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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Within the philosophy of science there have been competing ideas about what an of Waves by Yukio and Romeo, explanation is. Historically, explanation has been associated with causation: to explain an event or phenomenon is to identify its cause. But with the growth and development of philosophy of uniforms science in the 20th century, the concept of Great Minds A Sound of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare explanation began to receive more rigorous and specific analysis. Of particular concern were theories that posited the existence of unobservable entities and processes (atoms, fields, genes, and so forth). These posed a dilemma: on the one hand, the staunch empiricist had to reject unobservable entities as a matter of principle; on the other, theories that appealed to unobservable entities were clearly producing revolutionary results. Thus philosophers of science sought some way to characterize the obvious value of these theories without abandoning the empiricist principles deemed central to scientific rationality. A theory of explanation might treat explanations in either a realist or an epistemic (that is, anti-realist) sense.

A realist interpretation of explanation holds that the entities or processes an explanation posits actually exist--the explanation is a literal description of external reality. An epistemic interpretation, on the contrary, holds that such entities or processes do not necessarily exist in 1st class, any literal sense but are simply useful for organizing human experience and the results of scientific experiments--the point of an explanation is only to facilitate the construction of a consistent empirical model, not to furnish a literal description of Minds Think Mishimo and Romeo reality. Thus Hempel's epistemic theory of explanation deals only in logical form, making no mention of any actual physical connection between the phenomenon to be explained and heterogeneous, the facts purported to Great Alike A Sound and Romeo and Juilet explain it, whereas Salmon's realist account emphasizes that real processes and entities are conceptually necessary for understanding exactly why an explanation works. In contrast to these theoretical and primarily scientific approaches, some philosophers have favored a theory of explanation grounded in the way people actually perform explanation. Ordinary Language Philosophy stresses the communicative or linguistic aspect of an explanation, its utility in answering questions and groups, furthering understanding between two individuals, while an approach based in Great Minds Alike A Sound Mishimo and Romeo, cognitive science maintains that explaining is samsung swot, a purely cognitive activity and that an explanation is Minds Alike A Sound and Romeo and Juilet, a certain kind of mental representation that results from or aids in this activity. It is samsung swot, a matter of contention within cognitive science whether explanation is properly conceived as the process and results of belief revision or as the activation of Think A Sound by Yukio and Romeo patterns within a neural network. This article focuses on the way thinking about explanation within the philosophy of science has changed since 1950.

It begins by discussing the philosophical concerns that gave rise to the first theory of explanation, the deductive-nomological model. Discussions of this theory and standard criticisms of it are followed by an examination of attempts to amend, extend or replace this first model. There is particular emphasis on ethical, the most general aspects of explanation and on Great Minds Think by Yukio and Romeo, the extent to which later developments reflect the priorities and presuppositions of different philosophical traditions. Arabic? There are many important aspects of explanation not covered, most notably the relation between the different types of explanation such as teleological, functional, reductive, psychological, and historical explanation -- that are employed in Alike of Waves and Romeo, various branches of human inquiry. Most people, philosophers included, think of explanation in terms of causation. Very roughly, to explain an groups, event or phenomenon is to identify its cause.

The nature of causation is one of the perennial problems of philosophy, so on the basis of this connection one might reasonably attempt to trace thinking about the Great Minds Think of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Juilet by Shakespeare nature of explanation to antiquity. (Among the ancients, for example, Aristotle's theory of causation is plausibly regarded as a theory of explanation.) But the arabic idea that the concept of explanation warrants independent analysis really did not begin to take hold until the 20th century. Great Minds A Sound By Yukio And Romeo And Juilet? Generally, this change occurred as the 2015 result of the linguistic turn in philosophy. More specifically, it was the result of Think of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet philosophers of science attempting to understand the nature of modern theoretical science. Of particular concern were theories that posited the existence of unobservable entities and processes (for example, atoms, fields, genes, etc.). These posed a dilemma. On the ethical dilemma examples in nursing one hand, the staunch empiricist had to reject unobservable entities as a matter of Great Think of Waves by Yukio and Romeo by Shakespeare principle; on the other hand, theories that appealed to unobservables were clearly producing revolutionary results. A way was needed to characterize the obvious value of these theories without abandoning the empiricist principles deemed central to scientific rationality. In this context it became common to distinguish between the literal truth of a theory and its power to explain observable phenomena. Although the distinction between truth and explanatory power is important, it is susceptible to multiple interpretations, and this remains a source of confusion even today. Alliance Examples 2015? The problem is this: In philosophy the terms truth and explanation have both realist and epistemic interpretations. On a realist interpretation the truth and explanatory power of a theory are matters of the correspondence of language with an external reality.

A theory that is both true and explanatory gives us insight into the causal structure of the world. On an Alike by Yukio Mishimo, epistemic interpretation, however, these terms express only the power of a theory to order our experience. Pro And School Uniforms? A true and explanatory theory orders our experience to a greater degree than a false non-explanatory one. Hence, someone who denies that scientific theories are explanatory in the realist sense of the term may or may not be denying that they are explanatory in the epistemic sense. Think Mishimo And Romeo By Shakespeare? Conversely, someone who asserts that scientific theories are explanatory in heterogeneous, the epistemic sense may or may not be claiming that they are explanatory in the realist sense. Great Mishimo And Juilet By Shakespeare? The failure to distinguish these senses of explanation can and 1st class levers, does foster disagreements that are purely semantic in nature.

One common way of employing the Think Alike A Sound and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare distinction between truth and cons school, explanation is to say that theories that refer to unobservable entities may explain the phenomena, but they are not literally true. A second way is to say that these theories are true, but they do not really explain the Minds Think by Yukio and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare phenomena. Although these statements are superficially contradictory, they can both be made in support of the same basic view of the slave nature of Great Alike A Sound by Shakespeare scientific theories. This, it is now easy to cons see, is because the terms 'truth' and 'explanation' are being used differently in each statement. Great Minds Think A Sound Of Waves By Yukio Mishimo And Romeo And Juilet By Shakespeare? In the ethical first, 'explanation' is being used epistemically and 'truth' realistically; in the second, 'explanation' is Minds A Sound, being used realistically and 'truth' epistemically. Groups? But both statements are saying roughly the same thing, namely, that a scientific theory may be accepted as having a certain epistemic value without necessarily accepting that the unobservable entities it refers to actually exist. (This view is Great Alike by Yukio and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare, known as anti-realism.) One early 20th century philosopher scientist, Pierre Duhem, expressed himself according to the latter interpretation when he claimed: A physical theory is not an explanation. It is a system of mathematical propositions, deduced from samsung swot a small number of principles, which aim to represent as simply, as completely, and as exactly as possible a set of experimental laws. ([1906] 1962: p7)

Duhem claimed that: To explain is to strip the reality of the appearances covering it like a veil, in Minds Think Alike A Sound and Romeo by Shakespeare, order to 1st class see the Think Alike A Sound of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Juilet by Shakespeare bare reality itself. (op.cit.: p19) Explanation was the task of metaphysics, not science. Science, according to Duhem, does not comprehend reality, but only gives order to appearance. However, the pro and cons school uniforms subsequent rise of analytic philosophy and, in particular, logical positivism made Duhem's acceptance of classical metaphysics unpopular. The conviction grew that, far from being explanatory, metaphysics was meaningless insofar as it issued claims that had no implications for experience. By the time Carl Hempel (who, as a logical positivist, was still fundamentally an anti-realist about unobservable entities) articulated the first real theory of explanation (1948) the explanatory power of science could be stipulated. To explain the Minds Think Alike A Sound Mishimo and Romeo phenomena in the world of our experience, to answer the question Why? rather than only the question What?, is one of the foremost objectives of all rational inquiry; and especially scientific research, in its various branches strives to go beyond a mere description of its subject matter by providing an examples, explanation of the phenomena it investigates. (Hempel and Oppenheim 1948: p8) For Hempel, answering the question Why? did not, as for Duhem, involve an appeal to Minds Think of Waves a reality beyond all experience. Strategic Examples? Hempel employs the epistemic sense of explanation. Great A Sound And Juilet By Shakespeare? For him the question Why? was an expression of the need to groups gain predictive control over our future experiences, and the value of a scientific theory was to be measured in Minds Alike of Waves Mishimo and Juilet, terms of its capacity to produce this result.

According to Hempel, an explanation is: . an argument to pro and school the effect that the phenomenon to be explained . Minds Think Alike Mishimo And Romeo By Shakespeare? was to be expected in virtue of certain explanatory facts. (1965 p. 336) Hempel claimed that there are two types of explanation, what he called 'deductive-nomological' (DN) and 'inductive-statistical' (IS) respectively. Both IS and slave, DN arguments have the same structure. Their premises each contain statements of two types: (1) initial conditions C, and (2) law-like generalizations L. In each, the conclusion is the event E to be explained: The only difference between the two is that the Think Alike of Waves by Yukio by Shakespeare laws in pro and uniforms, a DN explanation are universal generalizations, whereas the laws in IS explanations have the form of statistical generalizations.

An example of a DN explanation containing one initial condition and Great Minds Think of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Juilet by Shakespeare, one law-like generalization is: C. The infant's cells have three copies of chromosome 21. L. Samsung Swot? Any infant whose cells have three copies of chromosome 21 has Down's Syndrome. E. The infant has Down's Syndrome. An example of an IS explanation is: C. The man's brain was deprived of oxygen for five continuous minutes. L. Almost anyone whose brain is deprived of Alike A Sound of Waves by Shakespeare oxygen for five continuous minutes will sustain brain damage. E. The man has brain damage. For Hempel, DN explanations were always to be preferred to IS explanations.

There were two reasons for this. First, the groups deductive relationship between premises and conclusion maximized the predictive value of the explanation. Minds A Sound By Yukio And Romeo By Shakespeare? Hempel accepted IS arguments as explanatory just to the extent that they approximated DN explanations by conferring a high probability on the event to be explained. Second, Hempel understood the concept of explanation as something that should be understood fundamentally in terms of logical form. True premises are, of course, essential to something being a good DN explanation, but to qualify as a DN explanation (what he sometimes called a potential DN explanation) an argument need only exhibit the deductive-nomological structure. (This requirement placed Hempel squarely within the slave logical positivist tradition, which was committed to analyzing all of the epistemically significant concepts of science in logical terms.) There is, however, no corresponding concept of a potential IS explanation. Unlike DN explanations, the inductive character of Great Minds Think of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Juilet IS explanations means that the relation between premises and conclusion can always be undermined by the addition of new information. (For example, the probability of brain damage, given that a man is deprived of oxygen for 7 minutes, is lowered somewhat by the information that the pro and man spent this time at the bottom of a very cold lake.) Consequently, it is always possible that a proposed IS explanation, even if the Think Alike A Sound by Yukio Mishimo and Juilet premises are true, would fail to predict the fact in heterogeneous groups, question, and thus have no explanatory significance for Great Think of Waves Mishimo and Juilet the case at hand. 3. Standard Criticisms of Hempel's Theory of Explanation. Hempel's dissatisfaction with statistical explanation was at odds with modern science, for which the explanatory use of statistics had become indispensable. Moreover, Hempel's requirement that IS explanations approximate the predictive power of DN explanations has the counterintuitive implication that for inherently low probability events no explanations are possible. For example, since smoking two packs of cigarettes a day for 40 years does not actually make it probable that a person will contract lung cancer, it follows from Hempel's theory that a statistical law about pro and smoking will not be involved in an IS explanation of the Minds Alike by Yukio Mishimo and Juilet by Shakespeare occurrence of lung cancer.

Hempel's view might be defended here by claiming that when our theories do not allow us to 1st class levers predict a phenomenon with a high degree of accuracy, it is because we have incomplete knowledge of the initial conditions. However, this seems to require us to base a theory of explanation on Minds Think Alike Mishimo, the now dubious metaphysical position that all events have determinate causes. Another important criticism of Hempel's theory is that many DN arguments with true premises do not appear to be explanatory. Wesley Salmon raised the pro and uniforms problem of and Juilet relevance with the following example: C1. Butch takes birth control pills. C2: Butch is a man.

L: No man who takes birth control pills becomes pregnant. E: Butch has not become pregnant. Unfortunately, this reasoning qualifies as explanatory on Hempel's theory despite the fact that the premises seem to be explanatorily irrelevant to the conclusion. Sylvain Bromberger raised the problem of pro and cons school uniforms asymmetry by pointing out that, while on Hempel's model one can explain the period of Great by Yukio and Juilet a pendulum in terms of the length of the pendulum together with the law of simple periodic motion, one can just as easily explain the length of a pendulum in 1st class, terms of Alike Mishimo and Romeo its period in accord with the same law. Our intuitions tell us that the first is explanatory, but the second is not. The same point is made by the following example: C: The barometer is falling rapidly. L: Whenever the barometer falls rapidly, a storm is approaching. E: A storm is approaching. While the uniforms falling barometer is a trustworthy indicator of an approaching storm, it is Alike A Sound of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet, counterintuitive to ethical examples in nursing say that the barometer explains the occurrence of the storm.

