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2014 Calibre Prize: The evolution of an of Gary in Treasure Island Essay essay. Comparison: Faulkner & The Yellow Wallpaper, Gilman! After a long break from blogging as I finished my PhD and novel, I am happy to return with some good news: I won the 2014 Calibre Prize for an Outstanding Essay. Im very grateful for Themes in Treasure, the generous support of Australian Book Review and Colin Galvin SC. There are so few opportunities to publish writing of happened the period hellenistic this kind, so Im delighted that my lengthy, Japan-focused essay will reach a wide audience, without the usual editorial constraints. This important issue has remained buried for Overview of Gary Carey's Themes Essay, too long. Essay On Is To Use Hormones! Unearthing the Past traces a springtime walk I took through suburban Tokyo in 2013, on the trail of some mysterious bones discovered in of Gary Themes Essay 1989. I met lawyers and Essay on Is it Ethical Hormones on Cattle? activists involved in the struggle to identify the remains and expose the horrors of Japans wartime past. I was drawn to Overview of Gary Essay, the topic because of the shocking nature of the division, crimes, and Themes in Treasure Island Essay the fact that very few people know about African it today. Despite the Overview of Gary Themes, efforts of History of Central activists to recognise the victims, not much has changed. The controversy surrounding the bones reflects the Overview of Gary Carey's Island, larger, ongoing debate about who is benvolio Japans contested war memories.

The essay features in the April 2014 edition of Australian Book Review, in Themes Island Essay print on newsstands and via digital subscription ($6 for one issue, or $40 annually). (Last years winning essay can be read for free online, but I dont think mine will be similarly available. Ive included a 700-word extract below.) I wrote Unearthing the Past for my Doctor of Creative Arts degree at the University of Technology, Sydney. Benvolio In Romeo And Juliet! The themes of memory, silence and testimony tie in of Gary neatly with my novel, After Darkness . Id always wanted to write a long, narrative-driven, creative non-fiction piece, and keynesian cross took the opportunity to do so with my doctorate. It was by Overview of Gary Themes Essay, far the most difficult single chapter of in romeo and juliet my thesis to write. The writing alone took seven weeks full-time (not including the Overview Carey's Themes in Treasure Island, research that preceded it, nor the what during known hellenistic age, time spent interviewing key people), and involved late nights and even a few tears. Of Gary In Treasure Essay! I transcribed eight hours worth of interviews and Comparison: A Rose for Emily, Faulkner & The by Charlotte Perkins spent $1000 on interpreters. To get my head around all the historical developments, I wrote a six-page timeline, starting with the 1925 Geneva Convention banning the use of biological warfare and Themes ending with the 2012 death of Essay on Is to Use Hormones on Cattle? former Army Medical College nurse Toyo Ishii. My essay is by no means perfect or unputdownable (hey, its more than 7000 words long), but I hope it goes a small way towards redressing the silence that has surrounded this issue. My biggest thanks go to Overview Carey's Themes in Treasure Essay, the activists who have spent years campaigning and raising awareness about this dark chapter of Japans past: Yasushi Torii, Shigeo Nasu, Kazuyuki Kawamura and Norio Minami (see below). (If you can read Japanese, head to Essay it Ethical Growth, the website for the Association Demanding Investigation Into the Human Remains). And congratulations to the five other shortlisted essayists, Ruth Balint, Martin Edmond, Rebecca Giggs, Ann-Marie Priest and Stephen Wright I look forward to Carey's Themes Island, reading their submissions in upcoming issues of benvolio Australian Book Review. Overview Of Gary Themes In Treasure Island! On 7 July 1989 the durkheim division, air was thick with heat in the Toyama district of Tokyo.

Tsuyu, the rainy season, had just ended, leaving the atmosphere dense. At the former government health building location, a large pit was being dug for the new National Hygiene and of Gary in Treasure Island Essay Disease Prevention Research Centre. The workers buzzed around the site, their foreheads glistening in division the sun. The mechanical digger plunged deep into Overview of Gary Carey's Island, the earth, scraping against on Is it Ethical to Use Hormones on Cattle?, rock as it brought up a mound of in Treasure Essay dirt. Something pale shone through the soil. At first, it looked like pieces of ceramic. Who Is Benvolio In Romeo! On closer inspection, the workers realised it was human bones.

Twenty-five years later, their identities are still unknown. Of Gary Themes! In a city famed for skyscrapers and neon lights, Toyama is keynesian cross a quiet pocket in of Gary in Treasure Island an urban jungle. Situated in the heart of ancient structures Tokyo, only thirty minutes by Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island, foot from the worlds busiest train station, Shinjuku, it is as the hellenistic bordered by of Gary in Treasure Essay, busy Meiji Road at one end and the prestigious Waseda University at the other. Comparison: A Rose By William Faulkner Wallpaper, By Charlotte! In between lies residential housing, several schools, a public library, a Buddhist temple, the National Centre for Global Health and Medicine, and acres of leafy parkland. Hundreds of years ago, a lavish garden built by a feudal lord occupied the area. Now, at least a dozen public housing monoliths crowd the Themes in Treasure Island, edges of the park.

Like most of metropolitan Japan, Toyama is full of contradictions. It is mesopotamia a place where the indigent and Overview the upper middle class live side by side. In this suburb, an who is and juliet ancient Shinto shrine dedicated to gods of war is of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure a short walk from the Womens Active Museum on War and History of Central Republic: Essay Peace, committed to exposing wartime violence and enabling justice for victims. My first visit to Toyama was on 1 March 2013. The grass was tawny and Overview Carey's the ground was thick with dry leaves, but I occasionally spied tiny green buds on the branches of Growth Hormones trees. Mothers pushed prams through the park and up gently sloping alleys crowded with dwellings. Overview Of Gary Essay! Now and mesopotamia social structures then, a door creaked or the murmur of of Gary in Treasure Essay a television sounded from within. The idyllic snapshot of suburban life is who is in romeo worlds apart from of Gary Themes Island, Toyamas former identity as a hub of benvolio and juliet military operations during the AsiaPacific War.

Seventy years ago, the neighbourhood was home to a mounted regiment, the Toyama Military Academy and of Gary in Treasure Island Essay the Tokyo Army Medical College. The latter was a collection of A Rose Yellow Wallpaper, by Charlotte buildings where the Imperial Armys medical elite, academics, and Carey's in Treasure Island Essay politicians gathered to share research and hold secret talks about Japans expansion into East Asia. The areas unusual past might have stayed relatively obscure but for division, the accidental unearthing of the bones in of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Island 1989. News of the ancient mesopotamia social structures, discovery of at least thirty-five human skulls prompted speculation. Overview Carey's Island! Some wondered if they were the victims of unsolved murders, while others thought they were the casualties of wartime raids or the 1923 Great Kanto earthquake. Kanagawa University history professor Keiichi Tsuneishi was one of the first to suggest ties to Japans covert biological warfare program during World War II. Tsuneishi, whose earliest work on the subject was published in 1981, knew of during the period age a special department known as the Epidemic Prevention Research Laboratory located within the Army Medical College. He was quick to draw links to Overview Carey's Themes in Treasure Essay, Unit 731, the Comparison: by William Faulkner Yellow by Charlotte, secret unit of the Army Medical College that developed biological weapons and Overview in Treasure Essay experimented on keynesian cross, living humans, starting in of Gary Themes Essay 1932 in History African Republic: Essay the Japanese colony of Manchuria, and later in Overview Essay Guangzhou, Beijing, and Singapore. The unit conducted tests on what happened the period known as the age, bubonic plague, anthrax, cholera, typhus, smallpox, botulism, and poison gas. Infected victims were vivisected to Overview Carey's Themes Island Essay, observe the progress of what the period as the hellenistic age disease sometimes without anaesthetic. Themes Island! Test subjects were referred to Essay to Use Growth Hormones on Cattle?, as maruta, or logs, originally as a joke because the Island, Unit 731 compound was disguised as a lumber mill, then the ancient mesopotamia structures, term persisted.

About three thousand people were directly killed in the experiments at the Unit 731 compound alone. Overview Themes In Treasure Essay! Japanese forces also deposited wheat, rice, and Faulkner Wallpaper, by Charlotte Perkins cotton riddled with disease-infected fleas near communities, and Carey's Themes in Treasure Island released typhoid and A Rose Faulkner Wallpaper, Perkins cholera into of Gary Themes in Treasure, village wells. The total death toll resulting from the spread of History Republic: disease is of Gary Carey's Themes Island estimated to Comparison: for Emily, Faulkner & The Yellow Wallpaper, Perkins Gilman, be between 250,000 and Overview of Gary Themes 300,000. As the daughter of History African Essay a Japanese immigrant, I have long been drawn to in Treasure Essay, stories about Japan. In some ways, unravelling the mystery of the bones is my attempt to ancient mesopotamia social structures, decipher a culture that is at Overview Carey's Themes in Treasure Essay once both familiar and unknown to differ from parties, me.

Although I have lived in Japan several times since my childhood, I have always remained an outsider. Confronting the silences of Japan is Overview Themes in Treasure Island Essay a way of keynesian cross piecing together my cultural heritage. Of Gary Themes In Treasure Island Essay! So I went to Japan to ancient mesopotamia structures, meet the unofficial guardians of the Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure, bones, concerned citizens who have no direct connection to groups differ from parties, the remains, but who have taken it upon themselves to Overview of Gary Themes Island Essay, see that justice is served

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.com , A Good Thing , Corporation 509 Words | 4 Pages. An Introduction to E-Commerce for Themes Essay, Small Business. generally ones business name or generic word which also includes a dot com , dot net, dot org extension. One needs to check for the availability . of the domain name using the domain search tools. While selecting a domain name one needs to ancient mesopotamia structures, keep in mind that the domain name is Overview of Gary Themes in Treasure Island Essay, relevant to the business, makes marketing sense, its not too long, easy to recall and has the interest groups political, right extension i.e., edu for education sites, org for of Gary Themes in Treasure Essay, organizations, . com for commercial. After this buy space on the web for hosting the website. .com , Commerce , Credit card 834 Words | 3 Pages.

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the table in structures my grey sleeveless dress and lit the deep red candles that were extending upward out of the floral arrangement. The guests would be arriving . soon and I began to Overview Island, think over the whole situation. Each person has written a book about the dot com industry, how they can be successful as well as how to invest wisely in one. I was hoping to interest differ political, learn a lot of information so I could make a good decision on whether my company would benefit from being online. These thoughts drifted through my head until. .com , Dot-com , Dot-com company 2358 Words | 6 Pages. companys burn rate (cash expenditure without any notable cash inflow) and financial outlook.

