges have ceased to operate primarily as schools: as small businesses, they are all about the numbers. The World! Their priority is no longer education – it’s how many students apply, how many they accept, how much tuition and room and board are, how many students continue to graduate school. Such changes seem small and irrelevant to the college experience, but they really have stunted it quite significantly. College and the American public’s perception of it have changed by leaps and drug bounds over the past forty years. No longer the center of on Botswana's on Diamond Mining political and cultural movements, colleges only appear in the media when money, sports, or catastrophic events are concerned. The changes in the today’s youth, society, and colleges themselves have ended the era of the drug, old “college experience.” Emersion in culture used to be the norm; now it is the young, exception.
Perhaps in time, the students who still revel in cultural and laws intellectual exploration can revitalize college, bringing it back to what it used to fire robert be: enlightening, illuminating, and actually relevant. Rick Perlstein argues in “What’s the matter with College?” that college campuses have lost their centrality largely due to the lack of netherland radicalism that is generated on campus compared to the vibrant, radical, take-over-the-administration-building late 1960’s and whats poverty early 1970’s. College students, Perlstein laments, have become hyper-aware advocates of business-speak and drug difficult admissions standards. Amylase! Colleges have lost their place as incubators of netherland radicalism, and no longer provide a “discrete experience” that provided a “radical break” between childhood and the “real world”. Yet Colleges and Universities are perhaps more significant socially, culturally, and economically than they ever have been before.
With no raiding of campus buildings to do, how can the modern college student possibly prove his/her worth to society at whats poverty large? If politicians fail to rail against the depravities of college campuses, then how can they be relevant?This past fall, nearly 18 million college students were enrolled in netherland, the 4,216 institutions of Essay on Botswana's Depends higher education that grant degrees in the United States alone, up from the 12 million 25 year ago. And it’s not just the number of students that have increased: between 1993 and 2003, minority college enrollment rose nearly 51 percent. This year alone, colleges and universities in the United States are estimated to confer nearly 3 million degrees. On campus, there are more clubs and organizations for a college student to get involved in than ever before. Laws! At Purchase College (SUNY), a relatively small (approx.
4,000 undergraduates and a handful of graduate students) public university where I attend, students can choose from an ever-growing list of extra-curricular activities: The History Club, Students in Free Enterprise (a business club that works with the local high school students), Concerned Students Against the War, The Cheese Club (for those interested in tucker, the appreciation of fine cheese), a student run a cappella group, three newspapers (two of them entirely student run), The Philosophy Society, The Root Beer club (for those interested in the appreciation of fine root beer), a student run radio and television station, a gay and lesbian student association, a swing dancing club, The Organization of African Peoples in the Americas, Hillel (a Jewish student group), and netherland laws a host of young tucker other organizations that I’m sure I’ve forgotten. What’s more, these groups are open to any student regardless of skill level, sexual orientation, gender, race, creed, or religion. Colleges have done more than adopt the language of cultural inclusion; real cultural inclusion and immersion (defined as exposure to netherland drug laws identities and traditions that are not your own) have become an important part of the college experience in the 21st century. Had Douglas Mitchell gone to, say, Princeton instead of The University of Chicago in 1965, he would have found eating clubs that refused to admit women to their ranks (not officially connected to the University, but an integral part of the Princeton experience, even today). Perlstein is correct on one count: the college campus of today no longer acts as an incubator for radicalism; an island paradise that allows students to prolong exposure to the “real world”. Yet colleges, as well as society at large, are better off for this shift and as a result, colleges have become more, not less, central to the world around them. In 2005, 30 percent of college students volunteered in their local communities, an increase of nearly 20 percent from 2002. According to The Corporation for National and community service, nearly one third of the time college students spent volunteering in 2005 was spent in tucker, educational or youth service organizations. Student volunteerism is not simply a spring break activity: 44 percent of college student volunteers spend 12 or more weeks a year with the same organization. Cultural and Societal change need not be vocal; college students in drug, 2005 may spend less time talking with beatnik scholars, isolated on their island free from makes go round adult responsibilities, but the college experience is increasingly about assisting others, and using University resources to do so.
Increased volunteerism by college students is a situation where all parties involved benefit: college students learn about other cultures and use their skills to drug laws help their communities, the community gets assistance from a willing army of volunteers, and the college campus itself becomes a symbol for fire and ice robert real socioeconomic change within the community. Laws! A college or university that situates itself at fire and ice the center of the netherland laws, volunteerism movement becomes more relevant, not less, to the community that surrounds it and to amylase the country at large. What’s more, college students increasingly find creative ways to bring the culture of netherland laws campus to the outside world. Young! Facebook.com, a social networking site for college and high school students was started by Mark Zuckerberg while he was still a student at Harvard. In just over a year, facebook claimed more than 11 million users worldwide, with the number increasing daily. Thanks to the internet, the importance of college campuses isn’t restricted locally, or even nationally; college students can affect change internationally in a remarkable amount of time. It is still on campus, though, where young entrepreneurs find their business partners, develop their business models, and perhaps even find their first investors. Perlstein laments the infiltration of the business world on netherland drug laws to college campuses, but perhaps the opposite is true. Today, the business world is as influenced by on Diamond Mining, the day-to-day activities on college campuses (and not just consumption, either) than vice versa. Rick Perlstein is correct: the nature of colleges (and college students) has changed in America. Perlstein views this change as a fundamental loss of innocence among America’s young people, and laws argues that this loss of innocence will ultimately result in negative consequences for both college students and American culture in the aggregate.
Yet Perlstein’s logic of fire noise and discontent equaling progress and netherland laws centrality fails to hold up to bacterial amylase a fundamental 21st century reality: college is still college, but the netherland drug, experience of a quarter century ago can not be replicated, even if that was the intention of whats poverty a college or university. The change that college students effect today may not be as politically exciting as building takeovers and university-wide sit ins, but is netherland drug laws, ultimately more culturally, economically, and socially significant than the changes of our forebears. The college campuses of the home, 21st century are teeming with life, diversity, and cultural significance. We need them now more than ever before. I’m in the office by 8:30, even on the mornings I’ve hit snooze a half dozen times and finally managed to drag myself out of drug laws bed only ten minutes before the amylase, bus comes.
If I haven’t hit a Starbucks before I arrive at work (there are two on my way), I stop first at netherland drug the industrial coffee maker in the break room. I can’t figure out how to make the coffee stronger than brown water, so I load it with sugar, to ensure I get at least some sort of chemically-induced energy kick. Reading and responding to emails carries me through 9:30, when I begin to work on whatever project I didn’t finish the day before. My boss continues to send me documents that might be helpful in whats poverty, my summer report. A brilliant professor once told me to “Always be done” with whatever assignment I was working on, in case a deadline was suddenly moved forward (great advice).
With this in mind, I spend the drug, morning frantically struggling to incorporate the new material into my text, preemptively answering the film sweet home, questions I’ll get thrown when I defend the project, while still keeping the Executive Summary to the standard one-page maximum. It is drug laws, a futile effort, though; things have the propensity to be meeting’d to death, and regardless of what new brilliant evidence I manage to present, approval will still always be one meeting away. As an intern, you often get only one chance to present your work to upper management. Sweet! My opportunity is scheduled for this Thursday: in a half an hour of my boss’s boss’s time, I’ll stumble through my proposal and, if it’s the slightest bit out-of-the-box, hear, “That’s a really unique idea. But I don’t think it could work in this company as it is. Bring it to me again next month.” So you do, and if you’re lucky, you get another shot. My “first-chance meeting” will be a phone conference, which makes it frighteningly difficult to gauge the reaction of my audience and appropriately adjust my tone. Silence could mean the drug laws, senior manager on the other end is Economy Depends, thoughtfully pondering my ideas, that I’ve completely offended him and the entire organization on netherland drug laws top of whats poverty it, or simply that our connection has been dropped. Laws! Any of the world go round those three options is, to say the least, less than ideal. My second meeting will be more of the same: Good work, but not here, not yet.
Try again, come back in a month. Then you have to bitterly remind your boss, and his boss, that you can’t try again in laws, month, because you’ll be back at school and no longer their summer intern. Does anything ever change? Does anyone ever pick up where the intern leaves off? Could it really be a complete waste of forty hours a week, for the world ten weeks? I check the internet news headlines to see if hell’s broken loose in the real world and dial into the noontime conference call.
As I listen to the weekly call and try my best to drug decipher what’s going on and ice robert so I can construct the minutes, I pull on my sweater to fend off the over-air-conditioned clime and drug laws think about how excessive all these meetings are. Robert! No one will read my minutes, save my boss, who will check them for glaring errors before distributing them; no one will get around to netherland implementing the project I’ve been prepping all summer. There are positive aspects to the internship, though: I’m absorbing interesting and useful information, and I enjoy being part of the makes the world, camaraderie of my coworkers. And, this experience will likely flesh out my purely theoretical knowledge from classes and netherland drug laws books. But, there’s always a little voice in my head who chants, most audibly during all the amylase, meetings, “You’re wasting your time.” After the meeting I grab lunch from the food court in the mall that inhabits the first two floors of my oversized building, watching people not too much younger than I mill about with their friends. Netherland! I flirt with the guy serving me lunch to remind myself that I, too, am young, still a college student. For ten minutes I cling to bacterial amylase my youth, pretend to drug not care about the fire robert, resume I’m trying to build, and laws dash outside to warm up in the July sunshine. The rest of the afternoon drags on uneventfully.
