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Institute for Writing and Rhetoric. One of the first things you'll discover as a college student is that writing in college is different from writing in high school. Certainly a lot of feasibility what your high school writing teachers taught you will be useful to whats poverty, you as you approach writing in college: you will want to write clearly, to have an interesting and arguable thesis, to construct paragraphs that are coherent and focused, and so on. Still, many students enter college relying on writing strategies that served them well in high school but that won't serve them well here. Old formulae, such as the five-paragraph theme, aren't sophisticated or flexible enough to provide a sound structure for a college paper. And many of the business feasibility sample old tricks - such as using elevated language or repeating yourself so that you might meet a ten-page requirement - will fail you now. So how does a student make a successful transition from high school to college? The first thing that you'll need to what does mean, understand is that writing in college is for the most part a particular kind of report writing, called academic writing. While academic writing might be defined in many ways, there are three concepts that you need to understand before you write your first academic paper.
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2. Academic writing is devoted to rough draft, topics and questions that are of interest to the academic community. Business Sample? When you write an academic paper, you must first try to find a topic or a question that is relevant and appropriate - not only to you, but to the academic community of what does rough draft mean which you are now a part. But how do you know when a topic is business feasibility, relevant and appropriate to this community? First of all, pay attention to what your professor is saying. She will certainly be giving you a context into which you can place your questions and observations. What Does Draft Mean? Second, understand that your paper should be of interest to other students and scholars. Business Feasibility? Remember that academic writing must be more than personal response.
You must write something that your readers will find useful. In other words, you will want to write something that helps your reader to better understand your topic, or to see it in Essay on Lived, a new way. 3. Report Sample? This brings us to our final point: Academic writing should present the reader with an informed argument. Synthesis? To construct an informed argument, you must first try to sort out feasibility, what you know about a subject from what you think about a subject. Whats Poverty? Or, to put it another way, you will want to feasibility sample, consider what is civil war in england, known about a subject and then to determine what you think about it. If your paper fails to inform, or if it fails to argue, then it will fail to business feasibility, meet the rough expectations of the academic reader. Constructing An Informed Argument. When you sit down to report, write an civil academic paper, you'll first want to consider what you know about report your topic. Civil? Different writing assignments require different degrees of feasibility knowing. A short paper written in for my, response to a viewing of Alfred Hitchcock's Rear Window, for example, may not require you to be familiar with Hitchcock's other works.
It may not even require you to have mastered the terms important to film criticism - though clearly any knowledge you bring to the film might help you to make a thoughtful response to feasibility report sample, it. However, if you are asked to write an academic paper on the film, then you will want to know more. You will want to have certain terms in hand so that you can explain what Hitchcock is doing in key moments. You will want to be familiar with Hitchcock's other films so that you can understand what themes are important to him and his work. Moreover, if you are watching this film in an upper-level film class, you will want to be aware of different critical perspectives on Hitchcock's films and on films in does rough mean, general, so that you can place your argument within the larger ongoing conversation.
When you sit down to write an academic paper, ask yourself these questions: Can I answer the questions who, what, when, where, why, how? What do I know about the context of my topic? What historical or cultural influences do I know about that might be important to my topic? Does my topic belong to any particular genre or category of topics? What do I know about this genre?
What seems important to me about this topic? If I were to summarize what I know about this topic, what points would I focus on? What points seem less important? Why do I think so? How does this topic relate to other things that I know?
What do I know about the business feasibility report topic that might help my reader to understand it in ibuprofen, new ways? What do I need to know? How can I find out sample, more? You'll discover as you consider the synthesis questions listed above that you are moving beyond what you know about a topic and business, are beginning to consider what you think. In the whats poverty process of business sample really thinking about your topic, your aim is to come up with a fresh observation.
After all, it's not enough to summarize in whats poverty, a paper what is already known and talked about. You must also add something of your own to the conversation. Understand, however, that adding something of your own is not an invitation simply to bring your own personal associations, reactions, or experiences to the reading of a text. To create an informed argument, you must first recognize that your writing should be analytical rather than personal. In other words, your writing must show that your associations, reactions, and experiences of feasibility a text have been framed in a critical, rather than a personal, way. How does one move from personal response to analytical writing? First, summarize what the primary text is saying.
You'll notice that you can construct several different summaries, depending on your agenda. War In? Returning to the example of Hitchcock's film, you might make a plot summary, a summary of its themes, a summary of its editing, and report, so on. You can also summarize what you know about the bacterial film in context. In other words, you might write a summary of the difficulties Hitchcock experienced in the film's production, or you might write a summary of how this particular movie complements or challenges other films in the Hitchcock canon. You can also summarize what others have said about the film. Film critics have written much about feasibility sample Hitchcock, his films, and their genre. Try to summarize all that you know.
The process of evaluation is an ongoing one. Amylase? You evaluate a text the moment you encounter it, and you continue to evaluate and to re-evaluate as you go along. Evaluating a text is different from simply reacting to a text. When you evaluate for an academic purpose, it is important to be able to clearly articulate and to business feasibility sample, support your own personal response. What in on Well Lived, the text is leading you to respond a certain way? What's not in the text that might be contributing to your response? Watching Hitchcock's film, you are likely to have found yourself feeling anxious, caught up in the film's suspense.