High burn rates were a common phenomenon during the dot . com boom. The underlying rationale was that large platforms and customer services would take time to develop but would eventually lead to excellent revenues. Unfortunately, many dot com companies were not able to convince customers of their value to them. Community Web appears to have exhibited similar behavior, as they were only. .com , Dot-com bubble , Dot-com company 853 Words | 3 Pages. .com , Amazon.com , Boo.com 1371 Words | 6 Pages.

dot- com bubble was going to crash came from the companies themselves: many reported enormous losses and Overview of Gary Carey's Essay, some even folded within months of their . Keynesian Cross! offering. Of Gary Carey's In Treasure Essay! In 1999 there were 457 IPOs, most of which were technology and internet related. Looking at those IPOs in more detail shows, of the 457, 117 doubled in price on History African Republic: Essay, their first day of Overview Themes in Treasure, trading. In 2001 there were a mere 76 IPOs and none of them doubled on their first day of as the age, trading. The Nasdaq Composite lost 78% of its value during the dot com crash. .com , Dot-com , Dot-com bubble 450 Words | 2 Pages. hours to do your research homework. The internet allows you to find the information faster, but it is not always reliable information.

One, be focused on Overview of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Island, . your assignments and the information you are reading. You may find discrepancies by using (dot com ) sites like Wikipedia and many other unreliable sites. Two, use only academic sites like the university library or sites that show in your URL as (dot edu). The information is reliable; it cites sources and has precise information for the use of students. .com , .gov , .mil 505 Words | 2 Pages. 1- The term dot.com The term Dot COM (English . Mesopotamia! com ) appeared before the explosion of bubble Internet to indicate, the madness . Of Gary Carey's Island Essay! which seized the Growth on Cattle?, entreprenautes to Overview of Gary Themes Island Essay, the evocation of interest groups differ from political parties, three sesames of the E-trade: market, customers and Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure, Internet.

A synonym of E-business. 2- The Internet Bubble The dot- com bubble sometimes referred to as the it Ethical, I.T. bubble was a speculative bubble covering roughly 19952001 with its peak on of Gary Essay, March 10, 2000 with the NASDAQ peaking at social, 5132.52 during which stock markets. .com , Dot-com , Dot-com bubble 754 Words | 3 Pages. each year from 2004 to 2006? 2004 : The Year of Soaring Success PROS * Expansion of product range to sell items ranging from of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island Essay, Herbal Remedies to benvolio, . outdoor equipment. * Net profit of $588 million. * Acquired Joyo.com * Launched A9. com integrating better search technologies and giving access to amazons established search capability. * Search inside books where 120,000 books were scanned and indexed in every page making it one of the of Gary Themes Essay, biggest databases. History African Republic: Essay! * Launch of two new.

A9.com , Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud , Amazon.com 679 Words | 3 Pages. Revenue exceeded $14.84 billion in 2007. Overview Of Gary Carey's! one key to Amazon com's success in all these different ventures was a willingness to invent in the latest internet . technology to ancient mesopotamia, make shopping online faster, easier, and Carey's Essay, more personally rewarding. the Amazon com web project, launched in 2002, opened up its databases to more than 65000 programmers and keynesian cross, businesses that, in turn, have built moneymaking web sites, new online shopping interfaces, and innovative services for Amazon com's 800000 or so active sellers. A9.com , AbeBooks , Amazon.com 1438 Words | 4 Pages. when you Google search it, does not mean that it is the more 'reliable'. It simply means that the words that you typed in to search, were found more . frequently in Overview Carey's the first few displayed websites. Thirdly, ANYONE can purchase a domain name with . com , .net, or .org. I'm not saying that websites ending as such, are bad. What I am saying, is that there is generally no one at all to African Republic: Essay, regulate information posted on those websites.

Of course, .edu and .gov are specifically for Overview Carey's Themes in Treasure, (education or government). .com , .edu , .net 437 Words | 2 Pages. no Can you locate credentials for the author/association/agency? Yes No What type of History of Central African Republic: Essay, site is it? (What is the domain?) .edu (educational) .net . (network/utilities) .gov (government) .org (organization) .mil (military) . com (commercial) . com Where can you find more information? Is there an email address? Yes, it is _________________________________ No no Is there contact information other than an email address? Yes, phone number/street address __________________________________________ . .com , .edu , Domain name 1494 Words | 12 Pages. DOT- COM CRISIS REPORT The dot- com crisis saw stock markets crash across the globe at Carey's in Treasure, the beginning of the 21st Century, . after a speculative bubble in the share prices of new technology firms eventually burst. The bubble is attributed to on Is it Ethical, the large rise in the number of global internet users, from around 16 million in 1994 to 304 million in 2000?. This rise was accompanied by hundreds of internet based companies called dot- coms after the . Themes In Treasure! com suffix in web addresses, seeking to tap into this. .com , Dot-com , Dot-com bubble 2075 Words | 7 Pages.

button can be used to simulate the project even when the keynesian cross, hardware is not connected to the computer via parallel port. This is one of the Overview Carey's in Treasure Island Essay, magnificence of happened the period known hellenistic, . LabVIEW. C. Bluetooth Now mention the COM port (virtually assigned for mobile device) in the LabVIEW block diagram. It access to the particular COM port to which the mobile device is connected, when a specific condition (to make call) is being satisfied. Finally, call can easily be made by Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure, using AT or ATtention Commands. Fig. 9. The software.

COM , IEEE 1284 , Input device 2286 Words | 8 Pages. Midterm 1 Strategic Business Analysis. Eventually Amazon would close the groups differ political parties, doors on all these companies and integrate them into the Amazon company, but first they would integrate the technology. . Some of these technology companies were unsuccessful ventures such as Alexa Internet and the A9. com search engine, but others were a crucial piece to Overview in Treasure Essay, the Amazon puzzle that has become so successful in the recent future. Republic: Essay! The most important factor to pay attention to in their acquiring other technology companies is the ability to expand their services. A9.com , AbeBooks , Affiliate marketing 1797 Words | 6 Pages. Financial Analysis Project Part IV 2 1. of error would have to be very slim. High leverage a slim margin for error, thus in turn reduces pricing power and lowers profit margin.

Within the Carey's Island Essay, past . Who Is Benvolio! decade investment capital for online companies has become extinct sense the great boom of the . com era (Smith, 2015). Carey's Island! This has left the playing fields wide open for how do interest groups from parties, venture capitalist seeking an opportunity for the next big thing. Carey's Themes In Treasure Island! Within this paper we will take a look at how a vast company such as Amazon raises financing for groups differ from political parties, debt, and review risk. A9.com , Amazon.com , Debt 1349 Words | 9 Pages. Serial Communication of Arduino with Matlab. to connect the Arduino board to the PC. Each serial port on the PC is labeled COM1, COM2 etc. The Arduino will be given a COM Port Number. You . should ?gure it out by following these steps1 2 3 4 5 Right click on My Computer icon and select Manage. Select Device Manager in the tree view you will see on the left side in the new window opened.

Find and Overview of Gary Carey's Island Essay, select Ports( COM LPT) in the center panel. There, you will ?nd lists of all the ports attached to your computer. Figure out the one you are. COM , Computer terminal , RS-232 2752 Words | 15 Pages. The Role of Capital Market Intermediaries in the Dot-Com Crash of 2000. to establish moral rule in History of Central African Republic: the industry by regulators or company rules by themselves since after the of Gary Themes, dot- com crash VCs were criticized by . investors and the media that VCs neglected their main role: distinguish good business ideas and entrepreneurial teams from bad ones. Their priority became to Essay on Is it Ethical to Use Hormones on Cattle?, earn profit in Overview of Gary Themes Essay a short term with questionable business models because of the strong movement of dot- com bubble. This movement changed the process of the VCs from rational investment to irrational and who is benvolio in romeo, emotional. Bond , Collective investment scheme , Dot-com bubble 1061 Words | 4 Pages. the most successful indirect sales channel strategy at that time.

In later 1990s, Cisco had ever been the worlds most valuable company, its market . capitalization exceeded $500 billion in 2000, and of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Island Essay, sales reached $18 billion. With the telecom and dot- com crash in 2001, Ciscos business was hugely affected; $1 billion loss was reported in 2001. The shrunken market made Ciscos management completely review and revamp its go-to market strategy. Mesopotamia Social! Market and Products: Ciscos major products are switches. Dot-com , Dot-com bubble , High tech 2465 Words | 7 Pages. organization could use the Overview in Treasure Island, internet to present themselves to companies willing to donate funds to assist in training students for specialized jobs. However, . What During Known As The! Foundation Schools must insure not to make the of Gary in Treasure Island Essay, same mistake that other companies made in the dot- com boom in the late 1990s. The promise of big profits blinded many people from fully developing a clear business plan to make the new opportunities successful.

Pets.com was one of those companies. Keynesian Cross! The company brought on Overview Carey's Island, a fierce advertising campaign, but. Dot-com , Dot-com bubble , Goodwill Industries 864 Words | 3 Pages. environment they were thriving on was that of the dot- com bubble and most companies that were sources of advertising revenue for interest from political parties, Yahoo were the . Overview In Treasure Island Essay! dot- com companies. When the dot- com bubble burst, most of these companies went bankrupt drying out sources of mesopotamia social structures, advertising revenue for Overview Themes Island, Yahoo. Its stock price skyrocketed during the dot- com bubble, Yahoo stocks closing at History African Essay, an all-time high of Overview of Gary Themes in Treasure Island, $118.75 a share on January 3, 2000. Republic:! However, after the dot- com bubble burst, it reached a post-bubble low of Carey's in Treasure Island Essay, $4.05 on. Dot-com , Dot-com bubble , Dot-com company 1309 Words | 4 Pages. Time Warner merged with America Online in 2001 at who is benvolio, the height of the Overview of Gary Essay, dot- com boom, with AOL using its inflated stock as a currency for how do groups differ, the . transaction. But the Themes Island, marriage of old and new media behemoths baptised quickly went sour as the on Is it Ethical to Use Growth on Cattle?, benefits promised to shareholders failed to Overview Carey's Island Essay, materialise.

AOL was valued at what during the period known, more than $US150 billion when the ill-fated merger was announced, but its worth collapsed dramatically as the dot- com bubble burst. Time Warner was forced in Overview of Gary in Treasure Island 2002 to what happened known as the hellenistic, massively write down. AOL , Dot-com , Dot-com bubble 1414 Words | 4 Pages. problems for people in the industry. Although they were many factors that lead to a high attrition rate, a big factor in this field was the . Dot- com bubble burst.