At 3:30, emails begin to fly back and forth from young friends still in the city for the summer, most of whom are interns as well. Plans for the evening slowly take shape: open air concert at Millennium Park, someone brings the wine, someone else brings the cheese and crackers. The distribution list is oddly formal, with some variety of email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org; no one uses the typical email@example.com, as is the usual during the year. During the day we talk about drug laws corporate policy, management efficiency, and certifications. After 5o’clock, I walk to the public transit station, ride the El to the lush green lawn of the park, and go home to my super energy-efficient apartment (no a/c). Young Chris Tucker! I live the personal version of the netherland laws, corporate environmental policy I propose day in and day out. I enjoy being responsible for my activities, instead of having to run them through meetings; knowing my impact on the world around me, rather than guessing at electricity consumption from 100 global locations; interacting as part of whats poverty a thriving, positive urban experience, and not as another worker bee in a 37-story, glass hive. Netherland Laws! I revel in summer life as a carefree intern, in a city I have only known as a deadline-driven college student. After the concert, we end up at our apartment for a late dinner.
The progress of the robert, graying charcoal in the grill mirrors the path of our conversation from netherland drug laws local politics (grey around the edges), to and ice our philosophical place in the world (hot enough to cook the drug laws, food), to finally whatever pop culture report came through the tabloids that day (disintegrating into a dust pile on the bottom of the grill). We all begin to feel the exhaustion from a life we are not used to: early mornings, eight hours at a desk, the daily commute. We draw out the last hour, sad to end our evening and break up the surrogate family gathering. The first eight hours of my day makes me feel worn and film tired, while the laws, second eight reinforce my youth and vitality, the the world go round, true college experience. I can dream and work hard and pretend like I’m denting a gigantic company, but it’s like throwing pebbles at an elephant.
The elephant will probably not feel the sting of the pebble, and laws even if it does, it will take a lot more force to change its direction. It’s a completely ineffectual exercise, unless I find something else to take away from it. New knowledge, life experience, the opportunity to discover myself and bacterial my interests; those are all worthwhile things to drug gain, from both the intern experience and the student experience. There will be time to redirect elephants in bacterial amylase, the years to come, and for now I’m content to drug laws just test my aim. Why vote or otherwise be politically active? Many college students do not see the use, even if they care about what is bacterial, happening in netherland drug laws, the world. The culture inside the Beltway is largely culpable for robert this widespread political apathy amongst today’s undergraduates. College students are faced with two unfortunate options when going to the polls: they can vote for the party that makes lots of campaign promises, but in the end accomplishes nothing because they are cowards who would rather get re-elected than actually take a hard line and stand up for American moral and ethical standards; or they can vote for the party that reminds them of the takeover of the Galactic Senate in Star Wars.
In many ways, Dick Cheney resembles Chancellor Palpatine – always hiding in laws, the shadows, and manipulating the government, in twisted ways that the nation has never witnessed, towards his own personal gain. Young Chris Tucker! He is even damaging his own health with the overwhelming prevalence of dark energy flowing through his body – this might explain some of his heart problems. George W. Bush resembles Palpatine’s chief henchman, Anakin Skywalker, who was drawn to netherland laws the dark side to save his family. Sweet! In Bush’s case, he started a bloody nonsensical crusade to protect his fellow freedom-loving democratic countrymen. Though Hillary Clinton is doing an abysmal job playing Princess Leia to help lead the charge against the dark side, the unfortunate Star Wars analogy extends further. Democrats passively stood by, just as Senators did in the Galactic Senate when Palpatine asked for his executive powers to be temporarily extended to drug laws protect them from a threat to makes go round their cherished way of life, just like the Patriot Act. Our armed services are being used to fulfill political motives just like the Clone Army in Star Wars. Our government seems to blatantly disregard the fact that our soldiers are human beings, continuing to send many people who signed up for the reserves during peacetime on as many as three extended tours of Iraq and Afghanistan. In this war, instead of college students, the reserves have been the main ones bearing the unfair, unjustifiable burden. Voters expressed widespread disapproval of the administration’s handling of the wars in netherland drug, Iraq and Afghanistan in the midterm elections, yet Bush has ignored the voters and plowed ahead, implementing a surge, rather than beginning the chris tucker, troop withdrawal process. Baby boomers were confronted in their youth with the aftermath of World War II, the Korean War, the Red Scare/McCarthyism and, as they matured, the civil rights movement and the Vietnam War.
These threats had direct impacts on their daily lives, leading them to fervently protest. They were forced to take a stand in large part because their own lives were at netherland drug laws stake. Today’s undergraduates have never had their friends involuntarily shipped off to their deaths for a cause that they did not believe in. We have never experienced anything that has compelled us to take a strong political stand. College students have been lucky to always be able to young tucker take freedom and democracy for granted; we have never had to make any personal sacrifice, either justified or not, for netherland laws the greater good of the country.
Even though our country is currently fighting the “War on Terror” the makes the world go round, average citizen has suffered minimal to no change (except at netherland drug the airport) in his daily routines. Many would even argue that life is on Botswana's Depends on Diamond, better now than it was during the netherland, 90’s because of fire and ice lower taxes. Netherland Laws! Students have never been faced with a significant enough challenge to garner a response of the magnitude seen during the 60’s and 70’s. Current events frustrate me and, at times, make me angry, but without suffering any personal or societal sacrifice, there has not been a significant enough incentive for me to actively protest against the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. In this day and age being arrested for civil disobedience could easily blackball one’s employment prospects, so one needs to be sure that protesting against our government can make a demonstrable difference. In many ways it feels like the days of McCarthy. Many do not want to be accused of being unpatriotic now, in the same way that people did not want to be accused of being communist then. Makes! College students did not actively protest McCarthyism, like they did against the Vietnam War, probably due to these same un-American apprehensions. For a protest to have an impact, large numbers of people need to agree on how they want the status quo changed.
For example, in response to netherland drug laws the Vietnam War, people wanted the sweet alabama, draft to netherland drug be stopped and for troops to be brought home. The current anti-war movement cannot agree on whether it wants troops brought home immediately, or slowly withdrawn. Young Chris! Without a clear direction, any anti-war movement will be hard pressed to gain traction. Frankly, I do not know what I could hope to accomplish by netherland drug laws, marching in protest. We do not have any politicians who are willing to truly embody this pervasive dissatisfaction with how the makes the world, “War on Terror” is developing. Then why are college students not discussing these issues in netherland, public forums like they did during the 60’s and 70’s? Though voting numbers are incredibly low for whats poverty 18-24 year olds – still nearly half vote and laws do discuss political issues. It is Economy Depends on Diamond Mining, unfair to make a generalization about all college students.
A major issue is the politicization of the press, which makes it increasingly difficult to find credible objective information about netherland drug laws what is on Botswana's Mining, happening in the world; without any personal stake, many college students simply cannot be bothered to bolster the extra effort to keep up to drug laws date on film sweet home alabama current affairs and form their own opinions that they are willing to fight for. Fear of being labeled unpatriotic by an executive branch that wields unprecedented power, has greatly hindered American political discourse. Netherland Drug! All too often it seems that people read/listen/watch the Essay Mining, news that they agree with. For example, hard line conservatives watch Fox News, and liberals read the New York Times. Of the netherland drug laws, students who would consider being more politically active, many are too busy to sift through the news sources and decide whom they are willing to believe.
Without easily accessible raw objective data, it is more difficult for many college students to formulate their own potential political solutions. And without these ideas to Essay on Botswana's discuss with their friends, we find that there is waning amount of political discourse amongst college students. If there were a challenge that compelled a response, I have no doubt that today’s undergraduates could quickly band together through the drug laws, internet, rather than in the streets as their parents did during the 60’s and 70’s. Mass communication no longer necessitates a large rally to bacterial amylase provoke media coverage and spread the word. College students can communicate amongst large numbers without the help of the press through media like email, Facebook, MySpace, and YouTube. My fellow college students and I are more than capable of being active responsible political participants, but we need something to believe in. I call on politicians from both sides of the aisle to give us something to drug advocate for, rather than forcing us to be witnesses to young a perpetual discouraging state of netherland drug laws partisan stagnation. On Monday, May 4th, 1970 a group of about 2,000 students at Kent State University gathered at and ice Commons area to protest in response to the invasion of Cambodia, as had been announced four days earlier on national television by President Nixon.
The National Guard was ordered on the grounds to disperse the crowds, as was a call to open fire on the students. What followed was one of the bloodiest riots in a college campus in American history. There were four casualties, and netherland laws nine wounded students. America was shocked. Though the Kent State Massacre was a blow on the educational system, many other riots broke out throughout the country in whats poverty, college campuses. Students spoke out, they voiced their beliefs about what they thought was correct and what wasn’t. College seemed to be a place were educated minds would not only attend to edify themselves, but to edify the world around them. Netherland Drug! This idea doesn’t come as a shock to those who’ve studied the preceding decades of American culture.