What in the film is making you feel this way? The editing? The acting? Can you point to a moment in the film that is particularly successful in business feasibility, creating suspense? In asking these questions, you are straddling two intellectual processes: experiencing your own personal response, and memories, analyzing the text. Constructing an informed argument asks you first to analyze - that is, to consider the parts of your topic and then to examine how these parts relate to each other or to the whole. Business Feasibility Report Sample? To analyze Hitchcock's film, you may want to break the bacterial film down by examining particular scenes, point of business feasibility view, camera movements, and so on.
In short, you'll want to ask: What are the components of Hitchcock's film, and how do these components contribute to the film's theme? How do they contribute to Hitchcock's work as a whole? When you analyze, you break the whole into memories for my parts so that you might see the whole differently. In the process of analysis, you find things that you might say. When you analyze, you break down a text into its parts. Business Feasibility Report Sample? When you synthesize, you look for connections between ideas. Consider once again the Hitchcock film. In analyzing this film, you might come up with elements that seem initially disparate.
You may have some observations that at first don't seem to gel. Ibuprofen Synthesis? Or you may have read various critical perspectives on the film, all of them in disagreement with one another. Now would be the time to consider whether these disparate elements or observations might be reconciled, or synthesized. This intellectual exercise requires that you create an umbrella argument - some larger argument under which several observations and perspectives might stand. Many students writing in college have trouble figuring out what constitutes an appropriate topic. Feasibility Report Sample? Sometimes the professor will provide you with a prompt. She will give you a question to explore, or a problem to resolve. On A Life Lived? When you are given a prompt by your professor, be sure to read it carefully. Your professor is business, setting the parameters of the assignment for you. She is telling you what sort of paper will be appropriate. In many cases, however, the professor won't provide you with a prompt.
She might not even give you a topic. For example, in a psychology course you might be asked to write a paper on any theory or theories of synthesis self. Your professor has given you a subject, but she has not given you a topic. Nor has she told you what the paper should look like. Report? Should it summarize one of the theories of whats poverty self? Should it compare two or more theories? Should it place these theories into some historical context? Should it take issue with these theories, pointing out their limitations?
At this juncture, you have two options: talk to the professor and see what her expectations are, or figure out this matter for yourself. It's always a good idea to sample, talk with the professor. At the very least, you'll want to find out if the professor wants a report or a paper . England? In other words, is your professor looking for information or argument ? Chances are she'll want you to make an argument. It will be up to you to narrow your topic and to report, make sure that it's appropriately academic. As you think about a topic, ask yourself the following questions: Have you formed an intellectual question? In other words, have you constructed a question that will require a complex, thoughtful answer? Is the question provocative? Startling? Controversial? Fresh?
Will you be able to answer this question adequately in a few pages? Or is the question impossibly broad? If the question seems broad, how might you narrow it? Does your question address both text and Essay A Life Well Lived, context? In other words, have you considered the historical and cultural circumstances that influenced this text? Have you considered what other scholars have said about it? Will your reader care about this question?
Or will she say, So what? For more advice on this matter, consult Coming Up With Your Topic elsewhere in this Web site. When writing an academic paper, you must not only consider what you want to say, you must also consider to whom you are saying it. Business Feasibility Report? In other words, it's important to for my, determine not only what you think about a topic, but also what your audience is likely to think. Business Feasibility Report? What are your audience's biases? Values? Expectations? Knowledge? To whom are you writing, and for what purpose?
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Begin by asking why you've taken this particular stance. Why did you find some elements of the text more important than others? Does this prioritizing reflect some bias or preconception on your part? If you dismissed part of a text as boring or unimportant, why did you do so? Do you have personal issues or experiences that lead you to be impatient with certain claims? Is there any part of your response to the text that might cause your reader to discount your paper as biased or un-critical? If so, you might want to reconsider your position on your topic. Your position on a topic does not by itself determine your rhetorical stance. You must also consider your reader. In the college classroom, the does draft audience is usually the professor or your classmates - although occasionally your professor will instruct you to write for a more particular or more general audience.
No matter who your reader is, you will want to feasibility sample, consider him carefully before you start to write. What do you know about your reader and his stance towards your topic? What is he likely to synthesis, know about the topic? What biases is he likely to have? Moreover, what effect do you hope to have on the reader?
Is your aim to be controversial? Informative? Entertaining? Will the reader appreciate or resent your intention? Once you have determined who your reader is, you will want to consider how you might best reach him. Feasibility? If, for example, you are an Essay authority on feasibility report a subject and you are writing to readers who know little or nothing about it, then you'll want to amylase, take an informative stance. If you aren't yet confident about a topic, and you have more questions than answers, you might want to take an inquisitive stance. In any case, when you are deciding on a rhetorical stance, choose one that allows you to be sincere. You don't want to take an authoritative stance on a subject if you aren't confident about what you are saying. On the other hand, you can't avoid taking a position on a subject: nothing is worse than reading a paper in which the writer has refused to take a stance.
What if you are of two minds on a subject? Declare that to the reader. Make ambivalence your clear rhetorical stance. Finally, don't write simply to please your professor. Though some professors find it flattering to discover that all of their students share their positions on a subject, most of feasibility report us are hoping that your argument will engage us by telling us something new about your topic - even if that something new is simply a fresh emphasis on a minor detail. What Does Rough Mean? Moreover, it is impossible for you to replicate the ideal paper that exists in report sample, your professor's head.
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OK: you think you understand what's required of you in an academic paper. Business Feasibility Sample? You need to be analytical. Bacterial Amylase? Critical. You need to create an informed argument. You need to consider your relationship to your topic and to your reader. But what about the matter of finding an appropriate academic tone and style? The tone and business feasibility report sample, style of bacterial academic writing might at first seem intimidating.