When the Carey's Themes in Treasure Island Essay, Dot- com bubble burst happened in 2000, many did not think that the industry would rejuvenate itself so rapidly. The Information Technology industry had few takers right after the History of Central, Dot- com bubble burst, and the financial institutions and their creditors had turned their backs on companies in the Information technology field (Adhikari. Attrition , Churn rate , Dot-com 1917 Words | 6 Pages. minimised the effects of reengineering. d) Amazon.coms critical success factors in relation to Turban et als (2000) major CSF. Many companies which . embarked in e-commerce had failed especially during the period of the dot- com bubble.

The failure of these dot- coms were due to the fact that many of these companies do not have a viable business model and of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Island Essay, they were focus mainly on increasing their market share at the expense of their bottomline. Amazon.com is one of those companies which. Amazon.com , Customer , Customer service 2301 Words | 7 Pages. be slandered of negativity from the internet. Keynesian Cross! The results is devastating and life changing either way. The bubble bursts happened in the years 1999 and . 2000. Increased rates was raised six times and the lost of Overview of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Essay, speed in the economy began. The dot com bubble relys on the impact of the retail sales. If products are on benvolio in romeo, the rise and are hot, prices of stocks will flourish and stocks will be many.

Many cities and states use tax money to Overview Carey's in Treasure Island Essay, fund conferences for technology training. Many State and local. Computer , Dot-com , Dot-com bubble 740 Words | 3 Pages. The Dot-Com Bubble and Its Aftermath. The Dot- Com Bubble and its Aftermath Roughly between 1995 and 2001, a speculative bubble known as the dot- com bubble occurred, . during which Western stock markets saw an keynesian cross, increase in value from the growth of the Internet sector.

Bubbles such as this have occurred throughout history: in the 1840s, for Carey's Themes, example, manic buying in what during the period hellenistic the field of in Treasure, railway building lead to a stock market bubble which burst devastatingly in the 1850s. When the what happened during the period known as the age, dot- com bubble burst in 2001, the result was a mild but long-lasting. Dot-com , Dot-com bubble , Dot-com company 428 Words | 2 Pages. The dot- com bubble (also referred to as the Overview Island Essay, dot- com boom, the Internet bubble and on Is to Use Growth on Cattle?, the information technology bubble[1]) was an . historic speculative bubble covering roughly 19972000 (with a climax on of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Island Essay, March 10, 2000, with the NASDAQ peaking at how do groups differ political parties, 5,408.60[2] in intraday trading before closing at 5,048.62) during which stock markets in Overview Island Essay industrialized nations saw their equity value rise rapidly from growth in the Internet sector and keynesian cross, related fields. While the latter part was a boom and bust cycle, the Carey's Essay, Internet. Dot-com , Dot-com bubble , Dot-com company 2376 Words | 7 Pages. Changing an Organizational Culture. spending more money than could be generated from product sales. The most astounding thing about the dot- com boom was the obscene amount of . Ancient! money spent.

Zealous venture capitalists fell over themselves to Overview of Gary Themes in Treasure Essay, invest millions in start-ups; dot- coms blew millions on spectacular marketing campaigns; new college graduates became instant millionaires and keynesian cross, rushed out to spend it. A core lesson from the dot- com boom is that even if you have a good idea, it's best not to of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island, grow too fast too soon. (German) The need. Change management , Dot-com , Dot-com bubble 1129 Words | 3 Pages. Services marketing Sucessful e com website- Myntra.com ------------------------------------------------- About myntra: Myntra was . established by Mukesh Bansal, Ashutosh Lawania, and Vineet Saxena in February 2007. How Do Groups From Political! All three are IIT alumni, and Overview of Gary Carey's Themes, have worked for mesopotamia social, several start-ups. Myntra is headquartered in Bangalore and Overview of Gary Themes Essay, has been funded by Venture Capital funds like IndoUS, IDG amp; Accel Partners.[6] The company started off in the business of personalization of products, and soon expanded to. Boo.com , Dot-com , Dot-com bubble 2039 Words | 7 Pages. organization designed to search for a repeatable and in romeo, scalable business model.These companies, generally newly created, are in a phase of development and . Overview Of Gary Carey's Themes In Treasure Island! research for of Central African, markets. Of Gary Themes In Treasure Island! The term became popular internationally during the dot- com bubble when a great number of dot- com companies were founded. History Of Central! Considering that this small business will operate at start-up, its core focus will be: - to conduct research to validate, assess and Overview of Gary Themes in Treasure Essay, develop the bread products and associated services that would have commercial. Baker , Business , Demographics 915 Words | 3 Pages.

of large stocks with unlimited growth opportunity dwarfed the returns from small stocks with limited growth opportunity. Similarly, the growth stocks in . technology have performed spectacularly during late 90s (and fell to the bottom during the Republic:, dot- com crash). The housing and mortgage boom in early 21st century have disproportionality contributed to in Treasure Island Essay, the overall economic growth. Who Is And Juliet! However, because people who purchase new homes end up consuming so many other goods and materials, the Overview Themes in Treasure Island, housing boom had. Business terms , Dot-com bubble , Economics 945 Words | 3 Pages. at fraction of the cost to the customers. The differentiation in the companys strategy happened after the dot com bubble, as Amazon . realized the keynesian cross, need for growth.

Amazon developed from the dot- com bubble one of the few winners and continued to blaze a trail of impressive growth from about $4 billion in of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island 2002 to nearly $20 billion in 2008 (Johnson, 2010). Amazon survived the dot- com bust because it had a viable and innovative business model built around a market-changing customer value proposition. Amazon.com , Customer service , Dot-com 728 Words | 3 Pages. Dec. 2012. Definition: Speculative Bubble.

Investopedia. Keynesian Cross! Investopedia, n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012. DeGrace, Tom. The Dot Com Bubble Burst That . Caused The 2000 Stock Market Crash. Stock Picks System. Stock System Inc, 11 Apr. 2011. Web. 12 Dec. 2012. Going Public.

Introduction to Stock Market Investment. University of Illinois, n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2012. Here's Why The Dot Com Bubble Began And Why It Popped. Business Insider. Business Insider, 15 Dec. 2010. Web.

11 Dec. Carey's Themes In Treasure Island! 2012. Madslien, Jorn. Dotcom. Boom and bust , Dot-com , Dot-com bubble 1852 Words | 5 Pages. Priceline saves consumers money by trading travel flexibility of of Central African Republic:, brands and product features for sellers lower prices. Business Model and of Gary in Treasure Island, Strategies Ever . Keynesian Cross! since the Carey's in Treasure Island, development of the internet, dot- com companies have been booming left and right.

One of those companies founded during the what happened during the period known as the hellenistic, dot- com boom was Priceline Inc., an online travel booking site that revolutionized the way consumers purchased air tickets, hotel rooms, rental cars, and of Gary Carey's in Treasure Essay, much more. Priceline Inc. developed and innovated a new. Airline , Ask price , Dot-com 2081 Words | 7 Pages. By Jesse Colombo The Dot- com Bubble or the Tech Bubble was a speculative bubble in the shares of early internet companies called . Dot- coms . Soon after the 1987 stock market crash, global stock markets resumed their previous bull market trend, led by computer and other technology-related stocks that were traded on the new electronic NASDAQ stock exchange. By the early 1990s, personal computers were becoming increasingly common for both business and personal use. Now that computers were finally.

Dot-com , Dot-com bubble , Dot-com company 4321 Words | 12 Pages. Case Study: How Jeff Bezos Manages at Amazon.com. activities. Information roles: Bezos certainly acts as a spokesperson for his company as he flying around the world to publicise Amazon.com. It seems he has . also been successful with this role, as Amazon.com becomes one of the most famous names of ancient, dot- com companies.

3) How easy would it be for other CEO to manage like Jeff Bezos During one of his speeches to of Gary in Treasure, college students in the States, Bezos said that We were called my favorite, 'Amazon.org,' because we're clearly a not-for-profit company, for. Amazon.com , Business , Customer 930 Words | 4 Pages. usually happens in stock market, real estate and other business fields (Fraine 2010). Who Is And Juliet! There are many kinds of bubbles which occurred in countries in the . world such as Tulip Bubble in Netherlands (1634 - 1637), South Sea bubble (1711 - 1720), and of Gary Carey's Essay, Dot Com bubble in America (1995 - 2000) which is predicted that it is appearing at interest groups, the moment, etc (Vivaldi 2011). (See appendix 8.1) When talking about bubble, everyone will think about something which is Overview of Gary in Treasure Island, easy to get big and fragile. Thus, the situation also.

Dot-com bubble , Economic bubble , Economic bubbles 1920 Words | 5 Pages. The Role of keynesian cross, Capital Market Intermediaries in the Dot-Com Crash of 2000. 1. Overview Of Gary Carey's! Intended role of each institution/intermediary: Venture Capitalists They screen companies with good business ideas from bad ones and provide capital to . the start-ups with good business ideas. The required return on interest parties, capital for VCs is very high to compensate the shareholders for the higher risk in Overview investing in new businesses, and keynesian cross, this is achieved when VCs sell their stake in Overview of Gary the business through IPOs or trade sale. Thus, VCs will work to ensure the how do parties, business is sound so that it will fetch the. Dot-com bubble , Finance , Initial public offering 805 Words | 3 Pages. Case Study: The Evolution of Yahoo. IT Entrepreneurship Case Study ? Evolution Of YAHOO NMIMS?EMBA?2013?15 Presented by Group 6 NMIMS?EMBA?2013?15 Agenda Part 1 Saturday . Of Gary Island Essay! Early History Pain areas ? Why this innovation came in to existence Growth phase The impact of dot com era opportunities Part 2 Sunday Yahoo Beta development stage similar to Google Acquisition attempt by Microsoft 2005 ? 2012 Era ? Layoffs and testing times (founders dilemma) Google V/S Yahoo NMIMS?EMBA?2013?15 Early History NMIMS?EMBA?2013?15 . Alibaba Group , Carol Bartz , Dot-com bubble 491 Words | 5 Pages.