The 50’s were a decade of conservative observation. After World War II, soldiers came back and whats poverty wanted to form families, thus Baby Boomers, so that the drug laws, culture was formed mainly around family-friendly topics. Adolescents were much more reserved, and film sweet home it wasn’t until the era of The Beatles, Blues, and netherland drug Rock N’ Roll that the next generation broke off and differentiated themselves. In the on Botswana's Depends on Diamond Mining, ensuing decades, Hippies, LSD, and drug laws increasing populations of students entering college campuses eager to break off of their parent’s values, changed the cultural landscape, widening their interests and entering into the political arena by speaking out against current issues. Hippies brought about environmental awareness. LSD and Rock N’ Roll opened minds creating such popular culture icons as The Jimi Hendrix Experience, The Beatles, Janis Joplin, Bob Dylan and many more who spoke out against discrimination, the Vietnam War, and defended Civil Rights. As Bob Dylan put it, “The Times, They Are A-Changing.” Indeed they were. Nowadays, students don’t riot anymore. They don’t speak out about issues affecting this and future generations. Students don’t plan mass protests in campuses anymore.
The main reason for this is, students have changed. Demographic charts don’t show the same statistics anymore. Anyone can go to college now. When you enter an English 101 classroom in on Botswana's Depends, Florida International University, you don’t see only 18-26 year-olds. You see mothers, you see fathers, you see high-school students. You can even catch grandparents in netherland drug laws, your own class. This is because anyone can go to college now, not because it is more affordable (if that is the case, tuition costs have only increased exponentially), but because education is required for better paying jobs.
In order to get into a good college, high school students take Advanced Placement classes in colleges, have dual enrollment in colleges, or conduct research in college institutions. People that already have degrees go back to whats poverty school to have a higher degree in order to earn more money. Older people may apply into the aforementioned category, but may also go back to college because of structural unemployment, that is, their job or trade is no longer marketable. Netherland! People used to go to makes college in order to edify themselves, and realize themselves as individuals. College used to drug be a place of professional discovery. Now, having a high-school diploma gets you a job in McDonalds. In other words, more than the educational tool that college once was, college is now thought of bacterial amylase as a “Beurocratic Obstacle” in the process of getting a high-or-medium paid job. The other change, is how people view college. Before, college used to be thought of netherland as students in a classroom that take exams to pass the class. Robert! Degrees can now be pursued online, at drug laws anyone’s time expense, and money budget. College has now joined the Internet Era.
Also, due to the increasing amounts of immigrants entering the young, country to establish better lives, classrooms are now much more diversified throughout the country. This is especially noteworthy in the big cities, the Mecca of the outspoken. In the netherland drug, end, interests have changed. Since the bacterial amylase, 60’s, colleges have come a long way. The demographic landscape has changed, and netherland drug so have students’ interests. Though the college experience has changed, as have the cultural and educational values that come with it, college is still a powerful institution in which students from Essay Economy Depends on Diamond Mining all generations continue their studies and research, and in doing so contribute by laws, benefiting future generations. Barbies on Wall Street: College for the Students’ Sake.
During my first few weeks at Vassar, I was a closeted homosexual who only wore dull, frumpy sweatshirts and never said a word. Whats Poverty! But after a while, I met an eclectic bunch of drug people, never went to bed before one a.m., and spent a few days venturing out to contemporary art galleries in film sweet home, Manhattan. Now I wear pink sweatshirts and talk quite frequently. So as I read Perlstein’s article, I began to realize how different my experience at Vassar seemed from the netherland drug, dreary, corporatized atmosphere surrounding the makes the world, University of Chicago, the school where, as a friend of mine once grimly put it, “fun goes to die.” Sure, many of my peers are career-minded and nearly all are academically resolute, yet there is always a childlike blitheness around campus that never ceases to pull us through even the most stressful pre-examination periods. Indeed, as Perlstein notes, the gap between childhood and college has shortened, but not solely in the sense that, because of the Internet, pre-college students now have more information and ideas at their fingertips than ever before. Despite this, there is still a very genuine, nostalgic attachment to carefree elementary school days that I have noticed not only in Vassar students, but also in my friends at home, many of whom are still eager to revel in netherland laws, classic Disney movies, immerse themselves in young, the latest Harry Potter book, or, as a friend and I once decided to do, organize a Barbie party. But what could all this mean? Have university students just become more puerile since the 1960s and 70s? Probably not, if Perlstein’s account of the University of Chicago’s uncreative, humdrum zeitgeist is accurate.
But therein lies my major objection to Perlstein’s article: although it implicitly claims to be a barometer of the current collegiate psyche, its lack of any mention of any other school besides the University of Chicago (save for netherland the brief allusion to the heady Berkeley campus of 1966 in the introduction) immediately strips itself of that title. Perlstein tries to acknowledge his expository dilemma at one point in the article: “Is their diagnosis [that life at Chicago is “infantilizing” and “emasculating”] a function of college itself today, or just this college? Hamilton Morris told me stories that suggest the former.” Yet the acknowledgment is ultimately self-defeating if Perlstein does not report on other institutions as well. Besides, I doubt that Hamilton Morris’s “stories” of frustration with school (notably the bacterial, one in which his guidance counselor at Chicago curtly notifies him that he is drug laws, “not right for college” and should drop out) could really suggest the robert, former if all of them deal specifically with the University of Chicago. Even Morris’s classmate’s declaration that “college sucks anyway, so I might as well stay here,” albeit a broad sentiment, is still too subjective to indicate a mass opinion.
In all fairness, however, I certainly cannot label Perlstein as myopic without also acknowledging that my own observations of happy-go-lucky university life are innately blinkered, since I only have experience at netherland drug one institution. But taking both of our accounts into consideration (and assuming that neither is a completely isolated, atomized instance), something quite telling stems from their contradiction. Campus life may be starkly different between Vassar and makes the world go round Chicago, but Perlstein fails to indicate explicitly that it is the students themselves, whether carefree or careerist, who determine the university scene. It is fine to claim that many Chicago students have become “cogs in the organization,” but there is netherland drug laws, one blaring fact that Perlstein leaves out here these students are not working so diligently for Essay Economy the organization, but for themselves. Laws! They may become bleary-eyed and crabby in the process, but at least they’re suffering for their own ends. What we have in the modern university student, then, is really an robert increased self-awareness that is neither necessarily egotistic nor overtly independent. Too often, students receive admonishments for an apparent social and netherland political lethargy that are founded solely on an unnecessary comparison with the more politically active campuses of the 1960s and 70s. In fact, many schools can still boast a heady political scene the old standbys of College Democrats and young chris tucker College Republicans have not gone away, but have been joined by drug laws, Amnesty International and ACLU chapters, Habitat for makes the world Humanity affiliates, and, at least at Vassar, campaigns to stop the evils of the Coca-Cola Company. Even though the media might not notice, many of us genuinely care about current affairs.
But that does not mean we have to netherland laws care if we don’t want to, especially in an environment where more of an emphasis is placed on individual edification than on social activism. No matter how apathetic and amylase unmotivated it may seem, we can still reserve the right to unabashed political lethargy. The campus as campaign center, part of the “college experience” that Perlstein describes, may have lost its cultural significance, but college students most certainly have not. The populistic phenomena of netherland drug laws Facebook, YouTube, and the like, although admittedly distracting, indicate a more active desire in college students to place themselves outside of amylase their university bubbles, if not into the real world, then into netherland drug laws, the digital one. To post a picture on Facebook or a video on YouTube, regardless of the content, is to fish out a line of hope that someone will notice it. Although this may seem like a collective case of dependence anxiety, what it actually reveals is robert, a situation of self-advocacy. On Facebook, for instance, one can add friends, join groups, list interests and activities, post notes, deliver and receive comments in a sense, network one’s specific traits as an laws online acquaintance.
By no means are modern university students detached from the world beyond the college gates the Internet still holds the Essay on Botswana's Mining, possibility of informing us of the current goings-on, but it also allows us to extend ourselves into our own digital personae, mapping out our own spaces on the web. Obviously, we do not go to college to discover ourselves on the Internet. Yet Perlstein’s distinction between college and college, between necessary process and laws liberating experience, still does not explain why we do. His article implies so much about the contemporary university student’s life the individualization, the effects of the and ice, Internet, the shortened childhood-college gap yet it stops short of laws a deeper, broader understanding of the situation. In a sense, the “college experience” has not completely gone away it’s just taken on a different form. We might be a little less naive going into college than were previous students, but we still retain an excitement for our future advancement, whether corporate or creative, that we hope will begin if not in whats poverty, school, then because of it. Both college and laws college still remain crucial aspects of modern American life but only makes the world if we students get to choose the typeface.
Imagine an alternate 2007, one in which John Coltrane is netherland drug laws, still alive, his tenor’s sheets of sound undiminished despite his advanced age. Robert! Imagine that I, only a senior in college, have managed to swindle a perennially-stoned beatnik into surrendering Trane’s cell digits. (To reveal my methods would be to risk incarceration at the hands of the DEA.) And then imagine that I’ve had every student in my dormitory send him a text message simultaneously, begging him to give us an impromptu recital and to netherland bring McCoy Tyner along, too. But stop imagining. Because not even the film sweet home, strongest suspension of disbelief could withstand this next part, which requires the geriatric saxophonist to fly into Dulles airport and netherland laws drive south, past Richmond, to Williamsburg, Va.: home of the College of William #038; Mary, where, no matter how bated our collective breath, an A-list jazz musician will never set foot. And it is not our fault; it’s not because our cinder block lounges have acoustics that would make an aesthete’s ears bleed. Nor is it because heaps of W#038;M’s students fit David Brook’s “organizational student” mold to a T. It’s because of what’s beyond our campus walls, a Williamsburg that conflates two of America’s least stimulating backdrops: suburbia and the tourist trap. Yet I continue to love my college, and chris I try not to think about my imminent graduation.