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Understand that you are writing to a person who is delighted when you make your point clearly, concisely, and persuasively. Understand, too, that she is less delighted when you have inflated your prose, pumped up your page count, or tried to impress her by using terms that you didn't take the time to understand. In short, then, good academic writing follows the rules of business good writing. If you'd like to know more about how to improve your academic style, please see Attending to whats poverty, Style, elsewhere in this Web site. But before you do, consider some of the report sample following tips, designed to make the what draft mean process of report sample writing an academic paper go more smoothly: Rely on evidence over feeling. You may be very passionate about bacterial a subject, but that's no excuse to sample, allow rhetoric alone to carry the ball. Even if you have constructed some very pretty phrases to argue against genetic engineering, they won't mean much to your professor unless you back those pretty phrases with facts. Watch your personal pronouns.
Students often wonder if it's OK to what does rough mean, use the feasibility report pronouns I and ibuprofen synthesis, you in a paper. In fact, it is OK - provided you use them understanding their effect. For example, overusing the I might make the reader feel that your paper is overly subjective. In fact, when a writer too often invokes himself in the first person, he may be doing so to avoid offering proof: It's my own personal opinion, and I have a right to report, it. I don't have to defend it. But of course, he does. As to using the pronoun you: Do you really want to aim a remark directly at the reader?
Doing so draws the ibuprofen reader closer to the text and invites a more subjective (and sometimes more intensely critical) response. If this kind of response is what you want, then by all means employ the you. However, you should also remember that certain academic disciplines (the sciences, for example) would frown on the use of these pronouns. When in business, doubt, ask. Watch your gendered pronouns. When you write, you'll want to make sure that you don't do anything to make your readers feel excluded. If you use he and him all the Well time, you are excluding half of your potential readership. Feasibility? We'll acknowledge that the he/she solution is a bit cumbersome in writing. However, you might solve the problem as we have done in ibuprofen, this document: by alternating he and business report sample, she throughout. Other writers advocate always using she instead of he as a way of acknowledging a long-standing exclusion of women from texts. Synthesis? Whatever decision you make in the end, be sensitive to its effect on your readers.
Be aware of discipline-specific differences. Each of the academic disciplines has its own way of constructing knowledge, of organizing that knowledge, of using evidence, and of communicating within the field. These differences, which run very deep, also express themselves in terms of tone and style. If you need more information about discipline-specific issues, talk to your professor. Read deeply in business sample, the discipline with the aim of trying to understand how people working within this discipline are constructing knowledge. And for matters regarding style, citation, and so forth, check out a relevant style manual, such as the MLA or APA style sheets. Avoid mechanical errors. No matter what audience you're writing for, you'll want to produce text that is war in england, error-free.
Errors in grammar and style slow your reader down. Feasibility Sample? Sometimes they even obscure your meaning. Always proofread your text before passing it on civil war in england to your reader. If you find that you are making a lot of errors and want help with grammar and style, consult a handbook or see Attending to Grammar and Attending to report, Style elsewhere in this Web site. Ibuprofen Synthesis? You might also contact RWIT for help.
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Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) The GMAT Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) consists of two, 30 minute components. One asks you to analyze an argument, and the other asks you to analyze an issue. These 2 essays can appear in business report either order when you take the GMAT. A Warning About Studying the amylase, Downloadable GMAT Essay Questions. The test writers at the GMAC have published two complete lists of current Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) questions. You can download the analysis of an argument questions here and the analysis of an issue questions here. A note of feasibility, warning: Please understand that you do not want to spend the time it would take to practice responding to every one of these questions. It is, however, a good and efficient preparation technique to review the list and to think about how you would respond to a few selected questions. Your essays will most likely be graded by synthesis a teaching assistant or graduate student from a university English department. This evaluator will assign your essay a grade from business report sample, 0 to 6. On A Life Well Lived? A computer program, called the E-rater, will then 'read' your essays and assign a grade as well.
If there is a difference of more than one point between the two grades, a second human reader will grade your essay and your score will be the business report, average of the two humans' scores. Bacterial? This average will be rounded up if it falls between the half point intervals. The graders (both human and computer) look for overall evidence of the following 4 qualities in your essays: Critique of the argument or analysis of the issue Ideas developed in a rational, persuasive manner, with relevant examples supporting them Organization Proper grammar and syntax. Due to the economics involved in grading this test, graders are not given much time to spend on feasibility report sample each essay. In fact, it is estimated that they spend an average of only 2 minutes on each essay. As you will see below, this impacts the strategies that you should choose for taking the AWA. The Overall Importance of the war in, Writing Assessment.
Admissions committees simply do not give AWA scores the same importance that they do to GMAT verbal and feasibility sample quantitative scores. This written assessment is just another way for the business school to assess your communication skills, in addition to grandchild your admissions essays and sample interview. We recommend that you spend more time preparing for Essay Well Lived the verbal and quantitative sections of the GMAT than you do for feasibility sample the AWA. You will have 30 minutes for each section. We suggest that, before you begin writing, you spend 3 to bacterial 5 minutes preparing a rough outline on your scrap paper of how you intend to business sample attack your essay. Consider this your brainstorming time. On A Life Well? Just throw down as many ideas on feasibility report the paper as you can. What Does Rough Mean? At the end of this 3 to 5 minutes, look at feasibility sample, what you have written. Scratch out anything you know you do not want to include. Number the remaining thoughts in on Lived terms of their importance to your issue or argument.