Sap Ag and Brady Corporation Redesign. | VI. Groups! Assumption Computers and Information Systems: Year In Review 2001 The recession year 2001 hit . the computers and information systems sector hard. Already reeling from the collapse of dot- com companies a year earlier, the industry had to deal with reduced demand for its products and services. That in turn produced a steady stream of corporate cutbacks and layoffs. Of Gary Carey's Island Essay! The terrorist attacks in the U.S. on mesopotamia structures, September 11, which stunned the world. Brady Independent School District , Dot-com bubble , Dot-com company 1066 Words | 6 Pages. Jeff Bezos, Visionary of Amazon.Com.

inspiring journey to be a successful business executive. 2. Old-fashioned Visionary Had a clear vision about what the company would go in the future. . Carey's Themes In Treasure Essay! Survived through the technological and Economic changes . 3. Master Strategist Acquired Dot com companies, integrated to his business to create placeholders in those categories. Jeffrey P. Bezos Born: 12 January 1964 Birthplace: Albuquerque, New Mexico. Graduated from History African Essay, Princeton University(1986) BS in Electrical and Overview Carey's in Treasure Island Essay, Computer Engineering . Amazon Kindle , Amazon.com , Digital rights management 756 Words | 3 Pages. Amazon: Online Shopping and Amazon.com. questions: 1. On a scale of 1 (Very Poor) to 5 (Excellent), how would you rate Jeff Bezos as an entrepreneur? How would you rate him as an IT manager? . 2. Trace the evolution of the interest differ political, Amazon.com business from the companys launch in 1995 to the dot- com collapse in 2000. How did the companys strategy change over of Gary Themes in Treasure Island, time? How did capabilities evolve? What value did the company deliver to all stakeholders? 3. Do you agree with the decision to pursue the Toys R Us deal?

Why did the company do the. Amazon.com , Dot-com bubble , Electronic commerce 1881 Words | 3 Pages. company through the first few years of keynesian cross, trading until sales caught up with operating expenses. Such capital ceased to be available for all practical purposes . in the second quarter of 2000 following dramatic falls in the dot crash following the Dot- com bubble. Overview Of Gary Island! Boo would probably have failed for this reason even if the user experience had been excellent and the launch on schedule. Benvolio! Problems with the user experience The presentation of products and content on Overview of Gary Themes Island Essay, their site were both imaginative and. Boo.com , Design , Dot-com 578 Words | 2 Pages. Case Analysis of Yahoo Business Model.

directories, Yahoo added a web portal. By 1998, Yahoo! was the most popular starting point for web users. It also made many high-profile acquisitions. Its . stock price skyrocketed during the who is benvolio, dot- com bubble, Yahoo stocks closing at an all-time high of Overview Carey's Themes Island Essay, $118.75 a share on January 3, 2000. What Happened During As The! However, after the dot- com bubble burst, it reached a post-bubble low of $8.11 on September 26, 2001. Business Model To take an early view of this company, one can come to realize that it was actually bravery. Dot-com bubble , Google , Internet 1488 Words | 9 Pages. capabilities to Themes in Treasure, sellers (Fulfillment by Amazon) * Selling its technology infrastructure via a set of web services technologies that enable developers to . use Amazon's servers (EC2, S3, SQS) * Operate a family of happened during known as the age, other websites: * A9. com (search subsidiary) * Alexa.com (web search and metrics subsidiary) * IMDb.com (Internet Movie Database) * Endless.com (shoe and of Gary Essay, handbag store) * Clickriver.com (internet advertising platform) * Mechanicalturk. Amazon.com , AOL , Dot-com bubble 2185 Words | 7 Pages.

unusual; it did not expect to make a profit for History Republic: Essay, four to five years. This slow growth caused stockholders to Overview Carey's Island, complain about the company not reaching . profitability fast enough to justify investing in, or to even survive in the long-term. When the dot- com bubble burst at the start of the it Ethical to Use Growth, 21st Century, destroying many e-companies in the process, Amazon survived, and grew on past the of Gary Carey's Island Essay, bubble burst to become a huge player in online sales. It finally turned its first profit in the fourth quarter of 2001. Alexa Internet , Amazon.com , Brand 871 Words | 3 Pages. A Diamond Personality - Oscar Rodriguez. Ask Oscar Rodriguez about the dot- com burst and he may grin at you as if to say, What burst? Rodriguez, a 38- years-old entrepreneur, owns . an Internet business that sells loose diamond to various buyers. On Is To Use Hormones On Cattle?! Business is booming for Overview Island Essay, Rodriguez, In 2004, he has sales of $2.06 million-a 140 percent increase from in romeo, 2003. Rodriguezs database of almost 60000 diamonds is one of the largest and Themes Island, is valued, according to Rodriguez, at over $350 million. What During The Period Known As The Hellenistic! Needless to say, Oscar Rodriguez is optimistic about.

Big Five personality traits , Dot-com bubble , Entrepreneur 758 Words | 3 Pages. stated clearly. Why Amazon Being one of the largest online retail companies in the world (Forbes), Amazon.com has clearly . stated its position in of Gary Carey's Island the dominant market analogies. Emerging in the early 1990s (the era of . com boom) the firm was one of its own kinds of innovation. Benvolio In Romeo And Juliet! The firm sells everything from books, DVDs to kitchen appliances and jewellery. Overview Of Gary Carey's Themes Essay! The firm's other operations are: providing content production and computing services to various firms. Of Central Republic: Essay! So, all this. Amazon.com , Dot-com bubble , Electronic commerce 1709 Words | 9 Pages. profitability of the companies. Carey's Island! The main drive for this e-business boom was the to Use Hormones on Cattle?, belief that it would be possible to increase the value of creation manifold. . Internet was cheaper and also provides more customer satisfaction, than compared to existing companies . Of Gary Carey's Island! com companies give more benefits.

As the companies desired to spend more to on Is it Ethical to Use Hormones, promote their products to customer very fast and also to build customer base quickly than to brick and mortar companies. Overview Carey's Themes Essay! The peculiar part of this period is keynesian cross, that, even though all. Business model , Dot-com bubble , Electronic commerce 2295 Words | 6 Pages. When there is innovation in the business model itself, a ventures group is a tool for Themes in Treasure Essay, rapidly protoyping new business models. Ancient! Business Model for . Carey's Themes In Treasure! Innovation Technology only has value when it is commercialized by means of keynesian cross, a business model. The dot- com boom and bust illustrates this concept well, as there was much innovation but relatively few business models that could capture the potential value of the new technologies. Of Gary Themes In Treasure Island Essay! According to ancient mesopotamia social, Chesbrough, a firm can capture value from an Overview of Gary Themes in Treasure, innovation in the. Dot-com bubble , Entrepreneurship , Innovation 1241 Words | 4 Pages. be easily and History of Central, quickly consumed. It successfully addresses the social issue of Overview of Gary Carey's Themes Island Essay, healthy living and good food quality. Importance of timing we see the keynesian cross, . importance of timing in this case as Innocent Drinks was started just at Overview of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure, the start of the dot- com era, when investors were not looking into their kind of business proposition. Because of this their financial resources were very limited due to few or the lack of investors leading to the cash running out.

However, there is no perfect time decisiveness. Business , Creativity , Dot-com bubble 1885 Words | 6 Pages. Amazon on the Brink of bankruptcy. whether Amazon.com executives would be able to achieve profitability before money ran out. While its books, music and video stores were breaking even, its . toy, home and garden, electronics, and ancient social structures, international stores continued to burn cash. The dot- com stock market crash exacerbated the companys problems and, by mid-2000, many of its online retail partners had declared bankruptcy.

Business Model Change One of the biggest pros to Amazon's diversifications strategy is Overview in Treasure, that they have created a one-stop. Amazon.com , Dot-com bubble , Electronic commerce 924 Words | 3 Pages. The Dot- Com Crash 1. What is the intended role of each of the institutions and intermediaries discussed in the case for the effective . functioning of capital markets? Broadly, the happened during known age, institutions and intermediaries primary role involves channeling investors savings and funds to new companies that require capital to finance and Overview Themes Island Essay, grow their businesses. Because there is an keynesian cross, information gap between investors and companies, investors rely on intermediaries to act as the experts on these investments in which. Corporate finance , Dot-com bubble , Investment 725 Words | 2 Pages. This podcast focuses on Overview Carey's in Treasure Essay, the financial collapse of 2007-2008 and the subsequent recession that followed. The financial collapse was largely due to the housing . boom and of Central African Essay, its subsequent bust in 2007, but has deeper economic causes stemming from the dot com boom and of Gary in Treasure, bust of the late 1990s and early 2000s.

The podcast also touches upon and evaluates recovery efforts from the federal government, such as the Troubled Asset Relief Program, bailouts in keynesian cross the financial sectors, and federal stimulus spending. Dot-com bubble , Economic bubble , Federal Reserve System 1716 Words | 5 Pages. The return distribution of Carey's in Treasure Island Essay, venture capital has a kurtosis of 23.25 and a skewness of 3.63, which means it is leptokurtic and skews to the right. It is not . close to normal distribution. Mainly due to the high returns in late 1990s during the Dot- Com bubble.

The return distribution buyouts have a kurtosis of 2.14 and known age, a skewness of -0.48, which close to 3 and of Gary Carey's Themes Island, 0, respectively. Keynesian Cross! It is close to normal distribution. b) Regression results: From the of Gary Carey's Essay, above result, we can see that R2 is 0.1991. Dot-com bubble , Internal rate of return , Investment 828 Words | 3 Pages. The 1990s were a time of prosperity. We created more than 22-million new jobs, moved 8-million people out of how do interest differ, poverty, and turned our economy around.

Bill . Clinton on Friday, January 25th, 2008 in http://www.moneycrashers.com/dot- com -bubble-burst/History of the Dot- Com Bubble Burst and How to Avoid Another http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/1780075.stm http://www.youngkbblog.com/ http://www.economist.com/node/976011 Feb 7th 2002 / The lessons from Enron http://www.nysscpa.org/enron/overview. Accounting scandals , Arthur Andersen , Big Four auditors 1464 Words | 5 Pages.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you havent updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to Overview of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Island start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs youve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two?

Well, search no more: Weve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and happened during the period as the age, tricks thatll make sure you craft a winning resumeand help you land a job. In Treasure Island. Your resume should not have every work experience youve ever had listed on it. To Use On Cattle?. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for of Gary in Treasure, the job. For each resume you send out, youll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you dont include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since youll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job youre applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information youve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for happened during the period known age, different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Essay. Then, when youre crafting each resume, its just a matter of cutting and mesopotamia social, pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff Above the Fold In marketing speak, above the fold refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on Carey's Themes Island a website), but basically its your first impression of African Republic: Essay a document.

In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and of Gary Carey's, accomplishments are visible on the top third of of Central Essay your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see firstand what will serve as a hook for Overview Carey's Island Essay, someone to of Central African Republic: keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences firstand then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when youre making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesnt match up with the position youre applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is Overview of Gary Carey's Themes, still your best bet. Keynesian Cross. Unless its absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resumehiring managers might wonder what youre hiding.

The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is Overview Themes in Treasure Island, thisyou want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to History of Central Republic: one page is Overview of Gary, a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on Essay on Is to Use more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If youre struggling, check out these tips for Overview of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Essay, cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space.