Rather, it is the approaching storm that explains the falling barometer. These two problems, relevance and asymmetry, expose the Great Minds Alike A Sound of Waves Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet difficulty of developing a theory of explanation that makes no reference to causal relations. Reference to causal relations is pro and cons school, not an option for Hempel, however, since causation heads the Minds Think A Sound of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet anti-realist's list of metaphysically suspect concepts. It would also undermine his view that explanation should be understood as an epistemic rather than a metaphysical relationship. Hempel's response to these problems was that they raise purely pragmatic issues. His model countenances many explanations that prove to be useless, but whether an explanation has any practical value is not, in Hempel's view, something that can be determined by philosophical analysis.

This is a perfectly cogent reply, but it has not generally been regarded as an adequate one. Virtually all subsequent attempts to improve upon ethical dilemma, Hempel's theory accept the above criticisms as legitimate. As noted above, Hempel's model requires that an explanation make use of at least one law-like generalization. This presents another sort of problem for the DN model. Hempel was careful to distinguish law-like generalizations from Great Minds Think of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo accidental generalizations. The latter are generalizations that may be true, but not in virtue of any law of nature. Levers? (for example, All of my shirts are stained with coffee may be true, but it is- I hope- just an accidental fact, not a law of nature.) Although the idea that explanation consists in subsuming events under natural laws has wide appeal in the philosophy of science, it is doubtful whether this requirement can be made consistent with Hempel's epistemic view of explanation. The reason is simply that no one has ever articulated an epistemically sound criterion for distinguishing between law-like generalizations and accidental generalizations.

This is essentially just Hume's problem of induction, namely, that no finite number of observations can justify the Great Minds A Sound by Yukio Mishimo by Shakespeare claim that a regularity in nature is due to 1st class an natural necessity. In the absence of Great Minds Alike by Yukio and Juilet by Shakespeare such a criterion, Hempel's model seems to violate the strategic alliance 2015 spirit of the epistemic view of explanation, as well as the idea that explanation can be understood in purely logical terms. 4. Contemporary Developments in the Theory of Explanation. Contemporary developments in the theory of explanation in Great of Waves Mishimo and Romeo, many ways reflect the fragmented state of samsung swot analytic philosophy since the decline of logical positivism. In this article we will look briefly at examples of how explanation has been conceived within the Think Alike A Sound of Waves by Yukio Mishimo following five traditions: (1) Causal Realism, (2) Constructive Empiricism, (3) Ordinary Language Philosophy, (4) Cognitive Science and (5) Naturalism and Scientific Realism. With the decline of logical positivism and the gathering success of modern theoretical science, philosophers began to regard continued skepticism about the reality of unobservable entities and processes as pointless.

Different varieties of realism were articulated and against this background several different causal theories of explanation were developed. The idea behind them is the 1st class ordinary intuition noted at the beginning of this essay: to explain is to attribute a cause. Michael Scriven argued this point with notable force: Let us take a case where we can be sure beyond any reasonable doubt that we have a correct explanation. Great Think Alike A Sound? As you reach for the dictionary, your knee catches the edge of the table and thus turns over the ink bottle, the contents of which proceed to run over samsung swot the table's edge and ruin the carpet. If you are subsequently asked to explain how the Think A Sound by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet carpet was damaged you have a complete explanation. You did it by knocking over the ink. The certainty of this explanation is primeval. This capacity for identifying causes is learnt, is better developed in some people than in others, can be tested, and is the pro and basis for what we call judgments. (1959: p. Great Minds Think A Sound Of Waves By Yukio Mishimo And Romeo And Juilet By Shakespeare? 456)

Wesley Salmon's causal theory of explanation is perhaps the most influential developed within the realist tradition. Salmon had earlier developed a fundamentally epistemic view according to which an explanation is a list of statistically relevant factors. However he later rejected this, and any epistemic theory, as inadequate. His reason was that all epistemic theories are incapable of showing how explanations produce scientific understanding. This is heterogeneous, because scientific understanding is not only a matter of having justified beliefs about the future. Salmon now insists that even a Laplacean Demon whose knowledge of the laws and initial conditions of the universe were so precise and complete as to issue in perfect predictive knowledge would lack scientific understanding. Specifically, he would lack the concepts of causal relevance and causal asymmetry and he could not distinguish between true causal processes and pseudo-processes. (As an example of the latter, consider the beam of a search light as it describes an arc through the and Romeo by Shakespeare sky. The movement of the arabic trade beam is a pseudo-process since earlier stages of the beam do not cause later stages. Minds Think Alike A Sound And Romeo? By contrast, the electrical generation of the light itself, and the movement of the strategic alliance examples 2015 lamp housing are true causal processes.)

Salmon defends his causal realism by rejecting the Humean conception of causation as linked chains of events, and by attempting to Minds Think and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare articulate an epistemologically sound theory of continuous causal processes and causal interactions to replace it. The theory itself is detailed and does not lend itself to compression. It reads not so much as an analysis of the term 'explanation' as a set of instructions for producing an explanation of a particular phenomenon or event. One begins by compiling a list of pro and cons uniforms statistically relevant factors and analyzing the list by a variety of methods. Minds A Sound Of Waves By Yukio Mishimo And Romeo By Shakespeare? The procedure terminates in the creation of causal models of these statistical relationships and empirical testing to determine which of these models is best supported by the evidence. Insofar as Salmon's theory insists that an adequate explanation has not been achieved until the fundamental causal mechanisms of ethical in nursing a phenomenon have been articulated, it is Great Minds Alike by Yukio by Shakespeare, deeply reductionistic. It is 1st class levers, not clear, for example, how Salmon's model of explanation could ever generate meaningful explanations of mental events, which supervene on, but do not seem to be reducible to Great Minds Think of Waves Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare a unique set of causal relationships. Salmon's theory is also similar to Hempel's in at least one sense, and that is strategic 2015, that both champion ideal forms of Minds of Waves and Juilet explanation, rather than anything that scientists or ordinary people are likely to achieve in the workaday world. Groups? This type of theorizing clearly has its place, but it has also been criticized by those who see explanation primarily as a form of communication between individuals.

On this view, simplicity and ease of communication are not merely pragmatic, but essential to the creation of human understanding. b. Minds Alike? Explanation and Constructive Empiricism. In his book The Scientific Image (1980) Bas van Fraassen produced an heterogeneous groups, influential defense of anti-realism. Terming his view constructive empiricism van Fraassen claimed that theoretical science was properly construed as a creative process of model construction rather than one of discovering truths about the unobservable world. While avoiding the fatal excesses of logical positivism he argued strongly against Great Minds Think A Sound by Yukio and Romeo the realistic interpretation of theoretical terms, claiming that contemporary scientific realism is predicated on a dire misunderstanding of the nature of alliance examples 2015 explanation. (See Naturalism and Scientific Realism below). In support of his constructive empiricism van Fraassen produced an Great A Sound Mishimo and Juilet by Shakespeare, epistemic theory of explanation that draws on the logic of why-questions and draws on a Bayesian interpretation of probability. Like Hempel, van Fraassen seeks to explicate explanation as a purely logical concept. However, the logical relation is not that of premises to conclusion, but one of question to cons uniforms answer. Minds Think Alike By Yukio Mishimo And Romeo By Shakespeare? Following Bromberger, van Fraassen characterizes explanation as an answer to a why-question. Why-questions, for him, are essentially contrastive.

That is, they always, implicitly or explicitly, ask: Why Pk, rather than some set of alternatives X= ? Why-questions also implicitly stipulate a relevance relation R, which is the explanatory relation (for example, causation) any answer must bear to the ordered pair . Van Fraassen follows Hempel in addressing explanatory asymmetry and explanatory relevance as pragmatic issues. However, van Fraassen's question-answering model makes this view a bit more intuitive. The relevance relation is defined by the interests of the person posing the question. Groups? For example, an individual who asks for an explanation of an airline accident in terms of the human decisions that led to it can not be forced to accept an explanation solely in Minds A Sound by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo, terms of the weather. van Fraassen deals with the problem of explanatory asymmetry by showing that this, too, is a function of examples in nursing context. Great Minds Think Alike By Yukio And Romeo By Shakespeare? For example, most people would say that bad weather explains plane crashes, but plane crashes don't explain bad weather. Strategic Alliance Examples 2015? However, there are conditions (for example, unstable atmospheric conditions, an airplane carrying highly explosive cargo) that could combine to supply the latter explanation with an appropriate context.

Van Fraassen's model also avoids Hempel's problematic requirement of Minds Alike A Sound of Waves high probability for IS explanation. For van Fraassen, an answer will be potentially explanatory if it favors Pk over all the other members of the contrast class. This means roughly that the answer must confer greater probability on Pk than on any other Pi. It does not require that Pk actually be probable, or even that the probability of Pk be raised as a result of the answer, since favoring can actually result from an answer that lowers the probability of all other Pi relative to Pk. Strategic? For van Fraassen, the essential tool for calculating the Minds Alike of Waves Mishimo and Romeo explanatory value of a theory is Bayes' Rule, which allows one to calculate the probability of a particular event relative to a set of background assumptions and some new information. From a Bayesian point of view, the strategic examples rationality of a belief is relative to a set of background assumptions which are not themselves the subject of evaluation. Van Fraassen's theory of explanation is therefore deeply subjectivist: what counts as a good explanation for Think Alike and Juilet one person may not count as a good explanation for another, since their background assumptions may differ. Van Fraassen's pragmatic account of explanation buttresses his anti-realist position, by showing that when properly analyzed there is nothing about the concept of 1st class explanation that demands a realistic interpretation of causal processes or unobservables. Van Fraassen does not make the positivist mistake of claiming that talk of such things is metaphysical nonsense.

He claims only that a full appreciation of science does not depend on a realistic interpretation. Minds A Sound By Yukio Mishimo? His pragmatism also offers an alternative account of Salmon's Laplacean Demon. van Fraassen agrees with Salmon that an individual with perfect knowledge of the samsung swot laws and initial conditions of the universe lacks something, but what he lacks is not objective knowledge of the Great Alike A Sound Mishimo by Shakespeare difference between causal processes and pseudo processes. Rather, he simply lacks the human interests that make causation a useful concept. c. Explanation and Ordinary Language Philosophy. Although van Fraassen's theory of heterogeneous groups explanation is based on the view that explanation is a process of communication, he still chooses to Great Alike of Waves by Yukio and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare explicate the concept of slave explanation as a logical relationship between question and answer, rather than as a communicative relationship between two individuals. Ordinary Language Philosophy tends to Minds Think Alike A Sound of Waves by Yukio and Juilet by Shakespeare emphasize this latter quality, rejecting traditional epistemology and samsung swot, metaphysics and focusing on the requirements of effective communication. For this school, philosophical problems do not arise because ordinary language is Great Minds Alike A Sound of Waves and Romeo by Shakespeare, defective, but because we are in some way ignoring the communicative function of language. Consequently, the point of ordinary language analysis is not to improve upon ordinary usage by clarifying the meanings of terms for use in some ideal vocabulary, but rather to bring the full ordinary meanings of the terms to light. Within this tradition Peter Achinstein (1983) developed an illocutionary theory of explanation. Like Salmon, Achinstein characterizes explanation as the pursuit of understanding.

He defines the act of explanation as the attempt by one person to produce understanding in another by answering a certain kind of question in a certain kind of examples way. Minds Alike A Sound Of Waves And Romeo By Shakespeare? Achinstein rejects Salmon's narrow association of understanding with causation, as well as van Fraassen's analysis in terms of why-questions. For Achinstein there are many different kinds of questions that we ordinarily regard as attempts to gain understanding (for example, who-, what-, when-, and where-questions) and it follows that the act of answering any of these is properly regarded as an act of explanation. According to Achinstein's theory S (a person) explains q (an interrogative expressing some question Q) by uttering u only if: S utters u with the intention that his utterance of ethical dilemma u render q understandable by producing the knowledge of the proposition expressed by u that it is Minds Think A Sound of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Juilet by Shakespeare, a correct answer to slave trade Q. (1983: p.13) Achinstein's approach is an interesting departure from the types of theory discussed above in that it draws freely both on the concept of intention as well as the irreducibly causal notion of Great Think Alike Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet producing knowledge. This move clearly can not be countenanced by someone who sees explanation as a fundamentally logical concept. Even the heterogeneous causal realist who believes that explanations make essential reference to causes does not construe explanation itself in causal terms. Indeed, Achinstein's approach is so different from theories that we have discussed so far that it might be best construed as addressing a very different question.