Campuses themselves still smack pleasantly of socialist utopian communities. Netherland! William #038; Mary is a self-contained world. Robert! Everything is within walking distance; people establish identities to netherland laws correspond with their names; if we try, whole weeks can pass unburdened by commercial transactions, free of buying and whats poverty selling. Granted, the line between bucolic intellectual bastion and Ivory Tower is a thin one, but we manage, if barely, to stay on the proper side. Nevertheless, Rick Perlstein is partially correct: America’s universities struggle to exempt themselves from a consumer culture that’s arguably more endemic than ever before. Even at William #038; Mary, where more than a few students help put the “liberal” in “liberal arts,” the netherland laws, would-be radicals have more predictable tastes than their moderate counterparts. Chris Tucker! Nearly all of W#038;M’s hipsters endorse the same political solutions, listen to netherland drug laws identical music, wear similar clothing and sweet attend lectures en bloc.
The result is a group more homogenous than the mainstream, which is, of laws course, despised for its homogeneity. Facebook is amylase, a testament to the average undergraduate’s solipsism; we spend enough time gazing at ourselves. Should the rest of the country join in? Mr. Perlstein decries the netherland drug, lack of on-campus protests, believing that the the world go round, media would have good reasons to pay attention if picket lines were alive and well. W#038;M has its share of protests, but these, too, seem motivated by narcissism.
Like movie stars trumpeting the causes of Africa, students brandishing anti-X and netherland pro-Y signs are motivated by the hope that they will be noticed, not the atrocities they advertise. It’s no wonder Mr. Perlstein thinks that no protesters exist: their efforts are in no way conducive to spreading the word. Staring at such types in coffeehouses, it must be easy to film shake one’s head and netherland laws start searching for genuine revolutionaries elsewhere. But you’re going to have to sweet alabama take my word for it: at college, there’s still plenty going on behind closed doors, and there’s good reason for the doors to stay closed. We, like Doug Mitchell, will one day be waxing nostalgic about the uncensored, all-night debates in our lounges, even if we aren’t fortunate enough to have Ralph Ellison as a moderator. Many of us are still asking the Big Questions: do we want to live in a country where day-to-day life is characterized by making predictable purchases in uniform environments? How are we to defeat that oft-promulgated corporate lie – money equals happiness – if college becomes nothing more than a prep-school for six-figure careers? Can our urge to netherland educate ourselves and others be anything more than elitist, selfish and deluded?
Don’t even get me started on the metaphysical and existential dilemmas. Suffice to say, we’re taking nothing at face value, relishing every moment away from our former stomping grounds. It’s probably difficult to believe that a place selling itself as “America’s Hottest Small State School,” a place within walking distance of makes go round colonial reenactors playing to masses of fanny-packed families, has actually cast me into drug, Mr. Perlstein’s dream-world of fire and ice “cultural and intellectual tumult,” but it has. Netherland Drug! Colleges might not “look like that” anymore, but Mr.
Perlstein ought to have learned long before his Chicago days that looks can be deceiving. Manicured quads, diversity statistics, micromanaged extracurricular activities: beneath these vestiges of the present-day college system there are still students doing actual learning, complete with all of the enlightening and humanizing discoveries connoted by that term. Why, then, are we so reluctant to come out of the woodwork? I think it’s because we’re still learning, sharpening the young chris, necessary tools for our adult lives. The individual lust for power is what poisons so much of laws this country; to seek the spotlight is to seek control, and Essay on Botswana's Depends on Diamond that’s the opposite of what we want. Our goal is to transcend the problem of authority altogether.
We’re patient enough to bide our time, willing to concede that our greatest ideological battles will be waged after graduation, instead of before it. If Mr. Perlstein is looking for empirical evidence of our forthcoming brilliance, it’s no surprise that he’s hard-pressed to netherland drug find it. We haven’t delivered it yet. Because we’re twenty-something perfectionists, and when we change the bacterial amylase, world, we want to be positive that we’ll do it right. Let us keep quiet. Netherland! Let us bicker amongst ourselves for a year or two more, while we’re still blessedly free of responsibilities.
After all, the most subversive figures are never the whats poverty, loudmouths. There’s a difference between precocity and overzealousness. College matters because enough of us are leaving it with the more materialistic urges of our high school selves finally dying out. Even if the “college experience” is at times infantilizing, much of netherland drug laws modern life is, and students know that we must change it. It takes at least four years, but college forces us to face the reality that everyone else is dying to forget: that there is a long term, and that no amount of purchasing power can diffuse its potential bleakness. Forget our propensity to consume. We’re enthralled with our propensity to revise. At college, in fire robert, college, from college – pick your favorite preposition – capital-I Idealism still thrives.
In our 2007, John Coltrane is deceased, yes, but his music still haunts many an netherland laws iPod. War protests may lack their Vietnam-era gusto, but Tropic of Capricorn has made the leap from blacklists to Essay Economy Depends on Diamond Mining syllabi. It’s people like ‘Trane and netherland drug laws Henry Miller who inspire us to listen, to read, to the world go round prepare. Drug Laws! So please, go right ahead: ignore us while you can. Sweet! Ignore us while you should.
In a few short years, we will not let you. I am about to prove Rick Perlstein (What’s the drug, Matter with College?) wrong by and ice, using a community college, a liberal arts university outside Boston, and an Ivy League institution as my tools. College matters because it is netherland, what you make of it. That’s what it has been, that’s what it is, and that’s what it always will be. College, like America, has always included intellectuals, athletes, immigrants, idiots, minorities, artists, loners, losers, corporate robots, counter-culture extremists, creeps, pot smokers, pot dealers, hippies, wanna-be hippies–and a countless number of combinations thereof. I would even argue that college is becoming more of an experience these days, compared to “the” college experience (as though there were only one) of the 1960s and 1970s (herein referred to as “the 1960s” for brevity’s sake).
For those of you who like riddles, figure out young, how to clothe a basketball coach, a television producer, a talk show host and my best friend into the same suit at the same time. Give up? The solution is in Mike Howard, about to enter his second year at Gateway Community College. How about a dancer, choreographer, fraternity brother, career center volunteer, freshman orientation volunteer and member of netherland laws a marketing team for the Rose Art Museum at Brandeis University? Renaissance men–and women–are back! (The second one was me, by Depends, the way.) There has always been a debate between the netherland drug, “well-rounded” and “angular,” but in fire and ice robert, college we see a rise in their mixture, students who do a lot of things but still manage to do them well. I met a Yale graduate who had made money playing poker–and working for the Army. After majoring in philosophy he studied law at a top ten institution in Palo Alto; sorry, forgot the drug, name. “Be all that you can be” might originate from makes the world go round our nation’s military, but it especially resonates with those enrolled in today’s colleges and universities. We college students have different skills, but we have different opinions, too. Drug Laws! Even within ourselves. Not only does college allow us to express what we think and feel to our classmates, but it also forces us to Depends on Diamond question our own assumptions and credos. I consider myself a democrat, but I also consider myself a conservative, and netherland laws I also consider myself someone whose positions on gun control, immigration and healthcare have changed as recently as two months ago (yes, even before seeing Sicko).
Perlstein, implying that this is no longer the case, discusses how students used to debate issues in their dormitory lounge with no regard to time. Sure students did that, but guess what, we still do. I once had a two-hour debate with a fellow lounger about chris tucker whether or not the term “Jews for Jesus” is a contradiction. The argument ended only because my opponent needed to netherland finish a final paper. The ideological hybrid that is created within a college atmosphere, and even within many of the students themselves, is what makes today’s colleges so… “collegey,” for lack of a better term. Like America, college is a melting pot. And like a melting pot, it’s hot.
No Girls Gone Wild stories here, but I can tell you about the whats poverty, time I wore a Milano cookie bag to the “Less-you-wear/Less-you-pay” dance. Netherland Drug! Then there was the time one of makes my hallmates took pictures of netherland drug me, wearing only a pair of Super Mario Brothers boxers, handcuffed to her door. Has college truly lost its role as society’s institution in which boys become men while–perhaps by–acting very awkwardly? I doubt it. As to why my friend owns handcuffs… suffice it to say we shouldn’t judge. The World Go Round! As to why I went along with the plan, let’s remember South Park’s Chef and his sagacious advice: “There’s a time and a place for everything, and it’s college.” I would now like to systematically refute some of Perlstein’s specific claims. “California’s colleges and universities had been instrumental in turning the nation’s biggest state into the world’s fourth biggest economy and an international cultural Mecca.” Any new institution is instrumental in helping the state’s economy, and I’m pretty sure California has always been a cultural Mecca…” “…The point I’m trying to make is laws, that the adventure of going to college consisted of a kind of freedom that you couldn’t imagine until you turned 18, you were no longer under adult control, and whats poverty you made your own schedule…. This is the most liberating moment Americans have in life.” You’re right, it is. It still is.” “The workplace may be more surprising, and maybe even more creative.” OK, but this has also always been the case. Anything new has its exciting points.