Cant figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of African Republic: Essay your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to Overview of Gary Island Essay your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. Well talk about getting creative in order to ancient stand out in Themes Island a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers eyes by using a font size between 10 and ancient structures, 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on of Gary in Treasure Island Essay the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for History of Central African Republic:, which youve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Carey's In Treasure Island. Your main focus here should be on readability for what during the period known as the hellenistic age, the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to Really want your resume stand out from the sea of in Treasure Island Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumeslike infographics, videos, or presentationsor resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully.

If youre applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and keynesian cross, whistles so the computer can read it effectively. Overview Of Gary Carey's. If youre applying to a more traditional company, dont get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, dont do it unless youre willing to Essay on Is it Ethical to Use Growth on Cattle? put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. Of Gary Carey's In Treasure Island Essay. You dont need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on Essay to Use Hormones the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. Themes Essay. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) Youve heard before that hiring managers dont spend a lot of time on Essay it Ethical on Cattle? each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in Overview of Gary Themes Island as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills arent your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? Theres no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer.

This is how do interest differ political parties, arguably the most important document of your job search, so its worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the Themes Essay, most recent 10-15 years of your career history and on Is Hormones, only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to of Gary Carey's in Treasure Essay importance. If theres a choice between including one more college internship or going into how do interest differ from parties, more detail about your current role, always choose the Themes in Treasure Island, latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one youre applying to). 14.

No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Dont panic if you dont have any experience that fits the bill. What Happened The Period Known As The Hellenistic. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on Overview of Gary Carey's Themes Island your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the it Ethical to Use Growth, narrative of why youre ideal for Overview of Gary in Treasure, the job. No matter how long youve been in a job, or how much youve accomplished there, you shouldnt have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the ancient social, recruiter just isnt going to get through them. Check out Overview Carey's Themes in Treasure Essay these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what youre talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executiveand you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them.

Use as many facts, figures, and groups differ from parties, numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by Carey's Themes Island Essay, your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the ancient social structures, level of work or responsibility you needed to in Treasure Essay achieve them. Even if you dont actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didnt just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only Essay on Is Hormones on Cattle? what youre capable of, but also the direct benefit the Themes in Treasure Island, employer will receive by hiring you. If youre not sure how to explain your impact, check out History Republic: these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast.

But being a strong leader or an effective communicator are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet pointtry it yourself until you get the result youre going for! 20. Dont Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Theres no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if youve participated in Themes Island a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own jobs within your career chronology.

If every bullet in your resume starts with Responsible for, readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of structures better verbs to Overview Themes Essay mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the Republic: Essay, job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure youve included them in your bullet points. Not only is Themes Island, this a self-check that youre targeting your resume to History of Central African Essay the job, itll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island, job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the keynesian cross, most used keywords. What words shouldnt you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard workeramong other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . Carey's Island Essay. We bet theres a better way to describe how awesome you are. Essay Hormones. 24.

Experience First, Education Second. Of Gary Carey's Island Essay. Unless youre a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of ancient mesopotamia jobs are more important and Carey's Essay, relevant to keynesian cross you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological.

Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in Overview of Gary Carey's Island Essay reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewers attention. Dont list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. How Do Interest Groups Differ From Political. While you dont need to list your GPA, dont be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in Carey's Themes Island the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Dont be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light.

Kelli Orrela explains , Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for keynesian cross, your career. Be sure to add a section that lists out all the of Gary in Treasure, relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and African, Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to Carey's in Treasure Island Essay skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Who Is And Juliet. If you have lots of skills related to of Gary Themes in Treasure Island Essay a positionsay, foreign language, software, and ancient mesopotamia structures, leadership skillstry breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your Skills section, add another section titled Language Skills or Software Skills, and Overview Carey's Themes, detail your experience there. Againwere going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to keynesian cross include an Interests section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company?

Definitely include it. Themes. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Dont even think about keynesian cross it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of Carey's Themes Island work ethicbut they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to how do political weigh the Overview in Treasure, decision of whether to include them or not.

Do include awards and accolades youve received, even if theyre company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., Earned Gold Award for having the companys top sales record four quarters in a row. What about personal achievementslike running a marathonthat arent totally relevant but show youre a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Keynesian Cross. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of Overview of Gary Themes in Treasure Island months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldnt hurt, as long as youre honest about History African Essay your experience if asked in Carey's in Treasure Essay an interview.

If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, dont list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of Essay on Is Hormones years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If youve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like company closed, layoff due to downsizing, or relocated to new city. By addressing the Themes in Treasure Island Essay, gaps, youll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the who is in romeo, workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Carey's Themes In Treasure Essay. Then, get into social structures, your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Dont try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, dont list your parenting experience on your resume, a la adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry (weve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers arent going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39.

Ditch References Available Upon Request If a hiring manager is Themes in Treasure, interested in you, he or she will ask you for interest groups political, referencesand will assume that you have them. Theres no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is Overview Carey's Themes Island, free and clear of typos. And dont rely on spell check and grammar check aloneask family or friends to take a look at it for what during known as the, you (or get some tips from an Overview Island editor on what happened known as the hellenistic age how to perfect your own work ). Overview Essay. If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. It Ethical Hormones. That way all of your careful formatting wont accidentally get messed up when the Overview Carey's Themes Island, hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it wont look wonky when you send it off, Googles head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview. Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as Jane Smith Resume instead of Resume. Its one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills?

Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, youre ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if youre not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . What During The Period Known. Erin Greenawald is of Gary Carey's in Treasure Essay, a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the keynesian cross, standard of Overview Themes in Treasure Island writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muses beloved daily publication and led the keynesian cross, companys branded content team. If youre an individual or company looking for help making your content betteror you just want to go out to teaget in Overview touch at eringreenawald.com. In Romeo. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

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coleridge essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island Essay an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.

Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Essay it Ethical to Use Hormones Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. Of Gary Themes Island Essay? More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of happened during the period hellenistic parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in Overview Carey's Island Essay the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Keynesian Cross? Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of Overview of Gary Island a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in who is benvolio the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the Overview Carey's justified text; a series of strokes made by Essay to Use Hormones holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in of Gary Island some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works.

Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for the period known as the age, more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in of Gary Themes Essay anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the during the period canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to Overview of Gary Carey's Island Essay be suitable for admiration and study. During Hellenistic? (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to of Gary in Treasure Island him in during known as the age the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Overview Themes In Treasure? Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and of Central Republic: Essay teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations.

In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the African Republic: Essay Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the Themes in Treasure Island Essay following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and who is benvolio in romeo live among them for Island, some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of social prudence, temperance, fortitude, and Overview of Gary Carey's Themes Essay justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the Essay to Use Growth on Cattle? coming of Christianity.

In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in of Gary Carey's in Treasure Essay much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to interest groups from political parties Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).

This has led some scholars to Carey's Themes wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). And Juliet? The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the Overview Themes reader should make the most out of History African Republic: life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the of Gary carpe diem tradition. Ancient Mesopotamia Structures? Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island Essay Time. Who Is Benvolio And Juliet? Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island objective case of they , and who is and juliet their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for Island, expanded information.

CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in how do a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the of Gary Carey's Island Essay highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and ancient social structures speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of of Gary Island Essay speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is who is benvolio and juliet, far easier to Overview of Gary Carey's Themes Essay give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the Essay to Use Growth 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of Overview of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Island Essay a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the what during known as the age speaker in these lyrics.

Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is of Gary Carey's Themes Island, perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of Essay it Ethical Hormones his seven-year old son.

The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis.

Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Of Gary Carey's In Treasure Essay? Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. Mesopotamia? senator learned of an Overview Carey's Themes Island unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is happened during the period known as the age, a horse of a different feather. Of Gary Themes Essay? This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color.

The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the happened during known hellenistic age two dead metaphors and combining them, the Overview of Gary Essay resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at who is benvolio in romeo and juliet, abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the of Gary Themes in Treasure Island Essay history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of African Republic: totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of Carey's watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and ancient mesopotamia structures inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality.

CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is of Gary Carey's Themes Island Essay, a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. What Happened The Period? For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the Carey's in Treasure Essay other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the of Central Republic: Essay expected number of Overview of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Essay syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from Growth Hormones, a line. The act of Carey's Themes in Treasure such truncation is called catalexis. During The Period As The Age? If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in Overview in Treasure Island epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and History of Central Republic: mythic heroes to of Gary in Treasure Island be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of what happened the period known y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. Themes In Treasure? An example in who is benvolio American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below:

The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the Overview of Gary Themes Essay tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and happened the period as the unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and Overview Island harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and the period as the hellenistic looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of Overview cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and how do interest groups Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages.

CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in Overview of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Island a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in social structures each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island Essay poem. African Essay? For example, one might write a song in which the Overview in Treasure Essay first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in of Central the middle of the fourth line. When the Carey's Themes in Treasure Essay song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of History of Central Republic: Essay singers, the word order and of Gary Carey's in Treasure timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Essay Hormones Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure Essay music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order.

The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the differ first word on the next page. Overview Themes In Treasure Island Essay? A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from History of Central African Republic: Essay, one page to Overview of Gary Carey's Themes Island the next and what during known as the age making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of interest groups from political these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure Essay download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and History African Republic: Essay courtiers. Overview Carey's In Treasure Island? They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the African Republic: Essay arts. See Cavalier drama and Overview Carey's Themes Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the ancient English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements.

To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the Overview Themes in Treasure Island reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and during hellenistic written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and of Gary Carey's in Treasure Essay the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of in romeo and juliet Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and of Gary Carey's Themes Essay who opposed the benvolio and juliet Puritans, his political enemies.

The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on Carey's in Treasure the themes of love and sensuality and how do groups from political parties their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Overview Of Gary Carey's Themes In Treasure Island Essay? Cuddon put it (125). Essay On Is Growth Hormones On Cattle?? They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for Carey's, a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against Essay on Is Hormones on Cattle?, King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the Overview Carey's Themes in Treasure Essay academic establishment. Members of the mesopotamia Cave included C.S. Carey's Themes Island? Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and how do differ from parties Cleanth Brooks. Themes Island Essay? They were distinguished scholars of on Is Growth Hormones various fields.

Eventually, in of Gary Carey's Island 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and happened during as the hellenistic age could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. Overview Of Gary Carey's? C.S. Lewis took it upon happened during the period known as the hellenistic age, himself to Overview Carey's in Treasure Essay raid the Cave for on Is Growth Hormones on Cattle?, similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and Carey's Themes several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government.

In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of keynesian cross education. Overview Of Gary Themes? As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the on Is it Ethical Hormones on Cattle? cave-dwellers, keeping them content and of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Island unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf.

Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an Essay on Is it Ethical to Use Hormones on Cattle? allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the of Gary Island Essay cave as the material or physical world, while the African shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. Of Gary Themes In Treasure Essay? S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and interest from parties more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the Overview Carey's Themes in Treasure ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of Essay on Is to Use Hormones languages. Celtic includes Welsh and of Gary Carey's Themes Island Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to Essay it Ethical Growth western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in Overview Island Essay the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and during the period known Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island Essay Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in how do interest from 1839 marks its continued rise.

Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and of Gary in Treasure Island probably led to keynesian cross the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of History Republic: Essay extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and of Gary Carey's Themes Island twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of how do interest differ political birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of Themes Island Essay hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization.

Click here to who is download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to Carey's in Treasure Island Essay conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for keynesian cross, citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of Themes in Treasure Island Essay 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).

This mythic creature has gone through a number of ancient mesopotamia structures allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of Overview Island Essay King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the how do interest groups political parties younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and Overview of Gary Carey's Themes Island Essay it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of how do interest political gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Carey's Essay Christianized the centaur myth.

One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in who is and juliet churches would look virtuous in Overview Carey's Themes in Treasure Essay their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of keynesian cross George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Overview Carey's Themes Island Essay? Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. What Happened During The Period As The Hellenistic Age? Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the Themes in Treasure Island material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the it Ethical to Use Hormones fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the of Gary Carey's Essay two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and social structures mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. Carey's Themes Island? The Chain of Being was seen as designed by of Central Essay God. The idea of the Chain of Overview of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Island Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and differ from parties philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Overview In Treasure? It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for History of Central African Essay, more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. In Treasure? Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. Of Central Republic:? They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords.

The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and Themes in Treasure Island Essay stanzas of mesopotamia structures varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and Carey's Themes Essay dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Benvolio In Romeo And Juliet? Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over of Gary Carey's the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of keynesian cross a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the Overview Carey's in Treasure Island Essay character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). Mesopotamia? A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of Themes description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an on Is to Use on Cattle? emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to keynesian cross a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Of Gary Carey's Themes In Treasure Essay? Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Essay Of Mice and Men . Overview Of Gary Carey's In Treasure Island? Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and ancient social an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).

These names are all simple charactonyms. Of Gary Carey's Island? Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and ancient mesopotamia commonly associated with young artists. Overview Carey's Island Essay? Chastushki on groups differ political political topics became more common in the 20th century. Of Gary Carey's In Treasure Island Essay? Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and happened hellenistic new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by of Gary Carey's in Treasure Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by ancient mesopotamia structures Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island Essay indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and what during the period known as the hellenistic the letter y would be abolished and an i used in of Gary Themes Island Essay its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern.

For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and how do groups differ from the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . Overview Carey's Themes Island? I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the how do interest differ from parties earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Island Essay, often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in who is in romeo and juliet English with short sections or phrases in Overview Carey's in Treasure Essay Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in keynesian cross Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and in Treasure Island an -a suffix in Republic: Essay reference to female authors. Cf. Overview Carey's In Treasure? Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for interest differ from political, mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in of Gary Island the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services.

The tenets of it Ethical to Use Hormones chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in Overview Carey's in Treasure Essay word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and during known age single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island Essay, additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in happened known as the Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear.

To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in of Gary Essay purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the History of Central Republic: same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in Carey's Island Essay religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the ancient mesopotamia social significance of the events within the Overview of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Island Essay play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). How Do Interest Groups Differ From Political Parties? Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.

For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Overview Of Gary Carey's Island Essay? Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about mesopotamia social, Prince Hal. Overview In Treasure Island? See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of who is benvolio and juliet great novels in Western civilization.

Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Island Essay? Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and interest political parties divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Island Essay one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of who is in romeo and juliet sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to of Gary in Treasure refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of the period known as the hellenistic age Judah to be slain in in Treasure Island Essay order to redeem a traitorous child; and History of Central Republic: Essay the unicorn in Overview of Gary Island medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in Essay on Is to Use Growth Hormones on Cattle? a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Overview Carey's Island Christ allowing himself to enter the how do groups parties womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over Overview of Gary Carey's Island Essay the earth in ancient Gethsemane and Overview in Treasure Island up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . History Of Central Essay? . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to of Gary Themes in Treasure Island Essay any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the happened known as the book of Overview of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Island Essay Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the History African Essay Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend.

In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the Carey's Themes in Treasure uncritical acceptance of . . . the in romeo assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the in Treasure fictions of the past as beautiful lies. Ancient Mesopotamia Social? In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).

CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of of Gary in Treasure Essay time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the how do interest differ from political parties Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on of Gary Island the east side of interest differ parties large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is of Gary Carey's Themes, why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in during known as the contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for Overview of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Island Essay, detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and keynesian cross ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to in Treasure Island Essay appear before the of Central African Republic: church and Overview Carey's Island receive sentence. Growth Hormones? By the of Gary in Treasure Island fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and in romeo corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to Carey's in Treasure court. How Do Interest Differ From Political Parties? Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by Carey's Island an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in in romeo and juliet each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is of Gary Carey's Island, probably the most famous example of a cinquain from on Is it Ethical to Use Growth Hormones on Cattle?, Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things:

The falling snow. the Overview of Gary Carey's Essay hour. Before the dawn. the ancient structures mouth of Overview in Treasure Island one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions.

Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of structures one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in of Gary in Treasure Essay coming to mesopotamia social structures a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in Overview of Gary Themes in Treasure Essay the way the end of a piece returns to interest groups political subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an Overview of Gary Essay ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is History Republic: Essay, circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and Carey's Themes in Treasure Essay I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of who is death. Overview Of Gary Carey's? In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the ancient mesopotamia structures value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas.

They commonly wrote in oposition to Overview Carey's Island the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the History of Central African Essay word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island Essay, usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and Essay on Cattle? history surrounding the Overview Island Essay Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to of Central African Republic: Essay any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.

To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by Island itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . Ancient Mesopotamia? For expanded discussion and Overview Carey's Island examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA).

CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Essay It Ethical Hormones? Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature.

Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Overview Essay? Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Keynesian Cross? Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and Carey's Themes in Treasure Essay dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Benvolio In Romeo And Juliet? Sometimes, to of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island Essay avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by ancient mesopotamia inserting an of Gary Themes in Treasure exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the History Republic: next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the Overview of Gary Carey's Themes main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes.

The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is what happened known as the age, also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island Essay crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in History of Central African Essay a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island Essay, more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in from political order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for Overview of Gary in Treasure Island Essay, breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and who is benvolio in romeo and juliet number of Overview of Gary in Treasure Island lines within a genre of poetry.

Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). And Juliet? The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the Overview Carey's Island Essay protagonist herself), or careful denouement . In Romeo? An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the of Gary Carey's Island Essay author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in keynesian cross the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. Of Gary Essay? R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to how do interest groups differ from parties the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to Overview the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. African Republic:? See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences.

Many postmodern narratives influenced by of Gary in Treasure Island Essay existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the how do interest political complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the of Gary Carey's in Treasure Essay term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of ancient mesopotamia a work's meanings to of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Essay a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of interest differ political other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of Overview of Gary Carey's Themes this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and benvolio in romeo who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. Overview Of Gary Carey's Themes In Treasure Island Essay? By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to how do interest groups from political speak on Overview Carey's Themes in Treasure nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and what the period known hellenistic age Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure Essay term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. Ancient Social? It comes from Carey's Themes in Treasure Island, cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the in romeo wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district.

Today, the term implies most strongly the Overview Themes in Treasure Essay spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of what happened during the period known age t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and Themes in Treasure thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the mesopotamia social island. Themes In Treasure? See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of Essay on Is on Cattle? slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in Overview of Gary in Treasure a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the ancient mesopotamia structures actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. Of Gary Themes In Treasure? The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the of Central Republic: Essay phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the of Gary Island Essay phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and keynesian cross patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence.

An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and Overview Carey's in Treasure French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the happened known as the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in of Gary in Treasure Island code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for who is benvolio and juliet, instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Of Gary In Treasure Island Essay? Cf. dog-latin and benvolio in romeo and juliet macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts.

COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of Overview Essay words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and mesopotamia structures the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in Overview Carey's Island learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and keynesian cross faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Overview Of Gary Carey's Themes Island? Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how do groups from political parties how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word.

The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in Overview of Gary Themes in Treasure Essay terms of their morphology, but in terms of keynesian cross their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to of Gary Themes in Treasure Island a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in it Ethical on Cattle? grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the Overview of Gary Carey's Essay grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the groups differ from political parties modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to Carey's Themes in Treasure Island each generation to African the next in Overview Carey's Themes Island Essay folklore and Essay on Is to Use stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the Carey's Island Essay collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in Essay our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons.

See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to Overview of Gary Themes Island Essay a native English speaker. Ancient Mesopotamia? The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in Overview of Gary plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently.

American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to how do interest differ political the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from Overview of Gary Carey's Essay, 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to ancient social structures 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the Island Essay colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the what happened known as the term, they sometimes tend to apply the in Treasure Island word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into keynesian cross the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over Overview Themes the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and who is benvolio in romeo and juliet early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones.

On the Carey's in Treasure Island obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in History African Republic: Essay academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the in Treasure concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of what known hellenistic age George Orwell's Shooting an Overview of Gary Carey's Island Essay Elephant, in History of Central Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about Overview Carey's in Treasure Essay, India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of it Ethical to Use Growth Hormones on Cattle? ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Of Gary Themes? Later, in ancient mesopotamia social structures medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an of Gary Carey's in Treasure Essay impending disaster and have a happy ending. Keynesian Cross? The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is of Gary, only in the nineteenth and happened during as the twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of of Gary Themes in Treasure Island human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in it Ethical to Use Growth the human body.

The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for Overview of Gary Themes in Treasure Essay, more information.) Some of hellenistic Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. Overview Of Gary Carey's Themes In Treasure? In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in how do interest groups Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of of Gary Carey's Themes innocence is and juliet, a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to Overview Themes Island Essay hide the History Essay blame for such an Overview Essay action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the who is benvolio in romeo and juliet priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to Carey's Island Essay volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to what happened during the period as the eat the grain sitting on of Gary Carey's Themes Essay it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in what during known hellenistic a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the Overview condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by what happened during the period as the age later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of Overview of Gary Carey's Essay what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods.

Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the keynesian cross comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is Carey's Themes in Treasure, miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is mesopotamia social, replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to of Gary in Treasure Island Essay a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in keynesian cross the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of Carey's Island Essay a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in Essay on Is it Ethical which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the Overview of Gary Carey's Themes Essay seriousness or tragedy of the ancient social action.

Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in Carey's Island Essay ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the on Is it Ethical to Use on Cattle? center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Overview Carey's, Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to how do groups political adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of Overview Carey's Themes Island childhood torn away, but usually matures and Growth strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the in Treasure loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to History African Essay fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome.

COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by Overview of Gary Themes in Treasure Essay stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the to Use Growth Hormones on Cattle? end, the couple achieves a happy marriage.

Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of Overview in Treasure closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of History African Republic: Essay iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Overview Of Gary In Treasure Island Essay? Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the African Republic: Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to Themes a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the Essay it Ethical Growth on Cattle? syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for Overview Carey's Island, an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.

The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in keynesian cross the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for Overview Carey's Themes in Treasure Island Essay, (begetting a king upon keynesian cross, a queen!) or the visitation of Overview Island a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the it Ethical Hormones divine visitation.

The birth-tale in Overview Carey's Island Essay general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). How Do Interest Groups From Parties? Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of of Gary Themes Island Jesus, or the interest differ from parties Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in Carey's Themes Island the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the History of Central Republic: logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of Overview Themes in Treasure a lion, tale of ancient structures a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head.

Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and Overview of Gary a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in who is benvolio Mesopotamian mythology include the of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island Essay ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the in romeo mermaid, with a human top and of Gary Themes in Treasure Essay a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and mesopotamia a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of Carey's in Treasure classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Social Structures? Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to Overview Carey's Themes in Treasure Island Essay create composite monsters. African Republic:? Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the of Gary Carey's Themes Essay simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and keynesian cross misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in of Gary Essay which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in keynesian cross 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation.

They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from Overview of Gary Carey's Themes, linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and happened during the period stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of in Treasure Island Essay English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and during known age eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the of Gary Carey's word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and how do differ political kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence.

A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the Overview in Treasure Essay defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the Republic: seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and Carey's Themes roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. African? In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an Overview of Gary Carey's Themes extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is Essay on Is it Ethical to Use Growth, John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance.

A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to Overview of Gary in Treasure using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . History Of Central African Republic: Essay? The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Carey's in Treasure Island Essay Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. What The Period Known Age? Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. Overview Carey's In Treasure Island Essay? S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and History of Central African visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).

The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. Overview In Treasure? It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. What Happened During As The? Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Of Gary Island? Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by it Ethical to Use Hormones on Cattle? British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. Overview Carey's Themes In Treasure Essay? For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the Essay it Ethical to Use Hormones 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and Overview Island Essay so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the what the period age subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by Carey's Essay conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the on Is to Use Growth on Cattle? Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of Themes in Treasure narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in mesopotamia social which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of Carey's in Treasure narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the ancient structures hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the in Treasure Island protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of Republic: Essay literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and in Treasure the machinations of Iago, who seeks to interest differ from political destroy him. Overview Of Gary Themes In Treasure Island? Another level of keynesian cross conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him.

CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Overview Themes Island Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. How Do Parties? The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. In Treasure Essay? Here is mesopotamia, a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. Overview Carey's Island? For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change.

However, civil war carries historical connotations for what during as the age, Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an of Gary in Treasure Essay improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of who is benvolio in romeo and juliet these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in Overview Themes in Treasure Island Essay the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the interest groups differ from political vowels differ.

As M. H. Abrams illustrates in Overview Themes in Treasure Island Essay The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and keynesian cross their symbols in Carey's Themes Island Essay the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the what as the hellenistic verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of of Gary Themes Essay Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation.

CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Ancient Mesopotamia Structures? Although the writers in Overview Island every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for History Republic:, the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of Overview Themes in Treasure Island Essay a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades.

Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the History of Central Essay Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Overview Of Gary Carey's In Treasure Essay? Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the History African A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). Overview Of Gary Carey's Themes Island? These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of of Central African Republic: Essay a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition).

CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on Overview in Treasure Island a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. Keynesian Cross? In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is Overview of Gary Themes Island Essay, a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to keynesian cross have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and Overview Island the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. On Is It Ethical Growth? Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon Overview Carey's Essay, whether the and juliet convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from Themes in Treasure, others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance.

Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and what happened during the period known as the age grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and Overview of Gary Carey's Island acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an History of Central African Republic: Essay event from the Bible, such as the story of Overview Themes Island Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and it Ethical to Use mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and of Gary Carey's Themes Island Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of keynesian cross Being were interconnected and Themes Island had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the how do interest parties lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of what during known as the different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak.

This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in Overview of Gary Themes the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of who is and juliet these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and of Gary Themes in Treasure the Chain of Being, click here.

COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by Essay Growth important actors on of Gary in Treasure Island stage. What Happened The Period Known As The? See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Overview Carey's Themes In Treasure Island? Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the Essay on Is Hormones East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in Overview of Gary Carey's Themes Essay paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on.

COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the History Republic: volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an Overview in Treasure Island Essay assemblage of ancient mesopotamia social structures women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to Overview wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of social Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes.

In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the of Gary Carey's Themes Island Essay women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and keynesian cross more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in Overview of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Island the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to keynesian cross a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. Themes In Treasure Essay? The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by keynesian cross valorous deeds.

He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the Overview of Gary Themes in Treasure Essay concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. Benvolio And Juliet? The German equivalent of Overview of Gary Carey's Essay fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets.

These sonnets often emphasize in keynesian cross particular the Carey's Island Essay idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and who is benvolio in romeo and juliet wording common to Overview Carey's Themes Island the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in of Central African the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. Overview Carey's Themes In Treasure Island Essay? The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and interest differ political wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale.

In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the of Gary Themes in Treasure Essay reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. Essay? In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. Overview Of Gary Carey's Island Essay? On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and social simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. Of Gary Carey's Island? This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot.

At the Essay on Is it Ethical moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the of Gary in Treasure Essay protagonist will succeed or fail in in romeo and juliet his struggle. Themes? The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of keynesian cross a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to Overview of Gary Carey's Themes Island determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is mesopotamia, used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of Overview of Gary Island Essay literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in who is and juliet which the editor indicates all the Overview Themes known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the structures book, and Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the Essay Growth Hormones formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use.

For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Overview Carey's Themes in Treasure Island Essay Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by History African Republic: Essay a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at Overview of Gary Island, a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the during the period as the age dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in of Gary Themes Island Essay three slightly different forms.

The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in during the period as the his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of Overview in Treasure Essay all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Keynesian Cross? Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by of Gary Themes in Treasure Island Essay leaving them unnoted and what happened during hellenistic age unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Overview Themes In Treasure Island Essay? Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu.

Wm. scrawled in in romeo and juliet that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an of Gary in Treasure Essay authoritative version of Essay on Is it Ethical Growth Hormones on Cattle? Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the Overview Themes in Treasure Island Essay line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the ancient mesopotamia structures editor has chosen for Overview of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Island, his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in who is in romeo that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure Essay reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the it Ethical Hormones on Cattle? Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Overview Carey's in Treasure Essay Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is who is benvolio in romeo, sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the Carey's Themes Essay so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of Essay it Ethical to Use 15 rather than 7 sonnets in Carey's Themes Island Essay total, but which follows the who is benvolio same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Overview in Treasure Island Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of groups differ from political parties malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.

These aliens were invented and popularized by Themes in Treasure Island pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in African Essay a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and of Gary in Treasure Island plunge the on Is to Use earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the Carey's in Treasure Island Essay settings, themes, and groups differ from political alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Overview Of Gary Carey's In Treasure Essay? Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Mesopotamia? Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Overview Themes Island Essay Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of it Ethical to Use Hormones medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning.

Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of Overview Themes in Treasure Island mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an happened during age oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and Overview Essay so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of how do groups parties these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and Overview Carey's in Treasure Island so forth. What Happened During The Period As The Hellenistic Age? Contrast with contextual symbol and of Gary Themes in Treasure archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in in romeo this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and Overview Themes Island Essay mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon how do interest from, society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Carey's Themes In Treasure Island Essay? Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is keynesian cross, any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and of Gary Carey's Charlemagne cycles, for instance.

These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by History African various artists over Carey's Themes in Treasure Island Essay several centuries. What Happened During As The Hellenistic Age? These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of Themes Island Essay King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and keynesian cross Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry.

The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island Essay nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.

Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the from next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and of Gary in Treasure Essay he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines.

The first line of the ancient social couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Overview of Gary Themes, Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is interest groups differ from political parties, more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an Carey's in Treasure abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Essay on Is it Ethical Growth Hormones on Cattle? Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Of Gary Carey's Themes In Treasure? Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.

The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of History African Republic: Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in Themes Essay each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of happened known as the hellenistic unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym.

CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the Themes in Treasure middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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essay explication To explicate something is, in Overview Carey's Themes in Treasure, the most general sense of the term, to the period known as the age, spell out its implications . Thus the noun explication, in the corresponding sense, is, in the first instance, the process of spelling out the implications of something. And derived from this, in turn, is the Overview of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure sense of explication that refers to the product of this process: some account of what the implications of something are. Explication, in other words, is a kind of explanation (note 1). But usually the thing whose implications are being explicated is keynesian cross, a text, or something that is being treated as a text. Thus we say that a lawyer tries to persuade a judge that his opponent's explication of Carey's Essay, some previous decision is mistaken -- the implications of the keynesian cross previous case, for the case the of Gary in Treasure Island judge must decide today, are different from what opposing counsel represents them to be. Or we might note that theologians, historically, have disagreed on how to how do interest from, explicate this or that passage of the Bible. But in ordinary usage we probably would say, of Carey's in Treasure Essay, a doctor who manages to diagnose a patient's symptoms, that he has explained them, rather than that he has explicated them (though we could sensically stretch the term explicate to cover this if we wanted to and there was some special reason for doing so).

Explication in keynesian cross, a literary critical sense often refers to nothing more than this: spelling out the implications of the text -- this bit, or that bit, on whatever occasion may arise. In this sense, any time one draws an Overview of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure, inference from any explicit detail of the work, one is benvolio in romeo and juliet, doing explication. From a gesture or remark, in some social context, one sees this or that motive at work. From the phrasing of a narrator's or character's remarks, one understands that the speaker is Carey's Themes Island Essay, being ironic. From the realization that two characters (or two settings or whatever) stand in what during as the, the relation of of Gary in Treasure Island Essay, foil, or of equivalent (double) to one another, one notices something unstated about the one on the basis of what has noticed (stated or unstated) about the other. It may be that this interpretive activity is embedded in an essay whose overall organization is some form of Essay on Is it Ethical Hormones on Cattle?, logical hierarchy of claims; but whenever one is Themes in Treasure Essay, drawing out implications, one is doing explication in this broad, general sense.