Congratulations you now have a logical outline around which to structure your essay! You should spend the next 20 to 22 minutes actually writing the essay, leaving yourself 5 minutes for proof-reading. Try to finish writing the feasibility report, essay when there are 5 minutes remaining on memories for my the GMAT CAT's clock. Business Feasibility Sample? Take a second to close your eyes, stretch, and whats poverty then try to business re-read your essays with fresh eyes. These last 5 minutes are best utilized to proof what you have just written. Here's what you should be looking for: Make sure the introductory paragraph is still relevant to the body of your essay. Read the essay line by line, looking for and correcting omitted words, typographical errors, and Well grammar errors. Make sure your thoughts come across clearly. Check for use of appropriate transition words.
Do not, however, attempt to report sample begin a drastic overhaul of your essay. Giving Your Essays the Proper Structure. You will only use approximately 20 of the allotted 30 minutes to actually write each essay. You will probably only be able to write about 350 words, which translates into 5 or 6 paragraphs. Since this must include an introduction and conclusion, you will have only memories for my grandchild 3 or 4 paragraphs in which to express 3 or 4 ideas. This is the formula for a winning essay: express a few ideas (the top ones you identified during your initial brainstorming session) in a few interesting sentences. Keep the essay structure simple. Remember, you only have a short amount of time to write the sample, essay, and the graders have an bacterial, even shorter amount of time to evaluate it. You certainly don't want to confuse the graders by using unduly complex structures or language. You are best served by using an introductory paragraph that clearly explains what you are going to report say in the essay.
You then want to develop your 3 or 4 ideas, each in its own separate paragraph. Make sure your opinions are clearly stated. Whats Poverty? (Leaving out opinion or reasoning is probably the most common mistake people make on the writing portion of the feasibility, GMAT exam. Do not worry about offending a grader with your opinions or analysis. What Does Rough Mean? AWA topics are not that controversial.) Finally, in your conclusion, you want to summarize your main points, and business feasibility report sample tie the ibuprofen, conclusion back to the introduction. This is not a good structure to follow in all writing particularly your admissions essays but it works extremely well for the AWA.
Other General Tips for the GMAT's AWA. Your grader will spend an average of 2 minutes reading and grading your essay. Clever metaphors and the like will be neither noticed nor appreciated. However, you do need to come across as smart in order to sample make the critical first impression needed to achieve a high score on this writing assessment. Civil England? The following tips were conceived with just this objective in mind: Use transition words generously. Phrases like for example, consequently, or first, second, . Business Feasibility Sample? lastly will help the reader follow your essay's structure more easily. Whats Poverty? Words such as because, consequently, and however can also be used to highlight your analytical abilities.
In addition, these words are so succinct that it is difficult even for a time-pressed grader to miss them. Be specific. One of the key criteria graders look for sample is your ability to present ideas and arguments clearly and persuasively. Many writers grow vague when pressed for grandchild time. Do not let this happen to you. However, do not let yourself slip into dogmatism, either. It is appropriate, even helpful, to acknowledge the limitations of your arguments and to concede the validity of opposing points of view. Our society in general, and the graders in particular, look highly upon the judicious individual. Because AWA essays are so short, however, such acknowledgements should be given only business feasibility report once or twice, and only in the body of the essay. Do not use big words just for the sake of using them.
Despite a popular myth to the contrary, the AWA is not designed to judge your vocabulary. Memories Grandchild? Your grader will get a first impression which is the only impression he or she will be able to form in 2 minutes that you used big words to mask weaknesses in your analysis. Grammar is important. The grammar you use to business feasibility sample express your ideas influences the way that people receive them. If your essay is grammatically incorrect, most people graders included will conclude that the essay's logic, structure, etc., are also incorrect. Do not allow this natural bias to harm your essay grade. Vary the length of your sentences. This will make your essay easier for the grader to read. It also signals that you are a smart and effective writer.
The Analysis of an Argument Essay. You will be given a one-paragraph argument to critique. You are not asked to present or discuss your own opinion on ibuprofen the subject. Instead, you are supposed to find fault with the business report, argument's reasoning. Use your 5 minute brainstorming session to think of some thoughtful and ibuprofen synthesis perceptive analyses of business, what you just read. These analyses should be geared towards providing a better remedy towards the whats poverty, stated problem. A specific and sufficiently-detailed example should be used with each argument you develop. As stated above, you should have 3 to 4 paragraphs in the body of the business report sample, essay. Each of these paragraphs should contain one point that you wish to make about the argument. Graders like to ibuprofen synthesis see you use specifics in your essay. For example, find the generalizations included in the one-paragraph argument. (We guarantee this will not be difficult to do.) You will be given a one-paragraph text discussing the pros and cons of some issue.
You will be asked to select the position with which you agree. The graders will have no preference towards which position you decide to support. During your initial 5 minutes of brainstorming, try to come up with points that support each side of the report sample, argument. That way, you are more likely to select the position that you can defend well in your essay (even if it's not the position you would take if you had more time or space to explain yourself). As you do in your analysis of an argument, be sure to include a specific example supporting or illustrating each point you make in the body of this essay. It's a good idea to acknowledge the complexity of the issue in your introduction. It is also a good practice to concede 1 or 2 points supporting the other position in whats poverty the body of the essay. Do not worry that this might make you appear indecisive to the graders. Recall what we stated above, about graders looking fondly on evidence of a judicious individual. Be careful with your choice of business sample, language and tone on this essay.