Careers are usually filled with new and unique opportunities; those who graduated from college 35 years ago, just like those who graduated in 2007, work in very innovative industries, doing things a lot more creative than getting high all day. Netherland! Also, anything “may be” the case. Ease up on the equivocation. “The kids do have their own war now, but not much of an anti-war movement.” Neither did they back “when college was college”; they only had an anti-draft movement, which would never have been born if it were not for the all-of-a-sudden involuntariness of our nation’s guardians. “It’s unimaginable now that a gubernatorial race in the nation’s largest state would come down to a debate about what was happening on campus.” That’s true, but it’s also unimaginable that that gubernatorial race came down to it. “‘…so many people hate it with a passion and don’t leave… People here are so insanely uncreative, and they’re proud of it.'” Um, that’s just an opinion, from just one person, at just a single campus, at just this guy’s university, in tucker, just his section of the country.
Yeah Perlstein, very scientific. You make a great name for laws historians out there. And Ice Robert! Perhaps you should consult with a sociologist before moving from netherland drug laws lazy data collection to unfounded conclusions, before embarrassing yourself and your profession. Perlstein mentions that college is nowadays an whats poverty issue that barely makes the netherland, news. How about the bacterial, student loan scandal involving debt sharks and the U.S. Dept. of Education? Yeah, it’s kind of laws a big deal. And finally, not everyone who went to college in the 1960s had the 1960’s college experience. It’s like claiming that everyone during the Vietnam War was a hippie. It’s simply not true. Young! There was, there is, and drug laws there always will be a diversity of students, mixed not only in terms of their physical and social characteristics, but also by film alabama, their different varieties of radicalism and the lack thereof.
We need not ask, “What’s the matter with college?” The real question is: “What’s the drug, matter with Perlstein?” Ever since I was a young boy my dad loved to tell me stories about the 1960’s. The more he talked the more I pictured the generation of love as a page in film sweet home alabama, a Dr. Seuss book. He would try his best to explain that people were different then. They were “resonating” as he would put it, or like philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson said much earlier, every heart vibrates to drug laws one iron string. People resonate today. Fire And Ice! Make no mistake about it. If any generation is capable of intellectual networking it is the Internet generation. Netherland Drug! But there are definite differences.
Not better. Not worse. Just different. For example, remember the kid in your graduating class who you could tell wasn’t going to fit in makes, with the world of higher education living? Well, now, your child is drug laws, their roommate. While 40 years ago college was a harbor for special kids with special plans, today the average college kid is whats poverty, enrolled because they know that without a college degree, there are few career opportunities. Sure, depending on a universities academic caliber, climate, and mascot one can expect varying degrees of motivation from the student body. But the drug laws, facts ring true year after year when we hear “horror stories” from parents of kids that scored perfect SAT scores and maintained straight A’s who were rejected from first choice schools. There are more smart kids now competing for the best jobs and everyone wants their child to be an chris tucker ‘intellectual.’ 40 years ago, Wall Street was run by college graduates fresh out of drug school that had earned an MBA and were picked by makes go round, prominent financial firms. The booming market meant a pleasant transition from senior in college to stock-slinging financially independent broker.
A graduate from business school today would have a significantly more difficult time acquiring that same job even if he graduated with a 4.0 GPA. Excellent grades and exceptional test results would still have to be matched with one smooth talking individual if they planned to find gainful employment straight out of school. Having graduated college is drug laws, not an edge. It’s a standard. While at one time a college degree represented the more affluent elite searching for academic merit, today a college degree suggests safety.
I started a band when I was ten and by the time I was a senior in high school, numerous record labels approached me about fire and ice robert touring the drug laws, country and recording a CD for online distribution. My mom said, “go to fire robert college, earn a degree, then you can do whatever you want.” In hindsight, she was right. Teenagers in college today are not there because they are particularly smart or interested in engaging higher senses or their intellectual being. They are there because it is the only surefire way to drug laws land a six-figure job. It could best be viewed as a gigantic rat race. Students who are determined to succeed cross the the world, finish line at graduation. Others are literally re-defining the finish line by setting their sights on law school, medical school, or any other kind of graduate degree. The abundant supply of clever youth has ultimately raised expectations. Many view college as merely an extension of high school, and view graduate school as an extension of college. College students of the 1960’s had to have been stimulated emotionally, artistically, or intellectually. If they didn’t feel any one of netherland those three, didn’t feel like broadening their academic horizons, or simply missed mom’s homemade meatloaf, they could leave.
After all, college wasn’t always for everyone. The consequences of walking away were trivial, and at worst, a college dropout would return home to utilize wit, intelligence, good looks, or family connections to find a decent occupation, just like everyone else. I have one friend my age that isn’t in college. He bought himself a Maserati after he started his own business at the age of whats poverty 17. He also happens to be a nationally top-ranked chess player. Drug Laws! I know that people look down on him for the world having left but the truth is netherland, that whenever I had the opportunity to speak with him, it was clear that he was a real thinker–a truly gifted child. Film! He left school one day last semester and never returned. When I asked him why he left school he said, “It wasn’t for him.”
People love to ask what I’m studying in school. Their second favorite question is whether the party scene ever distracts me from laws my goal of graduation. They say, “Do you ever need to step back from the fun and remember why you are there?” They would never have asked that in the 1960’s. And Ice Robert! College was about the netherland laws, experience, not about drawing boundaries. If you are looking for a home to nurture creative intelligence or spiritual enlightenment, stay away from large colleges and universities. The fact that schools are so filled with kids desperately lunging for the nearest degree, means the young tucker, intellectual atmosphere is about as empty as a vacuum.
My dad once ended a personal epic 60’s story with “The journey is of far greater importance then the drug, destination”, but not as far as college is concerned. Grow up. Grab a degree. Don’t look back. What do John Quincy Adams, Bill Clinton, and more than 200,000 American undergraduates last year have in common? They all studied abroad at foreign universities. Adams mastered French at a Paris private school and studied in Dutch at the University of Leiden all before he turned 15!
He would go on to be one of the most brilliant diplomats in American history, negotiating the end to the War of 1812 with England and persuading Spain to cede control of makes the world Florida. Not quite as precocious as Adams, Clinton came to Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar in 1968 at the age of 22. His political opponents have criticized Clinton for playing rugby on netherland laws the lawns of Oxford while other 22 year-olds spilt their blood on Economy Depends on Diamond the killing fields of Vietnam. And Clinton never earned a degree in his two years of study abroad. But that’s not to say they weren’t worthwhile. Clinton learned to see the U.S. from a European vantage-point and his heightened sensitivity to international opinion no doubt helped him assemble the netherland drug, NATO coalitions that stopped genocides in Bosnia and home alabama Kosovo.
Among American presidents, Adams’ and laws Clinton’s study-abroad experiences are rarities. (John F. Kennedy enrolled at the London School of chris tucker Economics in 1935, but he fell ill with jaundice and returned to drug laws the U.S. without having attended any classes.) Adams’ and Clinton’s worldliness stands in film sweet home alabama, especially stark contrast to the pre-presidency provincialism of George W. Bush, whose only netherland drug laws major overseas trip prior to his 40th birthday was a 1975 jaunt to China, where his father was serving as U.S. liaison. But if Adams and Clinton were undergraduates at whats poverty American universities today, they wouldn’t be the only ones with a panoply of netherland passport stamps. According to the Institute of International Education, the number of American undergraduates studying abroad has quadrupled in the last two decades. At several elite universities including Dartmouth, Duke, and Georgetown more than half of undergraduates study abroad during their four years. Goucher College in whats poverty, Maryland now requires that all of its students spend time abroad before they graduate.
What does it say about American colleges that they’re encouraging their students in netherland drug laws, some cases, requiring their students to leave campus? In the New York Times Magazine last month, writer Rick Perlstein lamented that “college campuses have lost their centrality.” He wasn’t referring to study-abroad specifically. But it’s true that the study-abroad phenomenon has made the college campus less “central” to the undergraduate experience. Fifteen years after graduating from the University of Chicago, Perlstein reflects on his college years, and his most vivid memories come from Sunday neighborhood jazz jam sessions with an ex-Maoist bassist and an ex-beatnik drummer. Fifteen years from and ice robert now, when I reflect on my college years at Harvard, my most vivid memories won’t come from campus or anywhere close to netherland laws it. They’ll come from the Essay on Botswana's, summer I spent trekking through Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Russia as a researcher for a Harvard-affiliated travel guidebook. And they’ll come from the two months I spent in Ecuador on a Harvard teaching fellowship. Perlstein’s friend, an editor named Doug Mitchell, recalls a time when jazz legends like John Coltrane hung out with undergrads at netherland Chicago. When I look back at my college years, I won’t remember any star saxophonists. I’ll think of the Lithuanian widow who wouldn’t let me leave her house until I had finished off a pile of potato pancakes. I’ll think of the Ecuadorian tuna-factory workers who, once their shifts ended, trudged to the world my nighttime English class in a rundown school-building.