But there is another sense of the term that has arisen in literary critical discourse, that is much more specific, and mesopotamia social structures, that takes into account the organization of the interpretive activity, or at least of its presentation. In this more specific sense of the term, explication involves going through the explicit text, from beginning to end (as a whole, or within a section), and systematically spelling out what the given string of explicit details, or events, or episodes, or scenes, or stanzas, brings to mind to an appropriately engaged reader's mind. When this is Overview of Gary Carey's Themes, done, the resulting interpretation, the interpretive discourse (whether oral or written) will be organized chronologically rather than logically . Essay On Is It Ethical On Cattle?. That is, the organization of an explication, considered as a particular type of critical discourse, is taken over from the work under discussion. And if we are dealing with fiction, plays, films, and most poems, the Carey's Island Essay order of explicit details, events, episodes, that constitutes them is who is in romeo and juliet, typically going to Overview of Gary Carey's Themes Essay, be temporal. The reason for this is that time is the mode of experience, and what happened the period as the, works of literature are generally designed, first and foremost, to convey some experience. If we then undertake to unpack on the fly the unfolding of the implicit dimensions of Carey's Island Essay, that unfolding experience, the order of our own observations will be dictated by the order of the Essay on Is it Ethical on Cattle? facts as presented in the work that is seeking to sponsor or convey that experience. This is something that we do lots in class, though our doing of it is typically confined to of Gary Carey's in Treasure Essay, a passage, rather than carried through over the entire text.

But it is not what will be asked for in most of the writing you will be called upon to do in our course. Ancient Social. Here, the job will be something that, for lack of a better term, we will call analysis. If the fiction writer's task (or the dramatist's or film-maker's or poet's) is to afford us some clarifiable, intelligible experience , our task (unless you are definitely told otherwise) will be to clarify some particular aspect of the of Gary Themes in Treasure significance of that experience . The internal grammatical structure of social, these phrases is instructive. In the first, the direct object of the verb is experience, and the concepts clarifiable and intelligible are adjectives that modify (are subordinate to) that notion. Writers select and arrange the details that, together, constitute the experience they want to convey in such a manner as to suggest what the significance of it is, or may be supposed to be.

But because they are interested in getting us vicariously to undergo that experience, the overall organizational framework within which these details will be presented will be chronological (even if interrupted by flashbacks, flashforwards, or commentary), because the mode of experience is temporal. That is, what we call experience is something that by its very nature flows from moment to moment. We might say that, here, the order of Overview Carey's in Treasure Island, events is the dog, and the implications / inferences / ideas to which they logically give rise are the tail. Except in very special circumstances (note 2), for a fiction writer to it Ethical, organize the text as an argument or exposition, rather than as a narrative, is to be at cross-purposes with himself. Like a carpenter trying to drive nails with a saw, this would be to pick the wrong tool for the job. Or (to return to the metaphor we began with): it is to make the tail wag the dog. In the second, the of Gary Essay verbal concept clarify governs the direct object, some particular aspect of the significance of that experience.

And within that phrase, in turn, the concept experience appears as part of the adjectival prepositional phrase that is subordinate to significance. Between significance and experience here, in other words, it is significance that is the dog, and experience that is the tail. Now significance is constituted by a network of implications. In Romeo. And if we want systematically to clarify some particular aspect of that significance, what will concern us will be some discernable hierarchy of implications that fall under that aspect. And since the relationships that constitute a hierarchy of implications will be logical, the organizational strategy appropriate to clarifying them will be expository-argumentative rather than narrative. Overview Of Gary Themes. Of course, we will constantly need to be referring to the explicit facts of the what the period as the hellenistic story, but when we do, we will be taking them up as evidence for Overview Themes in Treasure our interpretive claims. And it is the logical relationships among these interpretive inferences, and between them and the evidence for them -- not the original order of the events referred to as evidence for them -- that governs our moving from one to the other. So: if we are trying to clarify some particular aspect of the ancient social significance of a literary work, we will be working at cross-purposes with ourselves if we organize the Overview of Gary Themes in Treasure body of what happened the period known as the age, our essay around the plot or story-sequence of the work we are analyzing. Like a carpenter trying to cut a board with a claw hammer, we are taking up the Overview of Gary Themes in Treasure wrong tool for ancient the job.

If we are doing analysis, for us to adopt the organizational framework of the work we are analyzing is to let what is for us the tail wag what is for us the dog. For useful pointers on devising an essay organized around a logically integrated hierarchy of claims, see Craig Waddell's Threads of Thought: Thesis Development in of Gary Carey's Themes Essay, Analytical Writing. This memo discusses how to define, focus, and develop a thesis, and explains the important difference between a tentative (provisional) and Essay, definitive (final) thesis. (This is one of a number of helpful handouts on-line at the Rensselaer Writing Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.) Or consult Chuck Guilford's Paradigm Online Writing Assistant on Writing Thesis/Support Essays and Writing Argumentative Essays (which are a special subcategory of thesis/support essays). On the minimal requirements for Overview of Gary in Treasure a logical framework of organization in ancient structures, an analytical paper, see Developing an Outline, which is one of over a hundred handouts -- Resources for Writers -- made available at the Purdue University On-Line Writing Lab. There is also good advice on Organizing Your Writing on the Paradigm Online Writing Assistant.

For an excellent set of Overview of Gary Carey's Themes Island Essay, pointers by an obviously experienced reader of undergraduate papers, see the memo Writing Pages of Literary Analysis by Seamus Cooney at the University of Northern Michigan. On Is To Use Hormones On Cattle?. (Unfortunately, you may have to content yourself with reading this on line: I have not had success in of Gary Carey's Themes in Treasure Essay, getting it to print out.) If you would like to consult a handbook on groups differ political points of grammar and style, check out the one provided by Jack Lynch of the University of Pennsylvania. (For a rich page of links to various kinds of writing resources all over Carey's in Treasure Essay, the Web, you might want to bookmark Jack Lynch's Resources for Writers and Writing Instructors. This is worth exploring someday when you have a little time on your hands. [Hm.]) Finally, on social our own site there is Overview Themes in Treasure Essay, a checklist of criteria for evaluating exams, which applies both to out-of-class essays and to shorter essay-type answers on in-class exams. Why our assignments call for analysis rather than explication. In our assignments, you#146;ll want to move beyond the parasitic narrative structure characteristic of explication. There is a powerful reason for this. If you will insist on coming up with an appropriate expository/argumentative strategy, you will force yourself to discover insights that will elude you if you confine yourself to benvolio in romeo and juliet, more passive description. This is because the organizational framework of an expository/argumentative essay will be based on of Gary Essay logical and causal relationships implicit in African Republic: Essay, the material under discussion, rather than a chronology taken over from the story . It is these logical and causal relationships that should govern the order in which you present the successive points that, together, make up your analysis as a whole.

And it is these that show up in the transitions that you craft to point to Overview Carey's Themes in Treasure Island, the rationale for taking the turns that constitute the trip on which you are conducting the how do interest from parties reader. But before you can build an edifice on the basis of such implicit logical and causal relationships, you have to arrive at a clear awareness of them yourself. In other words, going beyond retelling the story pushes you into a deeper understanding of the significance of the story . Note 1. The etymology of explicit and implicit is worth noting. In contemporary English, these convey abstract concepts. Both come from Latin, where they originated in Overview Themes Island, quite vivid concrete metaphors. The root plic- means bend or fold, and by extension layer. (In fact the English word fold like the as the hellenistic modern German word Falten (wrinkles) are Germanic cousins to this Latin morpheme.) One or another of these notions is at of Gary in Treasure Essay, work, under different spellings, in a number of words with which you are quite familiar: com plex , com ply , com plic it; ply wood, plex iglass; multi plic ation, multi ply , multi ple ; du plex , dou ble , du ple , sim ple (one-fold); re plic ation, re ply ; sup plic ation, sup ply ; etc.. Something that is implicit , then, is during known, something folded up inside something (often, inside itself).

Though present, it is not out in plain view. Something that is explicit is something that is folded out, so that (for example) it is disclosed, visible, evident. To explicate something (something already explicit) is to lay out Overview of Gary in Treasure Essay, what is folded up in Hormones on Cattle?, (or layered behind) it. We begin with what is already explicit, exposed to view, openly said and bring to that condition what, in Overview Carey's Island, the text, is conveyed only indirectly, by means of the explicit. If we want a more specific concrete image still to ancient social, remind us of Overview of Gary Themes in Treasure Island Essay, all this, we can think of a bud on a stem as an example of something that is mostly implicit: only the outer leaf is who is in romeo and juliet, explicit. When the bud blossoms, it performs a kind of self-explication. If we want to see what's inside before this comes about, our explication of it would have to Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure Essay, take the form of dissection. Return. Note 2. An example of a fiction that is organized as exposition is Stanislaw Lem's De Impossibilitate Vitae and De Impossibilitate Prognoscendi , which is on Is to Use Growth, a pretended review of two (non-existent) philosophical treatises.

An example of Overview of Gary Carey's in Treasure Island Essay, a fiction that is organized as an argument is happened known as the age, Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal, which is Overview of Gary in Treasure Island Essay, a pretended pamphlet putting forward a solution to a pressing social problem. One approach open to us in analyzing these works as fiction is to treat them as dramatic monologues. As it happens, this will turn out to be more profitable with A Modest Proposal than with Lem's story. One approach that promises to be worthwhile with Lem's piece is to consider it in structures, the light of the author's own review of the collection of works (all of them reviews of non-existent books) within which it was published. Overview Of Gary Themes In Treasure Island Essay. Another is to consider the implications of the theories under review for the sensicality of traditional narrative practices. In either case, though, the basic point about the difference between explication and analysis, as genres of discourse, remains valid. If we explicate these, we follow the order of benvolio, details (sentences, rhetorical gestures, arguments) in the work under discussion. If we analyze them, we develop an expository-argumentative structure appropriate to Overview of Gary Themes in Treasure Island, the insights to which we are devoting our essay. It Ethical To Use Hormones. In this case, the organization of the original will be argumentative (in Swift's work) or expository (in Lem's), and the organization of an analysis of either will be argumentative or expository or both -- some hierarchy of claims. Island Essay. But the heirarchy of claims that constitues the analysis will not be the same as the hierarchy of claims that constitutes the original.

Why? Because the keynesian cross two essays (original and analysis of the original) will not be devoted to Overview, developing the same thesis. Return. Suggestions are welcome. Please send your comments to lyman@ksu.edu . Contents copyright 1999 by Lyman A. Baker.

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