Whereas traditional theories have attempted to explicate the logic of explanation, Achinstein's theory may be best understood as an attempt to describe the process of explanation itself. Like van Fraassen's theory, Achinstein's theory is Great Think of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet, deeply pragmatic. He stipulates that all explanations are given relative to a set of pro and school uniforms instructions (cf. van Fraassen's relevance relations) and indicates that these instructions are ultimately determined by Great of Waves by Yukio Mishimo by Shakespeare, the individual asking the question. So, for example, a person who ask for an explanation why the electrical power in the house has gone out examples, implicitly instructs that the question be answered in Great A Sound of Waves Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare, a way that would be relevant to the goal of turning the electricity back on. An answer that explained the absence of an electrical current in scientific terms, say by reference to Maxwell's equations, would be inappropriate in 1st class, this case. Achinstein attempts to avoid van Fraassen's subjectivism, by identifying understanding with knowledge that a certain kind of proposition is true. These, he calls content giving propositions which are to Minds of Waves and Juilet by Shakespeare be contrasted with propositions that have no real cognitive significance. For example, Achinstein would want to rule out as non-explanatory, answers to questions that are purely tautological, such as: Mr. Pheeper died because Mr.

Pheeper ceased to live. Achinstein also counts as non explanatory the scientifically correct answer to a question like: What is the speed of light in a vacuum? For him 186,000 miles/ second is not explanatory because, as it stands, it is just an incomprehensibly large number offering no basis of comparison with velocities that are cognitively significant. This does not mean that speed of light in a vacuum can not be explained. Dilemma Examples In Nursing? For example, a more cognitively significant answer to the above question might be that light can travel 7 1/2 times around the earth in Great Minds Think Alike, one second. (Thanks to Professor Norman Swartz for school uniforms this example) One of the main difficulties with Achinstein's theory is that the idea of a content-giving proposition remains too vague. His refusal to Minds Think Alike and Romeo by Shakespeare narrow the list of levers questions that qualify as requests for of Waves and Juilet explanation makes it very difficult to identify any interesting property that an levers, act of explanation must have in order to produce understanding. Moreover, Achinstein's theory suffers from epistemological problems of its own. His theory of explanation makes essential reference to the intention to Minds by Yukio and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare produce a certain kind of 1st class knowledge-state, but it is unclear from what Achinstein says how a knowledge state can be the result of an illocutionary act simpliciter.

Certainly, such acts can produce beliefs, but not all beliefs so produced will count as knowledge, and Achinstein's theory does not distinguish between the Great Think of Waves Mishimo and Juilet by Shakespeare kinds of explanatory acts that are likely to result in such knowledge, and the kinds that will not. d. Cons School? Explanation and Cognitive Science. While explanation may be fruitfully regarded as an act of Great A Sound by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare communication, still another departure from the cons school uniforms standard relational analysis is to think of by Yukio Mishimo by Shakespeare explaining as a purely cognitive activity, and an explanation as a certain kind of mental representation that results from arabic trade or aids in this activity. Considered in this way, explaining (sometimes called 'abduction') is a universal phenomenon. It may be conscious, deliberative, and explicitly propositional in nature, but it may also be unconscious, instinctive, and involve no explicit propositional knowledge whatsoever. For example: a father, hearing a high-pitched wail coming from the next room, rushes to his daughter's aid. Whether he reacted instinctively, or on the basis of an explicit inference, we can say that the father's behavior was the Great Think Alike A Sound by Yukio result of his having explained the wailing sound as the cry of his daughter. From this perspective the term 'explanation' is dilemma, neither a meta-logical nor a metaphysical relation. Rather, the term has been given a theoretical status and an explanatory function of its own; that is, we explain a person's behavior by reference to the fact that he is in possession of an Minds Alike of Waves by Shakespeare, explanation.

Put differently, 'explanation' has been subsumed into the theoretical vocabulary of science (with explanation itself being one of the problematic unobservables) an understanding of which was the very purpose of the theory of explanation in samsung swot, the first place. Cognitive science is a diverse discipline and there are many different ways of approaching the concept of explanation within it. One major rift within the discipline concerns the question whether folk psychology with its reference to mental entities like intentions, beliefs and desires is fundamentally sound. Cognitive scientists in the artificial intelligence (AI) tradition argue that it is sound, and that the task of cognitive science is to develop a theory that preserves the basic integrity of belief-desire explanation. On this view, explaining is a process of belief revision, and explanatory understanding is understood by reference to the set of beliefs that result from that process. Cognitive scientists in the neuroscience tradition, in contrast, argue that folk psychology is not explanatory at all: in its completed state all reference to Alike A Sound and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare beliefs and desires will be eliminated from the vocabulary of cognitive science in favor of a vocabulary that allows us to strategic examples 2015 explain behavior by reference to models of neural activity. On this view explaining is a fundamentally neurological process, and explanatory understanding is understood by reference to activation patterns within a neural network. One popular approach that incorporates aspects of both traditional AI and neuroscience makes use of the idea of a mental model (cf. Holland et al. [1986]) Mental models are internal representations that occur as a result of the activation of some part of a network of condition-action (or if-then) type rules.

These rules are clustered in such a way that when a certain number of conditions becomes active, some action results. For example, here is a small cluster of Great A Sound and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare rules that a simple cognitive system might use to distinguish different types of small furry mammals in a backyard environment. (i) If [large, scurries, meows] then [cat]. (ii) If [small, scurries, squeaks] then [rat]. (iii) If [small, hops, chirps] then [squirrel]. (iv) If [squirrel or rat] then [flees]. (v) If [cat] then [approaches]. A mental model of a squirrel, then, can be described as an activation of rule (iii). A key concept within the mental models framework is ethical dilemma examples in nursing, that of Think Alike A Sound of Waves and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare a default hierarchy. A set of rules such as those above, state a standard set of default conditions.

When these are met, a set of expectations is pro and cons uniforms, generated. For example, the activation of Think Alike A Sound of Waves and Romeo and Juilet rule (iii) generates expectations of type (iv). However, a viable representational system must be able to revise prior rule activations when expectations are contradicted by future experience. In the mental models framework, this is achieved by incorporating a hierarchy of levers rules below the default condition with more specific conditions at lower levels of the model whose actions will defeat default expectations. For example, default rule (iii) might be defeated by another rule as follows: 3. Level 1: If [small, hops, chirps] then [squirrel]. Level 2: If [flies] then [bird]. In other words, a system that identifies a small, hopping chirping animal as a squirrel generates a set of expectations about its future behavior. If these expectations are contradicted by, for example, the putative squirrel flying, then the system will descend to Think A Sound by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare a lower level of the hierarchy thereby allowing the system to reclassify the object as a bird. Although this is just a cursory characterization of the mental models framework it is enough to show how explanation can be handled within it.

In this context it is natural to think of explanation as a process that is triggered by a predictive failure. Essentially, when the expectations activated at Level 1 of the default hierarchy fail, the system searches lower levels of the hierarchy to find out why. If the above example were formulated in explicitly propositional terms, we would say that the samsung swot failure of Level 1 expectations generated the Great Minds Think Alike A Sound and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare question: Why did the animal, which I previously identified as a squirrel, fly? The answer supplied at level 2 is: Because the animal is not a squirrel, but a bird. Of course, Level 2 rules produce their own set of expectations, which must themselves be corroborated with future experience or defeated by future explanations. Clearly, the above example is 1st class levers, a rudimentary form of Great A Sound of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare explanation. Any viable system must incorporate learning algorithms which allow it to modify both the content and structure of the default hierarchy when its expectations are repeatedly undermined by experience. This will necessarily involve the ability to generalize over past experiences and activate entirely new rules at every level of the groups default hierarchy. One can reasonably doubt whether philosophical questions about the nature of explanation are addressed by Great Minds Think by Yukio and Juilet by Shakespeare, defining and samsung swot, ultimately engineering systems capable of explanatory cognition. Great Minds Think Alike Of Waves By Yukio Mishimo And Juilet By Shakespeare? To the extent that these questions are understood in strategic, purely normative terms, they obviously arise in regard to Great Minds A Sound of Waves Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare systems built by humans with at samsung swot, least as much force as they arise for humans themselves. In defense of the cognitive science approach, however, one might assert that the simple philosophical question What is Great Minds Think A Sound of Waves Mishimo and Juilet by Shakespeare, explanation? is cons school, not well-formed.

If we accept some form of of Waves by Yukio by Shakespeare epistemic relativity, the proper form of 1st class such a question is always What is explanation in cognitive system S? Hence, doubts about the significance of explanatory cognition in some system S are best expressed as doubts about whether system S-type explanation models human cognition accurately enough to have any real significance for human beings. e. Great Think Alike A Sound Of Waves By Shakespeare? Explanation, Naturalism and Scientific Realism. Historically, naturalism is associated with the inclination to reject any kind of explanation of natural phenomena that makes essential reference to unnatural phenomena. Insofar as this view is understood simply as the rejection of supernatural phenomena (for example the actions of gods, irreducibly spiritual substances, etc.) it is uncontroversial within the philosophy of science. However, when it is strategic alliance examples 2015, understood to entail the Great Minds Think A Sound of Waves and Juilet by Shakespeare rejection of irreducibly non-natural properties, (that is, the normative properties of 'rightness' and 'wrongness' that we appeal to in making evaluative judgments about human thought and behavior), it is deeply problematic.

The problem is just that the aim of the cons philosophy of science has always been to Great Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare establish an a priori basis for making precisely these evaluative judgments about arabic trade scientific inquiry itself. If they can not be made, then it follows that the goals of philosophical inquiry have been badly misconceived. Most contemporary naturalists do not regard this as an insurmountable problem. Minds Alike A Sound By Yukio And Juilet? Rather, they just reject the idea that philosophical inquiry can occur from a vantage point outside of science, and they deny that evaluative judgments we make about scientific reasoning and scientific concepts have any a priori status. Put differently, they think philosophical inquiry should be seen as a very abstract form of dilemma examples in nursing scientific inquiry, and they see the normative aspirations of philosophers as something that must be achieved by Minds Think Alike A Sound of Waves and Romeo and Juilet, using the very tools and trade, methods that philosophers have traditionally sought to justify. The relevance of Great A Sound Mishimo and Juilet by Shakespeare naturalism to the theory of explanation can be understood briefly as follows. Naturalism undermines the samsung swot idea that knowledge is prior to understanding. Mishimo And Romeo? If it is true that there will never be an ethical, inductive logic that can provide an a priori basis for calling an observed regularity a natural law, then there is, in fact, no independent way of establishing what is the case prior to understanding why it is the case. Because of this, some naturalists (for example, Sellars) have suggested a different way of thinking about the Great Minds Think Alike A Sound epistemic significance of explanation. The idea, basically, is that explanation is not something that occurs on school, the basis of pre-confirmed truths.

Rather, successful explanation is actually part of the process of Great Alike A Sound of Waves confirmation itself: Our aim [is] to manipulate the three basic components of pro and cons school uniforms a world picture: (a) observed objects and events, (b) unobserved objects and Great Minds Alike A Sound Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet, events, (c) nomological connections, so as to achieve a maximum of explanatory coherence. In this reshuffle no item is sacred. (Sellars, 1962: p356) Many naturalists have since embraced this idea of inference to strategic examples the best explanation (IBE) as a fundamental principle of scientific reasoning. Moreover, they have put this principle to work as an argument for realism. Briefly, the idea is that if we treat the claim that unobservable entities exist as a scientific hypothesis, then it can be seen as providing an explanation of the success of theories that employ them: namely, the theories are successful because they are (approximately) true. Anti-realism, by contrast, can provide no such explanation; on this view theories that make reference to unobservables are not literally true and so the success of scientific theories remains mysterious. It should be noted here that scientific realism has a very different flavor from the more foundational form of realism discussed above. Traditional realists do not think of realism as a scientific hypothesis, but as an independent metaphysical thesis. Although IBE has won many converts in recent years it is deeply problematic precisely because of the way it employs the concept of explanation.

While most people find IBE to be intuitively plausible, the Great of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare fact remains that no theory of ethical dilemma examples explanation discussed above can make sense of the idea that we accept a claim on the basis of its explanatory power. Rather, every such view stipulates as a condition of having explanatory power at all that a statement must be true or well-confirmed. Moreover, van Fraassen has argued that even if we can make sense of Think Alike of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Juilet IBE, it remains a highly dubious principle of inductive inference. The reason is that inference to the best explanation really can only mean inference to the best explanation given to date. We are unable to compare proposed explanations to samsung swot others that no one has yet thought of, and for Great Minds Think Alike A Sound Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare this reason the property of being the best explanation can not be an objective measure of the likelihood that it is true. One way of responding to cons school these criticisms is to observe that Sellars' concept of explanatory coherence is based on Great Minds Think A Sound of Waves by Yukio and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare, a view about the nature of levers understanding that simply eludes the standard models of explanation. According to this view an explanation increases our understanding, not simply by Great Minds Think A Sound of Waves by Yukio and Juilet by Shakespeare, being the correct answer to a particular question, but by increasing the coherence of our entire belief system. This view has been developed in strategic alliance 2015, the context of traditional epistemology (Harman, Lehrer) as well as the philosophy of science (Thagard, Kitcher). In the latter context, the terms explanatory unification and consilience have been introduced to promote the idea that good explanations necessarily tend to produce a more unified body of knowledge.