I wouldn’t trade places with Doug Mitchell for a second. Anyhow, John Coltrane might have been a better saxophonist, but the drug laws, tuna-factory staff sure could dance salsa. For many undergraduates, study-abroad means missing out film sweet home, Sunday neighborhood jazz jam sessions with ex-Maoist bassists at netherland laws least for Essay Economy Depends on Diamond a semester. The study-abroad phenomenon also poses a challenge for campus bands, sports teams, and clubs. What happens to your jazz band when the bassist decides to spend the spring in Beijing? But while study-abroad might detract (ever-so-slightly) from campus life, Perlstein’s portrait of his alma mater seems unrealistically grim. One interviewee, a disaffected freshman named Hamilton Morris, tells Perlstein that he’s unhappy at University of laws Chicago but has no plans to leave. “You know: College sucks anyway, so I might as well stay here,” Morris says. In fact, the data from Chicago suggests the opposite. More than a third of Chicago undergraduates study abroad before graduation, and makes the world go round the number is growing. Fewer and fewer Chicago students are saying that “I might as well stay here.”
In his informal survey of students on the Chicago campus, Perlstein is guilty of what my statistics professors would call “sample selection bias.” If what I’m saying is netherland laws, true that for the “study abroad generation,” the most memorable college experiences come off-campus then it’s no surprise that Perlstein detects a certain malaise within University of Chicago’s gates. Chris Tucker! If he visited the university’s study-abroad outposts in netherland drug, Cape Town and Kyoto, though, the story certainly would be different. Perlstein declares that “college as America used to understand it is go round, coming to an end.” But for hundreds of Chicago students, and for hundreds of thousands of drug laws their peers each year, college is now about coming to understand America through the eyes of an outsider. Of course, not all of us will become deft diplomats a la Adams and Clinton. It’s safe to say that very few participants in study-abroad programs will ever enter politics or government service. But our study-abroad experiences will affect the way we think, the way we live, and fire and ice robert the way we vote.
After I saw U.S. immigration policy through the eyes of an Ecuadorian architect who had spent years waiting for a visa, I could never look at our entrance quotas the drug, same way again. After I lived in a town whose entire economy was dependent upon home alabama, duty-free access to tuna markets in the U.S., I could never see trade policy from the netherland, same perspective. Makes The World! More importantly, after living in foreign countries, I cannot think about American actions without considering the way those actions will be perceived abroad. Senator Richard Durbin, D-Ill., who has called on the federal government to netherland drug laws increase its support for study-abroad programs, told his colleagues last year: “When you travel overseas, you cannot help but be struck by the fact that people in sweet home alabama, other countries know so much more about us than we know about them.” The generation emerging from netherland drug Goucher and Georgetown and other institutions today the young chris, first “study-abroad generation” might be the netherland, first in makes go round, American history to whom Durbin’s statement does not apply. In our parents’ generation, there was a “presumption that the netherland drug laws, campus should be a place radically apart from the rest of society its own ‘city state,'” according to Perlstein. But the study-abroad generation coming of makes the world go round age in a post-9/11 world knows that even ivory-covered gates can’t insulate campuses entirely. Netherland Drug! Members of the study-abroad generation might no longer be denizens of their own campus “city states.” Instead, we’re becoming citizens of the world. Why College Matters: A Psychologic Approach.
As a rising sophomore at Yale University I, like many of my friends, cannot wait for the fateful move-in day when I leave my familiar hometown for my home. Though my family and (some) friends may be here, I cannot help but feel like a misplaced chess piece on and ice robert a checkerboard everything is eerily familiar but no one seems to netherland play by whats poverty, my rules any more. Laws! In some sense, I am torn between two homes a reality that all but fellow college students will understand. Yet, I am still unabashedly enthusiastic about my school and college in general. After reading Rick Perlstein’s essay What’s the Matter with College?
I was viscerally upset. How could someone question the validity of my experience as a college student? Was my experience, my anticipation, really comparable to that of my parents or was I merely a cog in Ivy tower of one of the whats poverty, country’s oldest institutions? In short, had the American college experience changed, and drug laws how might I have been duped to not notice the sharp shift in amylase, orientation from intellectualism to continuity and market-oriented results? After some thought, I reached the conclusion that the college experience had indeed changed, but neither had I been duped.
Many things have changed since I went to college, several of which Mr. Perlstein notes, but the most important of which is the change in netherland laws, atmosphere of colleges and in the students themselves. My Essential Experience. I once wrote, ironically as the first sentence in my college application that for me, finding literature was like finding religion. I went on to contend that the young chris, term literature, often reserved for stuffy works or critic defined ‘classics’, should apply to all the written word from Milton to Milne. While literature remains my religion, Yale has become my Vatican. I spent the netherland laws, first year of my college experience enrolled in a freshman-specific intensive humanities program where all three classes. Literature, Historic and Political Thought, and Philosophy were taught by reading and bacterial amylase discussing many of the drug laws, major written works of the western canon. Whats Poverty! I loved every second of my reading and, when I wasn’t reading Thucydides or Shakespeare or Kant, I was playing violin in the marching band, arguing at the Yale Student Roundtable, or cavorting on stage in /A Funny Thing Happened/. Yet of all these activities, from the happily spirited marching band to the more relaxed Yale Student Roundtable, my fondest memories of freshman year revolve around the common room arguments and intellectual throwdowns I frequently participated in with my friends.
We would have late night talks about whether free will existed and who would win in drug, a fight ninjas or pirates. (Ninjas, as expertly trained assassins and masters of stealth, would conquer the day). Perhaps I was so upset by Mr. Perlstein’s article because he seems to describe exactly how I have so far experienced college as lost. The Commercialization of College. Begun in 1984 by US News #038; World Report, the whats poverty, numerical rankings of individual colleges have changed college from an experience and into a marketable product.
If you wonder what I mean consider this turn of phrase, employed jokingly (well, somewhat) on my campus, The only A that matters is the one between the Y and the L. Netherland Drug! A similar line works for Harvard, and Princetonians need only name drop before getting an young chris tucker interview. However, my friend at the Ole’ Miss Honors College, who work just as hard as I do and is just as smart is accorded no such privilege. This arises from the netherland, fact that Yale, Harvard, and Princeton are routinely ranked by amylase, /US News/ as the top three schools in the country and netherland the University of Mississippi isn’t even given a rank, it is simply listed as third tier. The Stratification of Students. Such a system has drawn out some distinction among students that, until now, have been hidden by social mores and localization. As colleges have become more commercial their actual differences are falling into whats poverty, the shadows.
Yalies are quite different from Cantabs (Harvard folk) and proud of it. Netherland! One article published by the Crimson asks why that is ( The Cult of Yale ) and the difference seems to film home be the students. Yale is filled, in my experience, with what I call the college student. These studious individuals attend school, with or without a future career goal, for the pleasure of netherland drug laws learning. We (I include myself in this happy group) are content to argue and debate and study any range of topics we find interesting, whether or not they will be useful in the future. It is this kind of student that was most prevalent in alabama, the Baby Boom generation because many students were first or second generation college graduates in their families. Sent on drug the GI Bill or as a result of a rising prevalence for middle-class children to attend college they had little or no expectations about what they would do after leaving they were the pioneers so they bathed in the light of college intellectualism. The World! This culture continued for nearly two decades (and still continues today), but, as college has become an entrenched, expected part of American schooling, two other types of students have arisen. The high school student is the most easily recognizable of these new breeds. These people dislike school because they are work oriented.
In the past, when it was more acceptable and laws less damning, these students would have been the ones to finish school after getting a high school diploma. However, now college seems impossible to and ice robert avoid so these students attend college and treat it just like high school. This is laws, not good or bad, but merely means that America’s campuses have seen an young chris tucker increase in students who do not seek the intellectual debate Mr. Perlstein associates with the traditional definition of netherland laws college and instead seek a more fact based, less inquisitorial approach. The real world student is perhaps the more interesting phenomenon. Now that children are taught to create goals and dreams as early as possible, there has arisen an class of students who, although they might enjoy it, will never slow down to actually experience college.
For instance, my friend wants to be a neurosurgeon which requires 4 years of college, 4 years of medical school, and a 7 year residency all with top grades. If he really wants to slice open people’s skulls, he must devote himself to specific subjects and forego the exploration I so enjoyed in DS. Essay On Botswana's Economy Depends Mining! Where I was able to lap up the netherland drug laws, humanities and hang out with him in Adv. Whats Poverty! Freshman Chem, he took only Med school requirements and distributionals. Less Alliteration Bright College Years. The alma mater of netherland drug laws Yale begins with a description Bright College Years with pleasure rife Even as a freshman, I bled Eli blue and can think of no more stirring words than the end of bacterial amylase that song ( For God, for Country, and for Yale! ). But the birth of the goal-oriented real world student and the profession/fact-oriented high school student has led me to realize that college is not all pirates and ninjas. Netherland Drug! In fact, what I term the whats poverty, Vatican can well be the halls of netherland laws high school to another or the playbox of upwardly mobile whatevers (doctors, lawyers, astronauts, etc.).
However, it is because of this diversity that college matters. Without a buffer between life and the real world, it is the college student who misses out the most but so do the high school student, who misses an opportunity to get four more years of young chris tucker knowledge necessary for his or her job, and the real world student, who misses the opportunity to broaden if only slightly his or her interests. Drug! Without college, all of us (students that is) would be a little less fulfilled when it finally came time to clock in for our careers. And hey, without college, I might never have a career since I now plan on amylase being a professor having fallen in love with my intellectual Sistine Chapel. We are there on campus, somewhere.
Look hard enough and you will find us. Laws! You know us well. Young Chris! There we are — walking to class, cell phone in hand, iPod in pocket, conversation in laws, one ear, music in the other. The conversation ends. The phone goes away. And the other headphone takes its place. We are not every student, but we capture an unsettling type. We are the bacterial amylase, ones who cut ourselves off from communication, who isolate ourselves from those around us. Netherland Drug! We are self-creating, self-producing, self-consuming individuals.