You are being asked to write an issues analysis, not a campaign ad. Many test takers make the mistake of adopting language that calls on the reader to take action. What Does? The test grader will react far more favorably to a persuasive argument that lays out the business feasibility report, reasons to support a position but does not call on him or her to take any immediate action. GMAT TM and amylase GMAT CAT TM are registered trademarks of the business sample, Graduate Management Admission Council TM . The GMAC does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in any way with the owner or any content of ibuprofen, this web site.
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essay augustus show An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in feasibility report the long series of whats poverty civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to business feasibility, address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by what does a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and precedent, and the general air of arrogance and business feasibility, high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name.
To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the Essay Well calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. Feasibility Sample! In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East. That the cabal of nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at what the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey. The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the business liberated. A Life! They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for report, their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power).
It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to bacterial amylase, the public and an individual stipend given to each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the city. Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of business feasibility a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to whats poverty, its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of feasibility report sample his three great-nephews, C. Whats Poverty! Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is not clear. Business Report Sample! Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and memories grandchild, is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at feasibility sample this time (49-45 BC). There is no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the A Life Well dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted. Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of events.
In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to business feasibility report sample, the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the Essay A Life Well dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to report sample, show this same daring repeatedly in for my future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC. Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to business feasibility report sample, say that in what draft mean the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign.
His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the report sample army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of for my action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. Business Report! His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to memories, renounce the adoption and inheritance in feasibility report order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. Synthesis! [] Entrance into business feasibility report sample, Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [] Antony paid no attention, at least officially. He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the whats poverty youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. Feasibility Report! [] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the bacterial amylase leaders of the business report sample Liberators.
Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Civil England! Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. The ensuing exchange did not go well. [] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. [] Events around Mutina in report sample northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and amylase, one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an report sample, appointment confirmed by the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in on A Life Well June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for report, that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul.
Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of amylase 44 BC, but Antony decided to business, assume command of Essay on A Life Well Lived Cisalpine Gaul in November. Report! Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [] Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Essay A Life! Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the sample loyalty of the memories grandchild army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for business report, him), at rough mean which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more.
Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on report sample, old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the amylase power of the name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of business his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian. Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. [] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul. Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. Whats Poverty! All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic.
The senate, led by feasibility sample Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [] Cicero and Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to ibuprofen, Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power. As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of feasibility sample men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into bacterial amylase, the region and moved against Antony. [] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul.
Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph.
Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to business feasibility report, Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. [] In the Well face of business all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and does rough mean, seized the city with eight legions. Three legions brought from feasibility outside Italy to for my grandchild, counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to business, replace the deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of amylase Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for business feasibility report, the Liberators, and tried and convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day. Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for whats poverty, either legality or scruple. []
These complicated events have been treated here in business feasibility detail due to their immense importance in Essay on establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and business feasibility, then by Essay on Lived the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and business report sample, resolute action in whats poverty defence of business feasibility report his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and therefore he had to what does, rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of business feasibility sample Caesar. Memories For My Grandchild! His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and business feasibility sample, few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the civil eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to business, make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start. Memories For My Grandchild! Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the property of the proscribed was forfeited, the feasibility report sample main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of war in their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at business feasibility report all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the ibuprofen synthesis proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to business feasibility report sample, root out all opposition to the triumvirs in Italy.
Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Civil War In England! Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance. The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Report! Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the war in england proscriptions. Business Feasibility! [] Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in what does Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on report sample, Cassius and Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year.
The campaign took place in the Balkans and whats poverty, culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at Philippi in Macedonia. The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in report sample the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the Essay on A Life Well Lived provinces was required in light of the business sample new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the ibuprofen Roman world began to business report, manifest itself. Bacterial! [] In the West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of business feasibility some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the future loyalty of his armies.
The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Beginning in 41 BC and amylase, continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for business feasibility report, the opponents of the triumvirate and whats poverty, led to the so-called Perusine War. One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony.
Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to feasibility report sample, Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation. By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. A Life Well! When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and business feasibility report sample, Fulvia up in bacterial early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the councilors and people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder.
He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. Business Report! [] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by Essay on A Life Well moving west in the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at feasibility war. Rough Mean! However, neither army was keen for war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of Brundisium.
By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to feasibility, Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East. Memories Grandchild! Lepidus continued to languish in Africa. Business Sample! Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in bacterial Greece in sample the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in what the West. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution.
Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and then took to the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. Feasibility Report Sample! During the war at for my Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of business report sample resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by bacterial amylase refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by report sample Octavian to oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in draft mean order to make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs. Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of feasibility assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to whats poverty, negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC.
This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in business report sample the complex game. [] The Treaty of Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in rough mean Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general. Business Feasibility! Toward that end, the on Well presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in feasibility report 38 BC. Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Lived Cumae and much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of feasibility sample 37 BC.
Aside from Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the for my triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC. Now their power was renewed. Business Feasibility Report! [] Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south.
Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the what does rough rebel's fleet at the battle of Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward. Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to feasibility report sample, his position of dominance in the West. Fate allowed him to for my grandchild, neutralize the business report sample other. Lepidus, so long in whats poverty the shadows, now decided to make a play for power.
Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the report island for good. Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an bacterial, embarrassing scene in business feasibility report Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the amylase Roman West.
In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC. In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well. He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and feasibility sample, Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. Whats Poverty! This was all the business report sample more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in for my grandchild Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the feasibility report sample Donations of Alexandria.
In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by A Life Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of feasibility Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and whats poverty, the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on business sample, the road to war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC.
This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the ibuprofen title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for business feasibility, claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Essay Well Lived! Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at report the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by war in the other pro-Antony senators. News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra.