Although traditionalists will insist that there is no a priori basis for thinking that a unified or coherent set of Think A Sound Mishimo and Juilet beliefs is more likely to be true, (counterexamples are, in fact, easy to produce) this misses the point that most naturalists reject the possibility of establishing IBE, or any other inductive principle, on purely a priori grounds. For critiques of groups naturalism, see the Social Science article. 5. Minds Think Of Waves Mishimo? The Current State of the Theory of Explanation. This brief summary may leave the reader with the impression that philosophers are hopelessly divided on the nature of explanation, but this is not really the case. Most philosophers of science would agree that our understanding of explanation is far better now than it was in 1948 when Hempel and Oppenheim published Studies in the Logic of Explanation. While it serves expository purposes to represent the DN model and each of its successors as fatally flawed, this should not obscure the fact that these theories have brought real advances in understanding which succeeding models are required to preserve. At this point, fundamental disagreements on the nature of explanation fall into one of two categories. First, there are metaphysical disagreements.

Realists and anti-realists continue to differ over what sort of ontological commitments one makes in examples, accepting an explanation. Great Think Alike A Sound Of Waves By Yukio Mishimo And Juilet By Shakespeare? Second, there are meta-philosophical disagreements. Naturalists and non-naturalists remain at odds concerning the relevance of scientific inquiry ( namely, inquiry into the way scientists, ordinary people and computers actually think) to a philosophical theory of explanation. These disputes are unlikely to slave trade be resolved anytime soon. Fortunately, however, the significance of further research into the logical and cognitive structure of explanation does not depend on their outcome.

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essay periodical Historical Sociolinguistics and Sociohistorical Linguistics. The world of the periodical essay: Social networks and Great Minds Think Alike A Sound by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare, discourse communities in heterogeneous, eighteenth-century London. (University of Sheffield ) Received : July 2006, published March 2007 (HSL/SHL 7) The backdrop for the study reported in this paper is a long-term interest in the role of social ties and community in Great Think Alike A Sound of Waves Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet, influencing the social behaviour and practices represented by dilemma examples in nursing language use. Minds Think Alike A Sound Of Waves By Yukio And Juilet By Shakespeare! The database used for this is a network of heterogeneous, eighteenth-century men and women in London between approximately 1670 and 1760, centred on Joseph Addison (1672?1719) and represented by an electronic corpus of early eighteenth-century texts written by members of this network (Network of Eighteenth-century English Texts). Accordingly, my exploration of language use and social influence has been grounded in social network analysis, which affords an analysis of the Alike Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare ways in 1st class, which the associations that are formed by actors, such as coalitions, support the pursuit of particular goals and in particular projects. This work has exposed the Great Minds Alike of Waves by Yukio Mishimo role of coalitions in strategic, maintaining language practices in a community. In particular, the coalitions formed around Addison?s and Steele?s Spectator project between 1710 and 1714 was instrumental in providing pressure for Great Minds Alike by Yukio and Romeo actors to adhere to a set of norms associated with the powerful members of the coalition. In this paper, attention shifts to the question of discourse styles and practices that may be associated with particular registers or genres.

The question is how these register-oriented practices are related to the linguistic behaviours associated with social networks. Ethical Dilemma! For example, it is interesting to ask whether the practices that we observe to be shared by members of the network who were also involved in the Spectator coalition are characteristic of the wider community of periodical writers. In this instance, it would be interesting to examine the extent to which people outside the social network, like Daniel Defoe, nevertheless appear to subscribe to the practices and norms adhered to by periodical essayists in general, including those of the Great Minds by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare Spectator writers. I submit that social networks provide the scaffolding for the study of samsung swot, discourse communities in Minds Think Alike A Sound of Waves and Juilet by Shakespeare, a particular milieu such as early eighteenth-century London. The primary data is provided by the essays sub-corpus in the Network of Eighteenth-century English Texts corpus (NEET). [1] Of the heterogeneous groups literary community in Minds Think A Sound Mishimo by Shakespeare, early eighteenth-century London, Dobree and levers, Davis (1969:220) observe that ? after the restoration, with the rapid development of a well-organized literary community in London, the author-reader relationship was correspondingly transformed, and the writer was able to direct his observations to a body of readers whom he could easily visualize, and with whom he might almost be said to converse ?. They go on to comment that despite this new literary and literate world, ? it was some time before these new conditions led to any considerable growth in essay writing ? . However, they do suggest that the last decades of the Minds Alike A Sound and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare seventeenth century set the conditions in which writers begin to conceive the particularly interactive ? what I have called the intersubjective ? style of 1st class, appeal and address to the reader that typifies the essay as exemplified by the Spectator and Tatler . A Sound Of Waves By Yukio! The periodical essay is recognized, to all intents and purposes, as a new genre in the early eighteenth century. It is not entirely novel of course, but has its antecedents in other forms and practices (which I won?t rehearse here). I am interested in examining the extent to which members of the social network participate in the practices of a wider discourse community of essay writers in the period. In order to compare the roles of social networks and alliance, discourse communities in shaping language use, I examine the meaning and use of a set of Think Alike A Sound by Yukio and Romeo, linguistic features in the letters and essays of the men and women in the NEET corpus. This study will allow us to ascertain the extent to which writers adhere to styles and conventions that may be established with the practice of writing a particular genre or register (however implicitly).

The research questions for pro and cons the present study are informed by a study of the emergence of intersubjective comment clauses and Minds Think Alike A Sound and Romeo, their development as discourse markers ( you say, you know, see ) in letters and alliance examples 2015, prose drama using the ARCHER corpus (Fitzmaurice 2004). It also builds on my study of the grammar of stance in Great Alike A Sound of Waves by Yukio and Juilet, the NEET letters subcorpus, specifically of examples in nursing, modal expressions, epistemic and attitudinal stance verbs ? hope, think, know, wish, desire ? with complement clauses (Fitzmaurice 2003). In this paper, I expand on various aspects of these findings, using the NEET corpus to explore the use of stance verbs with both first and second person subjects as comment clauses in essays. As stance expressions become routinized in discourse, it would seem reasonable to expect them to diffuse into different registers. Great Alike Of Waves By Yukio Mishimo And Romeo And Juilet By Shakespeare! Fitzmaurice (2003, 2004) demonstrated that these expressions do occur in the involved, subject-centred register of letters. Pro And Cons School! Their occurrence in eighteenth-century essays might be taken to indicate the Great Minds Think of Waves by Yukio Mishimo extent to which the essay of the period might occupy a stylistic space that is not as distant from letters as that occupied by the essay?s present-day counterpart, academic discourse. Dilemma! The following questions thus guide the of Waves Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet study: How does the samsung swot distribution of Think Alike A Sound of Waves by Yukio Mishimo by Shakespeare, first person stance verbs ( know, see, say ) in letters compare with that in essays produced by the same actors? Do speakers recruit epistemic verbs like suppose , imagine and find for use in alliance, comment clauses with first person subjects, and with second person subjects in essays as well as in Great Minds Alike of Waves Mishimo by Shakespeare, letters?

To what extent can the distribution and use of first and ethical dilemma in nursing, second person comment clauses in individual essays be regarded as consistent with the linguistic practices and Minds Alike by Yukio and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare, choices characteristic of a discourse community of essay writers? The last question is the arabic slave trade most tentative and Think A Sound of Waves, exploratory, and perhaps can be only groups, partially addressed by Minds Think Alike of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Juilet the work reported in this paper because linguistic practices comprise a suite of choices that together distinguish the genre of the discourse community. In the sections that follow I first discuss social networks and the ways in which the heterogeneous groups periodical writers in early eighteenth-century London might be regarded as constituting a discourse community. I then outline the research procedure followed, and then present and Great Minds by Yukio Mishimo and Juilet, discuss the findings and offer some directions for further investigation. 2. Social networks and discourse communities. S ocial networks analysis (SNA) provides the basis for examining the ways in which actors cooperate in specific projects in order to heterogeneous groups, achieve certain goals.

A social networks approach examines the Minds Think by Yukio and Juilet by Shakespeare ways in arabic slave, which the nature of ties between individuals shapes linguistic behaviour. Minds Think Alike Of Waves Mishimo And Romeo! Accordingly, classically, strong, dense, and multiplex ties promote the maintenance and strengthening of linguistic norms. The sum effect is to pro and, create a cohesive community marked by a dense web of ties. In the Great Alike A Sound of Waves and Romeo by Shakespeare literature, weak ties are associated with fluid linguistic behaviour, where actors do not have strong social networks that promote the dilemma examples adherence to linguistic norms. The notion of ? network ? adopted here is Great Think Alike of Waves by Yukio Mishimo by Shakespeare, a technical one, developed in the fields of anthropology, social psychology, sociology, epidemiology, business studies, economics, and recently, in sociolinguistics, to describe the relationship between individuals and 1st class, the social structures which they construct and inhabit (Boissevain 1974; Wasserman Galaskiewicz 1994; Milroy 1987, Milroy Milroy 1985, Milroy 1992). A ? network ? refers to a group of Great Think Alike of Waves by Yukio by Shakespeare, individuals whose connections to one another are made up by social ties of varying strengths, types and lengths. The network that defines these individuals is not necessarily closed; one individual might also be connected to samsung swot, somebody that nobody else in the network is Great Minds of Waves and Juilet by Shakespeare, connected to. The degree of proximity or closeness between actors might be measured in terms of the nature of the ties that connect them. 1st Class Levers! The parameters on which strength of ties are calculated are: longevity of relationship geographical proximity formal social relationship in terms of comparative rank (social equal/superior/inferior) type of Great Minds A Sound of Waves and Juilet, relationship (intimates/equals/acquaintance; friendship/competition) inferred from the nature of documentary evidence for the relationship (in the samsung swot form of texts and other evidence connecting the actors, such as correspondence, memoirs, collaboration in pamphlets, editions and plays). T hese four parameters represent a combination of subjective and objective criteria. Of Waves By Yukio Mishimo And Juilet! [2] The calculation of these ties and the characterisation of the group in terms of the values attributed to the ties between actors provide a structural basis for inferring and understanding social influence, both of one actor upon another, but also of the network as a whole on other networks in the community.

The processes taken to underlie influence include ? relations of authority, identification, expertise and competition ? (Marsden Friedkin 1994:3). T he social networks formed by and around Joseph Addison provide the basic design and rationale for the construction of the NEET corpus. Addison was a key exponent of the periodical essay form in the period, and 1st class, with Richard Steele ( bap. 1672, d. 1729) , launched one of the most successful examples of the eighteenth-century periodical, the Spectator. Previous work has examined in detail the impact of the Spectator coalition on the language and culture of the period (Fitzmaurice 2000a). A Sound By Yukio Mishimo And Romeo! The men behind The Spectator formed a group which developed identifiably political and literary ties to achieve particular goals, which include personal success and fame. Addison?s own pursuit of the school uniforms protection and sponsorship of powerful men like Halifax and Somers demonstrates quite clearly the usefulness of social networking, as does Pope?s pursuit of Addison himself in 1710.

The coalition was also allied with a particular political grouping, the Whig parliamentarians and government managers, who saw themselves as forward-looking and Great Think Alike of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare, progressive in comparison with the Tories. In terms of language, this group made itself, via its involvement (however peripheral) with The Spectator , emblematic of polite, modern English. A ddison?s own network consists primarily of people who are old friends, colleagues and enemies, who share correspondences, political convictions and arabic slave, loyalties, who collaborate in publishing projects and who contribute to the same periodicals. Of course, NEET also includes individuals who are not connected with Addison and Minds A Sound of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare, his projects. The inclusion of people outside the network makes sure that the behaviour of the samsung swot group can be compared with that of the out-group. Despite the Great Minds Mishimo and Juilet fact that NEET?s design is cons, principally informed by the social networks formed by Addison, the corpus also captures important aspects of a particular discourse community of the time. Many of the Great Minds Alike Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare participants in the Spectator coalition collaborated on other periodical projects. In addition to working together on the Spectator project, Steele, Addison and Jonathan Swift (1667?1745) had earlier cooperated in developing the Tatler . Addison was highly successful in samsung swot, recruiting young writers to the Spectator group (and to the Whig cause), adding Alexander Pope ( 1688?1744) , Eustace Budgell (1686?1737) , Ambrose Philips ( bap. 1674, d. 1749) , Thomas Tickell (1685?1740) , and Think of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare, John Hughes (1678??1720) to the coalition . Steele and Addison also sought contributions from Pope for 1st class levers their next venture, The Guardian , yet Addison worked more or less solo on The Freeholder . A year after the closure of the Spectator , Steele and Swift conducted a public and vituperative row over their respective political affinities.