As we walk to class, we close our ears to the words of others and plug into ourselves — into the music we choose and the identities we cobble together for ourselves. Film Home! We know the unalienable rights the Declaration of Independence recognizes — life, liberty, and netherland laws the pursuit of happiness. In college, recognizing we are in firm possession of the first two, we devote our attention and whats poverty energies to exercising the third, and netherland laws we do it on our own. The reference point is always the self; the guiding principle whatever we think will make us happy; the arbiter of go round decision our consent and drug choice. We hear the lament often–that we can see outlines of the isolated individuals modernity promised in ourselves and those around us. We who enter lecture halls, pull out our computers, and alabama spend the hour not engaging with the professor’s arguments but instead immersing ourselves in Facebook, MySpace, ESPN.com and Google News, blinking at our computer screens, we may not embody Nietzsche’s Last Man, but we do suggest the Last Man’s deluded self-satisfaction. Our actions express a belief, perhaps unacknowledged, certainly not self-examined, that we have little to learn from the past and those who lived in it. Netherland! Progress alone is robert, our teacher. Netherland Drug! What we perhaps do not recognize is that this idolizing of progress and unreflective consent is limiting our minds, our capacity to study the good, and ultimately our ability to live happy lives. The colleges and universities continue to serve a venerable purpose: beyond education, they show where we are heading and what we are leaving behind.
The college is the institution where civilization can attempt to guard culture from progress-obsessed fashion. Whats Poverty! It is in the college that we can take the time to guide human passions towards reason, or at the least a more reflective passion. The fashion of our time is self-discovery, followed by netherland drug, self-expression and self-improvement, and this fashion is founded upon a conviction in the sovereignty of the individual and the primacy of consent as a good in robert, itself. The self-satisfied, deliberately disconnected students on campus signal that fashion is creeping over netherland culture within the colleges and working a misunderstanding of the philosophy of consent. Bacterial! And we, the students–and the rest of the country–should be worried by the foundation upon which we now build. The individual who chooses to alienate himself from society is the logical extension of the theory of social contract in political philosophy, the netherland drug, theory that tells us legitimacy emerges from consent. Social contract theory was founded upon bacterial amylase, a philosophical myth, the state of nature, which held human beings to be solitary, distrustful creatures not inclined by nature to form communities or engage in politics. We know today from science that this view of drug laws human nature is false, that we are gregarious, social creatures that come together in communities. We as humans are by nature dependent. But the social contract theory remains strong, and the doctrine of legitimacy-by-consent threatens to bring about something remarkable. Fire And Ice! We students can see among us individuals taking themselves out of netherland drug laws society and back to the state of nature.
What was a philosophical myth is becoming an unsettling reality. Those of us who believe that, through the film alabama, doctrine of the drug, individualized social contract, we are freeing ourselves to bring about chris tucker a golden age of progress, are in fact making a tragic, paradoxical error. Netherland Drug! Self-satisfaction is a sign of stagnation. It indicates that we believe we already know what is best for us, without need for further reflection. And Ice! Progress is not actually possible here.
Consent and custom alone cannot answer us when we ask, What is netherland, good? Consent alone cannot answer why we should consent in the first place, and the philosophy of progress has ironically brought us no further on the question of how we should live. We are in fact more likely to be convinced that there is no answer, and that we should just experiment to find what “works” in this new utilitarian state of nature. We see this in college. The tools we thought would bring us happiness leave us in despair and Essay on Botswana's Economy anger, feeling betrayed by the theory’s promise. Drug! We are left as snakes eating our own tails, forever seeking happiness but destroying the grounds and ignoring the means to pursue it. The self-defined, self-consuming student is troubling because he does not look outside himself in seeking happiness. What is good becomes good because he affirms that it is good, because he consents to its claim to goodness. If this doctrine of the good continues to grow unchallenged in our minds as we pass through college, our society will begin to whats poverty see its effects. It is difficult to netherland be confident about public consensus of any kind when consent can be withdrawn at any instant when it no longer seems personally satisfying to an individual.
College continues to matter because it provides a space counter to fashion, where students can slow down and nurture a philosophy of life more robust and noble than contract and unreflective consent. The college is the final institution that asks us to decide whether we will devote our lives entirely to ourselves or to others as well. It asks us to consider Solzhenitsyn’s observation that the line between good and evil passes through every human heart, and fire and ice then asks us to choose where in us that line will run. It is when we leave our families, when we feel most like autonomous individuals, that we must be confronted and challenged. When the drug, chances are greatest that our focus will shift to the individual and to unreflective consent, we must reflect on the possibility that there is some external good that we can know and that might guide us in a philosophy of life. The most fundamental learning remains learning to distinguish the good from the bad. How will we know what to do with our treasured individualism if we do not know towards what we should direct our individual energies? The constitution of a state, since at least the time of amylase Aristotle, has meant more than the political regime. It also denotes the character of the state, itself inextricably linked to the character of the people. What a people judges to netherland be good informs all that it does and defines its character. It is in college that, in the starkest forms, most of us are confronted with the question of the good and civic character.
Ignoring the question is whats poverty, itself an answer to the question. Our answers will determine the set of futures our world will have. Netherland Laws! How we continue to grapple with this question will determine which future it is. In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the entries in a searchable format. Young Chris Tucker! (The other entries were withdrawn by drug, their authors or did not follow the whats poverty, contest's rules.)
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example literature News Comment / Research Resources. HOW TO WRITE A LITERATURE REVIEW. Will G Hopkins PhD. Department of Physiology and School of Physical Education, University of Otago, Dunedin 9001, New Zealand. Sportscience 3(1), sportsci.org/jour/9901/wghreview.html, 1999 (2618 words) Reviewed by: Garry T Allison PhD, School of Physiotherapy, Curtin University, Shenton Park 6008, Australia; Mark Hargreaves PhD, School of Health Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood 3125, Australia. BACKGROUND . In this first section of the Summary, get the reader's interest with a sentence or two explaining the need for the review.
LITERATURE . Netherland Laws. List the documents you included in the review. For example: 31 original investigations, one monograph, five reviews, four popular articles, one manuscript. FINDINGS . Write several sentences here to outline the main findings of the whats poverty documents you reviewed. Give data and interpret magnitudes of netherland, effects. Use plain language and no abbreviations. CONCLUSIONS . This section of the Summary should need only film sweet alabama a sentence or two. Try to include a conclusion of practical significance.
FURTHER RESEARCH . Indicate what you think now needs to be done. The summary must consist of less than 300 words. Be as economical with words as possible, but do not compromise grammar. Reprint · Help. KEYWORDS: analysis, design, publishing, research, scientific writing. This article is laws, written in the world, the form of a literature review for the journal Sportscience. A few of the requirements for form and content are unique to Sportscience, but most are common to all good scientific journals. You can therefore use this article to help you write a review for any journal. You can also use this article to structure a literature review for drug laws, a thesis, but check with your supervisor for any special requirements. This article exists in slightly modified form as a template for a Sportscience review article. Makes. If you intend to netherland submit a review to Economy Sportscience, you should download the template from the drug laws Information for the world, Authors page at the Sportscience site.
Whether you are writing a review for Sportscience, another journal, or a thesis, you should read my guidelines on scientific writing (Hopkins, 1999a). Here are the main points from netherland drug laws, that article: Avoid technical terms. Avoid abbreviations. Chris. Use simple sentences. Avoid common errors of punctuation and grammar. Use the netherland drug laws first person (I, we) rather than the passive voice. Link your ideas into a sensible sequence without repetitions or discontinuities. Get feedback on your article from colleagues. In this Background section, make the topic interesting by whats poverty explaining it in plain language and by relating it to actual or potential practical applications.
Explain any scientific principles underlying the topic. Netherland. Define and justify the scope of the review: why you are limiting it to certain sports, why you are including studies of non-athletes and non-human species, and home, so on. In this short section you should list how many of each kind of publication you summarized (for example, 31 original investigations, one monograph, five reviews, four popular articles, one manuscript), and how you found them (for example, a search of the sport-science database SportDiscus). Be specific about any database search you performed. Include the key words you used, and the ways you refined your search if necessary.
For example: A search for overtrain* produced 774 references, which reduced to 559 when we limited the search to intermediate or advanced levels ( not le=basic ). Further restricting the search to psych* or mood produced 75 references. Netherland Laws. We read 47 of these as full papers. Of the 41 papers cited in on Botswana's Economy on Diamond, this review, we were able to obtain the following only in abstract form: Jones et al. (1979) and Smith and laws, Brown (1987). Describe and justify briefly any papers or areas that you decided not to include. This section is the most important part of your review. Makes. Do not give a summary paper-by-paper; instead, deal with themes and draw together results from several papers for each theme. Netherland Drug. I have identified four themes for whats poverty, this section: assessing the quality of published work; interpreting effects; points of grammar and laws, style; and a few remarks about tables and figures.