It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in the summer of business feasibility report sample 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to does rough draft mean, be the people's choice for the war against feasibility sample, Cleopatra.
It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. [] In prospect, the synthesis war between Antony and Octavian promised to business sample, be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by memories for my grandchild the Romans. Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the business report end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in what rough mean Greece, as had Caesar and business feasibility, Pompey at the outset of an for my grandchild, earlier great conflict. Business Report! The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely. England! The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse.
Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. [] The victory of Octavian was complete. Business Feasibility! Antony and Cleopatra fled to war in, Egypt. Business! Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of their general and whats poverty, his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC).
Antony and business report sample, Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into whats poverty, the realm of romantic legend. Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the future, for himself and for Rome. [] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done. After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the East. For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected.
Octavian returned to business feasibility sample, Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of what does mean 29 BC. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt). Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by business feasibility Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of grandchild 32 BC, now extended in feasibility report sample principle, if not in practice, to bacterial, embrace the entire empire and all its armies.
Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is feasibility report sample political posturing in his claim to universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. Synthesis! In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to be seen to be restored. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and report, the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order. Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the whats poverty uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to business feasibility report, appease the sensibilities of the Essay Well elite.
In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in business feasibility report fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. [] On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to amylase, the shock of those not in business report the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. A Life Well Lived! Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by business feasibility virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the mean case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of report sample Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic. This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on for my, 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance.
C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of feasibility report citizens; the for my Shield of Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the beginnings of an sample, Augustan ideology. By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. Synthesis! The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root.
While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in report June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged. Civil War In! At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed. In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated?
In the end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on two further occasions in the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is feasibility report sample debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of this province. The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Whatever the legal details, by virtue of this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in the empire. Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the memories grandchild city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of business Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding).
These were now compensated for ibuprofen, by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. Feasibility Report! With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the for my ability to direct affairs in feasibility sample every wing of domestic and foreign administration. For My Grandchild! These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the feasibility report Roman emperors' legal position. [] While the major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the year before. Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the what mean right to business, convene the does draft mean senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to business, see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of Essay everything.
In addition, there was his membership of all the business feasibility colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from civil war in taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and achievements. It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the people. In this way, the extent of business report sample Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to civil, make known his preferences for matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for feasibility report, instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected. Civil War In England! No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the way--from the oath of business feasibility report 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the what does draft mean passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him.
He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright. In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice. That is what mattered.
The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into business feasibility, the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC. In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of civil war in england sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in report Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise.
Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn. Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at bacterial amylase the top. Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. Feasibility Report Sample! []
The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to ibuprofen, have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in business feasibility sample 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and synthesis, just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility). Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [] Marcellus was soon replaced by feasibility Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit.
Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor. Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the Essay on A Life Well way. Business Feasibility! Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is reported to on Well Lived, have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to business sample, Julia or kill him. Amylase! Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to Agrippa in that year.
Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). [] By virtue of these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to business feasibility sample, take over the reins of government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in whats poverty 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar. A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate. In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the report sample adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events).
Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years. Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and bacterial, Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. Business Feasibility! [] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in what action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the following year. Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and business sample, the most senior and whats poverty, experienced of the secondary princes in sample the imperial house. Memories Grandchild! As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . Feasibility Report Sample! In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and A Life Well Lived, the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of business tribunician power. A Life Well! In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in feasibility AD 14.
In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Whats Poverty! Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in business feasibility sample Germany in 9 BC). He appears to have relied on his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is bacterial amylase probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an feasibility report, attempt by Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from memories for my which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him. Business Report Sample! The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at the time and whats poverty, the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. Business Feasibility Report! []
The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies. Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the for my grandchild Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and equestrians. Report Sample! In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to on Well Lived, the island of Pandateria. She never returned to Rome. The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and business sample, seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and Essay Well, subsequent banishment. Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. For, in feasibility sample the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and whats poverty, Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty.
That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at least in part, is suggested by the trial for sample, treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of ibuprofen her lovers were banished. Feasibility Report Sample! The same can be said for civil war in england, the fall of Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the feasibility Younger. However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [] In all, then, the whats poverty succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for business feasibility sample, all future emperors.
Despite the internal difficulties engendered by memories for my grandchild the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to feasibility report, the populace. This is best illustrated by the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in what does draft mean January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on feasibility sample, the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army.
Augustus completed the civil war in ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in Germany in AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. For the citizen soldiers of the business report legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. Civil War In England! After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in business report sample favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of ibuprofen synthesis itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune). Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the sample campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of Essay on Lived service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. Feasibility Report Sample! [] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of amylase loyalty to him and by business feasibility report his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on discharge. In short, he was their patron. The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of on A Life Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of business sample Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the ibuprofen empire's frontiers.
Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of C. Caesar and the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). Business Report Sample! While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the Essay A Life Well center of power and began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear. For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to report sample, what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated. On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. Civil War In! One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in feasibility report society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [] The importance to war in, Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of business feasibility report sample army loyalties is revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for whats poverty, Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history.
Since Crassus's claim to feasibility sample, the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the claim on a technicality. Amylase! Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from our records. (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of feasibility report sample Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. Essay! C. Report Sample! Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Egypt on what does rough, its annexation in sample 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on ibuprofen, campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of business feasibility report sample which has survived. Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus. His social status and political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC).
Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of for my republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and sample, the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and bacterial, Maritimae). In the business feasibility report sample East and in Mauretania in whats poverty North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to business, exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor.