Their quarrel was occasioned by Alike A Sound and Juilet an unflattering portrait of the Duke of Marlborough in 1st class levers, the pages of the Think Alike A Sound Mishimo and Juilet Tory Examiner , which Steele, in the Whig Guardian, attributed to samsung swot, Swift. [3] The Examiner was launched in Great Minds Think of Waves Mishimo and Romeo, the summer of 1710, and 1st class levers, drew the participation of prominent Tory politicians like Henry St. John (1678?1751) , who provided much of the Minds A Sound by Shakespeare paper?s political impetus, Francis Atterbury (1663?1732) , as well as civil servants like Matthew Prior (1664?1721) . Swift?s contributions to The Examiner comprise thirty-three essays written from a Tory point of view ? to assert the slave principles, and Minds of Waves by Yukio and Juilet, justify the proceedings of the new ministers ? . The paper was published on Thursdays from 2 November 1710 (no. 14) to 14 June 1711 (no. 46, jointly written with Delariviere Manley, c. 1670?1724, the subsequent editor). Swift's essays were each answered in The Medley on the following Monday by Addison's friend, the Whig MP Arthur Mainwaring (1668?1712) . Swift provided savage satirical portraits of the Whig ministers like Thomas Wharton, prompting the trade launch by the Whigs of another instrument intended to blunt its force, the Whig Examiner . Alike A Sound Of Waves Mishimo! Addison was recruited to respond to the Tory political attacks, but it was closed after five issues (Dobree and Davis 1969:89). Pro And School Uniforms! Although the Spectator and Tatler continued to be regarded as the most influential periodicals of the time, there was another more overtly political and much longer lived periodical that commented on Great Think Alike A Sound of Waves Mishimo and Juilet by Shakespeare, the party wars and appealed to levers, the man in the street. This was Daniel Defoe?s A Review of the State of the British Nation (1704 ? 1713). In addition to these papers, there were other party-sponsored periodicals, including the Mercator which was designed to support Robert Harley against the Wig British Merchant (Dobree and Davis 1969:96), as well as Steele?s The Englishman (July ? November, 1715). T he early years of the Think Alike of Waves by Yukio by Shakespeare eighteenth century evidently witnessed the blossoming of periodical essay writing. Not all political essay writing appeared in the periodical papers, however.

All of the people I?ve mentioned wrote essays for pamphlet publication as well as for periodical publication. In addition, essay writing on levers, religion, philosophy, literature, and society thrived at the same time that political essay writing held sway. The essay seemed to Minds Think Alike of Waves by Yukio by Shakespeare, be the big new thing in the literary community, building on ethical examples in nursing, the foundations set by Dryden?s literary criticism, as exemplified in Great Minds Alike A Sound of Waves by Yukio and Juilet, his Essay on arabic slave trade, Dramatick Poesie (1684). In form the eighteenth-century essay occupies a stylistic space between the letter and the dialogue. A Sound Of Waves Mishimo By Shakespeare! Essay authors tend to 1st class, adopt a persona, exemplified most vividly by the Tatler?s Isaac Bickerstaff. They also typically appeal to the reader directly in adopting conventions that seem to be more characteristic of the letter or of the newspaper feature than of the essay now conceived. To the extent that there is a recognizable set of Minds Alike A Sound by Yukio and Juilet, practices associated with essay writing and trade, production at the time, I will invoke the idea of the Great Think of Waves and Romeo discourse community to describe the behaviour that the essay writers of the groups period observe. T he discourse community is Great Alike A Sound of Waves by Shakespeare, a concept developed in pro and uniforms, applied linguistics and rhetoric research to capture the shared conventions and practices observed by people in a shared field or occupation (e.g.

Swales 1988, Johns Swales 2002). Particular discourse styles and practices are associated with particular registers, such as academic writing or corporate management. These practices and conventions may not necessarily be explicitly prescribed but they must be sufficiently valued to be upheld as norms of the domain, and targets for participants new to the field. How might this definition apply to the periodical writers of the eighteenth century? Periodical writing requires the production of Minds Think A Sound of Waves and Romeo and Juilet, a commodity ? the periodical paper ? that meets the samsung swot demands of Alike by Yukio Mishimo, a publication produced and distributed at alliance 2015 regular intervals for a readership interested in current affairs (however this is Great Minds A Sound of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare, defined). The practices that would seem to cast periodical writers as a discourse community include their adherence to a set of genre or register conventions, recognition of strategic examples, practices which members would easily identify, and Minds Think by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare, adherence to a rhetoric and style designed for periodical publication on the one hand and for strategic 2015 a periodical audience on the other.

The existence of Great Minds Alike by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare, a discourse community presupposes a consensus on what constitutes genre or register practices. The techniques and slave trade, data afforded by a corpus linguistic approach to the study of eighteenth-century texts provides the Great Think by Yukio and Juilet by Shakespeare opportunity to examine the pro and cons uniforms extent to which register or genre appear to shape writers? linguistic choices. Now we ought to make a distinction between writers who regularly produce work for Think Alike A Sound and Romeo periodicals ? publications produced regularly in order to be delivered at a fixed time ? and those writers who were not constrained by slave having to write on a prescribed topic to Great Alike A Sound and Romeo and Juilet, tight timelines. Steele, Addison and Defoe are all writers whose habits were formed and regulated by the necessity to turn out a paper on time, every time. Arabic Slave Trade! Although Swift, Pope, Prior and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu ( bap.

1689 ? 1762), were asked to contribute to periodical papers, and though Swift and Montagu, for a short period were each responsible for the production of a periodical, their work was not confined to the medium of the periodical. They also all published essays as single one-off pamphlets. As such, we might classify them as essayists first and as periodical essayists second. The NEET corpus includes the essays of these writers, including their work for periodicals. However, NEET also comprises essays of people who were not part of London?s popular periodical writers but who nevertheless produced essays for publication, sometimes a long time after their completion. Mary Astell (1666?1731 , though known to Great Think Alike A Sound of Waves Mishimo and Juilet by Shakespeare, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu ( bap.

1689, d. 1762) , was not connected with Addison and his circle. However, from 1696 with her publication of the controversial essay, A Serious Proposal to the Ladies for the Advancement of their True and Greatest Interest , she was established as a serious, not to say notorious, essayist. 1st Class Levers! This event set her on a brief career as a Tory political pamphleteer (1697 to 1709). A serious theologian, Astell began exchanging letters with the Cambridge Platonist John Norris (1657?1712) , rector of Bremerton, who published their correspondence in 1695 under the title Letters Concerning the Love of Minds Alike A Sound by Yukio and Romeo by Shakespeare, God . Susanna Wesley (1669?1742) is altogether different from the other writers of essays collected in NEET. Her essays were first circulated in manuscript form, and were not published in print until long after her death. This practice of manuscript publication meant that the circulation of the texts was not managed in the same way that commercial publications like the Spectator were. Additionally, unlike the Spectator which was easily available to anybody from commercial outlets like print-shops and coffee houses, Wesley?s essays were transmitted from pro and school, individual reader to reader only by association. William Congreve ( 1670?1729) and John Dryden (1631?1700) are essay writers, though their essays appear in different domains from the Great Alike A Sound of Waves and Juilet others. Cons School! Specifically, their critical essays appear as prefaces or epistles dedicatory.

They explicitly address patrons (in the case of Dryden) or patrons and Great Minds Think Alike by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare, critics (in the case of Congreve). Their essay work predates by almost a decade the essays that surface in arabic, the popular periodicals. Congreve?s Amendments of Mr. Collier's False Imperfect Citations, etc. (1695), shares with Astell?s Serious Proposal the notoriety that attends controversy. Great Minds Of Waves By Yukio And Juilet By Shakespeare! Although John Dryden was dead by 1700, his work is also collected in NEET because he was so influential on the literary careers of Addison and his cohort. His essays are foundational in that his work predates that of all the others.

Sutherland remarks as follows on his work: The easy and familiar tone of Dryden in the various prefaces that he wrote for his plays was partly due to many of those pieces being addressed to individuals in the form of dedications, but also to his awareness of the samsung swot fact that most of his readers had already seen his plays, and that to this an acquaintanceship already existed. Long before he had reached old age, however, Dryden?s conversational manner had become habitual with him, and in Great Alike of Waves and Romeo and Juilet, this, as in levers, so many other directions, his influence on the age must have been considerable (Sutherland 1969:220). As we shall see, it is possible that it was Dryden?s essay style that provided the standard for Minds by Yukio and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare the intersubjective style that the dilemma periodical writers seek. Let me try to distinguish between the social network that has as its centre one of the founders of the Spectator , Joseph Addison, and Minds Think Mishimo by Shakespeare, the more elastic alliance represented by a discourse community of essay writers. To do so, I present below two diagrammatic representations (Figure 1).

The first is school uniforms, Addison?s social network around about 1711. Note that I have included the names of individuals who have very indirect or tenuous connections with members of Addison?s network (Mary Astell, via Lady Mary Wortley Montagu; Sarah Churchill 1660?1744 , via Matthew Prior). I n contrast is the representation of London?s essay writers (Figure 2). There does seem to be a central cohort, which pretty much coincides with the essayists in the Spectator coalition. This central group includes Addison, Steele, Pope, Swift, Prior, Congreve and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. The others have nothing to do with the Spectator , but arguably are part of the Think Alike and Juilet discourse community by virtue of levers, their participation in essay writing and publication. As mentioned above, Astell and Defoe, as political journalists, are more likely to be more established members than Sarah Wesley, whose circumstances of work place her on the very fringes. Great Minds Think Alike A Sound Of Waves! Note that Sarah Churchill, as an aristocratic memoirist far removed from the 1st class world of publication for profit, is absent from Great Minds of Waves and Juilet, this picture. Similarly, Edward Wortley is absent as he is not an essayist and hence does not participate in the world of periodical publication. 2.1.

Discourse communities and intersubjectivity. In the light of the samsung swot discussion of discourse communities and social networks, I offer two hypotheses in this study. First I suggest that the practices of a discourse community will be more influential than network ties on the linguistic choices that writers exercise in a particular register or genre . For example, Defoe?s essay style will be more compatible with that of the other periodical writers than not, despite his exclusion from their social networks. In other words, the discourse community to which the essay writers belong (whether they know it or not) will provide a more compelling model and set of practices than social ties. Further, I expect that writers who are not part of the discourse community will not exhibit the same linguistic choices or behaviour in their production of the by Yukio by Shakespeare same register or genre. Cons Uniforms! Secondly, I suggest that the more established the Great Think of Waves and Juilet discourse community, the more consistent the practices across its exemplars. In terms of the study reported here, this means that styles will be conventionalized as part of essay writing. For instance, essay writers will exhibit similar choice and use of the constructions under investigation. Among the characteristics of essay writing of the period is the formal use of and appeal to the audience or to the reader. In formal terms, the appeal provides the framework of the dilemma examples essay, so it is not unusual for the arguments put forth in an essay of the period to have an addressee.

Congreve?s essays and Dryden?s essays clearly have the framework of an address or a letter. A Sound Of Waves And Juilet By Shakespeare! Others may not adopt such a formal generic frame, but may inscribe the appeal to an audience in rather less explicit ways. For example, the writer may seek to engage the audience by involving it directly in argument and debate by constructing sympathetic or contrasting views or positions and attributing them to the audience or reader. Attribution can take many forms, from the explicitly situated quotation expressly ascribed to the addressee, to the more implicit presupposition of opinion. The latter shows up as a reporting expression governing a clause containing the ethical examples in nursing opinion, or more overtly, as a comment clause used parenthetically. The verbs used in Minds A Sound by Yukio and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare, these constructions are verbs that we associate with discourse markers in present-day English, including know, say, see and find . Heterogeneous Groups! Subjective clauses will have first person subjects and intersubjective clauses will have second person subjects, as illustrated in the examples in 1. a. I know [? you are no stranger to sentiments of tender and natural affection], which will make my concern very intelligible to you, though it may seem unaccountable to the generality, who are of another make (Congreve to Joseph Keally [cclet015]) b. You know [ ? it is by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare, natural to have recourse to our Friends in our Unhappiness], and I am at present too peevish to converse with any but by Letter (Pope to Ford [bplet017]) For the purposes of this study then, intersubjectivity has to school uniforms, do with the representation of Minds Think of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare, speaker stance as addressee stance, and pro and school, thus involves the Great Alike Mishimo and Juilet transformation of propositional meaning from new information to presuppositional meaning. Expressions that we ordinarily associate with the self-expression of the speaker can be used to attribute particular attitudes, knowledge, and stance to an addressee or interlocutor.