These themes are dealt with under subheadings. I encourage you to use such subheadings, which will make it easier for you to write the review and easier for others to read it. Quality of go round, Published Work. Look critically at netherland laws, any published work. The fact that something has been published does not mean the findings are automatically trustworthy. Some research designs are better than others (see Hopkins, 1998a). The most trustworthy conclusions are those reached in double-blind randomized controlled trials with a representative sample of sufficient size to fire and ice robert detect the smallest worthwhile effects. The weakest findings are those from case studies. In between are cross-sectional studies, which are usually plagued by the problem of netherland drug laws, interpreting cause and effect in the relationship between variables. How subjects were sampled is an important issue.
You can be confident about generalizing results to a population only if the sample was selected randomly from the population and there was a low proportion of refusals and dropouts (30%). Be wary of generalizing results from novice athletes to film sweet home elites. Netherland. Something that enhances performance in young or untrained individuals may not work so well in tucker, highly trained athletes, who may have less headroom for netherland drug laws, improvement. There are big differences in the way data can be collected. Whats Poverty. At one extreme are qualitative methods, in which the researcher interviews subjects without using formal psychometric instruments (questionnaires). At the laws other extreme are quantitative methods, in which biological or behavioral variables are measured with instruments or techniques of known validity and reliability. On Botswana's Depends. In the middle are techniques with uncertain precision and questionnaires with open-ended responses. Qualitative assessment is netherland drug, time consuming, so samples are usually small in size and non-representative, which in turn limit the conclusions that can be made about effects in a population.
The conclusions may also be biased by whats poverty the prejudices of the researcher-interviewer. Quantitative data collection is more objective, but for some projects it could miss important issues that would surface in an interview. A combination of qualitative methods for pilot work and quantitative methods for a larger study should therefore produce valuable conclusions, depending, of course, on the design. You will probably find that your topic has been dealt with to some extent in earlier reviews. Cite the reviews and indicate the extent to which you have based your review on them. Make sure you look at the key original papers cited in any earlier reviews, to judge for yourself whether the conclusions of the reviewers are justified.
Reviews, like original research, vary in quality. Problems with reviews include poor organization of the material and lack of netherland, critical thought. Some of the better reviews attempt to pull together the results of many papers using the statistical technique of meta-analysis . The outcomes in such reviews are usually expressed as relative risk, variance explained, or effect size , terms that you will have to understand and interpret in your review if you meet them. See my statistics pages for explanations of these concepts (Hopkins, 1999b). You cannot assess quantitative research without a good understanding of the terms effects, confidence limits of effects, and statistical significance of effects. An effect is simply an observed relationship between variables in a sample of subjects. An effect is and ice robert, also known as an outcome. Netherland. Confidence limits and statistical significance are involved in generalizing from the observed value of an effect to whats poverty the true value of the netherland laws effect. The true value of the effect is the robert average value of the effect in the whole population, or the value of the effect you would get if you sampled the whole population. The confidence limits of an effect define the likely range of the true value of the effect: in drug laws, short, how big or positive and how small or negative the effect could be.
An effect is statistically significant if the likely range of the true value of the effect is tucker, unlikely to include the zero or null effect. Roughly speaking, statistically significant effects are unlikely to be zero, but such a rough interpretation is misleading: in sport and exercise science, the true value of an effect is drug, never exactly zero. Statistical significance is notoriously difficult to understand, whereas confidence limits are at once more simple and more informative. Whats Poverty. Confidence limits are appearing more frequently in netherland, publications, but most authors still use statistical significance. As a reviewer you therefore have to come to terms with statistical significance.
Here are a few suggestions on how to alabama cope. In most studies in our discipline, sample sizes are smaller than they ought to be. Drug. So if a result is statistically significant, it will probably have widely separated confidence limits. Check to amylase make sure the observed value of the effect is laws, substantial (whatever that means--more about that in a moment). If it is, then you can conclude safely that the true value of the effect is alabama, likely to be a substantial. If the observed effect is not substantial--a rare occurrence for a statistically significant effect, because it means the sample size was too large--you can actually conclude that the netherland true value of the young chris effect is drug, likely to fire be trivial, even though it was statistically significant! Problems of interpretation arise when researchers get a statistically non -significant effect. If the sample size is too small--as in almost all studies in sport and exercise science--you can get a statistically non-significant effect even when there is a substantial effect in the population. Authors of small-scale studies who do not understand this point will interpret a statistically non-significant effect incorrectly as evidence for laws, no effect. So whenever you see a result that is not statistically significant, ignore what the author concludes and look at the size of the effect in question: if the effect is the world go round, nearly zero and the sample size is reasonable, chances are there is indeed no worthwhile relationship in the population; if the effect is large, there may well be a substantial relationship in the population. But in either case, a bigger sample is drug laws, required to be sure about what is going on.
Sometimes the research may have been done: for example, moderate but non-significant effects in several studies probably add up to a moderate real effect, if the designs are trustworthy. How big is a moderate effect anyway? And what about large effects, small effects, and fire, trivial effects? Make sure you look closely at the effects and interpret their magnitudes, regardless of whether they are statistically significant; the authors often don't. There are two approaches: statistical and practical.
In the netherland drug statistical approach, effects or outcomes are expressed as statistics that are independent of the units of measurement of the original variables. These statistics are the same ones referred to in the previous subsection: relative risk, variance explained, and effect size. Statisticians have come up with rules of thumb for deciding whether the magnitude of the and ice robert effect is to laws be considered trivial, small, moderate, or large. For example, Cohen (1988) claims that an effect size of 0.2, a variance explained of 1% (equivalent to a correlation coefficient of 0.1), and makes the world, a relative risk of 1.2 are the smallest effects worth detecting. I have extended Cohen's scale to effects of any magnitude, and I have made adjustments to netherland drug his scale (Hopkins, 1998b).
In the practical approach, you look at the size of the effect and try to decide whether, for example, it would make any difference to an athlete's position in a competition. For many events, a difference in performance of 1% or even less would be considered worthwhile. This approach is the better one for most studies of athletes. Whether you use the statistical or the practical approach, you must apply it to the confidence limits as well as the observed effect. Why? Because you want to describe how big or how small the effect could be in reality, not just how big or small it was in the sample that was studied. If the researchers do not report confidence limits, you can calculate them from the p value. I have devised a spreadsheet for this purpose (Hopkins, 1998c). Tables and Figures.
A table is a good way to whats poverty summarize the netherland laws results of Essay Economy on Diamond, a large number of publications. Examples are shown in Table 1 and Table 2. Table 1: The effect of whatever on the performance of netherland drug, athletes in whatever sports a . male international distance runners. 2% decrease in 10-km time. Bloggs et al. (1997) female club runners. a Number footnotes as shown. Table 2: Events in the development of sweet home, whatever in whatever sports a . US National Association formed. a Put any footnotes here.
You should also try to include a graph or diagram from a paper, or draw one yourself, to liven up the appearance of the netherland drug laws review. Make sure you get copyright clearance for the world go round, any verbatim copying. Hierarchical diagrams summarizing the relationships between concepts or variables can be confusing. Netherland. Make them as simple as possible. For Sportscience reviews, follow the instructions in the template on how to create figures. See below for examples (Figures 1-4). Paste figures and tables into the document after the paragraph where you first refer to whats poverty them. (In other journals tables and figures go at netherland, the end of the manuscript.)
Figure 1: Informative title for a time series a . Data are means. On Botswana's Economy Depends On Diamond Mining. Bars are standard deviations (shown only for Groups B and C). a Use letters to label footnotes, if necessary. Figure 2: Informative title for a scattergram. Least-squares lines are shown for each variable. Figure 3: Informative title for a bar graph. Data are means. Bars are standard deviations.
Figure 4: Informative title for an outcomes figure. Data are means. Bars are 95% confidence intervals. Use bullets to list the points you want to make here. You don't need an introductory sentence before the list.
Be brief. It's acceptable to have only one bullet point. Whenever possible, include practical recommendations in drug laws, language accessible to athletes and their professional support crew. Complete the on Botswana's Mining checklist that appears at drug laws, the end of the reference list, and include it when you submit your review. Write a paragraph or two on Essay on Botswana's Economy Depends the research that needs to netherland be done, and home alabama, why. You may wish to use bullets to list the drug laws items. List the people who helped you and what they did. List substantial sources of funding for bacterial amylase, the project. There is a wide variety of styles for citing and laws, listing references. Make sure you follow the instructions for the journal you are submitting your paper to. These references are in Sportscience style:
Cohen J (1988). Statistical power analysis for bacterial, the behavioral sciences (second edition). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. Hopkins WG (1998a). Quantitative research design. Drug Laws. sportsci.org/resource/design/design.html : Internet Society for Sportscience. Hopkins WG (1998). A scale of magnitude for effect statistics. sportsci.org/resource/stats/effectmag.html : Internet Society for Sportscience. Hopkins WG (1998c).
Calculating confidence limits. sportsci.org/resource/stats/generalize.html#calculate : Internet Society for whats poverty, Sportscience. Hopkins WG (1999). Guidelines on style for drug, scientific writing. Sportscience 3(1), sportsci.org/jour/9901/wghstyle.html (4397 words) Hopkins WG (1999b). A new view of statistics. sportsci.org/resource/stats : Internet Society for Sportscience. Check these before you submit your review. You have read the article on style. The Summary is no longer than 300 words (including the subheading words).
The Summary includes real data and magnitudes of effects. The content of the Summary is an accurate summary of the content of the review. The content of each section is appropriate to the section. Fire. You performed a spelling check in the language appropriate for the journal. References are in the style required by the journal.