From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by for my grandchild the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to business feasibility sample, Augutus: A New Order Established). When the on Well disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on feasibility sample, Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the public ones by a factor of does rough almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command. Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province. Such interference on report sample, Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of amylase joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. Report! [] Overall, it is fair to whats poverty, say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Business Feasibility Sample! Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to rotate annually. The men varied in rank from what does draft senators (proconsuls, usually of business feasibility report sample praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of whats poverty those careers now depended less on business feasibility, victory at the polls and more on the emperor's favor.
Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of war in one's ultimate ambitions. Sample! These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the ibuprofen synthesis Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for feasibility sample, the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound. We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the rapacious activities of the likes of synthesis Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Augustus, by virtue of proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the business most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. Essay On Well! The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is feasibility report known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the A Life Pax Augusta . [] Augustus, as the sample protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of whats poverty legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for feasibility sample, instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and what rough mean, he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite.
He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the business amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of this sort of legislation is illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to Essay Well, freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in feasibility report wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. For My! This is report sample a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of war in england achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and feasibility report, reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of whats poverty his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the thrust of feasibility report his social legislation was less to Lived, regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and business report, hardly at all affected the commoner on the street. [] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of ibuprofen synthesis Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and business report, it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean. In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium.
Augustus, reticent in Essay on Well Lived this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. Business Report Sample! The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of whats poverty Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of a god and the revered one (Augustus). A compromise solution appears to have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. Feasibility Report Sample! In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and whats poverty, two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in business report sample Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the amylase local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and business feasibility, Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by england locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to business, direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of local populations into a Roman way of life. [] The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. Ibuprofen Synthesis! This is the business era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in does rough draft mean poetry, and Livy in prose.
Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in sample abeyance since the bacterial second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of business report sample his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC. Another circle formed around M. Synthesis! Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and business, so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. Does Rough Draft! When all the evidence is business report weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. Essay On A Life Well! In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the business hope Augustus brought for for my grandchild, a restoration of feasibility sample peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian.
The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of bacterial evidence deriving from business feasibility report sample Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the what does mean bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to sample, the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. Mean! The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into feasibility sample, the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. [] In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Civil! Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out feasibility very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into rough mean, a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. Business Report Sample! He directed the does draft mean future of the feasibility sample empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to whats poverty, the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense.
Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the business feasibility report sample good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and whats poverty, its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56. Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990). ________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on business feasibility sample, Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and Triumph of on Well Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970). Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the report Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997).
Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and memories grandchild, Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003) Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987). Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and business feasibility report sample, Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992).
Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in Raaflaub and on Well, Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. Business Feasibility Report! 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995). Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and ibuprofen, Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314. Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998).
Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982). ________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59. Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of business feasibility sample AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44. ________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97. ________. Julians and Claudians, Greece and amylase, Rome 22 (1975): 29-38.
Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947). Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66.
________. Triumvirate and Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________. The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and feasibility, E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984).
Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63. Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54. ________. and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and what rough mean, his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and business, the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990). Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984).
Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D. Creighton and R.J.A. Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in what does rough Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. Business Feasibility Report Sample! ed. Amylase! (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________.
The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986). Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. Feasibility Report Sample! (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994). Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'?
Augustan Literary Patronage, in what mean Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the business feasibility report sample Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A. Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the Essay on biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca.
20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to business feasibility sample, be based on this autobiography). The surviving text of what Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Feasibility Report! Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M. Hall, Nicolaus of bacterial Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to business feasibility report, him in other ancient literary works and civil war in england, inscriptions, and report, large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of on A Life modern accounts is sample also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the bacterial amylase notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of business feasibility bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. For My! Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Feasibility Report! Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom.
Rev . [] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the england Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd. The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the business report presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. Civil England! B. Civ . Report! 2.109; Plut. Caes . 61-62.
Suet. Caes . 79.2 only alludes to the incident. [] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the whats poverty historical reality is hard to weed out. Business Sample! He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic. What Does Rough! Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the feasibility sample only contemporary evidence for Lived, Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on business feasibility sample, his early life. Rough Draft Mean! A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in sample modern sources) in england 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC.
Following standard practice, I shall refer to report sample, him by his appropriate name in civil england each period. [] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of business feasibility murder: App. B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in Italy in memories early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . Feasibility Report! 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the does influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the business sample young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Fam . Ibuprofen Synthesis! 10.24.5. [] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App.
B. Feasibility Sample! Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Augustus's own summary of this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to on A Life Well, the simple and business feasibility, tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of what does rough draft mean a faction. [] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is business feasibility report sample why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. What Does Draft! Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic.
Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to business feasibility report sample, contemporaries. [] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364). A few days later, on whats poverty, 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to feasibility report sample, the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366). [] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at least initially: on on A Life Well Lived, 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [] Appian ( B. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the feasibility money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in rough mean both accounts the meeting was not successful.
[] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . 11.28.6). [] See App. B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [] All of this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . Sample! 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2). See also App. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC).
Needless to whats poverty, say, it was also to the political benefit of the Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. Sample! In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [] App. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic. Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . Grandchild! 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and business feasibility report sample, destroy).
[] App. Ibuprofen Synthesis! B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from report sample Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and Essay on A Life, Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [] Overtures to Antony: App.
B. Civ . 3.80-81. Meeting and business report, formation of the triumvirate: App. Whats Poverty! B. Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App. B. Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [] See App. B. Feasibility Sample! Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the whats poverty proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13. Death of Cicero: App. B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic.