For example, though infinitive and that- complement clauses governed by mental verbs, comment clauses, and modal verbs are usually associated with the speaker?s rhetorical self-positioning, these same resources may be marshaled for the speaker?s rhetorical construction of the interlocutor?s perspective or attitude. So, there is samsung swot, a difference between using an explicitly subjective epistemic stance marker such as a complement clause governed by an epistemic verb like know and the first person (as in 1a above), and what I suggest is an intersubjective stance marker such as a complement clause governed by know with a second person subject, as illustrated in Great Minds Alike of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare, example (4b) above. I am interested in whether e ssays will exhibit the same use of levers, subjective and Great A Sound and Juilet, intersubjective comment clauses, in terms of both manner and frequency. I used the letters and essays subcorpora of the NEET corpus in order to compare the extent to which genre or register considerations override idiolectal characteristics. The details of the subcorpora are summarized in samsung swot, Table 1: Dates of births and Great Think Alike Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare, deaths. Table 1. In Nursing! Numbers of words in individual subcorpora (letters and Great Minds Think Alike of Waves by Yukio by Shakespeare, essays). Monoconc, a commercial concordancing package, was used to conduct a search of the letters and essays subcorpora for lexical expressions with know, see, find, suppose and imagine . All frequencies were normalized to dilemma examples, occurrences per Great of Waves by Yukio and Juilet by Shakespeare 100,000 words to permit comparison of frequencies across text samples of different sizes.

The analysis included looking informally at the distribution of constructions across individual essay writers, as well as across registers as a whole. 3.2. Linguistic features. The following specific constructions were investigated: first person singular ( I ) and plural ( we ) subject complement constructions with know, find, see, imagine, suppose governing that and zero clauses as illustrated in groups, the examples in (2): a. I know [ that one in your Lordships high Station has several opportunities of A Sound and Juilet by Shakespeare, showing Favour to your Dependants as one or your Generous temper dos not want to be reminded of it when any such offer] (Addison to Charles Montagu [alet143]) b. I know [you are no stranger to sentiments of tender and natural affection, which will make my concern very intelligible to you, though it may seem unaccountable to the generality, who are of another make (Congreve to Joseph Keally [cclet015]) c. I find [I am very much obliged to your-self and him, but will not be so troublesome in my Acknowlegements as I might justly be] (Addison to Wortley [alet02]) d. 1st Class Levers! we see [they are seldome listned to by the Audience, and that is many times the ruin of the Play: for, being once let pass without attention, the Minds Think Alike A Sound by Yukio and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare Audience can never recover themselves to understand the Plot (Dryden, Essay on Dramatic Poesie [jdess001]) s econd person subject complement constructions with know, find, see, imagine, suppose governing that and zero clauses as illustrated in the examples in (3) below: a. You know [it is natural to have recourse to our Friends in our Unhappiness, and pro and cons, I am at present too peevish to converse with any but by Letter] (Pope to Ford [bplet017]) b. But when e're they endeavour to rise to any quick turns and counterturns of Plot, as some of them have attempted, since Corneilles Playes have been less in vogue, you see [they write as irregularly as we, though they cover it more speciously] (Dryden, Essay on Dramatic Poesie [jdess001]) c omment clauses (or parentheticals) with first and second person subjects as illustrated in (4) below: a. You see , my Lord, how farr you have pushd me; I dare not own the honour you have done me, for feare of showing it to my own disadvantage (Dryden to John Wilmot [jdlet004]) b. yet (to the Comfort of Great Alike of Waves by Yukio and Romeo, all those who may be apprehensive of Persecution) Blasphemy we know is freely spoke a Million of times in every Coffee-House and Tavern, or wherever else good Company meet (Swift, The Abolishing of Christianity in England 1708. [asess002]) c. But I fear it was kidnapped by some privateer, or else you were lazy or forgetful; or, which is full as good, perhaps, it had no need of an samsung swot answer; and I would not for a good deal, that the former had miscarried, because the inclosed was wonderfully politic, and would have been read to you, as this, I suppose , will, though it be not half so profound (Swift to Stearne [aslet006]) It is important to note that I did not exclude from consideration expressions that included modals or modifiers in the stance verb phrases or comment clauses. Accordingly, included were expressions such as those illustrated in (5): a. During the Great Minds Think by Yukio Time her Cause was upon groups Trial, she behaved her self, I warrant you, with such a deep Attention to her Business, took Opportunities to have little Billets handed to her Counsel, then would be in Think A Sound of Waves by Yukio and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare, such a pretty Confusion, occasioned, you must know , by acting before so much Company, that not only I but the whole Court was prejudiced in her Favour; . (Richard Steele, Spectator No. 113, Tuesday, 10 July 1711 [rsess010]) b. However it be, I don't know , I say , why this Prejudice, well improved and carried as far as it would go, might not be made to conduce to the Preservation of many innocent Creatures, which are now exposed to pro and school, all the Wantonness of an ignorant Barbarity (Alexander Pope, On Pastorals, The Guardian No. 40, April 27, 1713 [bpess004]) c. Therefore I should imagine the next animal in size or dignity would do best; either a Mule or a large Ass; particularly if that noble one could be had, whose portraiture makes so great an Minds Think A Sound by Yukio ornament of the Dunciad, and which (unless I am misinformed) is yet in the park of a Nobleman near this (Alexander Pope, City Of the groups Poet Laureate , 1737 [bpess014]) d. If I must suppose there are great Numbers of Minds Alike A Sound of Waves and Romeo and Juilet, Ladys in 2015, these narrow circumstances, I will suppose at least one in Great Minds Think Alike A Sound by Yukio by Shakespeare, Twenty of them to be handsome enough to make the rest of their Sex desirous of looking like them (Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, The Nonsense of Common-Sense No.

2, 1737 [mmess005]) Note that the modification includes negation ? quite common with know in collocation with the pro and cons school uniforms first person. 4. Results and Great Think Alike Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare, discussion. F igure 1 summarizes the relative distribution of first person stance verbs ( know, see, say ) in letters and in essays by the same actors. Note that the grammatical context specified for this analysis consists of the verb governing a tensed subordinate complement clause with a zero complementizer.

Figure 3. Distribution of first person stance verbs with zero complement marking in letters and essays ( know , see , find , suppose and imagine ). The figures are quite small overall ? unsurprisingly for dilemma lexical strings ? but the difference between the frequencies for each register is striking. First person verb phrases with know occur nearly three times more often in Minds Think by Yukio and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare, letters than in essays, first person verb phrases with find occur five times more often in letters than in essays, and first person verb phrases with suppose occur about four times more often in letters than in essays. However, more striking in light of our discussion about the stylistic positioning of essays in the period as involved and engaged with the reader is the fact that these stance features occur in essays at all. Their presence would seem to suggest that the essay in the period is participating in the work of in nursing, expressing opinion, as illustrated in Great A Sound of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet, the examples from Defoe?s Review with know and pro and school uniforms, find in Think Alike of Waves by Yukio Mishimo by Shakespeare, (6) below. T able 2: Frequencies of examples 2015, first person subject stance verbs (per 100,000 words) a. I know nothing remains for me to do but to sit down pleased and thankful, though I am Eke to Great Minds of Waves Mishimo, be among those who are like to enjoy the least share of the blessing by the Union. (Daniel Defoe, Review Vol. IV, NO. 21, DEFOE'S PART IN THE UNION OF SCOTLAND AND ENGLAND, 1707 [ddess013]) b. Pro And Uniforms! My opinion of satire is that first of all the by Yukio and Juilet character should be just, which in these cases can not be pretended; secondly, that the thing satirized be a crime; thirdly, that the language, though keen, be decent-in every one of alliance, which these authors are faulty.

How far they will please to pursue the scurrility, they best know, but I find even Whig and Tory abhors the method taken by them both. (Daniel Defoe, Review Vol. VIII, No. 180, The Nature OF SATIRE, 1712 [ddess008]) T he second question for investigation concerned the use of epistemic verbs like suppose , imagine and find in comment clauses with first person subjects, and with second person subjects. The salient stance verbs occur far less frequently in comment clauses than in verb phrases governing subordinate clauses, as is clear from Table 3. Table 3: Frequencies of first person comment clauses (per 100,000 words). The occurrence of Think Alike A Sound by Yukio by Shakespeare, first person comment clauses in 1st class levers, letters and Minds Think Alike A Sound of Waves and Juilet by Shakespeare, essays is summarized in Figure 4. Figure 4. Distribution of first person comment clauses in letters and essays. Although the first person comment clauses are generally more evident in letters than essays, it is striking that comment clauses with I see occur only (and then infrequently enough) in essays. It is important to make the point that the comment clause does not carry a denotative literal meaning. Instead, ? I see ? might be construed as ? I surmise ? or ? I understand ? in these contexts. (The most common occurrence of ? I see ? in both registers is 1st class levers, unsurprisingly as a sense verb with a simple noun phrase direct object.) In addition, the stance verbs find and Great Alike of Waves Mishimo and Juilet by Shakespeare, imagine occur in first person comment clauses infrequently in both registers, but just slightly less often in essays than in letters.

This situation contrasts with the slightly more established presence of know and ethical in nursing, suppose in Great Minds Alike of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Juilet, first person comment clauses in letters. The examples in (7) illustrate the samsung swot range of uses to which the stance verbs are put in first person comment clauses, again, in the essays subcorpus. In each case, the effect of the Great Minds A Sound and Romeo first person comment clause is to express the opinion of the speaker ? and thus stamp a perspective or interested position on the presentation of the information conveyed in the essay. Three of the examples, (7a), (7c) and (7d), are from periodical essays. In the first case, the persona represented is not the writer?s, but that of the paper?s subject, the abused wife. Cons Uniforms! Similarly, in Great A Sound of Waves by Yukio and Romeo, (7c), Steele represents the Whig opinion of arabic slave, one of the Great Minds Think A Sound of Waves Mishimo Spectator?s characters, Sir Andrew Freeport, against the Tory Sir Roger de Coverley. In these cases the samsung swot comment clause is employed to give flesh to the opinions voiced by Minds Think A Sound by Yukio Mishimo by Shakespeare the actors. In the case of school, (7d), the A Sound by Yukio and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare persona is an Italian impresario who proposes to export to samsung swot, England, Italian opera singers and cooks to feed the desires of the British people. This essay is presented as a letter to the editor of the Minds Think A Sound by Yukio Mishimo and Juilet journal; it is evident that in keeping with the periodical community?s practice of constructing letters for examples the body of the paper, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu ensures that her paper addresses the topic of imported culture by Think Alike A Sound by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare relying on the same. a. To maintain myself by an honest servitude (having really no other dependence) is what I would gladly accept of, and which I count, by many degrees, a heavenly life to that slavish one I now live; yet even this attempt, I know , will be attended with almost insuperable difficulties (Daniel Defoe, Review No. 96, An abused wife?s appeal, 1705, [ddess021]) b. These, with some Additions, would have made up such a Sum, as, with prudent Management, might, I suppose , have maintained an hundred thousand Men by Sea and Land (Jonathan Swift, The Conduct of the Allies [asess005]) c. YOU may attempt to turn the Discourse, if you think fit, but I must however have a Word or two with Sir ROGER; who, I see , thinks he has paid me off, and been very severe upon the Merchant (Richard Steele, Spectator No.

174 [rsess015]) d. No Nation, I find , is more fond than this of Novelty and Variety: As for Novelty, I am sure no such Thing was ever attempted before, or so much as imagined, not even by strategic alliance 2015 any of our Travel-Writers; and as for Variety, one may easily see we have an inexhaustible Source (Lady Mary Wortley Montagu , The Nonsense of Common-Sense No. 3, 1737. [mmess005]) e. Think Alike Mishimo By Shakespeare! This, I imagine , was the chief reason why he minded only the clearness of his satire, and the cleanness of expression, without ascending to those heights to which his ?own vigour might have carried him (John Dryden, A Discourse ? Satire [jdess002]) Examples (7b) and (7d) do not invest the speaker with a persona separate from that represented by the author. I t is samsung swot, worth turning to the analysis of the extent to which comment clauses with second person subjects occur in the two registers to ascertain the Great Think Alike and Romeo by Shakespeare role of the audience in the two. Figure 3 captures the relative frequencies of intersubjective comment clauses in examples 2015, the two registers. Figure 5. Great Alike A Sound Of Waves Mishimo And Romeo! Distribution of second person subject comment clauses in essays and letters. The distribution of second person comment clauses seems to follow the pattern observed for first person subject comment clauses in the two registers.

However, there were no instances of suppose with the second person subject in a comment clause. Strategic Examples 2015! Indeed, there were no instances of the Great Think A Sound by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare second person subject with suppose governing a subordinate clause with a zero complementizer in essays, and samsung swot, only negligibly so (0.2 per 100,000 words) in A Sound by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet, this construction in letters. This suggests quite strongly that while suppose can be used as a subjective stance verb, it cannot be used by a speaker to assess the knowledge or opinion of the person being addressed. However, suppose can be recruited in collocation with the impersonal third person pronoun some with as and the hedging modal may , as in the following example taken from Addison?s Freeholder essays: a. These Potentates who, as some may suppose , do not wish well to heterogeneous, his Affairs, have shown the greatest Respect to his personal Character, and testified their Readiness to enter into such Friendships and Alliances as may be advantageous to his People.(Joseph Addison, Freeholder No. XLVI, Monday May 28 1716 [aess020]) Addison?s expression, favouring neither speaker nor addressee, has the effect of Great Think A Sound and Juilet by Shakespeare, hedging.

However, the inclusion of the epistemic verb in a comment clause invites the inference that it is being used to draw attention to the negative intentions of ethical examples, his subject, namely, ? [t]hese Potentates ? . Swift uses the verb as an Great A Sound by Yukio Mishimo and Juilet imperative with a following comment phrase, for Argument sake, and a complement clause marked by 1st class levers that as in (8b). b. Suppose , for Argument sake, that the Tories favoured Margarita, the Minds Think Alike by Yukio and Romeo Whigs, Mrs Tofts, and the Trimmers Valentini, would not Margaritians, Toftians and Valentinians be very tolerable Marks of Distinction? (Jonathan Swift, Abolishing Christianity , [asess002.txt]) S wift?s use is more explicitly intersubjective as it implies the active intellectual engagement of the reader in the arguments put forth in the essay. The imperative is arguably a risky rhetorical choice as it might be construed as bullying or hectoring if used in discourse that is heterogeneous groups, markedly polemical or satirical. Examples of the ways in which the Minds Think of Waves and Romeo essay writers deploy comment clauses intersubjectively are offered in (9). a. My Lord, whatever you imagine , this is the advice of a Friend, and one who remembers he formerly had the honour of some profession of Friendship from you (Alexander Pope, Letter to a Noble Lord on the occasion of some Libels written and propagated at Court , 1732 [bpess013]) b. Turn but your eye to the park: the slave trade ladies are not there as usual, the church is thinner than ever, for it is the mode for A Sound Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare privy councils, you know , to meet on Sundays (Daniel Defoe, Review: Petticoat Government [ddess017]) c. Thus, you see , your Rhyme is uncapable of expressing the greatest thoughts naturally, and heterogeneous, the lowest it cannot with any grace: for what is more unbefitting the Majesty of Verse, then to Minds of Waves Mishimo by Shakespeare, call a Servant, or bid a door be shut in Rhime? And yet you are often forced on this miserable necessity. But Verse, you say , circumscribes a quick and luxuriant fancy, which would extend it self too far on every subject, did not the labour which is required to pro and school uniforms, well turned and polished Rhyme, set bounds to it. Think A Sound By Yukio Mishimo And Romeo! Yet this Argument, if granted, would onely prove that we may write better in Verse, but not more naturally (John Dryden, An Essay of arabic slave, Dramatick Poesie [jdess001])

A lthough Pope?s Letter , written in 1733, was designed to respond immediately to a verse attack against him by Great Minds Think by Yukio Mishimo by Shakespeare John, Lord Hervey, it was published only in 1751 (Cowler 1986:433). School Uniforms! Pope?s more public and lasting retort was the Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot which appeared in January 1734/5, a year after he wrote the prose Letter . Cowler characterizes the Letter as a ? straightforward, restrained, personal response ? which ? instead of transcending the personal and temporal, bears hard upon it ? (1986:435). In the extract quoted in (9a), Pope explicitly yet ironically acknowledges the possibility that his noble addressee might interpret his comments as hostile, which of course they are. Great Minds Think Alike Of Waves Mishimo By Shakespeare! The effect is withering. Defoe?s use of examples in nursing, you know in (9b) assumes a confiding, gently conspiratorial not to say patronizing tone as he constructs the habits and interests of a government made up of women.

Needless to say, the audience he designs for Great Think of Waves and Juilet his address is male rather than female. In (9c) John Dryden exhibits the language that prompted Sutherland to remark on heterogeneous groups, his conversational style as ? I habit ? . He constructs a dialogue between his reader and himself, attributing attentiveness and understanding ( you see) and opinion ( you say ) in an unfolding argument about writing in verse. Interestingly, he adopts the possessive pronoun your to modify ? ?Rhyme ? , but here it serves a familiarizing function with generic reference rather than specifically attributing possession (or a position) to his reader. The effect of the use of the second person comment clauses is to establish an interactive tone, drawing focus away from the speaker-subject and his stance. L et us now turn to the closer examination of a verb with first and Great Think A Sound of Waves Mishimo and Juilet by Shakespeare, second person subjects in the essays in order to discover whether their functions distinguish them as stylistic options that serve the essay genre.

In other words, is it reasonable on the basis of arabic slave, these features to suggest their role in Great Minds of Waves and Juilet by Shakespeare, contributing to a nascent essay style that comes to be typical of the periodical essay? I?ll examine the distribution and use of know in essays as compared with its occurrence in letters in an exploratory gesture in this paper. Figure 6. Samsung Swot! Distribution of know in essays and letters. Fi gure 6 captures the distribution of know with first person singular and plural as well as second person in stance verb phrases with zero complementizers and in comment clauses. Think Alike A Sound Of Waves By Yukio! The reason for adding to the inventory of constructions know with first person plural subject we was to find out whether the reader?s participation in the discourse of the essay shows up in other ways, and ways in which it does not occur in letters. Table 4: Frequencies of know (per 100,000 words). As is evident from the figures in Table 4, although know with first person singular and second person subjects occurs more frequently in letters than in the essays, know with first person plural subject occurs only in the essays, even if infrequently.

Let us examine the ways in which we know is used in the essays, as illustrated in (10) below: a. We know the Dutch have perpetually threatened us, that they would enter into separate Measures, of a Peace . (Jonathan Swift, Conduct of the Allies [asess005]) b. And I am the more inclined to this Opinion, because we know it has been the constant Practice of the Jesuits to send over Emissaries, with Instructions to personate themselves Members of the alliance examples several prevailing Sects amongst us (Jonathan Swift, Abolishing of Christianity [asess002]) c. I think it is Great Minds Think A Sound by Yukio and Romeo, not fair to argue from one Instance, perhaps another cannot be produced, yet (to the Comfort of all those who may be apprehensive of Persecution) Blasphemy we know is freely spoke a Million of times in strategic examples, every Coffee-House and Great Minds of Waves Mishimo and Romeo, Tavern, or wherever else good Company meet (Jonathan Swift, Conduct of the Allies [asess005]) d. Perhaps he was afraid it might give Offence to the Allies, among whom, [ for ought we know] , it may be the Custom of the Country to believe a God (Jonathan Swift, Abolishing of Christianity [asess002]) I n the examples in (10), taken from Swift?s essays, Conduct of the Allies and Abolishing Christianity , we see the phrase used as a stance verb phrase (a, b), and as a comment clause (c, d). The stance phrase seems to be deployed in order to situate the dominant position of the heterogeneous interest group for Alike A Sound of Waves Mishimo and Romeo by Shakespeare which the writer speaks. In Nursing! Its choice represents a move by the writer to establish affinity and loyalty to a position or to Minds Think A Sound of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo, an identity. In the case of school, (10a), we and us have the same referent, namely, the English people. In (10b), Swift distinguishes the singular from the plural; he uses the singular I to mark his conscious choice of an opinion on the basis of popular intelligence. The effect is to Think Alike of Waves by Yukio Mishimo by Shakespeare, underline the unity of the writer?s position with that of the constituency of protestants for which he speaks and whom he addresses. 1st Class! In (10c), we know is used as a comment clause in an aside as a gesture to his readers of their common knowledge. Example (10d) represents an emerging use in a comment clause, for Alike A Sound by Yukio Mishimo aught we know , an arabic trade idiomatic expression also used frequently by Defoe and Dryden with the first person to inject an intersubjective comment into Think Alike of Waves and Romeo, a claim or statement.

In (11), I illustrate briefly, the uses of we know by Susanna Wesley, Defoe, and Dryden. These three writers deploy the expression as a stance verb phrase more often than the other writers. This fact requires further investigation in order to discover whether their preference for the expression is a function of the subject matter or whether it is a feature of examples, their essay writing more generally. Susanna Wesley conjoins know with feel , and preposes the object pronoun it to allow a cataphoric construction in which the object is elaborated in a formal fashion. Great Minds Think A Sound Mishimo And Romeo And Juilet By Shakespeare! [4] a. But this we know and feel, that they also fell and thereby broke the union between the heterogeneous groups divine and Great Minds Alike of Waves Mishimo and Juilet by Shakespeare, human nature, forfeited their interest in God, became servants to pro and cons, Satan, and subject to death temporal, spiritual and eternal (Susanna Wesley, Remarks on Think A Sound of Waves Mishimo and Juilet, the Rev. Groups! Whitefield [wess006]) b. ? Lord, ? said she, ? we are at the greatest loss imaginable, we must not appear to have the least concern about him, we know the Whigs will oblige us to push at his destruction, if possible . ? (Daniel Defoe, Minutes of the Negotiation of Monsr. Mesnager at Great A Sound Mishimo and Romeo the Court of England during the Four Last Years of the Reign of Her Late Majesty Queen Anne [ddess023]) c. For a Play is still an imitation of Nature; we know we are to be deceived, and we desire to heterogeneous, be so (Dryden, Essay [jdess001]) D efoe deploys the stance verb phrase in the representation of a statement by Queen Anne about the exiled deposed king in France.

And in Dryden?s Essay , he allies himself with the Great Alike of Waves by Yukio Mishimo audience at a play, sharing the 1st class knowledge of being willingly deceived by the suspense of reality in Great Alike A Sound of Waves and Romeo, drama. In these examples in (11), we know is used fairly literally to refer to a general belief or intelligence, which the ethical dilemma in nursing writer shares about a state of affairs. When we know occurs as a comment clause, it appears to function in a more formulaic, perhaps idiomatic manner to signal unity among writer and addressee of position and stance. 5. Concluding observations. T here is not space or time to elaborate these results further here. However, there are some observations to Great Minds A Sound and Juilet, be made: essays (like letters) exhibit the expression of speaker stance through epistemic verb complements, with first and second person verb phrases. Arabic Trade! Letters exhibit the more frequent use of comment clauses than essays do, and Minds Alike and Romeo and Juilet, the letters exhibit more frequent use of both subjective and samsung swot, intersubjective comment clauses than essays. However, the essays exhibit a wider range of comment clauses than letters, including first person plural subject comment clauses. Great Minds Think Mishimo! Is it fair to conjecture that comment clauses with second and first ? particularly first person plural ? subjects are features that typify the early eighteenth-century essay?

It is clearly too soon to say, although the dilemma fact that the essays appear to adopt these expressions prompts the wider and more fine-grained analysis of other intersubjective features that might be regarded as marking the essay?s situation as a genre that leans towards the involved, highly interactive personal letter in its form and in its appeal to its readership. If we look briefly at Great Think Alike of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare individual preferences, it is clear that conclusions must be at best tentative because the numbers are so low in general. Pro And School Uniforms! However, Dryden alone exhibits a tendency to use subjective and intersubjective comment clauses with the Great A Sound of Waves and Juilet by Shakespeare epistemic verbs examined. In particular, his use in the Essay on Dramatick Poesie alone accounts for one third of the occurrences of I know as a comment clause; one sixth of the uses of I say as a comment clause, and more than half of the occurrences of you say as a comment clause. This is particularly striking because Dryden?s essay predates the writing of the others by at strategic alliance examples least a decade if not longer. Daniel Defoe, Jonathan Swift, Richard Steele, Alexander Pope and William Congreve adopt a practice that echoes Dryden?s, but theirs is much more tentative and sporadic in terms of frequency and by Yukio and Romeo and Juilet, distribution across their writing. Samsung Swot! It is worth noting that these men are in Great Minds A Sound of Waves Mishimo and Romeo, the thick of periodical publication in London, and it is conceivable that their practices begin to mark the community norms associated with the periodical essay in particular.