46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . Sample! 49.5) preserves the rough draft mean moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and business report, gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . Civil! 27.1), and feasibility report, Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to what does rough mean, be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of business report sample Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in ibuprofen synthesis Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is feasibility given by Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by ibuprofen the mentality of the business political purge, not financial need. [] Africa: App. B. Civ . 4.53-56.
Campaign of Philippi: App. Synthesis! B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [] On the depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. Business Feasibility! On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. On the methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and ibuprofen, houses).
It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for the requirements of business settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Essay Well Lived Appian were affected by the settlement process. [] On the Perusine War, see App. B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of councilors: App.
B. Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3. Acquisition of business report Gaul: App. B. Ibuprofen Synthesis! Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [] Threatened war and Pact of Brundisium: App. B. Civ. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [] Career of feasibility Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic. Whats Poverty! Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App.
B. Civ . 5.56. Treaty of report Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind. A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. A Life! Negotiations were then shouted across the business report sample sea until agreement was reached.
On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the civil war in england Peace of business feasibility Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an on A Life Lived, overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [] Collapse of sample Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the civil war in england duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status.
See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in business report Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the what does triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of its power; see below, n. Business! 29. On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [] Final campaign against Sextus: App. Essay A Life Well Lived! B. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Business Report Sample! Lepidus: App. B. Bacterial Amylase! Civ . Feasibility Sample! 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for service.
Octavian discharged 20,000 of bacterial amylase them on the spot and business report, promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [] One of the honors allegedly given to memories grandchild, Octavian after Naulochus, late in business report sample 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from bacterial 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in business report 36 BC. Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the pontificate: App. Rough Draft Mean! B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . Feasibility Report Sample! 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . 3.132.
[] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in ibuprofen Illyricum: App. Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Business Feasibility! Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut. Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell.
Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence). [] On the does rough draft mean date of the expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. 25. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in sample establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the civil war in england Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy.
So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed. Feasibility! No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the civil war in triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to business feasibility, Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position.
On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998). The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4.
Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and synthesis, Suetonius, locc. citt.). Syme ( Rom. Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of feasibility report Antony in bacterial the senate and the declaration of business report sample war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on civil war in, each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61). For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut.
Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the business feasibility report fall of does draft Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . Business Feasibility! 13.2.107 and 13.2.185). Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. Memories For My Grandchild! But she had an asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. Business Feasibility Report! 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet.
Aug . 19.1. [] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8. Bacterial Amylase! Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. Sample! By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the whats poverty Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at feasibility sample peace (though Dio is quick to point out the various wars still in progress in diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [] None of this is meant to suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and acted accordingly.
That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Grandchild! Aug . 25.4). These are the mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in report sample that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2).
A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and memories for my grandchild, its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the feasibility report sample senate and memories for my, people of Rome ( RG 34.1). [] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for feasibility sample, ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . 313-30.
[] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and civil england, recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor. Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. Business Report! 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to whats poverty, 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69. Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . Report Sample! 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48.
[] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . Ibuprofen! 52. Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5.
Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Business Feasibility Report Sample! Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3. Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . Amylase! 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41. Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the names of the candidates for business sample, office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing.
Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on the terminology of civil power Augustus uses to describe it. [] Continuity of Principate: Suet. Business Feasibility Sample! Aug . 28.1-2. [] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from ibuprofen synthesis 43-41 BC; and then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4. Report! Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1.
Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1. Death and burial of on Lived Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Business Feasibility Report Sample! Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the what rough draft mean RG (21.1) refers to business feasibility sample, him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Ibuprofen! Octavius granted right of business standing early: App. B. Civ . 3.51. [] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3.
Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa. Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Ibuprofen Synthesis! Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [] Coins: RIC nos.
407, 408, 414. Business Report! Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac. Ann . 1.3. Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to what rough draft mean, the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and feasibility sample, B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an emperor? The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. Does Draft! As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and sample, beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful.
That Augustus was blind to the danger of what does rough presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to report, the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2. Ibuprofen Synthesis! For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to business sample, the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and amylase, L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. Business Feasibility Report Sample! See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [] Fall of ibuprofen synthesis Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Report! Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . For My Grandchild! 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. 2.100.2-5.
For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and business, Claudians. Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus. Fall of Julia the civil war in england Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16.
On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in feasibility report sample n. 44. On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the bigger question of civil war in england frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and cartography).
On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. For the stations of the legions on Augustus's death, see n. Report Sample! 48. [] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1. The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the amylase enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of feasibility report sample all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the whats poverty Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of business feasibility Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by Essay A Life Well Lived Southern (115-17). Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the successes of Tiberius and feasibility report sample, Drusus on the Rhine and Danube in 12 and does rough draft mean, 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28.
On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp. Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet.
Aug . 37. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the feasibility report empire's territories on whats poverty, Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions.
Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Feasibility Report Sample! Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat.
Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the whats poverty Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat. Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. Feasibility Sample! pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2.
Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. Bacterial! pref. 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of business sample Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves. Sulla in the East: Plut.
Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from whats poverty Asian communities). Feasibility Report Sample! Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52). On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. Memories Grandchild! A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on report, manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95.
Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [] On the imperial cult, see the amylase still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East). Business Report! On the growth of the whats poverty cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the contemporary worship of feasibility Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13.
[] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Whats Poverty! Aug . Report! 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet. Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4.
A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44. On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Well Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. Report Sample! For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [] On the literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the synthesis Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, ); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.
On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and feasibility, Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. War In England! For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34). Report Sample! My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history).
[] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Ibuprofen! Tiberius's position: Suet. Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4.
[] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the business feasibility sample entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Updated: 5 July 2004. For more detailed geographical information, please use the DIR / ORB Antique and Essay on A Life Well, Medieval Atlas below.
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