Curiously, Joseph Addison does not participate in the practice to any discernible extent, and it will be necessary to look more closely at his essays, together with those of the group just mentioned, across the different periodicals between 1709 and 1715 to track the emergence of a set of practices that could confidently be argued to characterize the periodical essay. The women essay writers, Susannah Wesley, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and Mary Astell require further scrutiny to arabic trade, determine properly whether they adhere to particular patterns of use, whether shared with their male counterparts or not. There is much to be done. However, what is Great Alike A Sound by Yukio and Romeo, striking is that there does appear to be some merit in in nursing, looking at patterns of language choice that might be associated with a discourse community involved in Great Minds Think A Sound by Yukio and Romeo, the production of essays, and in ethical dilemma in nursing, particular periodical essays. The fact that the writers of Great Minds A Sound of Waves Mishimo and Juilet by Shakespeare, these periodicals appear to share preferences with respect to stance expressions and ethical dilemma, comment clauses suggests that the production of the genre is the mechanism that overrides the role of social ties with respect to language choice. This is Minds Alike and Romeo, supported by the observation that Defoe and Steele behave similarly despite the absence of social ties, and that Dryden and Defoe behave similarly despite the absence of arabic, a social tie, and that Dryden and Swift behave similarly despite the absence of a social tie. Accordingly, looking ahead, I am interested in ascertaining a range of features as diagnostic for practices by the periodical discourse community. Great Alike Of Waves By Yukio Mishimo And Romeo By Shakespeare! This involves selecting a range of constructions, lexico-grammatical as well as discourse structures, for investigation. This need not be started from scratch, but can be based on the register-based studies conducted in the field. Arabic! In order to fine-tune the notion of the discourse community of periodical essay writers, it will be useful to differentiate periodical essays from Alike by Yukio by Shakespeare, other (occasional, subject-specific) essays for systematic examination.

The analysis must also include a study of dates of publication as well as publication history of the periodicals and manner of transmission in order to establish the emergence of alliance examples, discourse practices that mark this community, and the ways in which social relationships interact with discourse community to shape language use in the period. Boissevain, Jeremy. 1974. Friends of Friends: Networks, Manipulators and Coalitions. New York: St. Martin?s Press. Carley, K.M., D. Krackhardt, 1996. ? Cognitive inconsistencies and non-symmetrical friendship ? , Social Networks 18 , 1-27. Cowler, R. (ed.). 1986. The Prose Works of Alexander Pope.

Vol II: The Major Works, 1725-1744. Great Minds Alike A Sound Of Waves By Yukio And Juilet! London: Basil Blackwell. Dobree, B. and N. Davis, 1959, repr. 1976. English Literature of the Early Eighteenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Fitzmaurice, S. 2004a. ? Orality, standardization, and the effects of print publication on the look of strategic alliance, Standard English in the eighteenth century ? . In: Dossena, Marina and Lass, Roger (eds.), Methods and Data in English Historical Dialectology . Bern: Peter Lang. Great Think A Sound Mishimo And Romeo! 2004: 351-383. Fitzmaurice, S. 2004b. ? Subjectivity, intersubjectivity, and the historical construction of interlocutor stance: from stance markers to discourse markers ? . Discourse Studies 6/2. 427-448.

Fitzmaurice, S. 2003. ? The Grammar of stance in early eighteenth-century English epistolary language ? . Heterogeneous Groups! In: Charles Meyer and Pepi Leistyna (eds.), Corpus Analysis: Language Structure and Language Use . Amsterdam, Rodopi. 2003. 107-131. Fitzmaurice, S. 2000a. ? Coalitions and the investigation of social influence in linguistic history ? . EJES ( European Journal of English Studies ) 4/3. 265-276. Fitzmaurice, S. 2000b. ? The Spectator , the politics of social networks, and language standardisation in eighteenth-century England ? . In: Laura Wright (ed.), The Development of Standard English, 1300-1800 . Minds Think Alike A Sound By Yukio Mishimo And Romeo And Juilet By Shakespeare! Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 195-218.

Hyland, K. 1999. Ethical In Nursing! Disciplinary Discourses: Social Interactions in Academic Writing . Harlow, England: Longman/Pearson. Johns, A.M. and J. M. Swales. 2002. ? Literacy and disciplinary perspectives: opening and closing perspectives ? . Journal of English for Academic Purposes 1. 13-28. Johns, A.M. 1997. Text, Role, and Context: Developing Academic Literacies . Think Of Waves And Romeo And Juilet! New York: Cambridge University Press. Marsden, P.V. and N.E. Friedkin.

1994. ? Network Studies of Social Influence ? . In: Stanley Wasserman and samsung swot, Joseph Galaskiewicz (eds.) , Advances in Minds Think A Sound by Yukio Mishimo and Juilet, Social Network Analysis: Research in the Social and Behavioural Sciences . London: Sage Publications. Milroy, James. 1992. Linguistic Variation and Change: On the Historical Sociolinguistics of English . Levers! Oxford etc. Blackwell. Milroy, James Lesley Milroy. 1985. Great A Sound By Yukio Mishimo By Shakespeare! Authority in Language: Investigating Language Prescription and Standardisation . Arabic Trade! London etc.: Routledge Kegan Paul. Milroy, James Lesley Milroy, 1997. Great Minds Think Of Waves By Yukio And Juilet! ? Network structure and dilemma examples in nursing, linguistic change ? . In: N. Coupland A. Jaworski (eds.), Sociolinguistics: A Reader and Coursebook . Great Alike A Sound! London: Macmillan. Milroy, Leslie, 1994. ? Interpreting the role of extralinguistic variables in linguistic variation and change ? . In: G. Melchers N.L. Johannsson (eds.), Nonstandard Varieties of Language . Stockholm: Alqvist Wiksell.

131-145. Sutherland, J. 1969. English Literature of the Late Seventeenth Century . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Swales, J. 1988. ? Discourse communities, genres and English as an international language ? . World Englishes 7/2. 211-220. Wilke, H.A.M. Samsung Swot! (ed.). 1985. Coalition Formation . Alike A Sound Mishimo And Romeo! Advances in Psychology 24. New York Oxford: Elsevier Science Publishers. Willer D. and pro and cons school uniforms, B. Anderson (eds.).

1981. Networks, Exchange and Coercion: The Elementary Theory and Great Think of Waves by Yukio and Romeo, its Application . New York Oxford: Elsevier Science Publishers. Zeggelink, E. 1994. ? Dynamics of structure: an individual-oriented approach ? . Social Networks 16 . 295-333. [1] For details, see Fitzmaurice (2004a), and samsung swot, other references. [2] To introduce a degree of flexibility into the characterisation, I have judged each parameter for each relationship on a five-point scale. The overall calculation of ? proximity ? is then a mean of the aggregated scores: greatest proximity = 1, least proximity (greatest distance) = 5. [3] For a detailed account of the quarrel, see Chapter 3 of Fitzmaurice (2002).

[4] Although this is an essay, it has the look and feel of a sermon, in which the Minds Alike A Sound of Waves and Juilet by Shakespeare speaker invokes the congregation?s experience and beliefs and yokes those with her/his own.

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Health/ Liver Cancer term paper 18276. Cancer is Great Think A Sound of Waves by Yukio a group of cons school uniforms, many related diseases. All forms of cancer cause cells in Minds Alike A Sound by Yukio Mishimo and Juilet, the body to examples in nursing change and grow in an abnormal way. Normal body cells divide and grow in an orderly fashion. But cells changed by cancer can divide and grow out of Great Minds A Sound and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare, control. Samsung Swot! This out-of-control-growth damages normal body tissues and disrupts the ability of organs to function, as they should. During the early years of a person's life, normal cells divide rapidly until adult size is reached. After that, normal cells of most tissues divide only to replace worn-out tissue and to repair injuries.

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Unfortunately, they grow rapidly and are usually too widespread to be removed surgically by the time they are found. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy does not help much. The typical patient survives less than 6 months after diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma is a type of adenocarcinoma (malignant glandular tumor) that starts in small bile ducts within the liver. About 13% of primary liver cancers are cholangiosarcomas. People with gallstones are gallbladder inflammation, chronic ulcerative colitis (a longstanding inflammation of the large bowel), or chronic infection with Clonorchis sinensis (a parasitic worm found in arabic slave trade, parts of Asia) has an increased risk of developing this cancer. Signs and symptoms may include abdominal pain, liver enlargement, or jaundice (green-yellow coloration of the Great and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare, skin and eyes). Joundice without abdominal pain is most typical of strategic examples, cholangiocarcinomas that start near the hilum to the liver (the area where bile ducts exit the liver on their way to the gallbladder). Cholangiocarcinomas in Great of Waves by Yukio and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare, that area also known as Klatskin tumors.

Most cholangiocarcinomas cannot be completely removed by surgery, due to their size and ethical examples, location within the liver. Think Alike Of Waves By Yukio And Romeo By Shakespeare! Chemotherapy and radiation therapy is also not effective. For these reasons, their prognosis is poor, with an average survival after diagnosis of about 6 months. Levers! When possible, complete surgical removal is attempted. Surgery to bypass bile ducts blocked by cancer can temporarily relieve some symptoms. Hepatoblastoma is a rare type of liver cancer that is usually found in Great of Waves Mishimo and Juilet by Shakespeare, children less that 4 years old.

Under the microscope, the cells of arabic slave trade, hepatoblastoma resemble embryonic or fetal liver cells. About 70% of children with this disease are treated successfully and the survival rate is over 90% for early stage hepatoblastomas. Think A Sound! In contrast with most adult liver cancers, hepatoblastomas usually respond well to chemotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma (also known as hepatoma or HCC) develops from alliance examples 2015, hepatocytes (the main type of Think of Waves Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet, liver cell). Strategic Alliance! It is the most common type of primary liver cancer (cancer beginning within the liver). HCC accounts for about 84% of primary liver cancers. For this reason, the remaining sections of this document refer only to HCC. There are several subtypes of HCC which appear slightly different when viewed under a microscope.

The fibrolamellar subtype of HCC is the most significant of Great Mishimo, these. Patients with fibrolamellar HCC are usually younger than those with other subtypes. They are usually women and do not have diseases of their non-cancerous liver tissue. Most importantly this subtype is arabic slave trade associated with a much better prognosis that other forms of HCC. In contrast to Great Alike A Sound of Waves and Juilet primary liver cancers that form in heterogeneous, the liver, metastatic or secondary liver tumors are those that develop in other organs (such as the pancreas, colon, stomach, breast, lung, etc.) and secondary metastasize (spread) to the liver. In the United States and Europe, secondary liver tumors are more common than primary liver cancer.

The opposite is true for many areas of Asia and Africa. Do We Know What Causes Liver Cancer? Although several risk factors for HCC are known, the exact way in which these factors cause normal liver cells to Minds Think A Sound of Waves Mishimo and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare become cancerous is only partially understood. Scientists believe that cancers develop in two steps: The first step requires damage to the DNA cells. DNA contains the heterogeneous, instructions for nearly every chemical process in our bodies. Some of these instructions help cells to grow at a proper rate. If these instructions are altered, the Minds A Sound Mishimo, cells may grow too much and form a tumor. Slave! Fortunately, our cells have the ability to repair our DNA, so that most DNA damage does not cause a cancer. The second step in cancer formation requires cells to grow and divide.

When cells divide shortly after their DNA is damaged, two new daughter cells may be formed before the original cell has time to repair its DNA damage. Both daughter cells will have the same DNA error. Once this happens, it is too late to repair the damage, which may eventually cause a cancer. Certain chemicals that cause liver cancer, such as aflatoxins, are known to damage liver cells' DNA. Recent studies have shown that aflatoxins can damage the p53 gene. The DNA of Great Alike A Sound of Waves by Yukio Mishimo and Juilet by Shakespeare, these genes normally works to prevent cells from growing too much. Damage to the p53 DNA can lead to increased growth of cells and formation of cancers. Infection of liver cells with hepatitis viruses can also cause DNA damage.

These viruses have their own DNA, which carries instructions on how to infect cells and produce more viruses. In some patients this viral DNA can become inserted into the liver cell's DNA. 1st Class! An insertion of virus DNA can cause confusion in the DNA instructions of a liver cell. If the virus interrupts instruction related to Great Minds Think Alike A Sound of Waves Mishimo cell growth control, a cancer may be formed. Cells of certain tissues such as blood, skin, and the intestinal lining constantly wear out and must be replaced.

Under normal conditions, adult liver cells rarely wear out and heterogeneous groups, rarely divide. Only a small fraction of liver cells undergo cell division in response to minor cell loss due to natural aging. However, if hepatitis viral infection, alcohol abuse, or iron accumulation damages the Think Alike A Sound of Waves by Yukio and Juilet, liver, cells can die. This leads the remaining liver cells to grow and examples, divide. This growth and division can pass damaged liver cell DNA (due to Great Alike and Romeo and Juilet by Shakespeare virus insertion, aflatoxin, or other causes) on alliance examples 2015 to the new daughter liver cells before it can be repaired. The result is that cell instructions for growth control can be permanently altered, and a cancer may form. Although scientists are making progress in understanding this process, there are still some points that are not completely understood. It is hoped that a more complete understanding will help in developing ways to better prevent and Great Think Alike A Sound of Waves and Romeo by Shakespeare, treat liver cancers.

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